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Raised blood sugar levels: Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar): Symptoms, Causes, Treatments

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Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar): Symptoms, Causes, Treatments

Blood sugar control is at the center of any diabetes treatment plan. High blood sugar, or hyperglycemia, is a major concern, and can affect people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes . There are two main kinds:

  • Fasting hyperglycemia. This is blood sugar for patients who have diabetesthat’s higher than 130 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter) after not eating or drinking for at least 8 hours.
  • Postprandial or after-meal hyperglycemia. This is blood sugar that’s higher than 180 mg/dL 2 hours after you eat. People without diabetes rarely have blood sugar levels over 140 mg/dL after a meal, unless it’s really large.

Frequent or ongoing high blood sugar can cause damage to your nerves, blood vessels, and organs. It can also lead to other serious conditions. People with type 1 diabetes are prone to a build-up of acids in the blood called ketoacidosis.

If you have type 2 diabetes or if you’re at risk for it, extremely high blood sugar can lead to a potentially deadly condition in which your body can’t process sugar. It’s called hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). You’ll pee more often at first, and then less often later on, but your urine may become dark and you could get severely dehydrated.

It’s important to treat symptoms of high blood sugar right away to help prevent complications.

Causes

Your blood sugar may rise if you:

  • Skip or forget your insulin or oral glucose-lowering medicine
  • Eat too many grams of carbohydrates for the amount of insulin you took, or eat too many carbs in general
  • Have an infection
  • Are ill
  • Are under stress
  • Become inactive or exercise less than usual
  • Take part in strenuous physical activity, especially when your blood sugar levels are high and insulin levels are low

Symptoms

Early signs include:

  • Thirst
  • Headaches
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Blurred vision
  • Frequent peeing
  • Fatigue (weak, tired feeling)
  • Weight loss
  • Blood sugar more than 180 mg/dL

Ongoing high blood sugar may cause:

How Is It Treated?

If you have diabetes and notice any of the early signs of high blood sugar, test your blood sugar and call the doctor. They may ask you for the results of several readings. They could recommend the following changes:

Continued

Drink more water. Water helps remove excess sugar from your blood through urine, and it helps you avoid dehydration.

Exercise more. Working out can help lower your blood sugar. But under certain conditions, it can make blood sugar go even higher. Ask your doctor what kind of exercise is right for you.

Caution: If you have type 1 diabetes and your blood sugar is high, you need to check your urine for ketones. When you have ketones, do NOT exercise. If you have type 2 diabetes and your blood sugar is high, you must also be sure that you have no ketones in your urine and that you are well-hydrated. Then your doctor might give you the OK to exercise with caution as long as you feel up to it.

Change your eating habits. You may need to meet with a dietitian to change the amount and types of foods you eat.

Switch medications. Your doctor may change the amount, timing, or type of diabetes medications you take. Don’t make changes without talking to them first.

Continued

If you have type 1 diabetes and your blood sugar is more than 250 mg/dL, your doctor may want you to test your urine or blood for ketones.

Call your doctor if your blood sugar is running higher than your treatment goals.

How to Prevent It

If you work to keep your blood sugar under control — follow your meal plan, exercise program, and medicine schedule — you shouldn’t have to worry about hyperglycemia. You can also:

  • Know your diet — count the total amounts of carbs in each meal and snack.
  • Test your blood sugar regularly.
  • Tell your doctor if you have repeated abnormal blood sugar readings.
  • Wear medical identification to let people know you have diabetes in case of an emergency.

20 Reasons for Blood Sugar Swings (No. 11 Might Surprise You!)

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SOURCES:

American Diabetes Association: “Alcohol,” “Diabetes Basics,” “Dairy,” “Food and Fitness: Fruits,” “Hyperglycemia,” “Food & Fitness: Glycemic Index and Diabetes,” “Food & Fitness: Sugar and Desserts,” “Living With Diabetes: Ask the Pharmacist,” “Living With Diabetes: Sexual Health,” “Living With Diabetes: Stress,” “Living With Diabetes: When You’re Sick,” “MyFoodAdvisor,” “News and Research: A Low-Fat Vegan Diet Helps Improve Glucose Control and Heart Health,” “‘Sugar-free’ Claims,” “Sugar Alcohols.
American Heart Association: “Types of Blood Pressure Medications.”
CDC: “Managing Summer Heat, Travel With Diabetes.”
David, J.A. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, September 2003.
Diabetes Action: “Medication and Insulin,” “Supplements.”
DiabetesMonitor.com: “Medications May Affect Blood Glucose Level If You Have Type 1 Diabetes.”
DiabetesSisters.org: “Does Our Monthly Cycle Affect Insulin Dosage?”
Harvard School of Public Health: “Coffee: The Good News.”
HealthyWomen.org: “Birth Control Pills: Risks.”
Joslin Diabetes Center: “Friendly Tips for Handling the Summer Heat,” “Why Do Blood Glucose Levels Sometimes Go Up After Exercise?” “Why Is My Blood Glucose Sometimes Low After Exercise?”
Elizabeth Mayer-Davis, PhD, registered dietitian; professor of nutrition and medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse: “What I Need to Know About Physical Activity and Diabetes.”
Swank, A. M. Diabetes Health, Sept. 1, 2006.

Symptoms, causes, and healthy levels

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Here’s our process.

The human body naturally has sugar, or glucose, in the blood. The right amount of blood sugar gives the body’s cells and organs energy. Too much blood sugar is known as hyperglycemia.

The liver and muscles produce some blood sugar, but most comes from food and drinks that contain carbohydrates.

In order to keep blood sugar levels within a normal range, the body needs insulin. Insulin is a hormone that directs the body’s cells to take up glucose and store it.

If there is not enough insulin, or insulin does not work properly, blood sugar builds up. High blood sugar levels can cause health problems.

What does hyperglycemia feel like, why does it happen, and how do you know if your blood sugar levels are too high? Read on to find out more.

Blood sugar is fuel for the body’s organs and functions.

But, having high blood sugar does not provide a boost in energy.

In fact, the opposite often happens, because the body’s cells cannot access the blood sugar for energy.

How does this feel?

When a person has high blood sugar, they may:

  • have a headache and other aches and pains
  • find it hard to concentrate
  • be very thirsty or hungry
  • feel drowsy or tired
  • have blurred vision
  • feel their mouth is dry
  • have bloating
  • need to urinate often
  • notice that wounds take a long time to heal

High blood sugar and low insulin can lead to a rise in ketones, and possibly diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a serious complication that needs urgent medical attention.

If this occurs, the individual may experience:

  • shortness of breath
  • a fruity taste or smell on the breath
  • a rapid heartbeat
  • confusion and disorientation
  • vomiting
  • dehydration
  • coma

In addition, the person’s blood sugar levels may be over 250 ml/dL.

People can experience high blood sugar levels in the morning, especially if they have diabetes. Click here to find out more.

Testing kits for levels of blood sugar and ketone levels are available for purchase online, for use at home.

However, anyone who thinks they have diabetes should see a doctor first.

How does high blood sugar affect the body?

High sugar in the blood can lead to a number of other symptoms and complications. Here are just a few.

Urination and thirst: High blood sugar goes into the kidneys and urine. This attracts more water, causing frequent urination. This can also lead to increased thirst, despite drinking enough liquids.

Weight loss: High blood sugar can cause sudden or unexplained weight loss. This occurs because the body’s cells are not getting the glucose they need, so the body burns muscle and fat for energy instead.

Numbness and tingling: High blood sugar can also cause numbness, burning, or tingling in the hands, legs, and feet. This is due to diabetic neuropathy, a complication of diabetes that often occurs after many years of high blood sugar levels.

Long-term complications

Over time, high blood sugar results in harm to the body’s organs and systems. Damage to the blood vessels can lead to complications, including:

  • heart attack or stroke
  • damage to the eye and loss of vision
  • kidney disease or failure
  • nerve problems in the skin, especially the feet, leading to sores, infections, and wound healing problems

Several types of diabetes can lead to high blood sugar.

In type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. As a result, the body lacks insulin and blood sugar levels rise.

People with type 1 diabetes must take insulin through a needle, pen, or insulin pump to keep blood sugar levels within the target range.

Only 5 percent of all people with diabetes have type 1, according to the American Diabetes Association.

In type 2 diabetes, the body does produce insulin but is unable to use it properly. The pancreas tries to make more insulin, but often cannot make enough to keep blood sugar levels steady. This is known as insulin resistance.

People with type 2 diabetes may need to take insulin, pills, or make diet or exercise changes to help manage blood sugar levels.

Gestational diabetes can happen when insulin resistance and high blood sugar levels appear during pregnancy. People should monitor this during pregnancy, as it can lead to complications for the mother and the baby. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after delivery.

Cystic fibrosis: There may be a link between diabetes and cystic fibrosis.

Medications: People who take beta blockers and certain steroids may also experience high blood sugar.

Risk factors for high blood sugar

Doctors do not know exactly what causes diabetes. Some factors may increase the risk, however.

Type 1 diabetes

Researchers believe certain genetic or environmental factors may make people more likely to get type 1 diabetes.

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) say certain genes play a role, and other factors — such as viruses and infections — may have an impact.

The Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation say that there is nothing a person can do to prevent type 1 diabetes. Eating, exercise, or other lifestyle choices will not change the outcome.

Type 1 diabetes usually begins during childhood or early adulthood, but it can happen at any age.

Type 2 diabetes

The following risk factors may make developing type 2 diabetes more likely:

  • having certain genes
  • being overweight or inactive
  • having a parent or sibling with type 2 diabetes
  • having African-American, Alaska Native, American Indian, Asian-American, Hispanic, or Pacific Islander ethnicity
  • being aged over 45 years
  • receiving treatment for high blood pressure, or having blood pressure of 140/90 or higher
  • having low levels of “good” HDL cholesterol or high levels of triglycerides

Share on PinterestRegular blood sugar testing can help people with diabetes keep their blood sugar levels within the target level.

People who have high blood sugar should discuss their target levels with their doctor.

They may need regular testing to keep these within a healthy range. Each person is different and levels can vary between individuals.

To find out their blood sugar levels, the person may need to fast for 8 hours, 2 hours after a meal, or at both times.

Some people may also take a glucose tolerance test, in which they drink a sugary liquid and have a blood test after.

The American Diabetes Association recommend a pre-meal blood sugar level of 80–130 milligrams per deciliter (ml/dL). Around 1 to 2 hours after the beginning of a meal, blood sugar should be less than 180 ml/dL.

Managing blood sugar levels

Many people with diabetes must check their blood sugar levels daily with a glucose meter. This device takes a drop of blood, usually from a finger, and displays the sugar level within a few seconds.

People with type 1 diabetes will need to take insulin as their doctor recommends, usually several times a day.

Those with type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes may need to change their diet and exercise habits. They may also need to take oral medications or insulin.

Share on PinterestMonitoring your diet and exercise alongside blood sugar levels can help you maintain a healthy blood sugar level.

A number of strategies can help prevent hyperglycemia.

People should:

  • check their blood sugar levels as their doctor advises and take the correct amount of insulin, if they have type 1 diabetes
  • speak to their healthcare provider or dietitian about which foods to eat or avoid, how much to eat, and how often
  • take precautions to avoid infections, for example, through regular hand washing, as illness, such as a cold, can trigger a rise in blood pressure
  • plan their food intake and exercise to balance blood sugar levels
  • minimize stress, as far as possible, for example, through exercise, getting enough sleep, and stress-reducing activities such as meditation or yoga

Low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, can happen when a person:

  • has certain medical conditions
  • uses specific medications
  • does a lot of exercise
  • skips meals or eats too little

It can also be a side effect of diabetes medicines. Taking too much insulin can result in low blood sugar levels.

Symptoms of low blood sugar may include:

  • feeling weak or shaky
  • sudden nervousness, anxiety, or irritability
  • sweating or chills
  • extreme hunger
  • confusion
  • fast heart rate, or palpitations

A person can treat hypoglycemia rapidly by drinking a fruit juice or eating a glucose tablet, sugar lump, or candy.

Anyone who has frequent episodes of low blood sugar should speak to a doctor. They may recommend changing the type of dose of medication.

Anyone who experiences tiredness, increased thirst, frequent urination, or weight loss should see a doctor, as these could indicate diabetes or another health problem.

A routine health check often involves blood sugar testing, even if the person has no symptoms.

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommend that adults age 40 to 70 years who are overweight have tests for diabetes.

Those with a family history of diabetes or other risk factors may need earlier or more frequent tests.

When a person has diabetes, their health and well-being depend on proper management of blood sugar levels.

To improve or maintain a good quality of life, the person should:

  • visit a doctor regularly
  • take medications as the doctor prescribes
  • following diet and exercise guidelines

These strategies can help a person with diabetes to manage blood sugar, and this may slow the progression of diabetes.

The person should also carry a medical ID with them, especially if they use insulin, as this can provide important information in case of an emergency.

The American Diabetes Association note that IDs are now available with a compact USB drive that can contain a full medical record.

Symptoms, causes, and healthy levels

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Here’s our process.

The human body naturally has sugar, or glucose, in the blood. The right amount of blood sugar gives the body’s cells and organs energy. Too much blood sugar is known as hyperglycemia.

The liver and muscles produce some blood sugar, but most comes from food and drinks that contain carbohydrates.

In order to keep blood sugar levels within a normal range, the body needs insulin. Insulin is a hormone that directs the body’s cells to take up glucose and store it.

If there is not enough insulin, or insulin does not work properly, blood sugar builds up. High blood sugar levels can cause health problems.

What does hyperglycemia feel like, why does it happen, and how do you know if your blood sugar levels are too high? Read on to find out more.

Blood sugar is fuel for the body’s organs and functions.

But, having high blood sugar does not provide a boost in energy.

In fact, the opposite often happens, because the body’s cells cannot access the blood sugar for energy.

How does this feel?

When a person has high blood sugar, they may:

  • have a headache and other aches and pains
  • find it hard to concentrate
  • be very thirsty or hungry
  • feel drowsy or tired
  • have blurred vision
  • feel their mouth is dry
  • have bloating
  • need to urinate often
  • notice that wounds take a long time to heal

High blood sugar and low insulin can lead to a rise in ketones, and possibly diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a serious complication that needs urgent medical attention.

If this occurs, the individual may experience:

  • shortness of breath
  • a fruity taste or smell on the breath
  • a rapid heartbeat
  • confusion and disorientation
  • vomiting
  • dehydration
  • coma

In addition, the person’s blood sugar levels may be over 250 ml/dL.

People can experience high blood sugar levels in the morning, especially if they have diabetes. Click here to find out more.

Testing kits for levels of blood sugar and ketone levels are available for purchase online, for use at home.

However, anyone who thinks they have diabetes should see a doctor first.

How does high blood sugar affect the body?

High sugar in the blood can lead to a number of other symptoms and complications. Here are just a few.

Urination and thirst: High blood sugar goes into the kidneys and urine. This attracts more water, causing frequent urination. This can also lead to increased thirst, despite drinking enough liquids.

Weight loss: High blood sugar can cause sudden or unexplained weight loss. This occurs because the body’s cells are not getting the glucose they need, so the body burns muscle and fat for energy instead.

Numbness and tingling: High blood sugar can also cause numbness, burning, or tingling in the hands, legs, and feet. This is due to diabetic neuropathy, a complication of diabetes that often occurs after many years of high blood sugar levels.

Long-term complications

Over time, high blood sugar results in harm to the body’s organs and systems. Damage to the blood vessels can lead to complications, including:

  • heart attack or stroke
  • damage to the eye and loss of vision
  • kidney disease or failure
  • nerve problems in the skin, especially the feet, leading to sores, infections, and wound healing problems

Several types of diabetes can lead to high blood sugar.

In type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. As a result, the body lacks insulin and blood sugar levels rise.

People with type 1 diabetes must take insulin through a needle, pen, or insulin pump to keep blood sugar levels within the target range.

Only 5 percent of all people with diabetes have type 1, according to the American Diabetes Association.

In type 2 diabetes, the body does produce insulin but is unable to use it properly. The pancreas tries to make more insulin, but often cannot make enough to keep blood sugar levels steady. This is known as insulin resistance.

People with type 2 diabetes may need to take insulin, pills, or make diet or exercise changes to help manage blood sugar levels.

Gestational diabetes can happen when insulin resistance and high blood sugar levels appear during pregnancy. People should monitor this during pregnancy, as it can lead to complications for the mother and the baby. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after delivery.

Cystic fibrosis: There may be a link between diabetes and cystic fibrosis.

Medications: People who take beta blockers and certain steroids may also experience high blood sugar.

Risk factors for high blood sugar

Doctors do not know exactly what causes diabetes. Some factors may increase the risk, however.

Type 1 diabetes

Researchers believe certain genetic or environmental factors may make people more likely to get type 1 diabetes.

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) say certain genes play a role, and other factors — such as viruses and infections — may have an impact.

The Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation say that there is nothing a person can do to prevent type 1 diabetes. Eating, exercise, or other lifestyle choices will not change the outcome.

Type 1 diabetes usually begins during childhood or early adulthood, but it can happen at any age.

Type 2 diabetes

The following risk factors may make developing type 2 diabetes more likely:

  • having certain genes
  • being overweight or inactive
  • having a parent or sibling with type 2 diabetes
  • having African-American, Alaska Native, American Indian, Asian-American, Hispanic, or Pacific Islander ethnicity
  • being aged over 45 years
  • receiving treatment for high blood pressure, or having blood pressure of 140/90 or higher
  • having low levels of “good” HDL cholesterol or high levels of triglycerides

Share on PinterestRegular blood sugar testing can help people with diabetes keep their blood sugar levels within the target level.

People who have high blood sugar should discuss their target levels with their doctor.

They may need regular testing to keep these within a healthy range. Each person is different and levels can vary between individuals.

To find out their blood sugar levels, the person may need to fast for 8 hours, 2 hours after a meal, or at both times.

Some people may also take a glucose tolerance test, in which they drink a sugary liquid and have a blood test after.

The American Diabetes Association recommend a pre-meal blood sugar level of 80–130 milligrams per deciliter (ml/dL). Around 1 to 2 hours after the beginning of a meal, blood sugar should be less than 180 ml/dL.

Managing blood sugar levels

Many people with diabetes must check their blood sugar levels daily with a glucose meter. This device takes a drop of blood, usually from a finger, and displays the sugar level within a few seconds.

People with type 1 diabetes will need to take insulin as their doctor recommends, usually several times a day.

Those with type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes may need to change their diet and exercise habits. They may also need to take oral medications or insulin.

Share on PinterestMonitoring your diet and exercise alongside blood sugar levels can help you maintain a healthy blood sugar level.

A number of strategies can help prevent hyperglycemia.

People should:

  • check their blood sugar levels as their doctor advises and take the correct amount of insulin, if they have type 1 diabetes
  • speak to their healthcare provider or dietitian about which foods to eat or avoid, how much to eat, and how often
  • take precautions to avoid infections, for example, through regular hand washing, as illness, such as a cold, can trigger a rise in blood pressure
  • plan their food intake and exercise to balance blood sugar levels
  • minimize stress, as far as possible, for example, through exercise, getting enough sleep, and stress-reducing activities such as meditation or yoga

Low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, can happen when a person:

  • has certain medical conditions
  • uses specific medications
  • does a lot of exercise
  • skips meals or eats too little

It can also be a side effect of diabetes medicines. Taking too much insulin can result in low blood sugar levels.

Symptoms of low blood sugar may include:

  • feeling weak or shaky
  • sudden nervousness, anxiety, or irritability
  • sweating or chills
  • extreme hunger
  • confusion
  • fast heart rate, or palpitations

A person can treat hypoglycemia rapidly by drinking a fruit juice or eating a glucose tablet, sugar lump, or candy.

Anyone who has frequent episodes of low blood sugar should speak to a doctor. They may recommend changing the type of dose of medication.

Anyone who experiences tiredness, increased thirst, frequent urination, or weight loss should see a doctor, as these could indicate diabetes or another health problem.

A routine health check often involves blood sugar testing, even if the person has no symptoms.

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommend that adults age 40 to 70 years who are overweight have tests for diabetes.

Those with a family history of diabetes or other risk factors may need earlier or more frequent tests.

When a person has diabetes, their health and well-being depend on proper management of blood sugar levels.

To improve or maintain a good quality of life, the person should:

  • visit a doctor regularly
  • take medications as the doctor prescribes
  • following diet and exercise guidelines

These strategies can help a person with diabetes to manage blood sugar, and this may slow the progression of diabetes.

The person should also carry a medical ID with them, especially if they use insulin, as this can provide important information in case of an emergency.

The American Diabetes Association note that IDs are now available with a compact USB drive that can contain a full medical record.

Symptoms, causes, and healthy levels

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Here’s our process.

The human body naturally has sugar, or glucose, in the blood. The right amount of blood sugar gives the body’s cells and organs energy. Too much blood sugar is known as hyperglycemia.

The liver and muscles produce some blood sugar, but most comes from food and drinks that contain carbohydrates.

In order to keep blood sugar levels within a normal range, the body needs insulin. Insulin is a hormone that directs the body’s cells to take up glucose and store it.

If there is not enough insulin, or insulin does not work properly, blood sugar builds up. High blood sugar levels can cause health problems.

What does hyperglycemia feel like, why does it happen, and how do you know if your blood sugar levels are too high? Read on to find out more.

Blood sugar is fuel for the body’s organs and functions.

But, having high blood sugar does not provide a boost in energy.

In fact, the opposite often happens, because the body’s cells cannot access the blood sugar for energy.

How does this feel?

When a person has high blood sugar, they may:

  • have a headache and other aches and pains
  • find it hard to concentrate
  • be very thirsty or hungry
  • feel drowsy or tired
  • have blurred vision
  • feel their mouth is dry
  • have bloating
  • need to urinate often
  • notice that wounds take a long time to heal

High blood sugar and low insulin can lead to a rise in ketones, and possibly diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a serious complication that needs urgent medical attention.

If this occurs, the individual may experience:

  • shortness of breath
  • a fruity taste or smell on the breath
  • a rapid heartbeat
  • confusion and disorientation
  • vomiting
  • dehydration
  • coma

In addition, the person’s blood sugar levels may be over 250 ml/dL.

People can experience high blood sugar levels in the morning, especially if they have diabetes. Click here to find out more.

Testing kits for levels of blood sugar and ketone levels are available for purchase online, for use at home.

However, anyone who thinks they have diabetes should see a doctor first.

How does high blood sugar affect the body?

High sugar in the blood can lead to a number of other symptoms and complications. Here are just a few.

Urination and thirst: High blood sugar goes into the kidneys and urine. This attracts more water, causing frequent urination. This can also lead to increased thirst, despite drinking enough liquids.

Weight loss: High blood sugar can cause sudden or unexplained weight loss. This occurs because the body’s cells are not getting the glucose they need, so the body burns muscle and fat for energy instead.

Numbness and tingling: High blood sugar can also cause numbness, burning, or tingling in the hands, legs, and feet. This is due to diabetic neuropathy, a complication of diabetes that often occurs after many years of high blood sugar levels.

Long-term complications

Over time, high blood sugar results in harm to the body’s organs and systems. Damage to the blood vessels can lead to complications, including:

  • heart attack or stroke
  • damage to the eye and loss of vision
  • kidney disease or failure
  • nerve problems in the skin, especially the feet, leading to sores, infections, and wound healing problems

Several types of diabetes can lead to high blood sugar.

In type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. As a result, the body lacks insulin and blood sugar levels rise.

People with type 1 diabetes must take insulin through a needle, pen, or insulin pump to keep blood sugar levels within the target range.

Only 5 percent of all people with diabetes have type 1, according to the American Diabetes Association.

In type 2 diabetes, the body does produce insulin but is unable to use it properly. The pancreas tries to make more insulin, but often cannot make enough to keep blood sugar levels steady. This is known as insulin resistance.

People with type 2 diabetes may need to take insulin, pills, or make diet or exercise changes to help manage blood sugar levels.

Gestational diabetes can happen when insulin resistance and high blood sugar levels appear during pregnancy. People should monitor this during pregnancy, as it can lead to complications for the mother and the baby. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after delivery.

Cystic fibrosis: There may be a link between diabetes and cystic fibrosis.

Medications: People who take beta blockers and certain steroids may also experience high blood sugar.

Risk factors for high blood sugar

Doctors do not know exactly what causes diabetes. Some factors may increase the risk, however.

Type 1 diabetes

Researchers believe certain genetic or environmental factors may make people more likely to get type 1 diabetes.

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) say certain genes play a role, and other factors — such as viruses and infections — may have an impact.

The Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation say that there is nothing a person can do to prevent type 1 diabetes. Eating, exercise, or other lifestyle choices will not change the outcome.

Type 1 diabetes usually begins during childhood or early adulthood, but it can happen at any age.

Type 2 diabetes

The following risk factors may make developing type 2 diabetes more likely:

  • having certain genes
  • being overweight or inactive
  • having a parent or sibling with type 2 diabetes
  • having African-American, Alaska Native, American Indian, Asian-American, Hispanic, or Pacific Islander ethnicity
  • being aged over 45 years
  • receiving treatment for high blood pressure, or having blood pressure of 140/90 or higher
  • having low levels of “good” HDL cholesterol or high levels of triglycerides

Share on PinterestRegular blood sugar testing can help people with diabetes keep their blood sugar levels within the target level.

People who have high blood sugar should discuss their target levels with their doctor.

They may need regular testing to keep these within a healthy range. Each person is different and levels can vary between individuals.

To find out their blood sugar levels, the person may need to fast for 8 hours, 2 hours after a meal, or at both times.

Some people may also take a glucose tolerance test, in which they drink a sugary liquid and have a blood test after.

The American Diabetes Association recommend a pre-meal blood sugar level of 80–130 milligrams per deciliter (ml/dL). Around 1 to 2 hours after the beginning of a meal, blood sugar should be less than 180 ml/dL.

Managing blood sugar levels

Many people with diabetes must check their blood sugar levels daily with a glucose meter. This device takes a drop of blood, usually from a finger, and displays the sugar level within a few seconds.

People with type 1 diabetes will need to take insulin as their doctor recommends, usually several times a day.

Those with type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes may need to change their diet and exercise habits. They may also need to take oral medications or insulin.

Share on PinterestMonitoring your diet and exercise alongside blood sugar levels can help you maintain a healthy blood sugar level.

A number of strategies can help prevent hyperglycemia.

People should:

  • check their blood sugar levels as their doctor advises and take the correct amount of insulin, if they have type 1 diabetes
  • speak to their healthcare provider or dietitian about which foods to eat or avoid, how much to eat, and how often
  • take precautions to avoid infections, for example, through regular hand washing, as illness, such as a cold, can trigger a rise in blood pressure
  • plan their food intake and exercise to balance blood sugar levels
  • minimize stress, as far as possible, for example, through exercise, getting enough sleep, and stress-reducing activities such as meditation or yoga

Low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, can happen when a person:

  • has certain medical conditions
  • uses specific medications
  • does a lot of exercise
  • skips meals or eats too little

It can also be a side effect of diabetes medicines. Taking too much insulin can result in low blood sugar levels.

Symptoms of low blood sugar may include:

  • feeling weak or shaky
  • sudden nervousness, anxiety, or irritability
  • sweating or chills
  • extreme hunger
  • confusion
  • fast heart rate, or palpitations

A person can treat hypoglycemia rapidly by drinking a fruit juice or eating a glucose tablet, sugar lump, or candy.

Anyone who has frequent episodes of low blood sugar should speak to a doctor. They may recommend changing the type of dose of medication.

Anyone who experiences tiredness, increased thirst, frequent urination, or weight loss should see a doctor, as these could indicate diabetes or another health problem.

A routine health check often involves blood sugar testing, even if the person has no symptoms.

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommend that adults age 40 to 70 years who are overweight have tests for diabetes.

Those with a family history of diabetes or other risk factors may need earlier or more frequent tests.

When a person has diabetes, their health and well-being depend on proper management of blood sugar levels.

To improve or maintain a good quality of life, the person should:

  • visit a doctor regularly
  • take medications as the doctor prescribes
  • following diet and exercise guidelines

These strategies can help a person with diabetes to manage blood sugar, and this may slow the progression of diabetes.

The person should also carry a medical ID with them, especially if they use insulin, as this can provide important information in case of an emergency.

The American Diabetes Association note that IDs are now available with a compact USB drive that can contain a full medical record.

Symptoms, causes, and healthy levels

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The human body naturally has sugar, or glucose, in the blood. The right amount of blood sugar gives the body’s cells and organs energy. Too much blood sugar is known as hyperglycemia.

The liver and muscles produce some blood sugar, but most comes from food and drinks that contain carbohydrates.

In order to keep blood sugar levels within a normal range, the body needs insulin. Insulin is a hormone that directs the body’s cells to take up glucose and store it.

If there is not enough insulin, or insulin does not work properly, blood sugar builds up. High blood sugar levels can cause health problems.

What does hyperglycemia feel like, why does it happen, and how do you know if your blood sugar levels are too high? Read on to find out more.

Blood sugar is fuel for the body’s organs and functions.

But, having high blood sugar does not provide a boost in energy.

In fact, the opposite often happens, because the body’s cells cannot access the blood sugar for energy.

How does this feel?

When a person has high blood sugar, they may:

  • have a headache and other aches and pains
  • find it hard to concentrate
  • be very thirsty or hungry
  • feel drowsy or tired
  • have blurred vision
  • feel their mouth is dry
  • have bloating
  • need to urinate often
  • notice that wounds take a long time to heal

High blood sugar and low insulin can lead to a rise in ketones, and possibly diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a serious complication that needs urgent medical attention.

If this occurs, the individual may experience:

  • shortness of breath
  • a fruity taste or smell on the breath
  • a rapid heartbeat
  • confusion and disorientation
  • vomiting
  • dehydration
  • coma

In addition, the person’s blood sugar levels may be over 250 ml/dL.

People can experience high blood sugar levels in the morning, especially if they have diabetes. Click here to find out more.

Testing kits for levels of blood sugar and ketone levels are available for purchase online, for use at home.

However, anyone who thinks they have diabetes should see a doctor first.

How does high blood sugar affect the body?

High sugar in the blood can lead to a number of other symptoms and complications. Here are just a few.

Urination and thirst: High blood sugar goes into the kidneys and urine. This attracts more water, causing frequent urination. This can also lead to increased thirst, despite drinking enough liquids.

Weight loss: High blood sugar can cause sudden or unexplained weight loss. This occurs because the body’s cells are not getting the glucose they need, so the body burns muscle and fat for energy instead.

Numbness and tingling: High blood sugar can also cause numbness, burning, or tingling in the hands, legs, and feet. This is due to diabetic neuropathy, a complication of diabetes that often occurs after many years of high blood sugar levels.

Long-term complications

Over time, high blood sugar results in harm to the body’s organs and systems. Damage to the blood vessels can lead to complications, including:

  • heart attack or stroke
  • damage to the eye and loss of vision
  • kidney disease or failure
  • nerve problems in the skin, especially the feet, leading to sores, infections, and wound healing problems

Several types of diabetes can lead to high blood sugar.

In type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. As a result, the body lacks insulin and blood sugar levels rise.

People with type 1 diabetes must take insulin through a needle, pen, or insulin pump to keep blood sugar levels within the target range.

Only 5 percent of all people with diabetes have type 1, according to the American Diabetes Association.

In type 2 diabetes, the body does produce insulin but is unable to use it properly. The pancreas tries to make more insulin, but often cannot make enough to keep blood sugar levels steady. This is known as insulin resistance.

People with type 2 diabetes may need to take insulin, pills, or make diet or exercise changes to help manage blood sugar levels.

Gestational diabetes can happen when insulin resistance and high blood sugar levels appear during pregnancy. People should monitor this during pregnancy, as it can lead to complications for the mother and the baby. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after delivery.

Cystic fibrosis: There may be a link between diabetes and cystic fibrosis.

Medications: People who take beta blockers and certain steroids may also experience high blood sugar.

Risk factors for high blood sugar

Doctors do not know exactly what causes diabetes. Some factors may increase the risk, however.

Type 1 diabetes

Researchers believe certain genetic or environmental factors may make people more likely to get type 1 diabetes.

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) say certain genes play a role, and other factors — such as viruses and infections — may have an impact.

The Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation say that there is nothing a person can do to prevent type 1 diabetes. Eating, exercise, or other lifestyle choices will not change the outcome.

Type 1 diabetes usually begins during childhood or early adulthood, but it can happen at any age.

Type 2 diabetes

The following risk factors may make developing type 2 diabetes more likely:

  • having certain genes
  • being overweight or inactive
  • having a parent or sibling with type 2 diabetes
  • having African-American, Alaska Native, American Indian, Asian-American, Hispanic, or Pacific Islander ethnicity
  • being aged over 45 years
  • receiving treatment for high blood pressure, or having blood pressure of 140/90 or higher
  • having low levels of “good” HDL cholesterol or high levels of triglycerides

Share on PinterestRegular blood sugar testing can help people with diabetes keep their blood sugar levels within the target level.

People who have high blood sugar should discuss their target levels with their doctor.

They may need regular testing to keep these within a healthy range. Each person is different and levels can vary between individuals.

To find out their blood sugar levels, the person may need to fast for 8 hours, 2 hours after a meal, or at both times.

Some people may also take a glucose tolerance test, in which they drink a sugary liquid and have a blood test after.

The American Diabetes Association recommend a pre-meal blood sugar level of 80–130 milligrams per deciliter (ml/dL). Around 1 to 2 hours after the beginning of a meal, blood sugar should be less than 180 ml/dL.

Managing blood sugar levels

Many people with diabetes must check their blood sugar levels daily with a glucose meter. This device takes a drop of blood, usually from a finger, and displays the sugar level within a few seconds.

People with type 1 diabetes will need to take insulin as their doctor recommends, usually several times a day.

Those with type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes may need to change their diet and exercise habits. They may also need to take oral medications or insulin.

Share on PinterestMonitoring your diet and exercise alongside blood sugar levels can help you maintain a healthy blood sugar level.

A number of strategies can help prevent hyperglycemia.

People should:

  • check their blood sugar levels as their doctor advises and take the correct amount of insulin, if they have type 1 diabetes
  • speak to their healthcare provider or dietitian about which foods to eat or avoid, how much to eat, and how often
  • take precautions to avoid infections, for example, through regular hand washing, as illness, such as a cold, can trigger a rise in blood pressure
  • plan their food intake and exercise to balance blood sugar levels
  • minimize stress, as far as possible, for example, through exercise, getting enough sleep, and stress-reducing activities such as meditation or yoga

Low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, can happen when a person:

  • has certain medical conditions
  • uses specific medications
  • does a lot of exercise
  • skips meals or eats too little

It can also be a side effect of diabetes medicines. Taking too much insulin can result in low blood sugar levels.

Symptoms of low blood sugar may include:

  • feeling weak or shaky
  • sudden nervousness, anxiety, or irritability
  • sweating or chills
  • extreme hunger
  • confusion
  • fast heart rate, or palpitations

A person can treat hypoglycemia rapidly by drinking a fruit juice or eating a glucose tablet, sugar lump, or candy.

Anyone who has frequent episodes of low blood sugar should speak to a doctor. They may recommend changing the type of dose of medication.

Anyone who experiences tiredness, increased thirst, frequent urination, or weight loss should see a doctor, as these could indicate diabetes or another health problem.

A routine health check often involves blood sugar testing, even if the person has no symptoms.

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommend that adults age 40 to 70 years who are overweight have tests for diabetes.

Those with a family history of diabetes or other risk factors may need earlier or more frequent tests.

When a person has diabetes, their health and well-being depend on proper management of blood sugar levels.

To improve or maintain a good quality of life, the person should:

  • visit a doctor regularly
  • take medications as the doctor prescribes
  • following diet and exercise guidelines

These strategies can help a person with diabetes to manage blood sugar, and this may slow the progression of diabetes.

The person should also carry a medical ID with them, especially if they use insulin, as this can provide important information in case of an emergency.

The American Diabetes Association note that IDs are now available with a compact USB drive that can contain a full medical record.

10 Surprising Things That Can Spike Your Blood Sugar

When you first found out you had diabetes, you tested your blood sugar often to understand how food, activity, stress, and illness could affect your blood sugar levels. By now, you’ve got it figured out for the most part. But then—bam! Something makes your blood sugar zoom up. You try to adjust it with food or activity or insulin, and it dips really low. You’re on a rollercoaster no one with diabetes wants to ride.

Do you know all of these blood sugar triggers?

Knowledge is power! Look out for these surprising triggers that can send your blood sugar soaring:

  1. Sunburn—the pain causes stress, and stress increases blood sugar levels.
  2. Artificial sweeteners—more research needs to be done, but some studiesexternal icon show they can raise blood sugar.
  3. Coffee—even without sweetener. Some people’s blood sugar is extra-sensitive to caffeine.
  4. Losing sleep—even just one night of too little sleep can make your body use insulin less efficiently.
  5. Skipping breakfast—going without that morning meal can increase blood sugar after both lunch and dinner.
  6. Time of day—blood sugar can be harder to control the later it gets.
  7. Dawn phenomenon—people have a surge in hormones early in the morning whether they have diabetes or not. For people with diabetes, blood sugar can spike.
  8. Dehydration—less water in your body means a higher blood sugar concentration.
  9. Nose spray—some have chemicals that trigger your liver to make more blood sugar.
  10. Gum disease—it’s both a complication of diabetes and a blood sugar spiker.

Watch out for other triggers that can make your blood sugar fall. For example, extreme heat can cause blood vessels to dilate, which makes insulin absorb more quickly and could lead to low blood sugar. If an activity or food or situation is new, be sure to check your blood sugar levels before and after to see how you respond.

Elevated blood sugar | Risk factors for the development of chronic non-communicable diseases | Population

Elevated blood sugar

High glucose level (hyperglycemia) is a risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus!

Target glucose values ​​for a healthy person: 3.3 – 5.5 mmol / L (capillary blood), 4.0 – 6.1 mmol / L (venous plasma).

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease characterized by high blood sugar levels due to absolute or relative insulin deficiency, with varying degrees of development of peripheral insulin resistance.In type 1 diabetes mellitus develops absolute insulin deficiency , the body does not produce its own hormone insulin and there is a need for its injection. At
with type 2 diabetes, insulin is produced, but the sensitivity of the peripheral tissues of the body to its action, the so-called insulin resistance, decreases.

The urgency of the problem of diabetes mellitus is determined by the rapid increase in the incidence of diabetes, mainly due to type 2 diabetes, the continuing high mortality and early disability of patients.

Over the past 10 years, the number of patients with diabetes mellitus in the world has more than doubled! According to the forecasts of the International Diabetes Federation by 2035, 592 million people will suffer from diabetes (every 10th inhabitant of the earth)!

A significant increase in the prevalence of the disease is also noted in Russia. According to the federal diabetes register in the Russian Federation, by the end of 2016, 4.35 million people (3% of the population) were registered at the dispensary, of which 92% (4 million) had type 2 diabetes mellitus, 6% (255 thousand …) – with type 1 diabetes and 2% (75 thousand) – with other types of diabetes mellitus. But the true number of patients is 2-3 times higher than the registered one (about 10 million people, up to 7% of the population of Russia), while every second patient is not aware of the presence of this disease. An increased level of glucose is far from always felt by a person, the only way to find out is to donate blood for sugar! You can find out the glucose level by going through a comprehensive examination at Health Centers in Kirov and region, as well as in a medical organization at the place of attachment, along with other activities included in the scope of clinical examination (for more details, see section Why should I undergo medical examination ?.

More than 45 thousand patients with diabetes mellitus are registered in the Kirov region, 95% of them are patients with type 2 diabetes (more than 43.5 thousand).

The clinical manifestations of these types of diabetes are different. If type 1 diabetes mellitus has a more acute onset of the disease and a vivid clinical picture, then type 2 diabetes is more often detected by chance: when undergoing medical examination, medical examination, having a few, less pronounced manifestations.

Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus include:

        age 45 and older (the risk of the disease increases with age),

        the presence of a family history of diabetes in parents, relatives: the presence of type 2 diabetes in one of the parents increases the likelihood of inheriting the disease in a child up to 40%,

        Overweight and obesity (BMI more than 25 kg / m2): the risk of developing diabetes in obesity stage 1.2 times higher, and with obesity 3 tbsp. the risk of developing diabetes increases 10 times!

        hypodynamia (habitually low physical activity),

        history of carbohydrate metabolism disorders (prediabetes: impaired glucose tolerance, fasting hyperglycemia),

        cardiovascular diseases.

With type 1 diabetes, the development of the disease depends 50% on the genetic component, on heredity. A predisposition to a disease is inherited, the trigger of which can be viral infections, toxic substances, nutritional factors in a child.

Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, the presence of which increases the risk of heart attack by 2.4 times. The onset of diabetes mellitus at a younger age is associated with a higher risk of developing complications of the disease. When people with coronary artery disease have diabetes, they have a significantly higher risk of cardiovascular events and a shorter life expectancy.

Diabetes is one of the main causes of heart attacks, strokes, amputations of the lower extremities, loss of vision, and the development of chronic renal failure.

Correction of lifestyle and behavioral risk factors is the basis for the prevention and management of diabetes mellitus, reducing the vascular risks of patients. Most type 2 diabetes patients are overweight, which is an essential component of their treatment! Caloric restriction and adequate regular physical activity provide beneficial effects on glycemic control, lipid profile and blood pressure, especially during the early period of illness.You should also limit your alcohol intake and quit smoking.

Diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus and other glycemic disorders

Fasting 2 hours after OGTT (glucose tolerance test)
Impaired fasting glycemia (prediabetes) Capillary blood ≥ 5.6 – <6.1
Venous plasma ≥ 6.1 – <7.0
<7.8 (normal)
Impaired glucose tolerance
(prediabetes)
Capillary blood <6.1
Venous plasma <7.0
≥ 7.8 and <11 , 1
Diabetes mellitus Twice:
Capillary blood ≥ 6.1
Venous plasma ≥ 7.0
11.1 and above

1 time at any time of the day 11 , 1 and higher

Prediabetes is a condition characterized by impaired carbohydrate tolerance, fasting hyperglycemia, when the amount of sugar in the blood is higher than the norm, but there are still no blood sugar indicators required for the established iya diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.Research has shown that people with prediabetes can prevent type 2 diabetes by making changes in their diet and increasing physical activity. Daily 30 min. exercise and a 10% reduction in body weight can help reduce the risk of diabetes by 58%.

What should be done to reduce the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes?
It is necessary to monitor your weight, prevent obesity, be physically active – at least 30 minutes of regular physical activity of moderate intensity daily; adhere to the principles of a healthy diet, stop using tobacco, try not to drink alcohol!

Using the National Recommendations Cardiovascular Prevention 2017, M., 2017.

90,000 causes and consequences, how to lower blood sugar

This simple indicator can indicate various metabolic disorders and be a harbinger of several fatal diseases. Controlling your blood glucose is no more difficult than taking your temperature. But if you ignore it, the consequences can be fatal.

Reasons

Nutritionists regularly urge us to moderate our consumption of sweets and starchy foods in order to avoid becoming overweight.However, obesity is only one of the consequences of high blood sugar (hyperglycemia). The most common cause and largely consequence of this is diabetes mellitus. Impaired glucose metabolism often causes acute complications of diabetes: ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic coma. They can lead to loss of consciousness and death. There are also non-diabetes causes leading to hyperglycemia:

– improper high-calorie nutrition (sweet, flour fatty)

– stress

– chronic lack of B vitamins in the body

– pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer

– increased thyroid hormone levels

– tumors

– smoking

Also, the intake of a number of medications raises the level of glucose – corticosteroids, beta-blockers, anti-cholesterol statins, rituximab, niacin, obsolete antidepressants and contraceptives.

Consequences

Normally, glucose metabolism in humans has a margin of safety. The body can maintain a normal blood plasma composition even with increased stress. However, the metabolic safety factor can disappear as a result of unhealthy lifestyles. Thereafter, sugar will rise during infectious diseases and acute stress. This, among other things, negatively affects the human nervous system and the functioning of the brain, and also leads to kidney failure.

An imbalance in the content of glucose and insulin in the blood plasma leads to a radical metabolic disorder, stimulates hypertension and the development of vascular atherosclerosis, and therefore increases the risk of heart attack or stroke. Many diabetics die of heart attacks before they develop vision, leg, or kidney problems.

Symptoms of high sugar

– sharp fluctuations in weight

– dry mouth

– constant thirst and hunger

– frequent urination

– chronic fatigue syndrome

– constant sleepiness with sufficient sleep time

– slow healing wounds and abrasions

– the smell of acetone in the exhaled air

– arrhythmia

– vision problems

– thinning and hair loss

We ourselves often push the body to an excessive increase in glucose levels.Not only the calorie content of foods is important, but also the diet. For example, having a full breakfast all day can help stabilize your metabolism. Those who ignore breakfast have higher levels of insulin and sugar in the afternoon these days, compared to the days marked with the morning meal. Coffee and sweeteners also negatively affect glucose content. It is noteworthy that no drugs can fully compensate for the harm of such a diet.

How to reduce?

You can also control this parameter at home using a glucometer.If in the morning on an empty stomach the device shows more than 6 mmol / l or 2 hours after eating more than 8 mmol / l, this is a reason to urgently visit an endocrinologist. If at any time the indicator exceeds 11 mmol / l, this is a sign of diabetes mellitus. For children, these numbers should be slightly less, and for pregnant women, the test is generally not suitable. They need to take a two-hour glucose tolerance test and already in the 1st trimester. High sugar levels in early pregnancy greatly increase the risk of developing congenital heart defects in a baby.At the same time, no diabetes pills should be taken during pregnancy.

Some people have high sugar in the morning, others after eating, and still others in the evening. Depending on this, a different diet is prescribed, a schedule for taking medications and insulin injections. Hyperglycemia can also be associated with sudden, significant weight loss. In this case, severe type 1 diabetes is almost certainly present. These patients need regular insulin injections. If the situation is not so serious, treatment usually consists of a low-carbohydrate diet, increased physical activity and the use of metformin (drugs “Glucophage” or “Siofor”) in case you are overweight.Certain types of type 2 diabetes medications (Diabeton, Amaryl, Maninil, and others) can also quickly lower blood sugar. This is where the Zdravsiti drug search service comes in handy. But remember: Getting back to a healthy metabolism requires daily effort without breaks over the holidays and weekends!

Early signs of high blood sugar and foods that lower it

Are you constantly hungry? Are you gaining weight even though you have reduced your calorie intake? Feeling persistent stomach problems? If the answer is yes, then you probably suffer from high blood sugar.This does not always indicate the presence of diabetes mellitus. Each of us can have a jump in our blood sugar levels if we consume certain foods, such as sweets, sodas, or baked goods. The real problem starts when sugar levels remain high for an extended period of time, which can indicate serious health problems.

Causes leading to high blood sugar

  • Taking certain medications
  • Stress
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Incorrect power supply
  • Presence of diseases that contribute to the development of diabetes.

Diabetes symptoms

High blood sugar is a major symptom of diabetes, but not always and not the only one. In addition, patients with diabetes mellitus may have other symptoms:

  • Dry mouth
  • Thirst
  • Frequent urination during the night period
  • Hunger
  • Fatigue
  • Dry and itchy skin
  • Weight gain and fat accumulation in the abdominal region
  • Problems with concentration
  • Blurred vision
  • Recurrent infections
  • Stomach problems
  • Nervous problems
  • Slow healing of wounds and cuts
  • Impotence

Lowering blood glucose with low glycemic index foods

The glycemic index (GI) is a numerical index that shows how the blood sugar level changes after eating a particular food.The GI has a scale from 0 to 100: glucose has an index of 100 and is the starting point. Foods with a high glycemic index are quickly absorbed into the blood and quickly digested, causing changes in sugar levels. Low-GI foods increase sugar levels gradually. The higher the GI of the food, the higher the glucose level will be at that particular point in time. The concept of GI is used by diabetologists to prescribe a correct, balanced diet for diabetics. In addition, foods with a low GI index can be useful not only for diabetics, but also for people who monitor their weight, as they reduce hunger and control appetite.

List of foods by their glycemic index:

Knowing the value of the GI of certain foods can help in the preparation of a balanced diet for diabetics, overweight people and those who lead a healthy lifestyle. It is advisable to avoid foods with a high GI – 70+. Foods with a moderate GI index – 55-69 – should be eaten with caution. Ideal for the diet will be foods with a low GI – from 0 to 54.

List of some products:

  • Eggs – 0
  • Hummus (1 glass) – 6
  • Broccoli – 10
  • Walnuts (glass) – 15
  • Cashew (glass) – 22
  • Cherry (glass) – 22
  • Grapefruit (medium) – 25
  • Yogurt without sugar – 23
  • Beans (glass) – 34
  • Apple (medium) – 38
  • Tomato juice -38
  • Spaghetti – 46
  • Green Grapes – 46
  • Pineapple juice – 46
  • Carrots (large) – 47
  • Orange (medium) – 48
  • Banana (large) – 52
  • Peas – 54.

Important:

The above products are listed with the average value for the average person. But every body reacts differently to different foods, so people with diabetes should check their blood glucose levels carefully for two hours after each meal.

The methods of treating diabetes mellitus used today by modern medicine allow people with diabetes to live life to the fullest. An important problem remains the ability to determine the disease at the earliest stages.Knowing the first symptoms can help in quickly identifying the disease and initiating timely treatment. An equally important problem remains the awareness of the population about the threat of diabetes and its consequences: knowledge of the causes and factors affecting the onset and development of the disease, proper nutrition and a healthy lifestyle can prevent the onset of diabetes. 90,000 Why is high blood sugar in the morning

Many people with diagnosed diabetes wonder why sugar is higher in the morning than in the evening and what to do if there is high sugar in the morning on an empty stomach.The intensity and nature of metabolic processes in the body directly depends not only on the general state of health, but also on the time of day. In endocrinology, there are concepts such as the Somoji effect and the morning dawn effect. Both terms are familiar firsthand to people with diagnosed diabetes mellitus. Along with the listed effects, there is an additional list of reasons that can cause a sharp increase in blood glucose levels in the morning.

A slightly elevated blood sugar level can be detected in the so-called state of prediabetes, when the diagnosis of glucose metabolism has not yet been established.You should pay attention to such facts and consult a doctor to agree on the necessary changes in lifestyle and diet.

What is the morning dawn effect

In the time interval from 12 to 3 am the pancreas does not produce the hormone insulin, since there is no need for this biologically active compound. That is why, in the time interval from 3 to 8 in the morning, there is a sharp jump in blood glucose levels. The effect of morning dawn occurs in any person, regardless of the presence of problems with the production of the hormone insulin by the tissue of the pancreas.

If a person does not suffer from diabetes, then this phenomenon does not affect the general condition. Upon awakening, the body produces the amount of hormone that is necessary to normalize metabolic processes. Patients with diabetes mellitus are more difficult to tolerate the phenomenon of dawn, since their pancreas is not able to produce a physiological norm of insulin. That is why such people have an increase in the amount of sugar in their blood in the morning.

And the subsequent decrease in blood sugar levels, after, for example, morning physical exercises, looks quite logical.

What is the Somoji effect

An alternative name for this condition is chronic insulin overdose syndrome. Compared to the previous state, the Somoji effect is less common. This condition develops with the introduction of large doses of the hormone insulin or in violation of the drug use regimen. The Somoji effect is based on the so-called rebound reaction, characterized by an increase in blood glucose levels in response to hypoglycemia with an overdose of insulin.The following clinical manifestations are characteristic of the Somoji effect:

  1. Daytime sleepiness.
  2. Dizziness.
  3. General weakness.
  4. Excessive sweating.
  5. Increased appetite.

This condition can develop not only with incorrect insulin treatment. When sugar is high in the morning and normal in the afternoon, the reasons may be as follows:

  1. Inappropriate nutrition. With a deficiency of carbohydrates in the daily diet, a sharp drop in blood glucose levels is observed, followed by an increase.
  2. Drinking alcohol. Ethanol contained in alcoholic beverages has a hypoglycemic effect by inhibiting the process of gluconeogenesis in the liver.
  3. Physical overload. Excessive physical activity on the eve of insulin administration or immediately thereafter leads to a sharp decrease in blood sugar levels, followed by an increase in glucose concentration.

If this condition is left without proper attention, then the person is faced with a deterioration in the dynamics of the disease and the development of severe complications associated with hyperglycemia.

How to avoid the effects of diabetes in diabetes

In order to avoid the appearance of the Somoji effect in diabetes mellitus, it is necessary to adhere to these simple rules:

  1. Regularly monitor your blood glucose levels with a portable blood glucose meter.
  2. Follow the dietary advice given for patients with a similar diagnosis.
  3. Completely stop drinking alcohol.
  4. Avoid physical overload.

To avoid a sharp jump in blood glucose levels during the phenomenon of dawn, the following recommendations will help:

  1. Dinner should be no later than 19:00.
  2. In the evening, you should limit the consumption of foods rich in plant fiber.
  3. The daily dosage of the hormone insulin should be distributed so that the long-acting drug is administered between 1:00 and 3:00 am.
  4. In non-insulin dependent diabetes, the drug should be taken in the evening before bedtime and immediately after waking up in the morning and measuring blood sugar with a glucometer.

If these tips are ineffective, the only way to avoid spikes in blood sugar is to install a 24-hour insulin pump. If one of the effects develops in women during the period of gestational diabetes, then she should use all of the above recommendations.

With timely diagnosis and correction, both conditions do not pose a threat to the health and life of a diabetic. Correct treatment neutralizes metabolic disorders, and the disease itself passes into the stage of stable compensation.The prevention of morning hyperglycemia is based on the correct use of antihyperglycemic drugs and insulin, as well as the absence of errors in diet and level of physical activity. If a diabetic has a high blood sugar level in the morning, an endocrinologist attending physician will tell you what to do.

Q&A

In this section we answer frequently asked questions. As new frequently asked questions appear, the section will be supplemented. Send your questions to oed_grodno @ mail.ru. Be sure to indicate to whom the letter is addressed, for example, “ophthalmologist”, “chief physician”, etc.


Question: Hello, I had diabetes during pregnancy, after giving birth, I continue to follow a diet, a complete rejection of sugar, sweets, baked goods. Sometimes I measure my sugar level and often in the morning immediately after waking up I have somewhere around 6.2, and after a meal after 2 hours the sugar is normal. As soon as I come to the clinic to take a glucose tolerance test, it shows normal sugar on an empty stomach.I think the fact is that I walk 2 km to the clinic and then wait in line for about half an hour and the sugar goes down. And naturally they tell me you don’t have diabetes. I don’t understand whether I should be worried or insist that sugar is higher than normal after waking up. Best regards, Julia

Answer: Good afternoon. If you are of normal weight, then there is nothing to worry about. To diagnose diabetes mellitus, only laboratory tests are used, not a glucometer. The glucose stress test also reveals latent (latent) diabetes.If your meter is calibrated for capillary plasma, and not for capillary whole blood, then the meter readings are within normal limits. Gestational diabetes is a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is periodically necessary to monitor glucose indicators and be sure to maintain a normal body mass index (no higher than 25).


Question: My mother used to have sugar up to 19. She was recently prescribed insulin.We measured her sugar 3 times a day. By the evening the sugar drops. At night, from about two to five, she starts a real rampage, she starts screaming, fighting, rolling on the floor, urinating under her. They took her to the clinic to see a neurologist. He said that the reason for this behavior is low sugar. Could hypoglycemia cause such inappropriate behavior?

Answer: Your mother’s behavior exactly corresponds to a severe hypoglycemic state. Be sure to talk urgently with your doctor about insulin therapy, evening insulin dose and food intake before bedtime.At the first sign of inappropriate behavior, immediately give sweet tea, compote, juice.


Question: Hello! Please tell me if a child’s sugar can rise to 7 because of a strong nervous experience? Will it return to normal then? Or do you already need to see a doctor? Will this not remain with the child forever, automatically, in the form of a disease?

Answer: Good afternoon! The data provided by you is insufficient for an objective assessment of the situation. All questions of interest can be asked at an appointment with an endocrinologist at the dispensary.Help and appointment by phone. Registries (8 0152) 44 72 00, 44 72 15.


Question: Good afternoon, tell me please, can I pass a category A driver’s license with type 1 diabetes?

Answer: You can take a license of category A in the absence of a comatose state in the anamnesis with subsequent annual medical examination (resolution of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus dated 06.12.2018 No. 88).


Question: My child (he is 12 years old) has signs of diabetes: constant thirst, frequent trips to the toilet, especially at night, loss of appetite, dry skin, irritability, sometimes chills, nausea and even vomiting (usually at night). The urine is almost colorless. Have passed the analysis for sugar … 5.2, but the doctor said that there are many leukocytes in the urine. What disease can these symptoms indicate? Thank you in advance.

Answer: Based on the content of your letter, the child may be suspected of having a urinary tract disease.You should contact your pediatrician to clarify the nature of the disease.


Question: A gynecologist recommended me to drink Siofor to lose excess weight. Is this drug dangerous and how to take it?

Answer: The question of the advisability of taking Siofor should be discussed with a general practitioner or endocrinologist. If you have indications and there are no contraindications for taking it, you will be assigned an adequate dose and explained the rules for taking the drug.


Question: Hello. My sugar is increased to 6.7. What does this mean? No signs of diabetes were observed.

Answer: Hello. This may mean that you have diabetes. Such glucose values ​​do not give any symptoms. You need to repeat the fasting blood glucose (fasting period at least 8 hours). With the result of the analysis, contact your GP.


Question: I have type 2 diabetes, I take pills.Recently they discovered an ovarian cyst and sent to an endocrinologist to consult about the possibility of surgery. If in connection with the operation it is necessary to switch me to insulin, can I then switch to pills again?

Answer: Do not worry, after surgical treatment and healing of the wound surface, it is possible to switch back to treatment with tablets.


Question: I am 22 years old. Six months ago, type 1 diabetes was discovered. I give insulin.Recently resumed training with the gym. I am about to start intravenous amino acids along with an additional dose. I would like to know if such procedures are safe? During the state of hypoglycemia, I will not be alone and at any time I will be able to receive the necessary help.

Answer: Young man! Be sure to discuss your decision on intravenous administration of amino acids with your doctor! Your decision to take an extra dose of insulin to induce a hypoglycemic response is clearly wrong.Even mild hypoglycemia seriously affects the function of the central nervous system, impairing memory and causing other negative effects that are not always treatable. Be careful!


Question: Hello! I have such questions. Type 2 diabetes was discovered a year ago. The sugar was 9.0. Prescribed metformin 850 mg, “sat down” on a diet. In 9 months I lost 10 kg (from 97 to 86)! Is it okay? Will the weight continue to decline? Now morning sugar is from 5.9 to 7.2.I also take indap and verapamil from pressure. I read that they reduce the effect of metformin. Do I need to replace them with other antihypertensive drugs or not pay attention to it? And yet, in the annotation to metformin it says: “take with caution in old age” Why? I am 69 years old. Thank you very much in advance.

Answer: Based on your letter, we can conclude that diabetes treatment is being carried out adequately. On the background of taking metformin in combination with a balanced diet, good results were obtained.Older age is not a contraindication to long-term treatment with metformin. It is advisable to monitor the functional parameters of the liver once a year. It is better to coordinate the intake of antihypertensive drugs with the attending physician, maintaining blood pressure at 135/80 mm Hg. Art.


Question: I am 64 years old. I felt dry mouth in the morning, but I could not get to the endocrinologist right away. Month strictly observed a diet. Using my husband’s glucometer (he has diabetes for more than 10 years), I checked my blood sugar in the morning on an empty stomach.Indicators – from 7.9 to 6.2 mmol / l. And when I went to the endocrinologist and got tested in the laboratory, I was surprised: on an empty stomach – 7.82, and 2 hours after taking glucose – 4.78. How can this be?

Answer: The blood glucose levels you listed in the letter may be in the early stages of type 2 diabetes. In addition to following the diet, you need to coordinate additional treatment with your doctor. Treatment will depend on your weight, blood pressure, and other medical conditions.You do not have a significant difference between fasting blood glucose levels in the laboratory and on your home glucometer.


Question: I fell ill with diabetes in November 2010, when the ambulance was taken to the hospital, my blood sugar was 19.7. Before that, I could not understand for a long time why I feel so bad. My question is: how to eat to gain weight? Until I was diagnosed and I did not know what was happening to me, I lost 15 kg. I was never full, but now I am skin and bones.

Answer: To answer your question, it is necessary to meet with an endocrinologist and discuss the tactics of treating diabetes. You have not told your age, what antidiabetic drugs you are using, whether you are taking insulin, what are your current blood sugar levels, whether you have any concomitant diseases. The answers to all of these and other questions will help your doctor prescribe the right treatment and stop weight loss.


Question: What analysis is used to determine the number of surviving beta cells in diabetes? Thank you.

Answer: Currently, the state of the beta cells of the islet part of the pancreas is assessed by the level of C-peptide in the patient’s blood and antibodies to beta cells.


Question: hypothyroidism was suspected in my clinic. And how to find out more precisely if it exists?

Answer: Confirming hypothyroidism is quite simple: you need to check the level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). It is the most informative test for diagnosing any thyroid disorder.With hypothyroidism, the TSH level will be increased. If necessary, a blood test for free thyroxine T4 is additionally prescribed. With obvious hypothyroidism, its level is lowered.

Determination of the TSH level is indicated if a person is gaining weight, although there is no apparent reason for this, and neither diet nor physical activity helps to reduce it if he is cold, while others feel comfortable if he quickly gets tired. persistent constipation appears if the skin becomes dry and hair and eyebrows begin to fall out intensively.Swelling of the face and soreness of the joints can also indicate the same disease, but these symptoms appear when the process has already gone far. There are a number of other signs as well. However, there are groups of people who have a higher risk of hypothyroidism. These are women over 40 years old, people with high blood cholesterol levels, those who have had thyroid diseases in their relatives. All of them are advised to check their TSH levels. And it will not hurt others either. You can only exclude young men who do not have the slightest health problems.


Question: Why check your blood sugar level ?

Answer: In order to detect diabetes in time. The disease is when the blood glucose level is twice on an empty stomach 7 and above mol / l. With a single random surrender, suspicion arises when it is 11 or higher.

Two types of diabetes mellitus are most common. The first type, as a rule, affects young people and children. In this case, the body stops producing the hormone insulin, which is necessary for the absorption of glucose.To normalize metabolism, you need to constantly administer an insulin preparation.

In type 2 diabetes mellitus, there is usually enough insulin in the body, sometimes even too much, but it becomes ineffective. This condition is much more common (up to ninety percent of all cases). The patient does not need constant injections, but attention to his own health becomes paramount. Because the disease is dangerous, first of all, complications, often leading to disability and disability.They can develop slowly over many years. The vessels of the retina are affected and blindness may occur, chronic renal failure develops, the blood supply to the legs is disrupted, and trophic ulcers occur. The blood supply to the heart and brain is impaired, which can lead to myocardial infarction or stroke.

Almost every patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus has arterial hypertension, for which, as a rule, no serious measures have been taken, ischemic heart disease.And most of the “diabetics” are overweight. People eat much more than is necessary to restore energy costs, and this leads to obesity and metabolic disorders. Adipose tissue contains substances that reduce insulin sensitivity. Therefore, overweight people develop type 2 diabetes much more often.

This is why lifestyle change comes first in antidiabetic prescriptions.


Question: My hair began to fall out, although my age is still not old and I eat normally.The doctor at the clinic said that this may be due to the work of the thyroid gland. Can this be?

Answer: Hair growth is indeed very sensitive to the state of thyroid function. It can be impaired in both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis. You need to be tested for thyroid hormones and a complete blood count. If TSH and hemoglobin levels are normal and hair problems persist, it is most likely a hair condition on its own and you need to see a dermatologist.


Question: They say that in order to protect the thyroid gland from diseases, and even more so to treat her sick, you need to take iodine. Is it so?

Answer: No, this is not correct. There are several dozen diseases of the thyroid gland, the approaches to the treatment of which can be diametrically different. Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. With hypothyroidism, it is destroyed and is no longer able to synthesize them using iodine, so there is no point in taking preparations containing it.In any case, I would like to warn against the use of an alcoholic solution of iodine for prophylactic purposes, and in general about

the norm, the reasons for the increase and decrease in glucose in human blood

cellular respiration. Prolonged increase or decrease in its content leads to serious consequences that threaten human health and life. Therefore, doctors attach great importance to the control of blood glucose levels.

Several hormones at once affect its concentration in the blood – insulin, glucagon, growth hormone, thyrotropin, T3 and T4, cortisol and adrenaline. For diagnostic purposes, it is important to know the reference values, as well as deviations from the norm and what such indicators indicate. In addition to glucose, there are other markers of blood sugar: fructosamine, glycated hemoglobin, lactate, and others. But first things first.

Glucose in human blood

Like any other carbohydrate, sugar cannot be directly assimilated by the body and requires splitting into glucose using special enzymes that end in “-ase” and are collectively called glycosyl hydrolases (glycosidases), or sucrases …“Hydro-” in the name of a group of enzymes indicates that the breakdown of sucrose into glucose occurs only in an aqueous medium. Various sucrases are produced in the pancreas and small intestine, where they are absorbed into the blood as glucose.

Good to know!

Sugar, or sucrose (beet, cane sugar), being a multisaccharide, consists of two monosaccharides – fructose and glucose [1]. Other sugars are also subject to decomposition to glucose – maltose (malt sugar), lactose (milk), nigerose (black rice), trehalose (mushroom), turanose (honey), cellobiose (woody birch), and so on.Starch, pectin, inulin and other complex carbohydrates are also broken down to glucose, gradually decreasing in molecular weight in the process of enzymatic hydrolysis, but this process is slower. Hence the name – slow carbohydrates.

So, glucose (dextrose) is formed by the breakdown of carbohydrate compounds into simple monosugar. It is absorbed by the small intestine. Its main (but not the only) source is carbohydrate-rich foods. It is extremely important for the human body that the amount of sugar is maintained at a constant normal level, as this substance supplies energy to the cells.It is of particular importance for skeletal muscles, heart and brain, which need energy most of all.

If the sugar content is outside the normal range, then:

  • energy starvation of cells occurs, as a result of which their functionality is significantly reduced; if a person has chronic hypoglycemia (low glucose content), then damage to the brain and nerve cells may occur;
  • Excess substances are deposited in the proteins of tissues , causing their damage (with hyperglycemia – an increased glucose content – they undergo destruction of the tissues of the kidneys, eyes, heart, blood vessels and the nervous system).

The unit of change for glucose is millimole per liter (mmol / L). Its level depends on the time of day, on a person’s diet, his motor and intellectual activity, the ability of the pancreas to produce insulin, which has a sugar-reducing effect, as well as the intensity of the production of hormones that neutralize insulin.

Note!

The human body always keeps a certain amount of energy in reserve.This means that he receives glucose not only from the outside (from food), but also from his own intracellular sources – in the form of glycogen. Glycogen, sometimes called animal or human starch, is found in large quantities in liver cells called hepatocytes. Up to 6% of the cell mass and up to 120 grams in the total weight of the liver are glycogen granules [2]. Its significant reserves are located in the heart (up to 1% of cell weight) and other muscle tissue, but only for local consumption.The liver, on the other hand, is able to provide energy to the entire body, and not just itself.

There is another internal source of glucose – it is activated when glycogen stores are depleted, which usually happens after a day of fasting or earlier – as a result of severe nervous and physical exertion. This process is called gluconeogenesis [3] , it is designed to synthesize glucose from:

  • lactic acid (lactate) , formed in loaded muscles and erythrocytes;
  • glycerol , obtained by the body after fermentation of adipose tissue;
  • amino acids – they are formed as a result of the breakdown of muscle tissue (proteins).

The scenario of obtaining glucose from amino acids is considered dangerous to human health and life, since the “eating” by the body of its own muscle mass can affect an organ such as the heart, as well as the smooth muscles of the intestines, blood vessels.

Blood test for glucose (sugar): the norm of indicators

The study of sugar levels is carried out in several ways, for each of which there are corresponding indications. Determining the concentration of this substance allows you to diagnose a number of serious diseases.What is the rate of blood sugar?

Fasting blood sugar

This test is taken after 8-14 hours of fasting. Blood is drawn from a vein. The general norm of glycemia in adults is 4.1–6.1 mmol / l, in children under 14 years old – 3.3–5.6 mmol / l. In women during pregnancy, indicators can reach 4.1–5.1 mmol / l [4].

Detection of fasting glucose in a volume of 7.0 mmol / l and above is a reason for additional laboratory tests, including hormones and enzymes.

Blood sugar “loaded” with glucose

If the results of a standard sugar test cause doubts among specialists, then a glucose tolerance test is performed. It can also be performed to detect diabetes and various disorders of carbohydrate metabolism.

Such a study is indicated in the presence of clinical signs of diabetes, combined with normal blood glucose levels, with periodic detection of sugar in the urine, increased daily urine output, hereditary tendency to diabetes, or the presence of retinopathy of unexplained origin.Such an analysis is recommended for women who have given birth to children weighing more than four kilograms, as well as their children.

During the examination, blood is taken from the patient on an empty stomach, and then he takes 75 grams of glucose dissolved in tea. For children, the dosage is calculated according to the formula 1.75 g / kg. Re-analysis is carried out one to two hours after taking the drug, while the blood sugar content should not exceed 7.8 mmol / l. If the plasma glucose level two hours after administration in the oral glucose tolerance test is 11.1 mmol / L or higher, this is a possible indication of diabetes mellitus [5].If the glucose concentration is below 11.1 mmol / l, but above 7.8 mmol / l, we can talk about impaired glucose tolerance [6].

Glycated hemoglobin

Compound of erythrocyte hemoglobin with glucose. Measuring the concentration of glycated hemoglobin allows you to determine the blood sugar content for the last two or three months. For analysis, a biomaterial is taken from a patient after a two- or three-hour fast. The advantages of this analysis include the fact that its results are not affected by the emotional state or the presence of infections in the patient, and there is no need to interrupt medication.

Glycated hemoglobin is measured as a percentage of the total hemoglobin. A level of less than 6% is considered the norm. A value of 6.5% or more is a criterion for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus [7].

Fructosamine

It is a combination of glucose with plasma proteins that allows you to determine the average sugar content over the last two to three weeks. For the analysis, venous blood is taken from the patient after an eight-hour fast. The normal concentration of fructosamine is less than 319 μmol / L.

For a retrospective assessment of the patient’s condition, the content of glycated hemoglobin is most often determined (the analysis shows the glucose concentration for three months), and the measurement of the concentration of fructosamine is prescribed when it is necessary to assess the patient’s condition over the past few weeks, in particular:

  • with a sharp change in the treatment plan diabetes;
  • during pregnancy in women with diabetes;
  • in patients with anemia (in their case, the study for glycated hemoglobin does not give accurate results).

If a value above 370 μmol / L is recorded, this may indicate decompensation of carbohydrate metabolism, renal failure, hypothyroidism, or an increase in immunoglobulin class A (IgA). If fructosamine is below 286 μmol / l, this is a reason to suspect hypoproteinemia (hypoalbuminemia) in nephrotic syndrome, diabetic nephropathy, hyperthyroidism; also, such a result may indicate abuse of ascorbic acid.

C-peptide

It is a constituent of the secretion of the pancreas, which allows the assessment of insulin production.Measuring the amount of this substance makes it possible to diagnose diabetes and evaluate the effectiveness of its treatment. C-peptide and insulin are produced in an equal ratio, but the concentration of C-peptide is constant and does not depend on the level of glucose in the blood of a person. Accordingly, the determination of its amount allows you to accurately assess the production of insulin. Normal fasting C-peptide values ​​vary widely – 260–1730 pmol / L.

An increase is observed after eating, hormonal drugs, glucocorticosteroids, contraceptives and some other means.If these factors are excluded, it is worth checking for the presence of diseases and conditions such as beta cell hypertrophy, insulinoma, the presence of antibodies to insulin, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, somatotropinoma (pituitary tumor), apudoma (a tumor that uncontrollably produces insulin into the blood), renal failure … A low level of C-peptide may indicate insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, insulin therapy, alcoholic hypoglycemia, stress, the presence of antibodies to insulin receptors (in insulin-resistant type II diabetes mellitus).

Why can my blood glucose be increased or decreased?

So, increased blood glucose is observed in the presence of diseases of the endocrine system, pancreas, kidneys and liver, heart attack and stroke, diabetes mellitus. Almost the same reasons, only with the opposite sign, lead to a decrease in blood glucose. Sugar can be lowered in pathologies of the pancreas, some endocrine diseases, insulin overdose, severe liver disease, malignant tumors, fermentopathy, autonomic disorders, alcohol and chemical poisoning, taking steroids and amphetamines, fever and intense physical exertion.Hypoglycemia can occur with prolonged fasting, as well as in premature babies and babies born to diabetic mothers.

This is interesting!

Of all human organs, the brain consumes the most energy, which means glucose. Although it weighs only 2% of body weight, it uses about half of the glucose produced by the liver and released into the blood [8].

How do I get my blood sugar back to normal?

In case of slight deviations from the norm of glucose in the blood, it is recommended to correct the diet.Patients with hyperglycemia need to limit the intake of carbohydrates from food. The “prohibited” group includes sugar-containing foods, white bread, pasta, potatoes, wine and sparkling drinks. At the same time, you should increase your intake of foods that lower sugar levels (cabbage, tomatoes, onions, cucumbers, eggplants, pumpkin, spinach, celery, beans, and others).

Patients with diabetes are advised to adhere to diet No. 9. The use of sugar substitutes, in particular sucrasite, aspartame and saccharin, is allowed.However, they can make you feel hungry and, in some cases, upset stomach and intestines. The permissible dosage of these funds should be determined by the doctor.

In case of hypoglycemia , increase the intake of proteins, which are found in large quantities in nuts, beans, dairy products and lean meats. Prevention of hypo- and hyperglycemia consists in adherence to the diet and adequate physical activity.

If the increase in sugar is explained by diseases of the organs involved in glucose circulation, then such diabetes is considered secondary .In this case, it must be treated simultaneously with the underlying disease (cirrhosis of the liver, hepatitis, a tumor of the liver, pituitary gland, pancreas).

If the level of hyperglycemia is low, the doctor may prescribe medications that smoothly lower the sugar level, but do not increase the production of insulin. With confirmed insulin deficiency, patients are prescribed insulins, which are injected subcutaneously. Their dosage is calculated by the endocrinologist individually for each patient.

The glucose level is an important indicator that reflects the state of the body’s metabolic processes and signals a number of serious problems. To avoid complications, blood sugar values ​​should not be allowed to go beyond the normal range. Therefore, it is important to regularly undergo an appropriate examination.

All information related to health and medicine is presented for informational purposes only and is not a reason for self-diagnosis or self-medication.

High blood sugar in a child

04/21/2020


What to do? Where to run? Often the accidental “detection” of elevated blood glucose levels occurs while playing with the grandmother’s glucometer. Let’s measure the baby’s sugar? And there … oh horror! 5.8-6.0 mmol / L.

Another “find”: improper preparation for the blood glucose test (for example: before the morning examination, the child ate chocolate at night; the test was taken after breakfast; or the child did not eat ANYTHING in the morning, but drank sweet tea).

In overweight children, glycemic figures can be up to 6.7 mmol / l – this is a reason to seek help from a pediatric endocrinologist and conduct a glucose tolerance test in order to exclude insulin resistance.

However, only the readings of the glucometer are not reliable and sufficient for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. The diagnosis is established by a doctor taking into account an objective examination, analysis of complaints (thirst, polyuria, fatigue, loss of appetite, weight loss, moodiness, skin disorders), interpretation of laboratory data – primarily, the level of glucose in the venous blood and the results of additional examinations.

The situation with an increase in blood glucose is not safe for the health of the child! Gradually, the toxic effect of high sugar levels leads to damage to nerve endings, blood vessels and other organs and systems of the child’s body. Over time, with diabetes mellitus, wounds and cuts do not heal well, vision deteriorates, weakness in the legs appears, and pains in the lower extremities join. The course of the disease also depends on other, so far poorly understood, factors, including genetic ones.

Research by scientists shows that complications of diabetes can be prevented or delayed by maintaining normal blood sugar levels, through adequate treatment of the underlying disease under the supervision of a specialist endocrinologist.

If you have any questions, please contact a pediatric endocrinologist.
An experienced children’s endocrinologist Danilycheva Lyubov Ivanovna works at the Children’s Diagnostic Center!

Be healthy!

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