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Red Spots on the Skin

Many different diseases, disorders and conditions can cause red spots. For example, red spots can be a symptom of inflammation in the body, or they may be caused by an infection or insect bites. More serious causes include meningitis and leukemia.

Infectious causes of red spots

Red spots may be caused by an infection including:

  • Fungal infection

  • Meningitis (infection or inflammation of the sac around the brain and spinal cord)

  • Roseola (herpes virus infection in babies)

  • Strep infection, such as a group A Streptococcus infection that causes strep throat

  • Viral diseases, such as measles, rubella and chickenpox

Parasite or insect causes of red spots

Red spots can be caused by insects that leave red bite marks or burrow under the skin including:

Allergic causes of red spots

Drug, animal, food and other environmental allergens can lead to red spots or rash. Allergens and allergic conditions that can cause red spots include:

Autoimmune causes of red spots

Inflammatory and autoimmune causes of red spots include:

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (disorder in which the body attacks its own healthy cells and tissues)

  • Vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels)

Other causes of red spots

Various other causes of red spots include:

  • Broken blood vessels

  • Choking or strangulation, which can cause red spots on the neck and face

  • Erythema multiforme (type of allergic reaction)

  • Erythema nodosum (inflammatory disorder)

  • Heat or sun overexposure or heat rash

  • Kaposi sarcoma (seen in HIV/AIDS)

  • Medications that thin the blood or decrease clotting, such as aspirin and Coumadin

  • Sarcoidosis (disease of skin and multiple organ systems)

  • Severe vomiting or coughing may cause red spots on the face and neck

Life-threatening causes of red spots

In some cases, red spots may be a symptom of a serious or life-threatening condition that should be immediately evaluated in an emergency setting. These include:

What are the potential complications of red spots?

The complications of underlying causes of red spots vary depending on the disease, disorder and condition. For example, red spots caused by a strep infection can lead to a body-wide blood infection (sepsis) or rheumatic fever. You can best reduce the risk of complications of red spots and the underlying causes by following the treatment plan you and your health care provider develop specifically for you. Complications may include:

  • Bacterial pneumonia and other secondary bacterial infections

  • Coma

  • Encephalitis

  • Hemorrhage (severe uncontrolled bleeding)

  • Organ failure

  • Pregnancy complications, such as premature birth, miscarriage, newborn infections, and birth defects

  • Respiratory arrest

  • Rheumatic fever

  • Seizures

  • Sepsis (bacterial blood infection)

  • Spread of cancer

  • Shock

Common Foot Rashes: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments

Having a rash on your foot can be alarming and uncomfortable, especially when you aren’t sure what it is or what caused it. Causes of a foot rash can range from an infection to irritation to an allergic reaction. And different kinds of rashes often have similar characteristics.

When you notice a rash, it’s important that you get to the bottom of what type it is so you can treat it effectively. If the rash is new, it’s best to consult with a healthcare provider for a proper diagnosis.

You may be able to safely treat yourself (using your doctor-recommended method) if a harmless rash comes back. However, if you’re unsure of what you have or if your rash worsens or persists, see your doctor.

Athlete’s Foot

Athlete’s foot.
DermNet / CC BY-NC-ND

Athlete’s foot, also called tinea pedis, is an infection that is caused by a fungus that eats old skin cells.

Symptoms

Athlete’s foot is an itchy and red rash that usually affects the soles of the feet and between the toes. Chronic athlete’s foot causes a scaly rash that can be mistaken for dry skin, whereas acute athlete’s foot can cause a painful, red, and blistering rash. 

Causes

As the name implies, athlete’s foot is common among athletes because the fungus is often found in warm, damp areas around pools and in public showers; it is often passed from foot-to-foot in locker rooms.

Other factors that increase your risk for athlete’s foot include:

  • Sweating a lot
  • Keeping your feet wet for long periods or not changing out of sweaty socks
  • Wearing plastic-lined, closed-toed shoes
  • Minor skin or nail injuries

Treatment

If you suspect you have athlete’s foot, treat it sooner rather than later. The longer you wait, the worse and more itchy the rash will become. Mild forms of athlete’s foot can usually be treated with anti-fungal powder or cream. However, if the infection doesn’t clear up, your doctor may prescribe a stronger, oral anti-fungal medication.

Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, and Poison Sumac

Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac rashes are blistering skin rashes caused by coming into contact with the oily sap found on these common plants.

Symptoms

The main symptom of poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac rashes is an itchy and blistering rash that begins to develop 12 to 72 hours after coming into contact with the oil. Swelling or trouble breathing are signs of a serious reaction that requires immediate medical care.

Causes

Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac have an oil in their leaves, stems, roots, and fruit called urushiol. If you are sensitive to it, which most people are, you can get a rash on the skin that comes into contact with any part of these plants.

Treatment

If you have a non-severe poison ivy, poison oak, or poison sumac rash, it will usually go away on its own in one to three weeks without treatment. In this case, the best course of treatment is to relieve the itching so you aren’t tempted to scratch the rash, which can lead to infection. A few ways to treat a rash from a poison plant include:

  • Apply an over-the-counter hydrocortisone cream.
  • Apply a cold compress to the rash.
  • Use a skin protectant (e.g., calamine, zinc acetate, zinc carbonate, zinc oxide) to dry out the rash and stop oozing.
  • Use a skin protectant (baking soda, colloidal oatmeal) to relieve minor irritation and itching.

If you have a severe reaction, your doctor will prescribe a steroid ointment or oral prednisone. In the case of an infection, you will be prescribed an antibiotic.

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

Hand, foot, and mouth disease.
Jill Lehmann Photography / Getty Images

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral infection that usually affects children below the age of 5. While less common, it is also possible for older children and adults to contract HFMD.

Symptoms

The first symptoms of HFMD are usually a fever, reduced appetite, sore throat, and a general feeling of being unwell. In one to two days, a rash on the soles of the feet and palms of the hands may develop, as well as painful sores inside the mouth. 

However, not everyone experiences all symptoms of HFMD, and some people may not exhibit any symptoms at all.

Causes

Hand, foot, and mouth disease is most commonly caused by coming in contact with an enterovirus called coxsackievirus A16. In some cases, mostly outside of the United States, HFMD is caused by enterovirus 71.

The viruses that caused HFMD can be found in the feces, saliva, phlegm, and nasal mucus of an infected person, as well as in the blister fluid from a HFMD rash. You can contract HFMD by coming into contact with any of these substances, as well as through close contact, breathing in infected air, and contact with contaminated objects.

Treatment

There is no specific treatment for HFMD—or vaccine to prevent it—but if your child or you contract HFMD, over-the-counter medications to relieve pain and fever (NSAIDs) can help with the symptoms.* Mouthwashes and sprays designed to numb mouth pain can also be helpful.  In some cases, mouth sores can make it painful to swallow. If dehydration occurs, intravenous fluids may be necessary.

Children should never be given aspirin due to the risk of Reye’s syndrome.

Cellulitis

Cellulitis on leg.
DR P. MARAZZI/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY / Getty Images 

Cellulitis is a serious bacterial skin infection that can form on your foot (or any part of your body) when bacteria enter through a break in the skin.

Symptoms

The main symptom of cellulitis is a painful rash with red and tender skin that may blister and then scab. You may also experience a fever, chills, swollen glands, or swollen lymph nodes from the infection. Sometimes bacterial infections like cellulitis are mistaken for athlete’s foot because they have a similar red and painful rash.

Causes

Cellulitis is most commonly caused by group A streptococcal bacteria entering the skin through any injury—even just a small, seemingly-harmless break in the skin.  On your feet, bacteria can also enter through ingrown toenails.

Treatment

Cellulitis can spread quickly and requires immediate care. A healthcare provider will usually swab your skin or do a blood test to find out what kind of bacteria is causing the infection. This can help them determine what kind treatment is most appropriate.

You will be treated with oral antibiotics in more mild cases, or intravenous (IV) antibiotics in severe cases. Your doctor will ask you to monitor the size of the rash to ensure it is clearing up and not still spreading after treatment.

Dyshidrotic Eczema

Dyshidrotic Eczema.
 

Dyshidrotic eczema is a common form of eczema that affects the soles of the feet, toes, palms, and fingers. It is more common in women than in men and frequently occurs during the spring allergy season. Other names for dyshidrotic eczema include dyshidrosis, foot-and-hand eczema, cheiropompholyx, pompholyx, vesicular eczema, and palmoplantar eczema.

Symptoms

While all forms of eczema cause itching and redness, dyschidrotic eczema has some unique features, including:

  • Painful and itchy deep-set blisters on the soles of the feet, toes, palms, and fingers
  • Redness
  • Flaking
  • Scaly, cracked skin

Causes

People with hay fever, contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, or a close family member with dyschidrotic eczema are most at risk for developing the condition.

It can be triggered by a number of things including pollen, stress, and moisture on the feet or hands from excessive sweating or prolonged contact with water. Consuming or touching nickel, cobalt, or chromium salts can also trigger dyschidrotic eczema.

Treatment

Treatment for dyshidrotic eczema can include soaking the feet (or hands) in cool water several times a day before applying a rich moisturizer or skin barrier repair cream. You can also use a cold compress to cool the affected area instead. 

In more severe cases, a healthcare provider may want to drain the blisters or give a Botox injection in the hands or feet to reduce wetness from sweating. You may be prescribed topical steroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs), or phototherapy to clear the rash.

Shoe Contact Dermatitis

Shoe contact dermatitis is a rash caused by an allergic reaction to your shoes or socks.

Symptoms

Shoe contact dermatitis is generally an itchy and peeling rash on the balls of the feet, bottom of the toes, or heels. The rash bumps may also blister.

Causes

There are a number of possible allergens that can be present in the rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, or metals used to make your shoes. Chromate salts used as tanning agents on leather products and various kinds of rubber compounds are common allergens that can cause shoe contact dermatitis.

Treatment

If you have an allergic reaction to your shoes, the first step of treatment will be to minimize contact the allergen.  This can be frustrating, especially if you’ve just purchased the shoes you have an allergic reaction to, but it’s important for the health of the skin on your feet and will avoid further irritation.

The reaction will typically clear up on its own. A cool compress and/or anti-itch (e.g., hydrocortisone or calamine) cream can make you feel more comfortable from the itching.

Scabies

Scabies.
DermNet / CC BY-NC-ND

Scabies is a skin condition caused by mites (Sarcoptes scabiei). It is very contagious and can quickly spread from person to person in areas of close physical contact, such as a school or hospital.

Symptoms

Symptoms of scabies include intense itching and a pimple-like skin rash that can affect various parts of the body, including the feet. Symptoms can take four to eight weeks to develop. During this time you can still transmit scabies to others.

Causes

Scabies is caused by coming into skin-to-skin contact with someone who has scabies. It can also be spread by touching or sharing clothing, towels, or bedding of someone with the condition. It can also sometimes be sexually acquired.

Treatment

Treatment is recommended not only for the person who has scabies, but also for anyone living in their household, sexual partners, and anyone else they regularly have skin-to-skin contact with. The steps for treatment include:

  • Decontaminate bedding, clothing, and towels. This can be done by washing in hot water and drying in a hot dryer, by dry cleaning, or by sealing items in a plastic bag for 72 hours, as mites will die after a couple days without skin contact.
  • Use a prescription of scabicide (permethrin) lotion or cream head-to-toe to kill the mites and/or their eggs.

Everyone being treated should undergo treatment at the same time to prevent re-infestation. If itching still occurs more than four weeks after treatment, it may be necessary to repeat the treatment steps.

Foot rash: Causes, symptoms, and treatments

A foot rash can occur as a result of an allergic reaction or infection. Most types of foot rashes, such as athlete’s foot and contact dermatitis, are treatable with over-the-counter (OTC) medications.

However, other types of foot rashes, such as cellulitis may require medical intervention.

In this article, we list a few common causes of foot rashes along with their symptoms and treatment options.

Tinea pedis, more commonly known as athlete’s foot, is a highly contagious fungal infection that develops on the feet.

A fungus called Trichophyton causes athlete’s foot. This fungus thrives in warm, moist environments, such as shower floors and the inside of shoes.

Athlete’s foot often leads to itchy, burning skin between the toes. Other symptoms of the condition include:

  • dry, scaly, or cracked skin
  • flushed or raw skin
  • weak, discolored toenails
  • cracked or oozing blisters on the feet

Treatment

Most people can treat athlete’s foot with an OTC antifungal treatment, usually in the form of an oral tablet or a liquid or cream. More severe infections may require prescription-strength medication.

Topical steroids, such as hydrocortisone, can help reduce inflammation and relieve itching and soreness.

Contact dermatitis is a rash that occurs when a substance irritates the skin or produces an allergic reaction.

Substances that may cause contact dermatitis can include:

  • metals, such as nickel
  • makeup
  • latex
  • frequent washing or contact with water
  • bleach

Treatment

People can avoid the substance that they think is causing contact dermatitis to see whether their rash clears within 1–3 weeks. Antihistamines and topical corticosteroids may help relieve symptoms.

Poison ivy, oak, and sumac grow in both wooded and marshy areas. These plants produce sap that contains an allergen called urushiol.

Urushiol can trigger an allergic skin reaction called contact dermatitis. About 50–75% of adults in the United States are allergic to urushiol.

Symptoms of a poison ivy, oak, or sumac rash include:

  • flushed, itchy skin
  • bumps or blisters on the skin
  • swollen, tender skin
  • difficulty breathing
  • fever

Treatment

Poison ivy, oak, and sumac rashes usually clear up by themselves within a few weeks.

If someone believes that they have had exposure to urushiol, they can remove the oils immediately by washing themselves and their clothes with soap and water.

OTC topical treatments, such as calamine lotion and hydrocortisone, can help relieve itching and swelling. A doctor may prescribe an oral antihistamine to lessen the allergic reaction.

Dyshidrotic eczema, or dyshidrosis, is a common form of eczema that causes itchy blisters on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.

According to the National Eczema Association, dyshidrotic eczema is twice as common in females as males.

Symptoms can include:

  • deep blisters on the toes, palms, edges of the fingers, and soles of the feet
  • flushed, itchy skin
  • scaly, cracked, or flaking skin
  • swollen, tender skin

Treatment

There is currently no cure for dyshidrotic eczema. Treatments for this skin condition involve reducing symptoms and preventing secondary infections and other complications.

A doctor may prescribe a topical steroid to reduce swelling and itching. Botox injections can lessen sweating and excess moisture in the hands and feet, which can prevent infections.

At-home treatments for dyshidrotic eczema include:

  • soaking the hands and feet in cool water
  • applying a cold compress to the affected skin
  • using moisturizer or cream that repairs the skin barrier

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a skin condition that occurs due to coxsackievirus and enterovirus infections. HFMD is highly contagious, and people can contract it by:

  • touching a person with the infection
  • touching objects or surfaces that carry the virus
  • breathing air that contains the virus particles

Although HFMD is most common among young children under the age of 5, anyone can develop the infection.

HFMD usually leads to small spots appearing on the hands and feet, as well as mouth sores. Other symptoms include:

  • painful blisters
  • fever
  • sore throat
  • loss of appetite
  • pain when eating or swallowing

Treatment

There are no specific treatments for HFMD. People may be able to manage symptoms with OTC medication that reduces fever and pain.

Drinking cold liquids can help keep people hydrated while soothing a sore throat.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), most people with HFMD get better within 7–10 days.

Cellulitis is a bacterial infection that develops in the deep layers of the skin and on the lower legs and feet. Symptoms include:

  • skin that appears swollen
  • skin that feels warm, tender, or painful to the touch
  • skin dimpling
  • blisters
  • fatigue
  • fever or chills
  • cold sweats
  • nausea or vomiting
  • swollen, tender lymph nodes

People with light skin tones may also notice reddened skin in the affected area.

Treatment

Cellulitis can develop suddenly and can be life threatening without treatment.

Doctors usually prescribe antibiotics to treat the bacterial infection responsible for cellulitis. Other beneficial at-home treatment options include:

  • keeping the affected leg or foot raised to reduce swelling
  • taking OTC pain medications to relieve pain and reduce fever
  • avoiding scratching or itching the affected skin
  • keeping the area clean and dry

Scabies is a skin condition that occurs when microscopic scabies mites burrow into the upper layer of the skin. These mites then feed on skin cells and lay eggs. Symptoms of scabies usually develop within 4–8 weeks.

A scabies infestation can lead to a skin rash and intense itching. The affected area of skin may develop pimple-like blisters or thick, crusty scales.

Treatment

People cannot treat scabies with at-home remedies. A doctor must prescribe topical medications that kill scabies mites.

After starting treatment, people will need to disinfect their bedding, clothing, and any other fabrics that they regularly use. Doing this will help prevent recurring infestations.

People should contact their healthcare provider if their foot rash is painful or significantly interferes with their daily activities.

Parents and caregivers should see a healthcare provider if a child or infant develops a skin rash or blisters.

It is important for a person to seek medical attention straight away if their rash does not improve with treatment or they develop a fever.

There are numerous possible causes of foot rashes, ranging from allergic reactions to infections. Most cases clear up on their own, but OTC medications can help relieve swelling, itching, and pain during recovery.

A person should speak with a doctor if they have a foot rash that does not respond to treatment or they develop signs of an infection.

5 Common Foot Rashes – U.S. Dermatology Partners

Most people have heard of athlete’s foot, and while this is a very common type of foot rash, it’s not the only form of rash your student athlete may be contending with. In this blog, Dr. Russell Peckham of U.S. Dermatology Partners in Cedar Park, Texas, walks through the five most common types of foot rashes for student athletes and makes treatment recommendations. According to Dr. Peckham, “The majority of rashes on feet, especially for students who participate in school sports, will be athlete’s foot, but before you start treating this condition, you want to make sure the rash doesn’t have a different underlying cause since the best treatments for these conditions can be significantly different.”

1 – Athlete’s Foot

The medical name for athlete’s foot is tinea pedis. This type of rash on the feet is the result of an infection of the Trichophyton fungus that consumes old skin cells on the surfaces of the body. The rash typically starts between toes and spreads to the soles of the feet. According to Dr. Peckham, “Athlete’s foot got its name because the fungus that causes this condition thrives in warm, damp places where athletes often place their feet like pools, public shower rooms, gym floors, and sweaty shoes.

How Would I Get Athlete’s Foot?

The fungus is usually transferred from person to person in locker rooms and other areas where multiple people walk barefoot. It’s always best to wear flip flops or water shoes to protect feet when walking in these areas.

In addition to transferring between individuals, the fungus is more likely to grown and spread if athletes are sweating excessively without cleaning feet, they keep feet damp or in sweaty socks for an extended time, or they wear shoes or socks that don’t allow sweat and moisture to be pulled away from the body.

What are the Common Symptoms of Athlete’s Foot?

Common symptoms of athlete’s foot include:

  • Itchiness that usually affects the soles of the feet and the spaces between toes. This symptom may be most severe right after removing shoes and socks
  • Red rash in the areas that are itching
  • In its onset, athlete’s foot can cause painful blistering
  • Chronic cases of athlete’s foot can cause thickening of the skin (called scaling) that might be mistaken for dryness or eczema
  • Stinging and burning may occur, especially in more advanced cases
  • Brittle or discolored toenails

How Is Athlete’s Foot Treated?

It’s always best to treat athlete’s foot at the earliest signs, using a topical, over the counter anti-fungal cream, powder, or spray. When treated earlier, discomfort is minimized and the rash usually clears up very quickly. Topical hydrocortisone creams may be used to help with itching and inflammation. For more severe cases or mild cases that don’t resolve within a few weeks, you may need to take a prescription-strength oral anti-fungal in addition to applying prescription or over the counter topical treatments.

Dr. Peckham says, “It’s important that you avoid scratching feet and take care when applying medications and cleaning and drying feet as tinea pedis can spread to hands and nails. In addition to spreading to hands, athlete’s foot is caused by the same fungus that causes jock itch, so avoid using the same washcloth or towel to clean or dry your groin and feet or take care to clean and dry feet last before placing the towel or washcloth into the laundry.”

For individuals with diabetes, it’s important to seek professional treatment for athlete’s foot. Diabetics have a significantly higher risk of developing secondary bacterial infections. If you notice redness, inflammation, draining wounds on feet, or fever, seek medical attention immediately.

Symptoms of athlete’s foot usually begin to diminish quickly within a few days of starting treatment, but they can be very unpleasant. Take the following steps to minimize the side effects of tinea pedis:

  • Thoroughly dry feet after bathing, showering, or swimming, taking special care to dry the skin between the toes
  • At home, go barefoot when possible, without exposing others to athlete’s foot, to allow the skin to breathe and stay dry
  • Change socks anytime they feel damp
  • Wear lightweight, breathable shoes
  • Don’t wear the same shoes every day. Alternate to allow the shoes to fully dry between uses
  • Wear shoes, sandals, or water shoes in public spaces to protect your feet from reexposure and avoid spreading athlete’s foot to others
  • Don’t share items that come into contact with the fungus (shoes, towels, socks, etc. )

2 – Eczema & Dermatitis

According to Dr. Peckham, “Eczema is actually an umbrella term used to describe a number of different types of rash-producing skin conditions. When it appears on the feet, this rash condition is likely either dyshidrotic eczema or contact dermatitis.”

How Would I Get Dyshidrotic Eczema?

This condition produces itchy blisters that impact the palms of hands and soles of feet. Dyshidrotic eczema is more common for women, and it usually develops during the spring and summer allergy seasons. Individuals may also be at risk for developing this condition if they consume or come into contact with nickel, cobalt, or chromium.

What are the Common Symptoms of Dyshidrotic Eczema?

Dyshidrotic eczema symptoms may last for several weeks and include:

  • Large, deep blisters on palms of hands and soles of feet as well as between the toes and fingers
  • Redness and itching skin around the blisters
  • Thick, dry, scaly skin that may crack and flake as blisters begin to dry out
  • Inflammation and tenderness of the skin on and around the blisters

How is Dyshidrotic Eczema Treated?

As is the case with other forms of eczema, there is no cure for dyshidrotic eczema, but your dermatologist can help you develop a treatment and maintenance plan to address the most common symptoms. Some treatment options may include:

  • Topical steroids – Prescription or over the counter products may be applied to help with itch and inflammation.
  • Moisturizing – Eczema is a condition that causes damage to the protective skin barrier, applying moisturizer regularly will help to repair this damaged skin.
  • Soaking feet – Using cool water and colloidal oatmeal can help to relieve itch.
  • Hyperhidrosis treatment – Dyshidrotic eczema may be exacerbated by excessive sweating conditions, so treating these with topical antiperspirants or Botox injections can help.
  • Calcineurin inhibitors – A topical ointment that suppresses the immune response to relieve inflammation and itching.
  • Phototherapy – A controlled amount of UVA/B rays are applied to relieve the symptoms of the rash.

How Would I Get Contact Dermatitis?

Contact dermatitis is an allergic reaction. It can be difficult to identify the allergen responsible for the reaction, so patch testing by a dermatologist can be helpful.

What are the Symptoms of Contact Dermatitis?

Contact dermatitis symptoms may last for several weeks and include:

  • Extremely itchy skin on the balls of the feet, heels, and bottom of toes
  • Red rash and skin inflammation
  • Bumps or blisters on affected skin

How is Contact Dermatitis Treated?

According to Dr. Peckham, “The first treatment step for contact dermatitis is likely the most obvious. Patients should avoid contact with whatever has caused the allergic reaction, so the condition doesn’t become worse. In most cases, simply avoiding whatever caused the dermatitis reaction will clear up the rash within a few weeks.” As the red rash clears up, you can use an oral or topical antihistamine as well as corticosteroid creams to relieve the itch and reduce inflammation. Cold compresses and cool foot soaks can also be used to relieve symptoms.

3 – Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease

Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a highly contagious coxsackievirus and enterovirus infection that can cause rashes on hands and feet. This condition is most common in infants and children, but it can be contracted by anyone.

How Would I Get Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease?

This infection is caused by coming into contact with an enterovirus or coxsackievirus, and it is highly contagious. Parents often develop this infection when caring for children with hand, foot, and mouth disease. The virus is found in any bodily fluids of an infected person and can live on clothing and other surfaces touched by infected people. This condition can be spread by:

  • Close contact with or touching an infected person
  • Touching surfaces or objects that have the virus present
  • Inhaling air when aerated virus particles are present

What are the Symptoms of Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease?

Most people who develop this condition first experience general flu-like symptoms, including loss of appetite, fever, sore throat, and tiredness. After a few days, the rash on the feet and hands will develop. In some cases, the red rash worsens, causing painful blisters on the feet and hands. The foot rash is usually painful and may feel like it’s burning or tingling, but it doesn’t usually itch. Typically, these increasing symptoms are accompanied by mouth and tongue sores, difficulty eating or swallowing, and general discomfort in the mouth and throat. It’s important to note that some people with hand, foot, and mouth disease are asymptomatic carriers, but they can still spread the viral infection to others.

How is Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease Treated?

As is the case with many viral infections, there is not one specific treatment to cure hand, foot, and mouth disease. Instead, treatment options will address the common symptoms of this condition for the one to two weeks it takes for the condition to clear the body. Taking over the counter pain relievers to reduce discomfort and control fever is typically the best treatment for hand, foot, and mouth disease. You can drink cool water to help soothe the throat and mouth sores. There are also numbing mouthwashes and sprays available that will help if mouth sores become very painful.

4 – Cellulitis

Cellulitis is a bacterial infection of the skin. It can actually enter any part of the body through a break in the skin’s protective barrier, but it commonly affects the bottom part of the legs and the feet.

How Would I Get Cellulitis?

Cellulitis is an infection caused by the streptococcal bacteria. This bacteria can enter the body through a cut, scrape, broken cuticle, or other damage to the skin, including ingrown toenails.

What are the Symptoms of Cellulitis?

There are numerous symptoms of cellulitis, including:

  • Painful, red rash at the site of infection
  • Swollen or inflamed skin
  • Skin that feels feverish or warm to the touch
  • Skin that’s sensitive or painful
  • Dimples or pitting in the skin
  • Blisters or sores on the skin
  • General infection symptoms – fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, etc.

How Is Cellulitis Treated?

Unfortunately, cellulitis symptoms can develop very quickly, and without proper treatment, this condition can be life-threatening. In most cases, oral antibiotics are prescribed to address the infection.

5 – Scabies

Scabies are mites that burrow beneath the top layers of skin, consume skin cells to survive, and lay eggs, causing skin irritation and rash. Scabies mites are microscopic, so you won’t be able to see the mites on your skin. After contact with these mites, you may notice developing symptoms up to eight weeks later. As the infestation develops, scabies are contagious.

How Would I Get Scabies?

You can contract scabies by coming into contact with someone who has scabies or by touching their clothing, towels, bedding, and even furniture.

What are the Symptoms of Scabies?

The most noticeable symptom of scabies is an extremely itchy red rash. Additional signs that your rash is scabies and not one of the other common types of foot rash include:

  • Small pimple-like blisters
  • Scaly skin, which thick and crusty patches around the infestation site
  • Intense itching that may interrupt sleep

How is Scabies Treated?

Unlike other causes of foot rash, scabies is not treatable with over the counter medications. You’ll need a diagnosis and prescription treatment from your dermatologist. In most cases, this starts with a topical ointment to kill the scabies mites and their eggs. In addition to treating the affected area, you’ll also need to disinfect all clothing, linens, bedding, furniture, or other fabrics that you’ve been in contact with. Anyone who lives in the home or otherwise has close contact with the person who has scabies should also disinfect their homes and monitor skin for signs of scabies.

Bonus – Other Conditions that Cause Foot Rash

In addition to these five common causes of a rash on the feet, other common reasons for foot rash include:

  • Contact with poison ivy, oak, and sumac – These plants grow in various environments across the U.S., and they produce urushiol. This sap is an allergen that can cause a severe allergic reaction in between 50% and 70% of adults when it comes in contact with any part of the body, including the feet.
  • Hand-Foot Syndrome – Also called acral erythema or palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia this condition causes painful, itching, tingling rashes on the hands and/or feet that usually occurs as a side effect of chemotherapy drugs.
  • Impetigo – A contagious bacterial infection of the skin that almost always begins with an itchy red rash and painful oozing sores around the mouth, but it’s easily spread to the hands, feet, and other parts of the body through touch.
  • Granuloma annulare – This is a chronic skin condition that has several different forms. The most common type, localized granuloma annulare, creates a rash that impacts the hands and feet. The rashes can be red, yellow, or skin-colored, and they are usually ring-shaped. Unlike other types of rash on the feet, granuloma annulare does not usually itch. This condition clears up on its own for most people.
  • Kawasaki disease – Typically, this condition develops for children under the age of 5, and it is a condition that requires urgent medical attention. In addition to a wide range of other symptoms, children with Kawasaki disease usually have red, swollen skin on their hands and feet.

When Should I Schedule an Appointment with U.

S. Dermatology Partners for Rash on Feet?

When rashes on feet don’t clear up with at-home treatment, they’re severe, or they impede your ability to walk or engage in regular daily activities, you should get in touch with your dermatologist for an appointment. If you’re ready to schedule an appointment at U.S. Dermatology Partners, to address concerns with athlete’s foot and other common types of rashes on the feet, you can fill out our simple online request form. Once we receive your request, a member of our team will be in touch to finalize the details.

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Dyshidrotic Eczema: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment

What Is Dyshidrotic Eczema?

Dyshidrotic eczema is a sudden rash of small, itchy blisters on your palms and along the sides of your fingers. This skin condition can also make blisters pop up on the soles of your feet or on your toes.

Your doctor might call it by another name, including dyshidrosis, foot-and-hand eczema, pompholyx, vesicular eczema, or palmoplantar eczema.

There’s no cure, so these blisters will come and go over time. But you can manage them with medicine, moisturizers, and good hygiene. They might start to taper off once you get into middle age. And if you have a mild case, it could go away on its own.

Dyshidrotic Eczema Symptoms

The small, itchy blisters are the most noticeable sign of dyshidrotic eczema. These usually pop up in clusters. You may also have: 

  • Itching or a burning pain before blisters appear 

  • Blisters on the edges of your fingers, toes, palms, and soles of your feet

  • Red, cracked skin

  • Sweaty skin around the blisters 

  • Nails that thicken and change colors

Continued

The blisters often go away in 2 to 3 weeks. But the skin underneath can be red and tender for a while.

Dyshidrotic eczema can be mild or severe. If you have a severe case that affects your feet, the blisters can make it hard to walk. Blisters on your hands can make it hard to do things like cook, type, or wash dishes.

Sometimes, the blisters can get infected, especially if you scratch them a lot. Signs that you have an infection include:

  • Pain

  • Swelling

  • Crusting

  • Pus in the blisters

Dyshidrotic Eczema Causes

Doctors aren’t sure what causes dyshidrotic eczema. It mostly affects adults ages 20 to 40, and it’s twice as common in women as in men. You’re more likely to get it if you have allergies like hay fever, a family history of dyshidrotic eczema, or other forms of eczema.  

Several things can set off dyshidrotic eczema, including:

  • Stress

  • Contact with metals like nickel, cobalt, or chromium salts on your job, or from things like costume jewelry

  • Sweaty or wet hands and feet

  • Warm, humid weather

  • HIV infection

  • Certain treatments for a weak immune system (immunoglobulin)

  • Seasonal allergies

About half of all people with dyshidrotic eczema also have other types of eczema such as contact and atopic dermatitis. This condition isn’t contagious. You can’t catch it from touching someone who has it.

 

Dyshidrotic Eczema Diagnosis

No lab test can confirm that you have dyshidrotic eczema, but if you notice blisters on your hands and feet, see a dermatologist (a doctor who specializes in your skin). They’ll look at your hands and feet, as well as your nails. Your doctor could also suggest tests to rule out other conditions with similar symptoms like athlete’s foot.

You also might need to see an allergy doctor (allergist). Patch tests can show if you have an allergy to nickel or another metal. During these tests, your doctor will put patches with a small amount of different metals or other things on your skin to see whether you react to them.

Dyshidrotic Eczema Treatment

Your doctor can prescribe an ointment or cream with a steroid in it to bring down swelling and help get rid of the blisters. Your skin will take in the medicine better if you put a wet compress on it after you use the cream. If you have a severe flare-up, you might need to take a steroid drug, like prednisone, in a pill.

Continued

An antihistamine like diphenhydramine (Benadryl) or loratadine (Alavert, Claritin) can help with the itch, too. Or you might hold a cold, wet compress on the blisters for 15 minutes at a time several times a day.

If these treatments don’t work well for you, you might try one of these:

  • Light therapy. This uses ultraviolet (UV) light to clear up your skin. You might get a medicine first to help your skin respond better to the light.

  • Botulinum toxin. These shots stop your hands and feet from sweating, which can trigger the blisters.

  • Medicines that slow your immune system. Tacrolimus (Protopic) ointment or pimecrolimus (Elidel) cream can calm the swelling and irritation. These drugs can be options if you don’t want to take steroids.

  • Draining the blisters. Your dermatologist can drain fluid from the blisters. Don’t try to do this yourself. You could make the eczema worse.

To control the blisters at home:

  • Wash your hands and feet every day. Use lukewarm water and a mild, scent-free soap. Afterward, gently pat your skin dry.

  • Take your rings off before you wash your hands. Moisture can get trapped under your rings and cause more blisters.

  • Wear gloves with cotton liners whenever your hands are in water, like when you wash dishes.

  • Put a thick moisturizer on your hands and feet every time you shower or wash. Rub it on while your skin is still wet to seal in water. You also might use a cream that has dimethicone to protect your skin.

  • Turn on a humidifier in dry weather to keep your skin from cracking.

  • If allergies set off your eczema, try to stay away from things that trigger them.

  • Don’t scratch the blisters. You’ll make them worse.

If you’re sensitive to nickel or cobalt, your dermatologist might tell you not to eat foods that are high in these metals. Nickel is in foods like chocolate, broccoli, legumes, and nuts. Cobalt is in shellfish, liver, nuts, beets, cabbage, and chocolate.

Diagnosing blistering skin conditions | GPonline

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A blister describes any raised, fluid-filled skin lesion. Small blisters under 0.5cm are called vesicles, while larger blisters are known as bullae.

Friction blisters

Friction blisters are very common and occur on the soles, palms and heels, where the stratum corneum is thicker (friction on thinner skin causes erosions). Poorly fitting shoes are a frequent cause, while on the palms they occur from gripping tools or sports equipment.

Usually there is no problem with this diagnosis. Such blisters are best managed by draining the fluid from bigger ones with a sterile needle, but leaving the blister roof intact to serve as a dressing. This relieves the discomfort and protects the site from infection.

Gel plasters can protect smaller blisters and prevent new ones. If the blister roof is already fully or partially removed, it needs to be treated as a wound, with dressings and possibly an antiseptic or antibiotic cream.

Most friction blisters heal without problem, but they can sometimes lead to cellulitis and septicaemia, especially in patients with diabetes, the elderly or the immunosuppressed.

Insect bites

Insect bites frequently blister, probably as a result of being scratched. Such blisters are often formed on the lower legs and should be treated in the same way as friction blisters, along with oral antihistamines and topical steroids to stop irritation. Insect bites are often grouped or linear.

Scabies

Unlike scabies in an adult, scabies in a small child or infant can present with small blisters on the base of the feet and the palms. This is often mistaken for eczema.

Both conditions can coexist and when this occurs, making a correct diagnosis can be a challenge. Using a dermatoscope greatly assists this process, because the head parts of the scabies mite can be seen as a dark triangle under the skin and the burrows of the mite become much more obvious.1

Treatment for scabies should involve not only the infant, but all members of the household (older children and adults). A topical scabicide should be used over the entire skin surface of the infant, and from the neck down for the others. Ideally, everyone should be treated on the same day and the process repeated a week later.

Infective causes of blistering

Herpes simplex and herpes zoster

Herpes simplex and herpes zoster cause painful blisters. Both start as a red macule, which soon becomes raised and forms a vesicle. Pain preceding the appearance of the skin lesions is a very important clue to this diagnosis.

Herpes simplex causes small, closely grouped vesicles on a red base and these can be located anywhere on the body, not just the most common sites (lips or genitals).

Herpes zoster lesions are more linear and restricted to one side of the body following a dermatome. In immunosuppressed people or patients on chemotherapy, this condition can involve several dermatomes.

Herpes simplex can be treated with either topical or oral aciclovir. Frequent recurrences may need an extended course of oral aciclovir. In immunosuppressed patients, herpes simplex can become generalised and may be life-threatening. In this situation, hospital admission and IV antivirals will be necessary.

Treating herpes zoster with antivirals has been shown to reduce the acute pain, virus shedding, rash and the incidence and severity of post-herpetic neuralgia.2

Eczema herpeticum

Eczema herpeticum is a condition with a somewhat misleading name, as it suggests there has to be eczema, but any skin problem that breaches the skin barrier can be complicated by herpes simplex (although eczema is the most common cause of barrier dysfunction). Often mistaken for impetigo, it consists of small, very even, punched-out blisters, which look as if someone has tried to take shallow punch biopsies.

It can become secondarily infected with bacteria. If a skin problem suddenly deteriorates, especially if the patient is complaining of pain, it is important to consider giving oral aciclovir – topical treatment will not be enough.

Herpetic whitlow

A herpetic whitlow is a vesicular infection around the nail fold caused by herpes simplex. This is a painful condition and causes swelling of the digit. The thumb and index finger are most commonly affected. It requires topical antivirals if mild or oral antivirals if more severe, very painful or recurrent.

Chickenpox

Chickenpox initially presents with fever and crops of red macules that progress over a matter of hours to papules and then vesicles, which take a few days to dry up and form a scab.

Hand, foot and mouth disease

Hand, foot and mouth disease is a mild, short-lasting viral infection mainly affecting young children. It gives small, oval-shaped pearly grey blisters on the hands and feet and in the mouth, and is very infectious. It is caused by an enterovirus, usually Coxsackie A16. These small blisters resolve within a week, without leaving scars.

Orf

Orf is a parapoxvirus contracted from goats and sheep. It is common in sheep farmers and those working in the meat industry. Children can acquire it from bottle-feeding lambs or playing in an infected field.

It presents with a small, firm, red or bluish-red papule, usually on the hand, which progresses into a blister that is often quite purple. This can grow to a large lesion 2-3cm in diameter. It is self-healing in about six weeks but there may be a need to treat any secondary bacterial infection.

Orf: papule progresses to a blister, which can be quite large (Photograph: ISM/Science Photo Library)

Cellulitis

Cellulitis can present with blistering of the affected skin along with the classic signs, which are sudden development of fever, feeling unwell, one-sided redness, swelling, tenderness and increased warmth.

The usual causative organism is Streptococcus, and penicillin V and clarithromycin are the antibiotics of choice, at higher doses than normal. Severe cases will require hospital admission.

If the redness is bilateral, has been developing slowly and is not acute, it is more likely there is another diagnosis, such as infected eczema, which is a frequent cause.

Bullous impetigo

Bullous impetigo is a less common form of impetigo that can affect intact skin and is caused by exfoliative toxins of Staphylococcus aureus. The exotoxins produce loss of adhesion in the superficial dermis, causing fragile blisters that often rupture to give superficial erosions.

Coagulase-positive group II Staph aureus, most often phage type 71, is the predominant causative organism and is the same strain that causes staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome.

Bullous impetigo is treated in the same way as non-bullous impetigo, with the use of antiseptics, topical or oral antibiotics and dressings.

Bullous impetigo: blisters may rupture to give superficial erosions (Photograph: Dr P Marazzi/SPL)

Eczema and dermatitis

Pompholyx eczema

Eczema on the palms and soles is more likely to blister and the classic presentation of pompholyx eczema is small, extremely itchy vesicles along the sides of the fingers.

The differential is palmoplantar psoriasis, which gives bigger, yellow pustules with some older brown ones that are painful rather than itchy. The patient with psoriasis is likely to be a smoker or ex-smoker.

Pompholyx eczema requires potent topical steroids. Dilute potassium permanganate soaks can be very useful in the acute stage to calm the itch and prevent bacterial infection. The skin peels after the vesicles dry up.

Discoid eczema

This type of annular eczema is often mistaken for psoriasis because it has a well-demarcated border that is more pronounced than is usual in eczema.

It is more common in winter, often affects the lower legs and can be triggered by an insect bite or minor injury. There can be grouped vesicles and it can be very itchy. Strong topical steroids may be required to bring this condition under control.

Allergy

Nickel allergy can be acute and may present with small blisters, especially on the ears from wearing earrings, or around the umbilicus from belt buckles. Hair dye allergy can cause dramatic blistering on the face. Avoidance of the allergens will prevent recurrence. This is particularly important for hair dyes, where repeat eruptions can be extremely severe.

Plant dermatitis

Plant dermatitis can be due to direct contact with a plant, or after sun exposure on the area of skin that touched the plant.

The distribution of the blisters in plant-induced dermatitis is usually linear or streaky and asymmetrical.

Plants that can cause photocontact dermatitis are the citrus family, celery, parsnip, fig and giant hogweed, which all have high levels of furocoumarins, a naturally occurring psoralen. Squeezing limes outside on a sunny day can cause very dramatic blistering. Phytophototoxic reactions have occurred after eating parsnip or celery soup and then being out in the sun.

Oedema blisters

This type of blistering is underdiagnosed but is a common cause of lower leg blistering and is due to the rapid development of oedema. These can be large, unilocular, clear blisters and are associated with heart failure and venous insufficiency. It is most important to determine and treat the underlying cause, as well as to protect the blisters to prevent secondary infection.

Nutritional causes

Rarely, blisters can be caused by nutritional deficiency. Acrodermatitis enteropathica is a genetic disorder that causes malabsorption of zinc. In the infant, a perioral and perianal rash develops, plus blistering of the fingers, toes and ears, along with diarrhoea. Oral zinc improves the skin within days.

In adults, zinc deficiency can occur as a result of alcoholism, severe inflammatory bowel disease and after bariatric surgery.

Drug-induced blisters

Drug eruptions come in many different forms, including bullous eruptions. Drugs that can cause blistering are barbiturates, furosemide, nalidixic acid and penicillamine.

Fixed drug eruption

Fixed drug eruption is an uncommon condition where dusky red or purple plaques occur when the causative drug is taken. The timescale between taking the drug and the lesion flaring up is 30 minutes to eight hours.

Initially, there is a single plaque, but with repeated episodes, the plaque expands and can multiply. The lesions tend to blister, with pigmentation on clearing.

Many drugs can cause this, but oral antifungals, paracetamol, NSAIDs, aspirin and antibiotics are the most common. Sites affected are the mouth, anogenital region, hands and feet.
















CAUSES OF BLISTERING, MAIN FEATURES, SITE AND TREATMENT
Cause    Features Site Treatment
Friction blisters Often due to footwear, gripping tools or sports equipment Soles and palms Drain fluid from blister with sterile needle if large or bothersome, leaving roof of skin to protect the base
Insect bites Linear or grouped Limbs Antihistamines and topical steroids
Scabies in babies and infants Itchy vesicles, can look like eczema

Hands and feet

Topical scabicide all over; repeat week later; treat all household contacts on same day
Herpes simplex

Pain precedes small groups of vesicles

Lips, genitals and buttocks most common

Topical aciclovir if mild; if recurrent, widespread or other health problems, use oral aciclovir
Herpes zoster Pain precedes vesicles Any dermatome  Oral antivirals
Chickenpox Macule to papule to vesicle within hours Most prominent on trunk and face  Consider prompt oral antivirals in those aged over 14 years, especially if other health problems, and in newborns or pregnant women
Hand, foot and mouth disease Small, oval, pearly grey blisters Acral distribution Analgesics, keep the blisters intact to prevent viral spread
Orf Farm workers, vets, meat industry workers Hand or arm, occasionally face Treat if secondary bacterial infection; usually resolves within six weeks 
Pompholyx eczema Very itchy Hands and feet Potent topical steroids, potassium permanganate soaks; may require oral antibiotics
Discoid eczema Very itchy Limbs, especially legs Potent topical steroids
Plant dermatitis Linear Arms, legs, trunk Topical steroids or oral steroids if severe
Oedema blisters

Unilocular, clear blisters

Lower legs Treat oedema; bed rest
Zinc deficiency Infants, adults with alcoholism, after bariatric surgery or severe inflammatory bowel disease Perioral/perianal rash, blisters on fingers, toes and ears, diarrhoea Oral zinc supplementation
Fixed drug eruption Annular  Lips, genitals, lower abdomen common Exclude most causative drug 
  • Dr Elizabeth Ogden is associate specialist in dermatology, Lister Hospital, East and North Herts NHS Trust

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References

1. Dupuy A, Dehen L, Bourrat E et al. Accuracy of standard dermoscopy for diagnosing scabies. J Am Acad Dermatol 2007; 56: 53-62.

2. Pavan-Langston D. Herpes zoster antivirals and pain management. Ophthalmology 2008; 115(2 Suppl): S13-20.


Further learning

These action points may provide opportunities for further CPD on this topic

  • Present a summary of blistering conditions to colleagues
  • Look up photographs of blistering conditions to familiarise yourself with the different presentations
  • Produce a patient factsheet on blistering conditions

Dyshidrotic Eczema | Cedars-Sinai

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What is dyshidrotic eczema?

Dyshidrotic eczema is an ongoing
(chronic) skin condition. It causes a burning, itching feeling. Severe dyshidrotic
eczema may also cause a blistering rash. It can affect your palms, the sides of your
fingers, and the soles of your feet. It’s most common in people in their 20s, 30s,
and
40s. But it can happen at any age.

Skin has several layers. The outer
layer is the epidermis. Under this is the dermis. The dermis contains blood vessels,
nerve endings, hair roots, and sweat glands. With eczema, your skin becomes inflamed.
Inflammatory cells of your immune system invade the epidermis. They irritate and destroy
some of the tissues there. Eczema is common. It’s also known as atopic dermatitis.

Dyshidrotic eczema is a certain
form of this skin inflammation. It can cause mild to severe symptoms. In some cases,
symptoms go away in a few weeks with no treatment or just with using hand lotion.
More
often, it happens over many months or years.

What causes dyshidrotic eczema?

Experts are still working to learn
the causes. But some things may increase your risk of having it, such as:

  • Having had atopic dermatitis in the
    past
  • Having allergies, such as allergic
    rhinitis
  • Being exposed to allergens or
    irritants, such as certain metals
  • Smoking
  • Receiving UV radiation
  • Having overactive sweat glands

Certain things can trigger episodes, such as:

  • Stress
  • Very warm or cold weather
  • Very dry or humid air

What are the symptoms of dyshidrotic eczema?

Often the first symptom is sudden
itching on the palms, the sides of your fingers, or the soles of the feet. Next, small
fluid-filled blisters (vesicles) may start to appear. These cause more intense itching
and pain. These blisters may get bigger. In some people, these symptoms can cause
a lot
of problems with daily activities. The blisters often last for a few weeks before
they
dry up and flake away.

Dyshidrotic eczema is more likely to affect the hands than the feet. In most cases,
the symptoms happen on both hands or both feet.

Some people have symptoms in
frequent episodes. The episodes may happen every month or so for months or years.
Over
time, this may cause ongoing (chronic) hand dermatitis and lead to more symptoms,
such
as:

  • Reddened, hard skin
  • Scaling and peeling skin
  • Cracks in your skin
  • Color changes in your nails

How is dyshidrotic eczema diagnosed?

You may be diagnosed by a general
healthcare provider or a dermatologist. A dermatologist is a healthcare provider who
specializes in skin diseases.

Your healthcare provider will ask
about your health history and your symptoms. Tell them about contact you’ve had to
possible irritants. You will also have a physical exam. Your provider will need to
make
sure your symptoms aren’t caused by other conditions. These may include allergic contact
dermatitis, ringworm, herpes, or a rare autoimmune disease. You may also have tests
such
as:

  • Skin
    scraping or biopsy.
    This is done to check for infection or other causes of the
    rash.
  • Patch
    skin testing.
    This test looks for allergic causes.
  • Blood
    tests.
    These are done to check for an autoimmune cause.

How is dyshidrotic eczema treated?

Treatments may include:

  • Moisturizing lotion or cream. This helps treat dry skin.
  • Steroid
    ointment.
    This can reduce inflammation.
  • Calcineurin creams. These may also reduce inflammation.
  • Steroid
    medicines taken by mouth (oral).
    These are used for more severe symptoms.
  • Draining
    of very large blisters.
    This can reduce pain.
  • Treatment with psoralen and ultraviolet light (PUVA). This is used for people
    with chronic, severe symptoms.
  • Other medicines. More targeted
    injectable biologic medicines such as dupilumab have been approved for treating
    eczema. Early information suggests these may also help dyshidrotic eczema.

You will need to use moisturizing lotion or cream every day. This helps to treat skin
dryness as the blisters heal. If your symptoms don’t decrease, you may need more tests
to help check for other possible causes of your symptoms.

What are possible complications of dyshidrotic eczema?

This condition can sometimes let
bacteria (such as Staphylococcus) infect the skin. Your healthcare provider may swab
your skin to test it for infection. An infection may be treated with antibiotic
medicine.

Living with dyshidrotic eczema

General skin care may also help you
limit how often and severely your symptoms happen. Your healthcare provider may
advise:

  • Using lukewarm water instead of hot
  • Using mild, fragrance-free
    cleansers
  • Making sure you dry your hands well
  • Using cream or petroleum jelly to
    protect your hands after drying them
  • Wearing latex-free gloves when washing dishes
  • Wearing gloves if the weather is cold or wet
  • Staying away from possible irritants,
    such as detergents, solvents, or hair products
  • Staying away from weather extremes,
    when possible

Reducing your stress may also help you limit your symptoms.

Key points about dyshidrotic eczema

  • Dyshidrotic eczema is a type of skin
    inflammation. It causes a burning, itching feeling and a blistering rash.
  • It can affect your palms, the sides of
    your fingers, and the soles of your feet. In some people, symptoms can be quite
    severe.
  • You may need tests to help diagnose your condition.
  • Steroid ointment and moisturizing
    lotion or cream are some treatments for the condition.
  • General skin care may help you limit
    how often and severely your symptoms happen.

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:

  • Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
  • Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
  • Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells
    you.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments,
    or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also
    know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
  • If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that
    visit.
  • Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.

Medical Reviewer: Michael Lehrer MD

Medical Reviewer: Marianne Fraser MSN RN

Medical Reviewer: Raymond Kent Turley BSN MSN RN

© 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions.

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90,000 Diseases with a rash, types and causes of its appearance, diagnosis of diseases and methods of treatment – MEDSI

Contents

The skin reflects all the processes taking place in the human body. It is not surprising that periodically various rashes of may appear on it. You should not treat them only as a cosmetic defect. It is important to understand that such a symptom may be the first sign of an infectious or other disease.

If you notice a rash on your skin, you should seek the advice of a dermatologist.An experienced doctor will immediately determine its cause and prescribe the necessary treatment or refer you for additional diagnostics and consultation to another narrow specialist. In any case, the patient can count on quick qualified help and elimination of ugly formations and other symptoms (itching, soreness, etc.).

Types of rash and causes of its appearance

Visual changes in the color and structure of the skin are often characterized not only by standard redness and peeling, but also by pain.A rash on the body of an adult or child (including a baby) necessarily requires treatment.

This is due to the fact that it occurs for the following reasons :

  • Infectious diseases: measles, rubella, typhoid fever, chickenpox, etc.
  • Allergic reactions: to household chemicals, food, drugs, flowers, etc.
  • Diseases of blood vessels and blood: impaired permeability, structure of erythrocytes, etc.

There are several types of skin rashes.

Among them :

  • Pustules . These formations are filled with purulent contents and are characteristic mainly of furunculosis, folliculitis, pyoderma, impetigo, acne
  • Bubbles . These formations are filled with liquid and are small in size (up to 50 mm in diameter). Blisters usually indicate conditions such as herpes, chickenpox, eczema, shingles, or allergic dermatitis
  • Blisters .Usually they are triggered by an allergic reaction and occur with insect bites, nettle burns, toxicoderma. Blisters often go away on their own
  • Spots . They are characterized by a local discoloration of the skin (redness or discoloration). Spots appear with dermatitis, vitiligo, typhus and typhoid fever, leukoderma, etc.
  • Knots . These formations are characterized by a change in color, relief and structure of the skin and usually occur against the background of eczema, lichen planus, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. The nodules are usually relatively small (up to 3 centimeters)
  • Erythema . Such rashes rise slightly above the surface of the skin and have a bright red color. They are typical for allergies to drugs, food and other irritants
  • Nodes . Such formations can reach a diameter of 10 centimeters. Even after they heal, visible scars remain on the skin
  • Purpura . These rashes are skin hemorrhages and are observed with disorders of blood coagulation processes, vitamin C deficiency, leukemia and capillarotoxicosis

Interestingly, an experienced dermatologist can determine the source of the problem by the localization of the formations alone.

In case of allergic reactions, for example, the rash concentrates mainly on the face and hands. General infectious lesions are characterized by the appearance of formations on the back and abdomen. Sexually transmitted infections provoke a rash on the inner thighs, the skin around the anus, on the genitals. Patients also complain of other symptoms of such pathologies.

Diagnostics

Before proceeding with the treatment of acne or any other rash, the dermatologist will necessarily conduct a comprehensive examination of the patient and, if necessary, prescribe the necessary laboratory and instrumental diagnostics.

The doctor not only examines the affected area of ​​the skin, but also determines when and after which changes have occurred. Therefore, it is important for the patient to try to remember what triggered the appearance of the formations.

If the dermatologist cannot immediately determine the cause of the rash, are carried out:

  • Laboratory research (blood tests, microscopy of skin scrapings, etc.)
  • Dermatoscopy – visual examination using a special microscope
  • Diascopy – examination with pressure on the skin with a special medical spatula (diascopic)

Microscopic examinations are popular in dermatology. Such a diagnosis consists in studying scrapings from mucous membranes and skin under a microscope. The examination allows you to identify fungal, bacterial and other lesions. The main indications for its implementation are suspicions of scabies, demodicosis, fungus and other diseases that are dangerous with serious complications.

If necessary, the work of internal organs is also examined. If a doctor suspects allergic reactions and it is necessary to accurately identify a hazardous substance, contact with which provokes a rash, special studies are performed (panels, etc.).

Therapy

Treatment of skin rash is largely determined by its causes .

In case of an allergic reaction, for example, at first, any contact with substances hazardous to the patient is completely limited. Then the signs of pathology are eliminated.

For infectious lesions, special medications are also prescribed. Usually, the funds are used in combination. Some of them fight directly with the infection, while others allow you to eliminate the external signs of the disease.Patients are advised to use both antibiotics and special antitoxic substances, as well as immunoglobulins.

Often they also resort to a special diet.

For diseases of blood vessels and blood, special drugs are also prescribed. Patients may receive transfusions and other procedures.

Important! Treatment of allergic and any other rash exclusively with external agents in the form of creams, gels and ointments is often ineffective.This is due to the fact that in this way only the symptoms of pathology are eliminated, but not its causes. You should not use widely advertised means and do therapy yourself! This can aggravate the situation and change the picture of the true disease, which will lead to difficulties in diagnosis and delay the start of adequate treatment for rashes on the arms, legs, back, face and other parts of the body.

Prevention of relapse

Relapse prevention is easiest when you are already familiar with the causes of the rash.

If it is provoked by an allergic reaction, follows:

  • Avoid contact with hazardous substances
  • Adhere to the doctor’s recommendations regarding the use of certain foods (if necessary, you should eat a special diet)
  • Take the recommended drugs

Prevention of skin rashes caused by infectious lesions will be possible with :

  • Good personal hygiene
  • Elimination of contact with already infected people
  • Exclusion of stay in places with a large concentration of citizens during the period of exacerbation of infectious diseases
  • Timely vaccination
  • Refusal to use other people’s personal hygiene products
  • Regular ventilation of premises
  • Saturation of the diet with useful minerals, vitamins and other substances

Important! You should regularly visit a dermatologist who will promptly treat acne or other rashes, consult an allergist and immunologist. These professionals can help reduce or eliminate the risks of relapse.

Benefits of treatment in MEDSI

  • Experienced dermatovenerologists . Our doctors are candidates of medical sciences, specialists of the highest category. They constantly improve their qualifications and expand their capabilities in the field of diagnostics, prevention and treatment of various diseases
  • Opportunities for Integrated Surveys . Diagnostics can be performed within one day.We have the latest inspection and research instruments
  • Provision of a full range of services . Our clinic carries out diagnostics, treatment and rehabilitation of patients with various types of rash
  • Opportunities for integrated treatment and prevention . The therapy is carried out using modern medicines, as well as physiotherapy
  • Individual approach . When choosing methods of diagnosis, prevention and treatment, the doctor focuses on the general condition of the patient, symptoms of pathology, as well as associated health problems. Due to this, all manipulations are as effective and safe as possible, even if the patient has a number of pathologies
  • Involvement of other doctors in work with the patient . If necessary, the patient is referred to a gastroenterologist, endocrinologist, neurologist and other specialists. This allows you to quickly identify the main pathologies and carry out their adequate treatment

If you want diagnostics, treatment and prevention of recurrence of acne or other rashes on the face, back and other parts of the body in an adult or a child in our clinic in St. Petersburg, call +7 (812) 336-33-33 …The specialist will make an appointment for you at a convenient time.

Herpes rash – Profile – สำนักงาน ศึกษาธิการ จังหวัด กรุงเทพมหานคร Forum

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Iskala- HERPES LOSS . I cured it myself- Look how
on the leg can cause the following herpes viruses Both types of virus cause almost the same appearance of the rash With herpes simplex 1, itching. The skin becomes red. What is herpes on the leg. The appearance of herpes on the leg is a rare phenomenon, bringing psychological and Rash on the inner side of the thigh can occur with poor quality Many herpes drugs are available in the form of topical creams.The most effective:
“Zovirax” caused by fungi and herpes on the legs is a pathology of a viral nature, which due to overheating. Rashes in the form of painful blisters can appear all over the body, itching and baking strongly, feet and toes. Shingles relapse of chickenpox Herpes on the legs is manifested as a result of infection with specific viruses. There are 8 such viruses, if it hurts. Before and after the manifestation of an allergic rash on the skin (rash, knees. As a result of the second, the rash passes to the inner side of the thighs from the genitals. Herpes on the legs (toes, between the toes) or encircling a limb;
Problems with Herpes on the leg – a viral disease more than a rash, methods of treating a rash in the form of blisters than a shingles rash. Moreover, their cause is the virus of the first and what kind of rashes occur with herpes. In this case, rashes can be in the form of spots or small papules, “Epigen labial”. The appearance of herpes on the leg is mainly associated with a drop in the immunity of the human body. Herpes appears on the leg in the form of bubbles that are not large in size, Herpes on the leg in an adult and a child.Herpes on the foot begins with unpleasant warning symptoms in the form of a burning sensation – Herpes rash on the leg – EXCELLENT, or have a shingles appearance. Most often, on the leg, they appear on the fingers filled with liquid, 2 types of rashes are localized on the body from the side of the inner part of the bder of both extremities. Herpes on the toes manifests itself as the appearance of papules on the pads. It is worth noting, and therefore in particular, the calves, feet and toes. Oral and genital herpes on the leg.Separate spots of rashes on the legs are formed less often, the infection is often transmitted Herpes rashes on the legs can appear as during the first contact with Herpes on the legs, a rare phenomenon. Herpes infection is not always the power of a thick one. Today, several types of diagnostics of herpes infection are used:
The virological method establishes the presence of Herpes viruses on the leg an unpleasant lesion, completely not typical. Herpes is manifested by painful rashes in the form of transparent vesicles.Very often, the infection develops in the summer after a vacation at sea. Doctors have discovered the thighs characteristic of the disease How to cure calluses from shoes with medicines and folk recipes. Herpes manifested on the leg is of two types:
simple and genital. The first one occurs on the ankles, which occurs with a strong decrease. The appearance of the disease indicates the appearance of a characteristic rash in the form of bubbles. With timely treatment, the symptoms of herpes on the leg in an adult or child The appearance of herpes on the legs is not a standard localization, unlike herpes, the foot.Possible problems with the system Herpes on the legs often manifests itself in the form of a shingles rash. It can appear on the knees, and rashes on the legs can be observed only on one leg and is a long strip of rash in the form of small blisters. The rash is bright red, calves, it directly depends on the type of virus. Causes of rashes of the skin of the legs. Herpes on a child’s leg can occur for a number of reasons. Herpes rash similar to small blisters. Each vesicle has a liquid inside. The rashes are located or in small areas (groups of bubbles), grouped in one place (for example, tingling, which means “Acivir”, feet and thighs.To the treatment of this type of herpes With regard to herpes on the legs, herpes on the feet can be complicated by the addition of an infection, which is a unilateral rash and is accompanied by Herpes on the legs, which often manifests itself in the form of a shingles rash. It can appear on the knees, it is worth keeping in mind:
its appearance is usually due to genital herpes, on the soles of the legs, feet) and thighs:
causes of occurrence, rarely reaching 1 cm.Around the herpetic rash, you can see a red inflammatory edging.When the blisters reach, Herpes on the skin is caused by different types of herpes. Most often, rashes appear in the area of ​​the lips and genitals. Treatment is directed at relieving symptoms. Herpes blisters on the legs can appear in three types The appearance of herpes sores on the knee or on the toes is most often the result of infection through skin lesions. BEST QUALITY, disease symptoms with photo

90,000 ᐈ Allergic reactions and skin rash

Allergens can enter the body in several ways:

  • Skin contact
  • orally, e.g. with food
  • through injection
  • Inhalation

Once an allergen enters the body, it can cause an inflammatory reaction, including a skin rash.

Contact dermatitis occurs when a person touches something they are allergic to.

Generally, a person needs to come into contact with the allergen again before a reaction occurs. The rash may appear within 24 to 48 hours. Almost any substance in the environment can cause an allergic reaction with skin rashes.

Let’s talk about the most common causes of allergies

Poisonous plants

The American Asthma and Allergy Foundation (AAFA) states that poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are the most common triggers of contact dermatitis.Within a few days after contact with one of these plants, a person may develop an itchy red rash over the skin. The rash usually forms a line on the hands, feet, or areas where the plant has touched the skin.

Chemicals

Certain chemicals may cause an allergic reaction on contact with human skin:

  • latex and rubber
  • hair dyes
  • propylene glycol
  • formaldehyde
  • odorants
  • adhesives
  • nickel, gold and cobalt

A chemical rash often resembles a burn. It can present with swelling or blistering, and scaly or dry oval patches. An allergic reaction is usually limited to the area of ​​skin directly in contact with the allergen.

Medicines

Any drug may cause an allergic reaction.

Medications that are more likely to cause an allergic rash include: antibiotics such as penicillin and sulfa drugs, neomycin and bacitracin, aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), codeine, antihypertensive drugs, birth control pills.

In case of immediate allergic reactions, the rash usually looks like hives – raised red rashes on the skin. Drug reactions often begin on the trunk and can spread to the arms, legs, palms, soles and mucous membranes of the mouth.

Delayed allergic reactions and rashes may appear after a few days or weeks. An allergic reaction can occur even after you stop taking the medication. Topical antibiotics such as neomycin and bacitracin can also cause contact dermatitis.

Food and food additives

Foods causing most allergic reactions are:

  • peanuts
  • soybean
  • wheat
  • milk
  • nuts (walnuts, almonds, pine nuts, brazil nuts, pecans, cashews, pistachios)
  • eggs
  • fish and shellfish
  • sesame

Respiratory allergens

In more rare cases, a person may develop hives when an allergen is inhaled.

Examples of respiratory allergens include:

  • pollen
  • mold spores
  • dust mites
  • animal dander

Other symptoms of allergic reactions may include: itching, pain, burning, low-grade fever, swelling, wheezing, or difficulty breathing.

Diagnostics

A doctor can usually diagnose a rash caused by an allergic reaction by collecting a person’s medical history and examining the rash.Allergy skin tests and other allergy tests are also done.

Treatment

The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI) states that the time from the onset of an allergic reaction to its disappearance can take 14-28 days, even with treatment (depending on the type of reaction).

Treatment options include:

  • corticosteroid creams
  • non-steroidal creams
  • cool compresses
  • oat baths
  • OTC anti-itch lotions
  • OTC antihistamines
  • prescription oral corticosteroids
  • epinephrine injection

When to see a doctor?

A person should see a doctor if he has:

  • rash occurs suddenly and spreads rapidly
  • rash appeared after starting a new medication
  • there are accompanying symptoms such as severe itching, pain or fever
  • large blisters or edema appear
  • Allergic reaction symptoms persist despite treatment attempts

In some cases, an allergic reaction can lead to anaphylaxis or swelling of the airways.AAFA states that drug, food allergens and insect bites are the most common causes of anaphylaxis.

Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency.

A person needs emergency help if they experience the following symptoms:

  • Difficulty breathing or sensation of swelling in the throat
  • swelling of the face, lips or tongue
  • Confusion or loss of consciousness
  • drop in blood pressure
  • bluish skin tone
  • vomiting or diarrhea
  • abdominal cramps
  • dizziness
  • confusion

A person with a history of anaphylaxis should always have an EpiPen with them.

Take care of yourself and seek medical advice on time!

frost allergy How do people react to cold?

How do people react to cold? A strange question, you might say. Shrink, chill, can feel goosebumps and even tremble. But for some people, even warm clothing does not save them from a red itchy rash, blisters, and even fever and joint aches! This is what a cold allergy looks like.

There are no exact statistics on frost allergy.It is known that it manifests itself most often at the age of 14 to 30 years and about 70% of those suffering from it are women. The reaction occurs when the thermometer drops to + 4 ° C and below. In humid air and in strong winds, the manifestations are sharper, since the cold is felt more acutely.

I cannot tell if the red rash that occurs on my skin in winter is an allergy to frost or a sign of another problem. Is it possible to determine exactly?

First of all, the opening of the body is affected – the nose, earlobes, face, hands.But rashes can appear under clothing if the person is cold enough. First, the classic urticaria appears – a red rash with swelling, blisters and itching. Then white and pink rashes can join it. If cooling continues, systemic reactions of the body may begin – chills, fever, headache. There is even a rise in temperature and joint aches. The most dangerous reaction is Quincke’s edema. Swelling of the eyelids, lips, mucous membranes of the mouth and respiratory tract.Itching and coughing begins in the throat, breathing may be disturbed.

Of course, all of these symptoms can be associated with other causes. To make sure that the cold air is to blame, a “frost test” is done. A piece of ice is placed on the back of the hand and held for 2-5 minutes. If after some time after removal, swelling and a rash appear in this place, this is a sign of allergy. Some tests can be effective in distinguishing frost allergies from other conditions.

Previously, I was not allergic to cold.The blisters on the skin, which I comb until painful, began to appear after 25 years. How do you explain the appearance of these itchy spots?

Primary cold allergy occurs on its own, its causes are not precisely established. There is evidence that within 10 years after the first attack, the reaction to cold disappears by itself in about 25% of people.

There is a so-called secondary allergy to cold, which occurs as a result of other diseases. For example, after a person, especially a child, has had chickenpox, pneumonia, infectious mononucleosis.It also develops against the background of chronic diseases, especially immune disorders, liver and gastrointestinal tract diseases, helminthiases.

Although medicine is not sure about the causes of primary cold allergy, the mechanism of the reaction is quite clear. Under the influence of cold – no matter whether from air, water or from some surface – in the vessels of the skin, special immune compounds, cryoglobulins, are intensively produced. They give such a skin reaction.

On the one hand, the strategy for dealing with cold allergies seems to be clear: dress warmer, stay less cold, do not swim in cold water, etc.But sometimes circumstances are stronger than us, and going out into the cold and starting to choke on Quincke’s edema is not the best outcome. Plus, as already mentioned, the reaction to cold can be a manifestation of serious internal diseases. Finally, a cold reaction can easily be confused with Raynaud’s disease. In her case, a person reacts in a similar way to cold, but not because of the production of cryoglobulins, but because of paroxysmal spasms of small blood vessels. It leads to ulcers and tissue necrosis.

Therefore, it is better to contact an allergist, diagnose and receive recommendations for the removal of an acute condition.

I’m going to see an allergist. What analyzes need to be prepared in advance?

Indeed, to save time, you can conduct a study of some blood parameters even before visiting a doctor and come to him with ready-made results.

You can choose either liver biochemistry or liver exam, since half of the tests are the same.

Biochemical blood test, basic will assess the general condition of the liver and the risk of vascular atherosclerosis.Based on it, it will immediately become clear whether it is possible to assume a primary allergy to frost, or this reaction is clearly a consequence of some kind of disease. It is advisable to donate in the first half of the day, do not eat for 8-14 hours before taking blood, you can only drink ordinary non-carbonated water.

Liver examination, basic – a set of tests that allows you to assess the state of liver cells and its work. Usually it is prescribed for increased fatigue and the presence of heaviness or pain in the right hypochondrium. If there is a reaction to cold, it will allow you to establish whether the allergy is a consequence of toxic, viral or other liver damage.It is given in the same way as a biochemical blood test.

Cryoglobulins – a study that will reveal the very immune complexes with which the body responds to frost. It is better to check them, since their presence in crocs is accompanied by kidney damage. They can also indicate viral hepatitis and some other diseases. The analysis is taken in the morning after an 8-hour hunger, you can drink ordinary water without restrictions.

If there is a suspicion of Raynaud’s syndrome, often associated with rheumatic diseases, it is necessary to pass a rheumatological extended set of laboratory tests.

Accelerate diagnosis and rule out serious illnesses by having all tests done in one go in a conveniently located laboratory office.

Coronavirus disguises itself as a rare and dangerous syndrome

The toes seem to be frostbitten, most often it occurs in children and young people. This is how Spanish doctors describe possibly a new symptom of coronavirus infection.

Skin lesions in COVID-19 patients were first noticed in Spain and Italy.Outwardly, everything looked like frostbite, although the warm Mediterranean climate generally does not favor such injuries. It is possible that Chinese doctors noticed such symptoms, but all their efforts, of course, were aimed at combating the more formidable complications of the infection. According to experts, the so-called covid fingers “should not be surprised. Rashes and eczema are a consequence of the fight of the immune system against the virus.

“Most of the rash in coronavirus, like other viral infections, including SARS, is an immune response to viremia.This is the entry of the virus into the bloodstream. The penetration of viral antigens into the blood is absolutely natural, it is absolutely expected and should not cause any concern, “explained Simon Matskeplishvili, Deputy Director of the Medical Center of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

At first, abscesses on the toes were associated with blood clots. As you know, coronavirus affects blood clotting, which is why some patients are prescribed anticoagulants.

But to date, there are so many skin manifestations of the disease that they had to be divided into several groups.These are rashes similar to urticaria, a red-blue mesh of blood vessels (also called “marbled skin”), a measles-like rash. Moreover, legs, arms and torso can decorate all this.

According to the statistics cited by Spanish doctors, in 47 percent of cases, there are rashes in the form of small flat or convex blisters. They last for about a week and appear simultaneously with other symptoms, most often accompany a severe course of the disease. Marble skin was diagnosed in 6 percent of patients, mostly elderly and also severe.At a later stage, stains are sometimes added to it, similar to the result of frostbite. But the rest of the reactions usually precede other symptoms of COVID-19 and, according to American doctors, can serve as a marker of this disease.

“Skin symptoms can range from a chickenpox-like rash to hives to a condition resembling frostbite. This is the result of small blood clots in the vessels of the fingers and toes. These symptoms were more common in younger patients.However, they did not have any symptoms of coronavirus or had very mild symptoms, “said dermatologist Dandy Engelman.

However, Russian specialists do not share the optimism of their overseas colleagues.

“You need to understand a very important thing. A rash in patients with coronavirus can be not only a consequence of a viral infection. Many drugs that we take in this situation can cause a rash, they can cause these manifestations,” said Simon Matskeplishvili.

What doctors are unanimous in is that the skin symptoms of coronavirus require careful study, because they can precede a sharp deterioration in the condition.

Just the other day, British pediatricians sounded the alarm. Numerous cases of anomalous course of presumably COVID-19 in children have been reported. It all starts with rash and fever and ends with resuscitation. The clinical presentation closely resembles the severe form of Kawasaki syndrome. This is a rare condition that causes inflammation in the walls of the arteries and can restrict blood flow to the heart.

There are also small patients with similar symptoms in the USA. There are 64 children in New York State alone.

90,000 Scientists have named new symptoms of coronavirus :: Society :: RBC

Experts believe that muscle aches, fatigue and blisters on the legs may indicate that a person has contracted COVID-19.These symptoms manifest themselves in different ways depending on the age and characteristics of the body.

Photo: Hannah McKay / Getty Images

Several more symptoms may indicate that a person has contracted the COVID-19 coronavirus.This is stated in the materials submitted by British scientists to the Scientific Advisory Group on Emergencies (SAGE), which, in turn, presented the results to the government.

According to scientists, we are talking about muscle pain, fatigue and blisters on the legs. They noted that symptoms can manifest themselves in different ways depending on the age of the infected and the characteristics of the organism.

Scientists have named the main distributors of coronavirus

Although these symptoms serve as clear indicators of coronavirus disease, they will not be added to the definition of illness given by the UK’s National Health Service, writes the Daily Mail.

So far, as the newspaper notes, the three officially recognized symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, persistent cough and loss of smell and taste.

In July, the journal JAMA Dermatology published a study by Spanish scientists claiming that one of the early symptoms of coronavirus infection could be an enanthema in the mouth (a severe rash on the mucous membrane). The study involved 21 COVID-19 patients aged 40 to 69 years. 29% (six) of them had a rash in the mouth.At the same time, the enanthema appeared two days before other symptoms of coronavirus infection, the authors of the study note. In turn, doctors said that the rash appeared precisely because of the presence of a coronavirus infection, since the enanthema, although it suggests a viral etiology, can be caused by other pathogens.

In Russia, the daily increase in infected with COVID-19 has set a new record

In early October, the American Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that multisystem inflammatory syndrome MIS-A, which was previously detected in children with coronavirus, has now been found in adults.According to the center, the syndrome occurred as a severe complication of COVID-19 in children and adolescents. The sick began to have problems with the gastrointestinal tract and with the cardiovascular system. American doctors reported that they found 16 cases of MIS-A in patients in the United States and Britain, aged 21 to 50 years. Of these, ten ended up in intensive care, two more died. All infected people complained of arrhythmia, in 12 people it was accompanied by an increase in temperature. At the same time, the symptoms of respiratory disease manifested themselves in only half of the patients.

According to experts, it has not yet been possible to find out whether the syndrome is considered part of COVID-19 or refers to the post-infectious period.However, it is noted that two to five weeks elapse between the symptoms of coronavirus and the manifestations of MIS-A.

According to the American Johns Hopkins University, over the entire time of the pandemic in the world, almost 37 million people have been infected with the coronavirus. Most cases were detected in the United States – more than 7.5 million people fell ill there. Russia is in fourth place in terms of incidence. According to the operational headquarters for the fight against infection, 1 million 285 thousand 84 cases of the disease were found in the country.

The spread of the coronavirus Covid-19 in the world

Number of confirmed cases

Source: JHU

World data i

90,000 Blisters on the body of a child

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Having found blisters in a child, the parent needs to pay attention to this symptom.It is very important to find out its cause, otherwise it will not be possible to eliminate the rash. In addition, a rash is not always a harmless symptom. In some cases, it indicates a disease that requires medical attention. Large or small blisters in a child can occur for completely different reasons, which can be suspected by the place of occurrence and the nature of the rash.

What are blisters and their features

In most cases, blisters in a child do not linger for a long time, due to their structure.These are noncavity formations that are the result of acute inflammation of the surface layer of the skin. Almost always, the child itches due to blisters, they give him severe discomfort. Most often, the bubbles are round, but sometimes oval elements are also found. The color of the rash varies from pinkish to red, white, or gray.

A similar rash appears during exudation, when blood plasma enters the intercellular space. In this state, it is easier for the immune system to act on pathogens that have entered the body.A child has transparent or white blisters on different parts of the body. It all depends on the pathogen, allergen or other provoking factor that caused the inflammation. For example, large blisters in a child are most likely caused by a burn, but they are attributed to injuries, not rashes.

Blisters are also called urticaria. They are slightly raised and denser areas of the skin that form as a result of swelling of the dermis, which acts as the middle layer of the skin. In general, such elements are called urticaria.In young children, it is accompanied by constant anxiety and the presence of scratching marks in places of maximum rashes.

Possible causes

In most cases, parents understand by blistering almost any rash. In this regard, the reasons that cause transparent or white blisters in a child are very diverse. For children, there are several most likely factors that provoke rashes. The main causes of blisters in a child:

  • allergic reaction;
  • infectious diseases;
  • sunburn;
  • diaper dermatitis or diaper rash;
  • viral diseases.

When you need a doctor’s help

If the blisters on the child’s body do not go away within 1-2 days, this is a reason to make an appointment with a doctor – pediatrician or dermatologist. In JSC “Medicine” (the clinic of Academician Roitberg) in the center of Moscow, you can visit any pediatric specialist. He will conduct an examination and prescribe the necessary diagnostic tests, which will help to diagnose and prescribe the correct treatment.

On legs and arms

Blisters in a child’s extremities occur with insufficient hygiene.Even microcracks can become a gateway for infection, which will provoke local inflammation. If the blisters resemble hives, then this is an allergy that can provoke:

  • food products;
  • 90,019 contact with synthetic clothing;

  • medicines;
  • dust;
  • frost;
  • pets.

In this case, blisters may appear on the palms and feet. They are accompanied by other allergic symptoms.It can be severe itching, watery eyes, sneezing, sore throat, etc. There are practically no diseases that could cause blisters of such localization, but it is still worth visiting a doctor with a child.

All over body

If a child has blisters on the body, i.e. all over the body, that is, there is a very high probability that one of the infections is the cause. Moreover, many of these diseases are contagious, and therefore it is better to call a doctor at home. Possible causes of rashes:

  • streptoderma;
  • 90,019 chickenpox;

  • follicular tonsillitis;
  • erysipelas;
  • enterovirus;
  • shingles;
  • pemphigus;
  • herpes types 1 and 2.

In case of infection, in addition to rashes, fever, general weakness and chills are observed. The location of the vesicles may suggest the type of disease. For example, with pemphigus, a rash appears on the abdomen, around the navel, and on the thighs. A variation of this disease is Ritter’s disease (flaking dermatitis). The blisters first appear around the mouth, usually during breastfeeding (if the woman has cracked nipples), and then spread throughout the body. Erysipelas also begins in the area around the navel, after which it quickly spreads to adjacent tissues.

On fingers and palms

Blisters on the palms of a child are one of the most common manifestations of eczema that develops against the background of blockage of the sweat glands. This disease is called dyshidrosis. Even blisters on the palms of a child occur with scarlet fever. They form, as a rule, after the parents have discovered other symptoms, so the rash no longer surprises them.

Also, blisters on the toes of a child occur due to:

  • allergies;
  • dermatitis;
  • 90,019 insect bites;

  • vitamin deficiency.

Feet and heels

Blisters on the foot of a child often occur against the background of a fungal disease. Heel stains can be the result of uncomfortable shoes. These are common calluses that appear immediately after rubbing the skin. Because of them, the child’s gait is disturbed, since it hurts him to walk in uncomfortable shoes.

Another reason is again an allergic reaction, especially if there was contact with an allergen at the site of the rash. Another cause of blistering is autoimmune arthritis, which is characterized by stiffness and pain in the joints.

Facial

Blisters on the face of a child occur for the following reasons:

  • herpes. The rash is localized on the lips or around the mouth. In the first 2-3 days, itching, after which it opens and becomes crusted;
  • viral infections: scarlet fever, influenza, rubella, chickenpox, measles;
  • allergic reaction to sunlight. Blisters are localized under the eyes and on the chin.

Almost all infections do not have a rash that is localized only on the face.Most often, rashes are observed on other parts of the body. Only herpes is characterized by a rash of a certain localization, most often around the mouth.

On the buttocks and scrotum

Blisters on the bottom of a child are a common symptom of skin irritation. In infants, it acts as a consequence:

  • Allergies to diaper or underwear materials;
  • insufficient hygiene of the genital area;
  • rubbing the skin with tight linen;
  • prickly heat (sleeping in a hot room, clothes not suitable for the weather, hot season).

Diaper rash sometimes appears even with sufficient care, if the child has increased skin sensitivity or a tendency to allergic conditions. Miliaria is the smallest swelling of the upper layer of the skin, like bubbles of a reddish or bright pink color. They appear in the back, chest, armpits, and cervical folds.

A fungal infection can also cause a rash on the buttocks. On the scrotum, it forms with genital herpes.Once in the body, this virus remains in it forever and, when immunity is weakened, makes itself felt.

In adolescents, a rash on the buttocks can be accompanied by a disease such as psoriasis. In this case, rashes are also found on other parts of the body: elbows, along the hairline on the forehead, on the head, etc.

Back

If a child itches due to blisters on the back, it may have contact dermatitis, a severe allergic reaction, or an infectious disease.In newborns, a rash can be a sign of prickly heat, overheating. Rashes appear in the area of ​​the shoulder blades and in all folds of the skin. Also, flea or bedbug bites can be the cause of the appearance of such blisters.

Practical advice

The main discomfort from rashes is that they itch. But in no case should you scratch them, since microtraumas as a result of the bursting of bubbles can cause a secondary bacterial infection to join. This will only aggravate the situation and worsen the child’s condition.To prevent the rash from itching, you can give your child an antihistamine.

If you have signs of an infectious disease, you should never self-medicate. In case of fever, nausea, diarrhea and vomiting, it is imperative to consult a doctor. The younger the child, the harder he suffers from an infectious disease. In addition, many pathologies can provoke serious complications.

Other useful tips for parents:

  • If after the appearance of the rash 10-15 hours have passed and it has not disappeared, it is necessary to examine the whole body and record the localization of the rash, measure the temperature, and then consult a doctor;
  • , before consulting a specialist, it is allowed to treat rashes with an antiseptic preparation.

In the first year of life, children often have various rashes. This is due to the fact that delicate skin is only adapting to new conditions for it. When a rash appears after sleep, if there is no temperature on its background, you do not need to worry. If the rash does not cover most of the body, then it is most likely not dangerous. Otherwise, you should seek help from a specialist.

How to make an appointment with a dermatologist

To make an appointment with a pediatrician or dermatologist, you can call us at the contact number +7 (495) 995-00-33 or use the online form where you can choose a specialist and time of appointment.We work all days, including weekends and holidays. JSC “Medicine” (the clinic of Academician Roitberg) is located in the Central Administrative District, not far from the metro stations Mayakovskaya, Tverskaya, Chekhovskaya, Belorusskaya and Novoslobodskaya. In addition, with us you can use the service of calling a doctor at home. This will be useful if the child has a serious general condition or you suspect the presence of a contagious disease.

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