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Rashes caused by insect bites: Allergies to bites and stings


Allergies to bites and stings

About allergies to bites and stings

Bites and stings usually cause irritation of the skin, which is not an allergic response, but some people can also have allergic symptoms that range from mild to severe and life threatening.

Insect stings from bees, wasps and the Australian jack jumper ant are a common cause of severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) in Australia.

Severe reactions to insect bites from mosquitoes, midges, March flies and ticks are less common, although bites can cause milder allergic reactions. Severe allergic reactions to snake bites are rare.

Causes of allergies to bites and stings

Venoms from stinging insects such as bees, wasps and ants are one of the most common causes of severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis).

If you are allergic to one type of stinging insect, you will not necessarily be allergic to another type. Biting insects such as midges and mosquitoes are more likely to cause local allergic reactions, such as redness and/or swelling, but can sometimes cause allergic reactions.

Bees and wasps

Honey bee is the most common cause of allergic reactions to insects in Australia. Native Australian bees can also cause allergic reactions. Bees can sting only once, because they inject a venom sac into the skin and then die.

Unlike bees, paper wasps and European wasps can sting several times. Although paper wasps cause most of the serious stings, the European wasp is becoming more of a problem in Australia.

Stinging ants

Stings from the Australian jack jumper ant (Myrmecia pilosula) are a major cause of severe allergic reactions in Australia. The stings of jack jumper ants are very painful and can cause generalised allergic reactions or severe allergic reactions. The commonly occurring bull ant can also cause anaphylaxis.

The jack jumper ant (also known as jack jumper or jumping jack) is found along the east coast of Australia and Tasmania. They are approximately 10–15 mm long and are smaller than large bull ants (15–25 mm long).

Stings from the green ant of Queensland and the South American fire ant can also cause allergic reactions.


The saliva of the tick known as the Australian paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) causes an allergic reaction in some people. Ticks are present along the east coast of Australia, and extend into Gippsland in Victoria. Ticks live on vegetation and attach to and bite into the skin of people and animals.

Reactions to the attachment of ticksExternal Link include:

  • minor redness and itching, which is not due to an allergy
  • redness and large areas of swelling at the site caused by a mild allergic reaction
  • severe allergic reaction

If you disturb or try to remove the tick, it can inject its saliva and this can cause people who are allergic to have a life-threatening severe allergic reaction. People with tick allergies can sometimes be allergic to red meat (mammalian meat) and gelatine.

Symptoms of allergies to bites and stings

The immune system reacts to specific triggers, also known as allergens, in all allergies. Your immune system produces antibodies that detect the allergen and cause inflammatory reactions and the release of chemicals including histamine.

Allergic reactions to insect stings and bites range from mild local reactions at the site of the sting or bite to severe allergic reactions that are life threatening. Symptoms are more likely to improve in children than adults. Adults are at the greatest risk of a severe allergic reaction.

Stings and bites often hurt and can cause minor redness and itching at the site, but these symptoms are not caused by an allergic reaction.

Keep a record of your symptoms

Diagnosing an allergy can be difficult. If you think you may have an allergy after being bitten or stung, make a diary record of your symptoms to help you and your doctor understand the cause of your symptoms.

Include information about whether your symptoms occur:

  • inside your home, outside or both
  • for a short time or longer
  • at night, during the day or when you wake up
  • at a particular time of the year
  • near animals
  • after you have been stung or bitten by an insect.

Local skin allergic reactions

Some people will have an allergic reaction that causes a rash or a large swelling around the site of the sting or bite.

Generalised allergic reactions

A generalised allergic reaction affects parts of the body beyond the site of the sting or bite, but it is not life threatening.

Symptoms of a generalised allergic reaction include red swelling skin, or rash or hives (urticaria) in areas of the body other than at the site of the sting or bite.

Although these symptoms are not life threatening, if you have experienced a generalised allergic reaction, you should visit your doctor, who may refer you to a clinical immunology/allergy specialist.

Severe allergic reaction – anaphylaxis

Severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) after an insect bite or sting are potentially life threatening and cause approximately 3 deaths per year in Australia.

Symptoms of a severe allergic reaction include:

  • difficult or noisy breathing
  • swelling of the tongue
  • swelling or tightness of the throat
  • difficulty talking or hoarse voice
  • wheezing or coughing
  • persistent dizziness or collapse
  • paleness and floppiness in young children.

Milder allergic symptoms that can occur before a severe allergic reaction include:

  • swelling of the lips, face and eyes
  • hives or welts
  • tingling mouth
  • abdominal pain, vomiting – these are signs of anaphylaxis for insect allergy.

If you have experienced any of these symptoms after an insect sting or bite, you are at greater risk of having another severe reaction if you are stung or bitten by the same type of insect. You should ask your doctor to refer you to a clinical immunology/allergy specialist.

Diagnosis of allergies to bites and stings

If you have allergic symptoms after you have an insect sting or bite, you should visit your family doctor who will ask some questions about your reactions. Your diary of your symptoms will help you to answer accurately. To diagnose your allergy, your doctor may refer you to a clinical immunology/allergy specialist.

The clinical immunology/allergy specialist can test for allergies using several methods, depending on the type of potential allergy. To test for an allergy to a bite or sting, the allergist may use skin testing or allergy blood testing.

Some people with tick allergy can become allergic to red meat (mammalian meat allergyExternal Link) and gelatine. Testing for these allergies is more complicated and you should talk to your doctor or clinical immunology/allergy specialist.

The Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (ASCIA) strongly advises against the use of unproven, non evidence-based allergy testsExternal Link and treatments.

Unproven methods to test for allergies

A number of methods claim to test for allergies, but have not been scientifically proven. They are often costly and could lead to dangerous avoidance of certain foods. The Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (ASCIA) advises against the use of:

  • cytotoxic food testing
  • electrodermal testing
  • hair analysis
  • iridology
  • kinesiology
  • pulse testing
  • reflexology
  • Vega testing

Always speak with your doctor if you are thinking of using a complementary medicine or therapy for allergies.

Treatment for allergies to bites and stings

The best strategy for treatment is to reduce the risk of insect bites and stings. Approaches to reducing the risk of stings and bites include:

  • Cover up with long-sleeved shirts and long trousers.
  • Tuck your shirt into your trousers and your trousers into socks.
  • Wear light-coloured clothing.
  • Wear shoes when outdoors.
  • Use an insect repellent with DEET.
  • Avoid being outdoors near dawn or dusk.
  • Check if ticks are widespread in your location.
  • Avoid bees and wasps.
  • Have professionals remove wasp, bee and ant nests near your home.

Emergency treatment for severe allergic reactions

In Australia, approximately 3 people die each year from a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) caused by a stinging insect allergy. Older people and those with breathing problems are at greatest risk and should be seen by a clinical immunology/allergy specialist.

If you have had a severe allergic reaction to a stinging insect, you are more likely to have one again if stung.

If you are at risk of a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis), carry an adrenaline injector such as EpiPen® or Anapen®, and a means of calling for medical assistance such as a mobile telephone.

Emergency responses for severe allergic reactionExternal Link include:

  • Administer adrenaline with an injector (EpiPen® or Anapen®)
  • Always dial triple zero (000) to call an ambulance in a medical emergency.
  • Don’t allow the patient to stand or walk.

If you are at risk of a severe allergic reaction you should:

  • Have an Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (ASCIA) Anaphylaxis Action PlanExternal Link.
  • Carry an adrenaline injector (EpiPen® or Anapen®) to treat a severe allergic reaction.
  • Consider wearing medical identification jewellery – this increases the likelihood that adrenaline will be administered in an emergency.
  • Avoid medication (where possible) that may increase the severity of allergic reaction or complicate its treatment – such as beta blockers.
  • Seek urgent medical assistance if stung or bitten.

First aid for minor allergic reactions

Bees often leave a barbed sting and flicking the sting out of the wound within 30 seconds will help to reduce the amount of venom entering your body. Use the edge of a fingernail, credit card or car key to flick the sting. Do not pull or squeeze the venom sac, as this may increase the amount of venom injected.

Wasps do not leave a sting behind, but can sting several times.

For minor allergic reactions, first aid approaches include:

  • Apply a cold pack to the area.
  • Apply soothing creams.
  • Take oral antihistamines to help reduce itching.

For large and painful areas of swelling, you may need to visit your doctor to get cortisone tablets to reduce the swelling.

Removing ticks

If you need to remove a tick, watch this animation about how to safely remove a tickExternal Link.

For all tick bites, you should first kill the tick with a rapid freezing spray so the tick cannot inject saliva into your body. Once the tick is dead, you should remove it as soon and as safely as possible. This will help to reduce the risk of developing infections or tick paralysis. If you are not allergic to ticks, correct and rapid removal will reduce the risk of developing an allergy.

The Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (ASCIA) warns against the common advice of using tweezers to pull a live tick out of the skin.

If you are allergic to ticks, you are at risk of a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) if bitten. If you find a tick, you should:

  • Kill the tick by freezing it with a rapid freezing spray – this will stop the tick injecting its saliva into your body.
  • Have the tick removed in an emergency department of a hospital, especially if you are highly allergic.

Some people who are not as highly allergic can be trained by a healthcare professional to safely remove ticks.

Products to freeze and kill ticks include ether-containing sprays which are available at pharmacies. Freezing and killing ticks before removal is also recommended for people who are not allergic to tick bites.

Venom immunotherapy for allergies to stings and bites

In some cases, your clinical immunology/allergy specialist may suggest venom immunotherapy (VIT)External Link which is also known as desensitisation. Venom immunotherapy involves a series of injections of commercial venom preparations, usually over 3 to 5 years. This can help to improve tolerance of the insect venom and reduce symptoms.

Venom immunotherapy is not available for tick allergies.

Where to get help

  • In an emergency, always call triple zero (000)
  • Emergency department of your nearest hospital
  • Your GP (doctor)
  • NURSE-ON-CALL Tel. 1300 60 60 24 – for expert health information and advice (24 hours, 7 days)
  • St John Ambulance AustraliaExternal Link Tel. 1300 360 455
  • Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (ASCIA)External Link
    • Allergic reactions to bites and stingsExternal Link
    • Locate a specialistExternal Link
  • Allergy & Anaphylaxis AustraliaExternal Link

Papular urticaria: Symptoms, causes, and treatment

Papular urticaria is an allergic skin reaction that typically results from insect bites. Itchy bumps often appear on uncovered areas of the skin, such as the face, forearms, and legs.

Papular urticaria is a common condition, especially in the summer months. Bumps on the skin occur due to a hypersensitivity to bug bites. It usually occurs in children but can also affect adults traveling to new areas.

One unique characteristic of this skin disorder is that scratching an area affected by a bug bite can trigger the inflammation of old bites. As a result, it can appear as though there are more new bites than there really are.

Read more about papular urticaria symptoms, treatment options, and when to contact a doctor.

The first symptoms of papular urticaria are usually bumps that are:

  • itchy
  • inflamed
  • raised
  • the same color as the surrounding skin or red on lighter skin

The bumps may appear in a curved pattern or a line, particularly if the bites are from bed bugs or fleas.

Although they can occur anywhere on the body, the bumps typically appear on exposed areas, such as the legs, forearms, and face.

The bumps — also called hives — are usually very itchy. People often have the urge to scratch, but doing so can break the skin. This can cause infections and scarring.

Each bump usually remains on the skin for a few days up to several weeks. The bumps may disappear quickly, only to reappear elsewhere. Papular urticaria tends to recur, and a new bite can trigger an old reaction.

Although it can look similar, papular urticaria is different from scabies, a skin condition caused by burrowing mites. Scabies is a contagious condition that causes rashes, sores, and thick crusts that last weeks. Scabies bumps are usually smaller and flatter in appearance than those that result from papular urticaria.

How can people identify bug bites?

Many insects in the United States can potentially cause a reaction, leading to papular urticaria. The most common causes are insects that live on cats and dogs, such as fleas and mites. Bed bugs are another common cause.

However, any biting insect can cause papular urticaria.

A 2017 study identified risk factors that made children more likely to get papular urticaria, including:

  • having household pets, which can lead to fleas
  • using a mattress without springs
  • daily use of public transportation
  • living in a warm, tropical climate
  • living in a geographic area heavily infested with insects
  • having siblings with a history of atopic dermatitis
  • being under 7 years old
  • being affected by poverty
  • having a soil or earth floor in the main bedroom of a house

Papular urticaria in children

Although papular urticaria can affect anyone, it is more prevalent in children than adults. It commonly occurs in children who are 2–7 years old.

As papular urticaria results from a hypersensitivity to bug bites, people become less likely to get it with time. As children become more and more desensitized to common bug bites, they will “outgrow” the condition. Children tend to get papular urticaria because they have never been exposed to a certain insect bite before and have not yet become desensitized to it.

The bumps will usually go away on their own, but over-the-counter (OTC) medications and creams can ease discomfort, reduce swelling, and prevent infection.

If a person is experiencing serious itching or pain, or the bumps do not resolve, they should contact a healthcare professional. A doctor can perform tests to rule out other causes, such as scabies and dermatitis.

The bumps usually go away on their own. People can use OTC creams and medications to manage discomfort but may need a prescription for stronger steroid creams.

Treatments for papular urticaria include:

  • oral antihistamine medication
  • antiseptic cream to prevent secondary infection
  • steroid cream

However, the best way to manage the condition is to take preventive measures. People should cover their skin when outside, wear insect repellent, and treat household pets for fleas.

If a person has papular urticaria, it is also important to get rid of any sources of infestation. They can do this by:

  • treating household pets with flea medication
  • wearing protective clothing
  • using insect repellent
  • treating pet bedding with flea spray
  • spraying an area with insecticide
  • treating carpets and upholstery with a pyrethroid spray, being sure to vacuum afterward
  • checking mattresses for signs of bed bugs

How can people treat hives (urticaria)?

The main complication of papular urticaria is infection. As the condition causes itchy bumps, people can feel a strong urge to scratch.

This can lead to infections through germs on the fingers and nails entering the skin. Skin infections can cause pain and inflammation, which can worsen the condition.

Papular urticaria is a preventable condition.

The best ways to avoid it are by:

  • covering the skin when outside
  • using insect-repellent spray
  • keeping the home free of bugs
  • treating pets with anti-flea medication

Over time, most children and adults will become desensitized to papular urticaria.

If a person does get papular urticaria, it usually resolves on its own.

Here are some questions people often ask about papular urticaria.

How do you get rid of papular urticaria?

OTC preparations, such as oral antihistamines, antiseptic creams, and topical steroid creams, can help. In some cases, a doctor may prescribe a stronger medication.

How do you treat papular urticaria at home?

To reduce itching, a person can apply cool compresses or taking an oatmeal bath. Sometimes, spending time in another location, for instance, on holiday, may provide relief.

Taking measures to avoid or prevent fleas and bed bugs can reduce the risk of bites and papular urticaria in the home. This may involve using insecticide sprays and treating pets with anti-flea medications.

Which bugs cause papular urticaria?

Any biting insects can cause it, notably bed bugs and fleas that live on pets. Other possible causes include mosquitoes, gnats, bird mites, carpet beetles, caterpillars, and other insects. However, it can be difficult to distinguish a trigger since it stems from a sensitization process rather than a specific bite.

Papular urticaria is a skin reaction to an insect bite. It can either be an allergy or hypersensitivity. Symptoms include small, raised bumps that are itchy and painful.

The condition usually resolves on its own, and people can manage it with OTC antihistamines and creams. People should avoid scratching the bumps, as this can lead to infection.

Causes of back itching and rashes

Does your back itch and rashes occur? Find out the causes and treatments in our article. We will help you get rid of discomfort and skin problems.

Back itching and rashes are quite common and can occur for a variety of reasons. In some cases, this may be the result of exposure to an allergen, while in others it may be a symptom of a serious illness. In any case, itching on the back can be quite unpleasant and interfere with normal life.

Atopic dermatitis is a common cause of back itching. This is a chronic skin disease that often occurs in people with a predisposition to allergies. In atopic dermatitis, the skin becomes very dry and sensitive, which can lead to itching and rashes on the back and other parts of the body.

Another common condition that can cause back itching and rashes is herpes. It is a highly contagious viral disease that is transmitted through contact with infected people. For most people, cold sores appear as blisters on the lips, but sometimes it can lead to itching and rashes on the back, abdomen, and other parts of the body.

In any case, if you have itching and rashes on your back, it is important to see a doctor to determine the cause and prescribe the appropriate treatment. These symptoms should not be ignored as they can become serious if not treated on time.

Allergic reactions

Allergic reactions can be one of the causes of back itching and rashes. An allergy is the body’s reaction to substances called allergens. Some allergens can cause a reaction directly on the skin, resulting in itching and rashes.

Skin allergies can develop for various reasons. Some people may have hypersensitivity to certain substances in cosmetics, detergents, or sunscreens. Others may be allergic to certain clothing materials, such as synthetic fibers or natural materials such as wool or cotton.

To establish the diagnosis of allergy, allergy skin tests or blood tests are usually used to test for IgE antibody levels. Treatment for skin allergies may include the use of antihistamines, creams and ointments, and avoiding exposure to possible allergens.

Thyroid disorders

The thyroid gland is a reed organ located on the front of the neck. It is responsible for the production of hormones that regulate the metabolism in the body. Malfunctions of this gland can lead to various diseases, including itching and rashes on the skin of the back.

One of the most common causes of itching and rashes in thyroid disorders is hypothyroidism. This is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough hormones. The body begins to work more slowly, which can lead to dandruff, dry skin and rashes. In addition, hypothyroidism can cause increased sweating, which can also lead to itchy and irritated skin.

Hyperthyroidism, another common thyroid disease, can also be caused by excess hormones. In this condition, the body begins to work too quickly, which can lead to loss of moisture and dry skin. Patients with hyperthyroidism may also experience increased sweating and itchy skin.

In general, thyroid disorders can be one of the causes of back itching and rashes. It is necessary to contact an endocrinologist in a timely manner, who will diagnose and offer the necessary treatment.


Scabies is an infectious skin disease caused by itch lice. These microscopic parasites burrow into the upper layers of the skin and lay their eggs. Symptoms of the disease may appear 2-6 weeks after contact with an infected person.

One of the main symptoms of scabies is severe itching, which is worse at night and is especially sensitive on the back and in places where the skin is folded. The spread of the infection occurs through direct contact with an infected person, as well as through shared clothing, bedding and towels.

The treatment of scabies consists in the use of special medicines that decontaminate the skin and remove parasites. It is important to consult a doctor for accurate diagnosis and prescribing the necessary treatment. You also need to eliminate contact with an infected person and disinfect common household items.

  • For the prevention of scabies, it is recommended:
  • Avoid contact with infected people.
  • Wear cotton clothing, change of underwear.
  • Instruct children not to interact with infected children during treatment.
  • Disinfect items that an infected person has come into contact with.

By following these tips, you can avoid scabies and protect yourself and others.

Mycoses of the skin

Mycoses of the skin are diseases caused by fungi that affect the human skin. In most cases, fungi cause itching, redness, and rashes on the skin. They can appear on any part of the body, including the back and lower back.

There are several types of skin fungus that can cause different symptoms. For example, dermatophytoses are fungal skin infections that often affect the scalp, nails, and feet. Different types of dermatophytosis can cause different symptoms, such as itching, flaking, and rashes.

In addition, mycosis of the skin can occur as a result of contact with fungi that live in the soil. This can happen, for example, when visiting public swimming pools, saunas and sports clubs. In this case, mycoses can appear as red spots and itching on the skin.

To diagnose skin mycoses and determine their type, you need to contact a dermatologist. He will prescribe appropriate treatment, which may include the use of antifungal agents in the form of ointments, creams and tablets. In addition, it is important to observe hygiene measures, such as daily body washing and change of clothes, to prevent the development of skin fungus.


Eczema is a chronic skin disease that manifests itself in the form of dryness, itching, redness and flaking. It can occur due to a variety of reasons, including genetic factors, allergic reactions, and stress.

Eczema can affect any part of the body, including the back. In such cases, the skin on the back can become dry, flaky and itchy. Rashes in the form of red, inflamed bumps or vesicles can also appear on the skin.

Eczema is treated with creams and ointments that help moisturize the skin and relieve itching. People with atopic dermatitis, which is a form of eczema, may be prescribed medications that reduce inflammation and itching.

  • It is important to avoid irritants such as strong soaps and food allergens, which can aggravate eczema.
  • If the skin on the back becomes dry, try not to wear too tight and synthetic clothing.

Although eczema is not a contagious disease, some people may experience discomfort and fear due to skin rashes. It is recommended to consult a qualified dermatologist who will help determine the cause of eczema and prescribe an effective treatment.

Insect bites

Insect bites may cause itching and skin rashes. They can be caused by various insects such as mosquitoes, bees, wasps, ants, mites and others.

Each type of bite may have its own characteristics and symptoms. Mosquito bites often cause red nodules or small blisters on the skin, while bee and wasp stings can cause painful swelling and redness.

In the event of an insect bite, disinfect the biting surface and use cold to relieve swelling. If the bite is severe, it should be shown to a doctor, who may prescribe antihistamines and antiallergic drugs.

  • To prevent mosquito bites, it is recommended to use insect repellents and wear protective clothing.
  • Carry an epinephrine syringe with you if you have an allergic reaction to insect stings.

It is also important to inspect your home for insects such as bedbugs and cockroaches, which can not only be a source of bites but also cause various diseases.

Insect species
Bite characteristics
Mosquitoes Small red nodules or vesicles Itching, redness, slight swelling
Bees, wasps Great swelling and redness 901 04

Pain, itching, redness
Ticks Red raised dot in the center of redness Itching, redness, possible rash around the bite


Psoriasis is a chronic non-infectious disease that manifests itself in the form of periodically occurring foci of skin rashes. On the back, as well as on other areas of the skin, psoriasis is manifested by many red spots and a plaque of scales, which can itch and cause discomfort.

The nature of psoriasis is influenced by genetic predisposition, as well as environmental factors such as stress, infection, alcohol abuse and smoking. However, the causes of psoriasis are still not fully understood.

The treatment of psoriasis depends on the degree and severity of the disease. These are mainly topical preparations, such as ointments and creams, as well as agents for reducing the cellular activity of the immune system in order to reduce inflammatory reactions on the skin. Some patients require systemic therapy, including tablets and injections.

It is important to remember that psoriasis is not transmitted from person to person and is not a sign of uncleanliness or ill health. Regular follow-up with a doctor and treatment allow you to control the condition of the disease and keep the skin healthy and beautiful.

Fungal diseases

Fungal diseases are one of the most common causes of back itching and rashes. Fungi grow in damp places, they like heat and close contact with the skin.

Fungal diseases can present with various symptoms. Usually the skin on the affected area becomes dry, flaky and red. Blisters or rashes may appear on the body, which are very itchy and sore.

One of the most common fungal diseases is dermatophytosis. It often affects the legs, hands and nails. Skin problems can also be caused by related fungi such as candidiasis and seborrheic dermatitis.

  • To prevent fungal diseases, the following rules must be observed:
  • Maintain body and clothing hygiene;
  • Avoid tight clothing and shoes;
  • Avoid contact with unhealthy people and animals;
  • Take care of your skin.

If you find any symptoms of a fungal disease on your body, you should immediately consult a doctor. Once diagnosed, treatment may be with topical ointments and creams, and in more severe cases, systemic drug administration may be required.

Infectious diseases

Fungal infections: back itching and rash may be associated with a fungal infection of the skin. Fungi usually enter the skin through contact with contaminated objects or surfaces and begin to multiply on the surface of the skin. This can lead to itching and rashes.

Viral infections: Some viral infections can cause skin itching and rashes, especially on the back. Some of these infections include chicken pox and shingles. These infections usually have other symptoms, such as fever or pain in the area of ​​the skin.

Bacterial infections: Some bacterial skin infections can cause itching and rashes on the back. It could be staphylococcus or streptococcal infections. These infections can occur because bacteria can enter through cuts, scrapes, or other holes in the skin.

Parasitic infections: Some parasites can cause skin infections that can lead to itching and rashes on the back. Some examples of such infections include scabies or lice. These infections are usually transmitted through contact with other people or contaminated linen.

Black dots

Black dots on the back appear due to clogging of the pores of the skin with the secretion of the sebaceous glands. This secret mixes with dead skin cells, forming the so-called comedones. When a clogged pore is close to the surface of the skin, it is called an open comedone or blackhead because its oxygen content is oxidized and it darkens.

Blackheads can be caused by touching the back, clothing that rubs against the skin, or prolonged wearing of tight clothing that prevents the skin from breathing. This can lead to increased production of sebaceous jelly and eventually blackheads.

Black dots on the back are not a disease, but rather the result of improper skin care or a genetic predisposition to excess sebum production. For attempts to get rid of black spots on the back, various cosmetic products such as scrubs, peels, masks and gels can help. Skin care is also important, including daily hygiene, using non-aggressive body and clothing washes, drinking enough water, and living a healthy lifestyle.

  • To avoid blackheads, we recommend:
  • Keep skin clean and remove impurities and dead skin cells daily with a mild shower gel or soap;
  • Avoid wearing tight and synthetic clothing and do not rub the skin against the surface of objects or clothing;
  • Use special cosmetic products that regulate sebum secretion and unclog pores;
  • Take sea salt baths – sea salt helps remove carbon and other harmful elements from the skin;
  • Moisturize the skin with special cosmetic products after each shower or bath;

Hormonal imbalance

One of the main factors leading to back itching and rashes is hormonal imbalance. It can manifest itself in men and women and is accompanied by various symptoms: oily or dry skin, menstrual irregularities, decreased libido.

In women, hormonal imbalance is often associated with pregnancy, breastfeeding or menopause. In men, hormonal imbalances can be caused by abnormalities in the thyroid gland or testicular function.

Hormonal imbalance causes skin changes that can cause itching and rashes. In addition, hormonal imbalances lower the skin’s resistance to various stimuli, which can lead to sensitivity to cosmetics, detergents, and other chemicals.

To eliminate itching and rashes caused by hormonal imbalance, it is necessary to choose the appropriate treatment. To do this, you should contact an endocrinologist and get recommendations on taking hormonal drugs or correcting nutrition and lifestyle.


Scoliosis is a pathological curvature of the spine in the horizontal and vertical planes. The deviation can be unilateral or bilateral, depending on the degree of development of the scoliotic process. In most cases, scoliosis develops during childhood or adolescence, but sometimes it can occur in adults.

Symptoms of scoliosis can manifest themselves in various ways: back pain, especially when sitting in one position for a long time, the appearance of tuberosity on the back, uneven position of the shoulder blades and shoulder girdle, shortening of one leg, impaired gait, etc.

Scoliosis can be caused by impaired formation or development of the spine, impaired muscle tone, but it can also develop in association with other diseases and conditions, such as neurological disorders, seizures, or respiratory failure.

Scoliosis requires an obligatory visit to an orthopedist, who will prescribe a comprehensive treatment depending on the degree and causes of scoliosis. In some cases, it may be necessary to wear a corset, perform special exercises, physical therapy or surgery. Regular medical monitoring helps to avoid complications and maintain the health of the spine.


Sunstroke is an acute health disorder caused by excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays. As a result, the human body may not perform its functions, there is weakness, nausea, dizziness and severe itching on the back and other parts of the body.

The most striking signs of sunstroke are the appearance of rashes on the skin. They can be of different shapes and sizes, from small dots to large blisters with liquid contents. Rashes, as a rule, manifest themselves first on open areas of the body – the face, arms, legs and back.

If you develop red spots or rashes on your back after exposure to sunlight, you should find shade and shelter from the sun as soon as possible. Open-weave clothing and light, non-sticky fabric will be the best protection for your skin.

To prevent sunstroke, drink plenty of fluids and avoid direct sunlight during the hot part of the day.

Also, if you have a tendency to be allergic to the sun, remember to use sunscreen with SPF 30 or higher on exposed areas of the body.

If you develop rashes on your back and other skin areas after exposure to the sun, you should consult a dermatologist.

Heat stroke

Heat stroke is a condition of the body resulting from overheating and disturbance of normal thermoregulation. This can happen when exposed to the sun for a long time, in a hot room, or when exercising at elevated temperatures.

One of the symptoms of heat stroke may be itching on the back and rashes. The skin may become red and almost hot to the touch. Dizziness, nausea, and weakness may also occur.

If you notice signs of heatstroke, you should immediately take measures to cool your body: move to an air-conditioned room or shade, drink cool water and take a shower or bathe in cool water. If the condition worsens or signs of sunstroke or heat stroke appear, you should consult a doctor.

Remember to take precautions to prevent heat stroke: wear light and loose clothing, drink plenty of water, and avoid prolonged exposure to direct sunlight during periods of high temperatures.

Antibiotic treatment

Antibiotics are effective in treating back itching and rashes that are caused by a bacterial infection. However, the use of antibiotics is necessary only in cases where the infection is confirmed by a specialist.

How antibiotics work

Antibiotics have a bactericidal or bacteriostatic effect on the bacteria that causes an infection, thereby killing the infection and stopping its development. Commonly used antibiotics are amoxicillin, cephalexin, azithromycin, and others.

How to take antibiotics

  • Antibiotics must be taken exactly as prescribed by the doctor, following the recommended dosage and time of administration.
  • Antibiotics should be continued until the end of the course, even if the symptoms of the infection have disappeared, otherwise a relapse may occur, which will be more difficult to treat.
  • Antibiotics should not be stopped without the advice of a specialist.

Side effects

The use of antibiotics may cause unwanted side effects, such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, allergic reactions, etc. If the patient develops unwanted effects, you should immediately consult a doctor.

In any case, it is necessary to follow all the points of the prescribed course of antibiotic treatment, which will make it possible to quickly and effectively get rid of itching on the back and rashes.


In case of itching on the back and rashes, you should consult a doctor so that he can prescribe the appropriate treatment. One of the main methods of treatment is taking medications.

Antihistamines are great for reducing itching and inflammation. Drugs such as Cetrizin, Loratadin, Fexofenadine and others not only relieve itching, but also reduce rashes.

Cortisone-based preparations help to quickly reduce inflammation and itching. However, they must be used with caution and only on the advice of a doctor, as these drugs can have side effects.

Antibiotics are given if the rash is caused by an infection. Popular antibiotics are Azithromycin, Amoxicillin, Cefalexin, etc.

Do not forget that self-medication can harm your health. See your doctor and follow all his instructions.


Hypothermia is one of the most common causes of back itching and rashes. When we get cold, our body tries to keep warm by constricting blood vessels and reducing blood circulation in the skin. This can lead to skin irritation, itching, redness, and rashes.

To avoid hypothermia, it is necessary to carefully select clothes for the season and weather conditions, especially if you are going to spend a lot of time outdoors. It is also important to monitor the temperature of the water in the shower and not sit on a cold surface.

If you’re already cold, warm drinks and foods, including high-fat foods, will help your body recover its temperature more quickly.

  1. Avoid prolonged exposure to cold weather.
  2. Eat regular meals, including foods high in fat.
  3. Wear warm and comfortable clothing for the season and weather conditions.
  4. DO NOT sit on a cold surface.

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What can cause back itching and rashes?

The causes can be various factors such as allergic reactions, infectious diseases, fungal infections, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, eczema, mechanical damage, stress, etc.

What symptoms may accompany itching on the back and rashes?

Depending on the cause of itching, there may be various symptoms such as redness, swelling, spots, blisters, cracks, peeling, etc. Pain, burning and other uncomfortable sensations are also possible.

Which allergens can cause back itching?

Allergens can be various, such as chemicals (detergents, cosmetics), plants (herbs, flowers), animals, foods, medicines, etc.

What infectious diseases can cause rashes on the back?

Infectious diseases such as rubella, chickenpox, herpes zoster, scabies, fungal infections, etc. can cause rashes on the back.

What is atopic dermatitis and how does it manifest itself on the back?

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that can present on the back as rashes, blemishes, cracks, peeling, and severe itching.

What are the treatments for back itching and rashes?

Treatment depends on the cause of the itching. You can use antihistamines, antifungals, ointments and creams containing hormones, vitamins, drugs that improve blood circulation, etc. It is also important to eliminate the cause of itching, for example, to eliminate the allergen or treat an infectious disease.

When should I seek medical attention for back itching and rashes?

If itching does not go away within a few days, severe pain occurs, itching spreads over a large area, pustular elements appear, body temperature rises, you should consult a doctor for professional help.

Diagnosis of pruritus and allergic reactions

Detection of pruritus and allergic reactions

Skin itch, can cause various triggers. 1.2

Allergens, including grass and tree pollen, foods, drugs, dust mites and animal dander, can cause a systemic allergic reaction. 3

Let’s look at the key features of some of the most common pruritus and allergic reactions in order to better assess patients.

Itching associated with urticaria (blisters and rash)


  • Urticaria is swelling of the upper layer of the skin


    Common causes of acute urticaria (lasting <6 weeks) include allergic reactions. 5 Urticaria eruptions are in most cases transient. 5 This means that in one place they persist for several hours, and new rashes appear in other places.

  • Recognition manual

    Skin appearance – is the affected area: 4

    • Red? (varies by skin tone)
    • Towering above the skin?
    • Severely itchy?
    • Does the rash move around the body?
  • Questions to ask the patient

    Identify possible triggers: 4

    • Has the patient been exposed to contact allergens (eg latex)?
    • Has the patient been exposed to factors such as temperature changes, UV radiation, etc. ?

    If in cases of recurrent or persistent urticaria, the cause cannot be determined, patients should consult a doctor for the necessary examination

Rash associated with sunburn

  • Sunburn is an acute inflammatory skin reaction caused by excessive UV exposure, most commonly from the sun


    Sunburns usually occur on the upper back and shoulders, but can occur anywhere on the body. Severe sunburn can cause blistering. 7

  • Recognition manual

    Skin appearance – is the affected area: 6.7

    • Red? (varies by skin tone)
    • Dry/scaly?
    • Itchy?
    • Painful?
    • Warm to the touch?
  • Questions to ask the patient

    You have recently: 7

    • Have you been out in the sun without adequate protection?
    • Exposed to UV radiation (eg tanning beds, welding)?

Itching caused by superficial burns

  • Superficial burns damage the top layer of the skin

    8. 9

    Superficial burns usually occur on the extremities but may occur on any part of the body. Superficial burns often result from contact of a small area with a hot liquid. 10 Severe burns may cause blistering. 9

  • Recognition manual

    Skin appearance – is the affected area: 11.12

    • Red? (varies by skin tone)
    • Itchy?
    • Dry?
    • Painful?
  • Questions to ask the patient

    They recently:

    • Has the patient spilled a hot drink/liquid on themselves?
    • Touched a hot object such as an iron or a frying pan?

Itching caused by insect bites

  • Insect bites are usually caused by sucking on a blood-sucking insect or by a defensive reaction of the insect


    Blood-sucking insects include: 13

    • Mosquitoes
    • Fleas
    • Bed bugs

    Protective insect stings include: 13

    • Bee stings
    • Wasp stings
    • Ant stings

    Insect bites usually occur on the extremities, but can occur on any part of the body. Risk factors for insect bites include contact with pets, hiking, gardening, or walking in wooded/marshy areas. 13

  • Recognition manual

    Skin appearance – is the affected area: 13

    • Red? (varies by skin tone)
    • Swollen?
    • Painful?
    • Itchy?

Seasonal (hay fever) and perennial allergic rhinitis.

  • Allergic rhinitis – inflammatory disease of the nose


    Allergic rhinitis develops when the nasal mucosa is exposed to allergens to which a person is hypersensitive, with typical symptoms of sneezing, itching in the nose, discharge (rhinorrhea) and nasal congestion. 1 Types of allergic rhinitis: 14

    • Seasonal – symptoms occur at the same time every year. It is caused by grass and tree pollen allergens and is also known as hay fever
    • Perennial – symptoms occur throughout the year, usually due to house dust mite and animal dander allergens
  • Recognition manual

    • Hay fever usually flares up between late March and September, especially during warm, humid and windy weather. It is then that the pollen content in the air is highest 15
    • The classic symptoms of allergic rhinitis develop after exposure to a known allergen 14
    • Allergic rhinitis may be associated with allergic conjunctivitis, asthma or eczema 14
  • Questions to ask the patient

    • Does the patient have a personal or family history of atopy (bronchial asthma, eczema or allergic rhinitis)?
    • Ask about living conditions, pets, and occupation to identify possible triggers and allergens

    If symptoms suggest related conditions such as allergic conjunctivitis, asthma, eczema or sinusitis, take appropriate action

Food allergy

  • Food allergy symptoms may develop within minutes of ingestion of the offending food


    Food allergy symptoms may include hives, swelling of the lips and tongue, red and itchy eyes, watery eyes, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. 16

  • Recognition manual

    Recognition Manual

    • Does the patient have a personal or family history of asthma, eczema or allergic rhinitis and a family history of food allergies? 16
    • Is the patient a child? (Food allergies are more common in children) 16
  • Questions to ask the patient


    • Reports a history of food allergies?
    • Reports that you have eaten something that can cause allergies (such as peanuts or seafood) in the last 2 hours? 16

Drug allergy

  • Drug allergy symptoms can be unpredictable


    Drugs can cause various types of local and systemic hypersensitivity reactions, which are unpredictable and can develop in a patient at any stage of drug therapy.