Retinol pills: Retinoid Treatment for Skin Problems: Acne, Wrinkles, & More
Vitamin A (Retinoid) Benefits for Vision and Health
Vitamin A is key for good vision, a healthy immune system, and cell growth. There are two types of vitamin A. This entry is primarily about the active form of vitamin A — retinoids — that comes from animal products. Beta-carotene is among the second type of vitamin A, which comes from plants.
The American Heart Association recommends obtaining antioxidants, including beta-carotene, by eating a well-balanced diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains rather than from supplements until more is known about the risks and benefits of supplementation.
High doses of antioxidants (including vitamin A) may actually do more harm than good. Vitamin A supplementation alone, or in combination with other antioxidants, is associated with an increased risk of mortality from all causes, according to an analysis of multiple studies.
Why do people take vitamin A?
Topical and oral retinoids are common prescription treatments for acne and other skin conditions, including wrinkles. Oral vitamin A is also used as a treatment for measles and dry eye in people with low levels of vitamin A. Vitamin A is also used for a specific type of leukemia.
Vitamin A has been studied as a treatment for many other conditions, including cancers, cataracts, and HIV. However, the results are inconclusive.
Most people get enough vitamin A from their diets. However, a doctor might suggest vitamin A supplements to people who have vitamin A deficiencies. People most likely to have vitamin A deficiency are those with diseases (such as digestive disorders) or very poor diets.
How much vitamin A should you take?
The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) includes the vitamin A you get from both the food you eat and any supplements you take.
Vitamin A: Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) in micrograms (mcg) of Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE)
14 years and up
14-18 years: 750 mcg/day
19 years and over: 770 mcg/day
Under 19 years: 1,200 mcg/day
19 years and over: 1,300 mcg/day
14 years and up
The tolerable upper intake levels of a supplement are the highest amount that most people can take safely. Higher doses might be used to treat vitamin A deficiencies. But you should never take more unless a doctor says so.
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL) of Retinol* in micrograms (mcg) of Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE)
19 years and up
* There is no upper limit for vitamin A from beta-carotene.
Can you get vitamin A naturally from foods?
Getting enough vitamin A can easily be obtained through a healthy diet.
Good food sources of retinoid vitamin A include:
- Whole milk
- Fortified skim milk and cereals
Plant sources of vitamin A (from beta-carotene) include sweet potatoes, carrots, spinach, and apricots.
What are the risks of taking vitamin A?
- Side effects. Symptoms of vitamin A toxicity include dry skin, joint pain, vomiting, headaches, confusion.
- Interactions. If you take any medicines, ask your doctor if vitamin A supplements are safe. Vitamin A supplements may interact with some birth control pills, some blood thinners, some oral acne medicines, cancer treatments, and many other drugs.
- Risks. Don’t take more than the RDA of vitamin A unless your doctor recommends it. High doses of vitamin A have been associated with birth defects, lower bone density, and liver problems. People who drink heavily or have kidney or liver disease shouldn’t take vitamin A supplements without talking to a doctor.
What It Is, How It Works, Uses, Health Benefit
Retinol is a derivative of vitamin A. It performs functions in the body that are tied to vision and normal human development. It’s commonly used as a dietary supplement and to treat skin conditions.
bit245 / IStock / Getty Images
What It Is
Retinol is a form of vitamin A. Contrary to popular belief, vitamin A is not a single vitamin. Instead, it encompasses two families of compounds called retinoids and carotenoids. Retinol is one of the compounds in the retinoid family.
Retinol is yellow in color. It is fat-soluble, which means that it dissolves in fat, unlike most other vitamins that are water-soluble. Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body’s fat, unlike excess water-soluble vitamins, which are passed out in urine.
Retinol is also known as vitamin A1 and you might see it being referred to as preformed vitamin A. You may sometimes see retinol being used interchangeably with vitamin A, despite this being technically incorrect.
How It Works
When retinol enters the body, it is converted to retinal and retinoic acid. And it is those forms that it performs its functions in the body. When the other forms of vitamin A like carotenoids entire the body, they are first converted to retinol before being changed to retinal and retinoic acid.
Retinol is only naturally found in foods derived from animals. Foods like milk, cheese, butter, fish, cod liver oil, liver, and meat are all good sources of retinol.
This is in contrast with the carotenoids (provitamin A) that are found in leafy green vegetables, orange and yellow vegetables, tomatoes, and fruits. Some non-animal sourced foods like cereal are also fortified with retinol.
Retinol is used in dietary supplements and in skin care.
Retinol is sometimes used as a dietary supplement to treat or make up for vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A deficiency can cause night blindness and xerophthalmia (non-reversible damage to the cornea), and retinol supplementation is used to treat and prevent these conditions.
Sometimes this supplementation is in the form of drugs taken orally as tablets or capsules. Other times, the retinol is injected directly into the muscles so that it can be absorbed into the bloodstream quickly.
Retinol has many functions in the skin care and cosmetics products its included in. For one, it’s an anti-aging ingredient. When applied topically, it helps reduce wrinkles, treat hyperpigmentation, and generally lessen signs of skin aging.
Retinol is also used to treat acne and acne scarring. Many over the counter acne-fighting creams and gels have retinol as the active ingredient. Skin care and cosmetic products made to treat hyperpigmentation, texture, and psoriasis often add it to their formulations.
How retinol works in the skin is that it changes the way cells in the dermis and epidermis function. More specifically, it increases the rate at which these cells divide to make new cells. It also improves the production of collagen in the skin.
Retinol, whether consumed directly from animal food sources or supplements, plays some roles in the body. They include:
- Eyesight: Retinol is responsible for making the pigments in the eye’s retina and it promotes good night vision. When there are inadequate amounts of it in the body, vision can become impaired. Night blindness and total blindness can develop.
- Healthy growth and development: Retinol plays a vital role in cell growth and differentiation. In this way, it supports the normal development of the heart, kidneys, lungs, and many other organs, and helps maintain their proper functioning.
Vitamin A nutritional needs are mostly quantified in terms of retinol. The recommended dietary intake of retinol for adult men is 900 micrograms (mcg) Retinol Activity Equivalent (RAE). For adult women, it is 700 mcg RAE. Pregnant women and lactating women are advised to get up to 770 mcg RAE and 1,300 mcg RAE, respectively.
You may find that some labels for dietary intake recommendations use international unit (IU) as the unit of measurement. To convert from one unit of measure to the other, you can use the formula: 1 IU retinol = 0.3 mcg RAE.
This recommended dietary intake can be met either through your regular food choices or through nutritional supplements.
In normal doses, retinol is well tolerated and doesn’t cause any side effects or complications. But when consumed or taken in excessively high doses, retinol may cause problems like:
- Feeling sick, dizzy, and nauseous.
- Having headaches, skin irritation, and pain in your joints and bones.
- Birth defects (if a pregnant woman takes excessively high doses)
- Acute vitamin A poisoning, which typically occurs when an adult takes several hundred thousand IUs of vitamin A at once.
- Chronic vitamin A poisoning, which is generally seen in adults who frequently take more than 25,000 IU daily
- Liver damage
Excessive intake of retinol can also result in a coma or even death. It’s possible but unlikely that you will consume excessive amounts of retinol through food alone. Usually, when the levels of retinol in the body become toxic, it’s as a result of too much retinol supplementation.
A Word From Verywell
Retinol is an essential nutrient in the human diet. It’s critical for the development and normal functioning of many organs in the body. As such, you should try as much as possible to get your daily recommended intake of Vitamin A.
As with most other vitamins and nutrients, it may be best to get your daily requirements from food sources, except otherwise recommended by a healthcare professional. Retinol is also one of the few skincare ingredients that have its effectiveness solidly backed by science.
Possible Interactions with: Vitamin A (Retinol) | Complementary and Alternative Medicine
If you are being treated with any of the following medications, you should not use vitamin A without first talking to your health care provider.
— People who take a type of antibiotics called tetracyclines and also take high doses of vitamin A may be at risk for a condition called intracranial hypertension, a rise in the pressure of brain fluid. Tetracyclines include:
- Demeclocycline (Declomycin)
- Minocycline (Minocin)
- Tetracycline (Achromycin)
— One study suggests that the combination of vitamin A and antacids may be more effective than antacids alone in healing ulcers.
Anticoagulants (blood thinners)
— Long-term use of vitamin A or taking high doses may increase the risk of bleeding for those taking blood-thinning medications, particularly warfarin (Coumadin). Talk to your doctor before taking vitamin A.
Cholesterol-lowering medications (bile acid sequestrants)
— The medications cholestyramine (Questram) and colestipol (Colestid) may reduce the body’s ability to absorb vitamin A and lead to lower levels in the body. A water-soluble form of vitamin A may help. Another class of cholesterol-lowering medications called statins may actually increase vitamin A levels in the blood.
— Test tube studies suggest that vitamin A may enhance the action of doxorubicin, a medication used to treat cancer. More research is needed, however, to know whether this has any practical application. If you are undergoing treatment for cancer, talk to your oncologist before taking vitamin A or any supplement.
— This antibiotic may reduce the body’s ability to absorb vitamin A, especially when taken in large doses.
— Omeprazole (used for gastroesophageal reflux disease or “heartburn”) may influence the absorption and effectiveness of beta-carotene supplements. It is not known whether this medication affects the absorption of beta-carotene from foods.
— These medications are a synthetic form of vitamin A and are sometimes prescribed in high doses. People who take retinoids should not take any additional vitamin A supplements. In addition, these drugs can cause severe birth defects. Women of child-bearing age must have two negative pregnancy tests and be on two forms of birth control before taking these medications. Anyone taking retinoids will be monitored closely by their doctor. Retinoids include:
- Acitretin (Soriatane)
- Bexarotene (Targretin)
- Isotretinoin (Accutane)
- Tazarotene (Avage)
Tretinoin (Retin-A) is usually prescribed for topical use to treat acne or reduce wrinkles and is not as concentrated as other retinoids. However, it is still a good precaution to avoid taking a vitamin A supplement while using Retin-A.
Orlistat (Alli) and Olestra
— Orlistat, a medication used for weight loss, and olestra, a substance added to certain foods, both prevent the body from absorbing fat and calories. They may also prevent the body from absorbing enough vitamin A. The Food and Drug Administration requires that vitamin A and other fat-soluble vitamins (namely, D, E, and K) be added to food products containing olestra. In addition, people who take either prescription orlistat or over-the-counter Alli may want to take a multivitamin.
List of retinoids uses, brands, and safety precautions
Retinoids, derived from vitamin A (retinol), promote healthy skin. Retinoids are one of the most common forms of acne treatment.
Retinoids list | What are retinoids? | How they work | Uses | Types | Who can take retinoids? | Safety | Side effects | Costs
Most people who have searched for skincare products to improve the health or appearance of their skin have come across products that contain retinoids. Retinoids are drugs derived from vitamin A and are the most used and studied anti-aging compounds. They are used to reduce wrinkles, lighten dark spots, reduce acne, and treat many skin conditions. Retinoids are an attractive option for the young and the old, as they improve skin health in many different ways. In this article, we will review different kinds of retinoid products, including how they work, what conditions they can treat, many brand names, and their cost, side effects, and safe use.
*brand name discontinued in the U.S; only the generic version is available.
- Aklief (trifarotene)
- Targretin gel (bexarotene)
- Retinol (OTC)
- Retinol esters (OTC)
- Retinaldehyde (OTC)
What are retinoids?
Retinoids are a class of drugs that are derived from vitamin A (retinol) that promote healthy skin. They are available over-the-counter and by prescription and are used for various dermatologic conditions. Retinoids are one of the most common forms of treatment of acne. Their comedolytic properties make them highly effective at preventing clogged pores, so they are commonly sold in health and beauty stores to promote clear skin. According to the American Family Physician Foundation, retinoids are the most effective agents at preventing blocked pores, which is a reason they have been used for over thirty years. Retinoids are available in multiple forms, including gels, creams, ointments, lotions, foams, liquids, and capsules.
How do retinoids work?
Skin afflicted with acne is characterized by skin cells that have slow turnover. Dead cells are not removed quickly enough and build up, blocking pores in the skin. Retinoids bind to retinoic acid receptors (RAR) inside cells, where it activates the expression of specific genes that control the function of skin cells. One result of this gene expression is faster skin cell turnover and faster removal of dead skin cells (exfoliation). By accelerating skin turnover, retinoids also reduce pigmentation (darkening of skin) which effectively lightens dark spots. Retinoids can prevent new dark spots by stopping the transfer of melanosomes to the skin surface. Melanosomes are structures that carry molecules called melanin, which are dark brown or black pigments that darken the skin.
Retinoids also prevent abnormal skin growth by slowing down the formation (proliferation) and growth of new skin cells when they are being produced too quickly (hyperproliferation), as in the case of psoriasis. They also promote collagen growth beneath the skin, improving skin elasticity. They also fight wrinkles and sun damage through their antioxidant activity.
Retinoids block multiple inflammatory pathways that contribute to the inflammatory lesions that are common in acne. They reduce inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory molecules called cytokines. Examples of cytokines inhibited by retinoids include tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a), interleukin-6, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ).
Types of retinoids
First generation retinoids
First generation retinoids are natural and have the closest structure and function to vitamin A. These include retinol, retinal, tretinoin (retinoic acid), isotretinoin, and alitretinoin. While naturally occurring, their use as therapeutic agents are associated with the most toxic effects compared to newer generations, which have been modified to increase their tolerability.
Second generation retinoids
Second generation retinoids are synthetic (man-made) and have similar chemical structure to first generation retinoids. These include etretinate and its metabolite acitretin. These activate all types of retinoic acid receptors but bind poorly to them and are more easily eliminated from the body than first generation retinoids, making them more tolerable.
Third generation retinoids
Third generation retinoids are structurally designed to bind more specifically and effectively with certain retinoic acid receptors (such as retinoid x receptors) and include adapalene, bexarotene, and tazarotene. By targeting specific types of retinoic acid receptors, these have useful clinical applications in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and psoriasis, among other dermatologic conditions.
Fourth generation retinoids
Most recently, a fourth generation retinoid called Trifarotene was designed to be even more potent and selective for particular kinds of retinoic acid receptors, which makes it more effective with decreased skin irritation and a more tolerable safety profile overall compared to previous generations.
What are retinoids used for?
Retinoids have a broad range of uses related to promoting healthier skin. While many over-the-counter forms of retinoids may be incorporated into cosmetics that improve skin health and appearance (i.e. reducing wrinkles, aging of skin due to UV exposure, etc), this article deals mainly with their medical use in treating dermatological conditions. These include:
- Keratosis pilaris
- Kaposi’s sarcoma
- Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
- Post inflammatory hyperpigmentation
- Cutaneous lupus erythematosus
- Chronic hand eczema
- Actinic lentigines
- Scalp folliculitis
Who can take retinoids?
Patients of all ages and genders can take retinoids so long as they are not pregnant, breastfeeding (certain retinoids can be used while pregnant breastfeeding), and do not fall into additional categories that disqualify them from specific products. For example, Soriatane (acitretin) cannot be used in patients who have liver damage. Additionally, patients may have to follow certain requirements while taking retinoids to use them safely. Alcohol must be avoided during and after treatment with certain retinoids such as Soriatane.
Before using any retinoid products, tell your doctor about your medical conditions and history and any medications you take, including prescription drugs, OTC medicines, and vitamins or supplements. Having an accurate and complete medical history will ensure that your provider can make the best treatment decision for you.
Can men take retinoids?
Men can take retinoids provided they do not have a hypersensitivity to any of the product components and do not fall into a restricted category for the particular retinoid. Men taking any generic or brand version of isotretinoin must adhere to the iPLEDGE drug safety program requirements to obtain the medication from a participating pharmacy. While the program requirements are fewer for men, they still need to register and participate in the online screening program before each refill of isotretinoin. Men who take any isotretinoin product must not donate blood during and for at least one month following therapy. Men who take Soriatane (acitretin) must not donate blood during and for at least three years following therapy.
Can women take retinoids?
Women can take retinoids as long as they are not pregnant or breastfeeding. Many retinoids must be avoided by pregnant women. Isotretinoin requires strict adherence to the iPLEDGE drug safety program requirements to obtain the medication from participating pharmacies. The primary purpose of this program is to prevent pregnancies in females of childbearing age who are taking retinoids that can cause birth defects. Additionally, the program ensures that patients are aware of mental health problems that isotretinoin may precipitate, such as depression, psychosis, or suicide.
Female patients of childbearing age must agree to use two methods of birth control one month before, while taking, and for one month after taking isotretinoin. They must have two negative pregnancy tests before receiving the first month’s supply of isotretinoin. The first pregnancy test will be done by a doctor before the patient is accepted into the program. After, the patient must test each month using a certified laboratory.
Women need a negative pregnancy test before getting each refill, and another test a month after stopping isotretinoin. They must also pick up the prescription within seven days of testing. If a female patient can’t get her prescription within this window, she must do another pregnancy test, and answer questions in the iPLEDGE system again.
While isotretinoin is the only retinoid that has a designated computer-based risk management program, other retinoids have similar requirements. For example, Soriatane (acitretin) requires women to do monthly pregnancy tests before, during, and after treatment, and prohibits blood donation during treatment and for three years after treatment.
Can seniors take retinoids?
Generally, older adults can take retinoids as long as they do not have a history of hypersensitivity to the drug, do not fall into a restricted category for the particular retinoid product, and are using them for appropriate conditions. There may be an increased risk of side effects due to slower elimination of drugs in the elderly population.
Are retinoids safe?
Akorn, Inc. voluntary recall of Myorisan (isotretinoin) 20 mg capsules due to a package mislabeling (carton labeled 20 mg capsules contain 40 mg capsules in addition 20 20 mg capsules) (January 6, 2020). Affected lots expired in January 2021.
Amneal Pharmaceutical, Inc. voluntary recall of isotretinoin 10 mg capsules due to tretinoin levels above specification limits (October 16, 2019). All affected lots have since expired.
Soriatane (acitretin) and isotretinoin products carry a black box warning stating that they must not be used in female patients who are or may become pregnant. There is an extremely high birth defect risk if pregnancy occurs while using isotretinoin even for a short period of time, during any stage of pregnancy. Birth defects include abnormalities of the face, eyes, ears, skull, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, thymus gland, and parathyroid gland. In addition to these abnormalities, there exists risk for spontaneous abortion, premature birth, and developmental issues such as low IQ score.
Do not take retinoid products if you have a history of a hypersensitivity reaction to its active ingredient or any other components of the product. If you have a history of an allergic reaction to any retinoid products, ask your doctor before using any other retinoid products.
Can you take retinoids while pregnant or breastfeeding?
Oral retinoid products should not be used during pregnancy or while breastfeeding due to their known teratogenic effects. All patients using oral retinoids must participate in a REMS safety program as mandated by the FDA, to assure that risks are properly averted.
Topical retinoids applied to the skins are less likely to harm the unborn child. However, as a precaution, they are still not recommended for use during pregnancy, mainly due to inadequate data regarding their potential to cause fetal harm.
Topical retinoids should generally be avoided while breastfeeding when possible and should be used minimally and with caution due to lack of data regarding infant risk. This means using the retinoid for the shortest time needed and applying to the smallest area of skin as possible. Some topical retinoids such as Renova or OTC products such as Differin may be used while breastfeeding.
Are retinoids controlled substances?
No, retinoids are not controlled substances.
Common retinoids side effects
Retinoid drugs do not come without side effects. Many adverse effects can be reduced or prevented through additional skin care measures, such as using sun protection like a hat or sunscreen, and a moisturizer. The most common side effects of retinoid products include:
- Skin dryness
- Scaling of the skin
- Pruritus (itching)
Less common side effects include:
- Skin discoloration
- Light sensitivity
- Sensitive skin
- Initial acne flare-up
- Eczema flare-up
- Swelling of the skin
- Blistering and stinging
This is not a comprehensive list of all possible side effects of retinoid products. Speak with a dermatologist or pharmacist to get a complete list of side effects and to determine whether taking retinoids is appropriate for you.
How much do retinoids cost?
Retinoids vary greatly in price. Most retinoids are available in a generic formulation, with a few exceptions such as Panretin and Aklief. Some brand name retinoids can cost thousands of dollars for a single tube. Fortunately, costs can be drastically reduced by using SingleCare. Soriatane costs over $1500 but you can pay less than $150 by using a free coupon or discount card.
Most Medicare plans cover certain types of retinoids products, at least in their generic form. For example, 99% of Medicare drug plans cover tretinoin, and many cover isotretinoin, tazarotene, acitretin, and bexarotene. Whether you are uninsured or have prescription drug coverage, check out SingleCare for discounts on retinoids—your out-of-pocket costs may be less with a SingleCare coupon even if you have insurance.
- Better safety profile for new retinoid in development, Dermatology Times
- Do retinoids really reduce wrinkles?, Harvard Health
- Topical therapy for acne, American Family Physician
- Why topical retinoids are mainstay of therapy for acne, Dermatology and therapy
- Retinoids: active molecules influencing skin structure formation in cosmetic and dermatological treatment, Advances in dermatology and allergology
- Isotretinoin, Epocrates
- Retinoids, topical, American Osteopathic College of Dermatology
- Soriatane, Epocrates
- Topical tretinoin or adapalene in acne vulgaris: an overview, The journal of dermatological treatment
- Patient Introductory Brochure, iPLEDGE program
- Retinoids—An overview of clinical application in dermatology, Journal of pharmaceutical sciences and research
Retinol, Aquasol A (vitamin A) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more
Minor (1)acitretin increases toxicity of vitamin A by pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. (Vitamin A) Additive retinoid effects.
Monitor Closely (1)vitamin A, beta carotene.
Either increases levels of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Administration of beta-carotene with vitamin A usually is not necessary and should be avoided to prevent the development of hypervitaminosis A.
Monitor Closely (1)bexarotene increases toxicity of vitamin A by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor. (Vitamin A) Additive retinoid effects. Avoid consuming vitamin-A containing supplements in amounts exceeding FDA recommended daily allowance.
Minor (1)vitamin A, busulfan. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, capecitabine. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, carboplatin. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, carmustine. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)chitosan decreases levels of vitamin A by inhibition of GI absorption. Applies only to oral form of both agents. Minor/Significance Unknown.
Minor (1)vitamin A, chlorambucil. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)cholestyramine decreases levels of vitamin A by inhibition of GI absorption. Applies only to oral form of both agents. Minor/Significance Unknown. (Vitamin A).
Minor (1)vitamin A, cisplatin. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, cladribine. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)colestipol decreases levels of vitamin A by inhibition of GI absorption. Applies only to oral form of both agents. Minor/Significance Unknown. (Vitamin A).
Minor (1)vitamin A, cytarabine. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, dacarbazine. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, decitabine. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Monitor Closely (1)dichlorphenamide, vitamin A.
Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Both drugs can cause metabolic acidosis.
Minor (1)vitamin A, docetaxel. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Monitor Closely (1)etretinate increases toxicity of vitamin A by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor. (Vitamin A) Additive retinoid effects.
Minor (1)vitamin A, floxuridine. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, fludarabine. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, fluorouracil. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, gemcitabine. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, ifosfamide. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, irinotecan. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, irinotecan liposomal. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Monitor Closely (1)isotretinoin increases toxicity of vitamin A by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor. (Vitamin A) Additive retinoid effects.
Minor (1)vitamin A, lomustine. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, mechlorethamine. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, melphalan. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, mercaptopurine. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)mineral oil decreases levels of vitamin A by inhibition of GI absorption. Applies only to oral form of both agents. Minor/Significance Unknown.
Minor (1)minocycline, vitamin A. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Risk of benign intracranial hypertension.
Monitor Closely (1)mipomersen, vitamin A.
Either increases toxicity of the other by Other (see comment). Use Caution/Monitor.
Comment: Both drugs have potential to increase hepatic enzymes; monitor LFTs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, nelarabine. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)neomycin PO decreases levels of vitamin A by inhibition of GI absorption. Applies only to oral form of both agents. Minor/Significance Unknown. (Vitamin A).
Minor (1)orlistat decreases levels of vitamin A by inhibition of GI absorption. Applies only to oral form of both agents. Minor/Significance Unknown. Separate by 2 hours.
Minor (1)vitamin A, oxaliplatin. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, paclitaxel. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, paclitaxel protein bound. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, pentostatin. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Serious – Use Alternative (1)vitamin A and pexidartinib both increase Other (see comment). Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Pexidartinib can cause hepatotoxicity. Avoid coadministration of pexidartinib with other products know to cause hepatoxicity.
Minor (1)vitamin A, pralatrexate. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Serious – Use Alternative (1)vitamin A, pretomanid.
Either increases toxicity of the other by Other (see comment). Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.
Comment: Pretomanid regimen associated with hepatotoxicity. Avoid alcohol and hepatotoxic agents, including herbal supplements and drugs other than bedaquiline and linezolid.
Minor (1)vitamin A, streptozocin. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, thioguanine. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, thiotepa. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, topotecan. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, treosulfan. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, vinblastine. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, vincristine. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, vincristine liposomal. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
Minor (1)vitamin A, vinorelbine. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Antioxidants such as vitamin A enhance the efficacy, and reduce toxicity, of antineoplastic drugs.
RoC Revive and Glow Daily Serum (1 fl. oz., 2 pk.) + Retinol Capsules (10 ct.)
This pack has it all; brighten and tighten skin during the day with RoC’s Multi Correxion Revive + Glow Daily Serum while reducing fine lines and wrinkles at night with RoC’s Retinol Correxion® Line Smoothing Night Serum Capsules.
Awaken dull, lackluster skin to reveal a visibly brighter, tighter, more even complexion with this supercharged Vitamin C Daily Serum. This highly potent formula is packed with a 10% vitamin C blend that is clinically proven to deliver brighter, tighter skin to 100% of women in 4 weeks. This serum starts working right away to revive dull skin, and over time visibly firms and reduces lines and wrinkles. Give fatigued skin the daily dose of RoC® Vitamin C it needs for instant radiance and a healthier-looking complexion. There are no sulfates or parabens.
Along with your two Revive + Glow Daily Serums, you will also get a free 10 CT bonus pack of RoC’s Retinol Correxion® Line Smoothing Night Serum Capsules. These clinically proven, breakthrough capsules are the perfect nighttime complement to your morning Vitamin C Serum. Discover a potent overnight renewal treatment in a single-use capsule, sealed tight for optimal freshness. It’s made with a high concentration of pure RoC® Retinol and a bio-derived antioxidant with 2x the effectiveness of vitamin E.
How to Use
AM USE: Multi Correxion® Revive + Glow Daily Serum Smooth 4-6 drops of serum over cleansed face and neck AM and/or PM. Apply a sunscreen of SPF15 or higher during the day while using this product.
PM USE: Retinol Correxion® Line Smoothing Night Serum Capsules For an extra boost of line-fighting power at night, alternate use of the Revive + Glow Daily Serum with the Line Smoothing Capsules. These clinically proven, breakthrough capsules are the perfect nighttime complement to your morning Vitamin C serum.
Gently twist to open the capsule. Smooth serum over cleansed face and neck at night when the skin is most receptive for renewal.Gently twist to open the capsule. Smooth serum over cleansed face and neck at night when the skin is most receptive to renewal.
Water, Propanediol, PPG-24-Glycereth-24, Glycerin, 3-o-Ethyl Ascorbic Acid, Troxerutin, 1,2-Hexanediol, Sodium Polyacryloyldimethyl Taurate, PPG-26-Buteth-26, Fragrance, PEG-40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil, Caprylyl Glycol, Disodium Phosphate, Nonapeptide-1, Sodium Phosphate, Caprylhydroxamic Acid, Disodium EDTA, Polygonum Aviculare Extract, Cistus Monspeliensis Flower/Leaf/Stem Extract, Maltodextrin, Terminalia Ferdinandiana Fruit Extract, Citric Acid, Yellow 6 (CI 15985)
Cyclopentasiloxane, Ethylhexyl Cocoate, Dimethiconol, Glycine Soja (Soybean) Oil, Retinol, Dimethylmethoxy, Chromanol, Ceramide NP, Phenoxyethanol.
Isotretinoin capsules. Isotretinoin side-effects – Patient
|Type of medicine||An oral retinoid|
|Used for||Severe acne in adults and in young people over 12 years of age|
|Also called||Roaccutane®; Reticutan®|
Acne is the common cause of spots. Most people with acne are aged between 12 and 25 years, but some older and younger people are affected too. Small sebaceous glands lie just under your skin surface and make an oil (sebum) that keeps your skin supple and smooth. Tiny pores on your skin allow the sebum to come on to the surface of your skin. In acne, some of these pores become blocked, causing inflamed spots.
Isotretinoin belongs to a group of medicines known as retinoids, which are substances related to vitamin A. It is used to treat acne which is severe, or which has not got better with other treatments such as oral antibiotics or skin treatments. It works by reducing the production of your skin’s natural oil. It is also thought to reduce inflammation. Isotretinoin capsules will be prescribed for you by a skin specialist doctor.
Isotretinoin is also available as a rub-on (topical) skin treatment. There is more information about topical isotretinoin in a separate leaflet called Isotretinoin gel for acne.
Before taking isotretinoin
Some medicines are not suitable for people with certain conditions, and sometimes a medicine can only be used if extra care is taken. For these reasons, before you start taking isotretinoin it is important that your doctor knows:
- If you are pregnant, trying for a baby or breastfeeding. This is very important because isotretinoin is harmful to babies.
- If you have diabetes (diabetes mellitus).
- If you have a dry eye condition.
- If you have been told you have high levels of fats (lipids) in your blood.
- If you have ever had a mental health problem such as a depressive illness, or if you have ever had suicidal thoughts.
- If you know you have a condition where there is too much vitamin A stored in your body, called hypervitaminosis A.
- If you have any problems with the way your liver works, or if you have any problems with the way your kidneys work.
- If you have ever had an allergic reaction to a medicine, or if you are allergic to soya or peanuts.
- If you are taking any other medicines. This includes any medicines you are taking which are available to buy without a prescription, as well as herbal and complementary medicines. It is particularly important that your doctor knows if you are taking a tetracycline antibiotic, or a vitamin supplement.
How to take isotretinoin
- Before you start the treatment, read the manufacturer’s printed information leaflet from inside the pack of capsules and any additional information you are given by the doctor. These will give you more information about isotretinoin and will provide you with a full list of the side-effects which you may experience from taking it.
- The capsules are for you – it is very important that you do not share isotretinoin with anyone else.
- Take isotretinoin exactly as your doctor tells you to. There are several strengths of isotretinoin capsules available: 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg. Your dose will be calculated from your weight – each dose may be a combination of different strengths of capsule. Isotretinoin is taken once or twice each day. Your doctor will tell you how many capsules of which strengths to take for each dose, and what time(s) of the day to take the doses. This information will also be printed on the label of the packs to remind you about what the doctor said to you.
- Take the capsules with food; during a meal is ideal. It is best to swallow the capsules with a drink of water. Do not open or chew the capsules.
- If your doctor thinks it necessary, your dose may be adjusted during the course of your treatment. If this happens, make sure you follow carefully the instructions that your doctor gives to you.
- You will be prescribed a course of treatment that lasts for 4-6 months. Only one course of treatment is usually needed.
- If you forget to take a dose, take it as soon as you remember (unless it is nearly time for your next dose, in which case take the next dose when it is due and leave out the forgotten dose). Do not take two doses together to make up for a missed dose.
Getting the most from your treatment
- It is important that you keep your regular appointments with your doctor. This is so your doctor can check on your progress. You will need to have some tests before and during the treatment. The tests will check a number of things: that your liver and blood remain healthy, that the amount of fat in your blood stays within normal amounts, and (in women) that you are not pregnant.
- Your doctor will explain to you the dangers of isotretinoin on an unborn baby. If you are a woman, you will be given advice on which types of contraception are suitable for you. One or preferably two forms of contraception are needed during the time from at least one month before you start taking isotretinoin, during the whole course of the treatment, and for at least one month after you stop taking isotretinoin. If at any time during this period you think you may be pregnant, you must speak with your doctor straightaway.
- Some people find that their acne gets worse when they first start taking isotretinoin. This can happen, but it usually resolves quickly within 7-10 days.
- Isotretinoin is likely to make your skin feel very dry. Many people find that using a moisturiser and a lip balm regularly from the day that the treatment starts helps to reduce this.
- You may find that your eyes feel drier than normal. Ask a pharmacist or optician to recommend some suitable lubricating eye drops for you to use. If you normally wear contact lenses, you may prefer to wear glasses instead for a while.
- Your skin will become more sensitive than normal to sunlight and UV light while you are on isotretinoin. Do not use sunbeds and try to avoid direct sunlight. It is recommended that you use a sunblock and a lip balm with a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 15 before you go out into the sun.
- Do not use treatments such as hair removal waxing, chemical dermabrasion, or laser treatments. You should wait for at least six months after you’ve finished isotretinoin before having any of these types of treatments.
- Prescriptions for isotretinoin must be dispensed within seven days of being prescribed by a doctor. Wherever possible, it should be on the same day. Each time you are given a new prescription, please take it to your pharmacy to be dispensed straightaway.
- Do not take any vitamin supplements which contain vitamin A while you are on isotretinoin. If you buy any over-the-counter medicines or vitamin supplements, check with a pharmacist that they are suitable for you to take. Also, do not use or take any other anti-acne treatments.
- If you are a blood donor, do not donate blood while you are taking isotretinoin or for at least one month after your treatment has stopped.
- Rarely, some people taking isotretinoin have become depressed and have experienced some mood changes. It is important that you let your doctor know straightaway if you feel ‘low’ or anxious, or if you start having thoughts about harming yourself.
Can isotretinoin cause problems?
Along with their useful effects, most medicines can cause unwanted side-effects although not everyone experiences them. The table below contains some of the most common ones associated with isotretinoin. The best place to find a full list of the side-effects which can be associated with the capsules, is from the manufacturer’s printed information leaflet supplied with the medicine. Alternatively, you can find an example of a manufacturer’s information leaflet in the reference section below. Speak with your doctor or pharmacist if any of the following continue or become troublesome.
|Very common isotretinoin side-effects (these can affect more than 1 in 10 people)
||What can I do if I experience this?|
|Headache, joint and muscle pain, back pain||Ask your doctor or pharmacist to recommend a suitable painkiller. If the pain continues or is severe, speak with your doctor|
|Dry skin and lips||Apply a moisturiser and lip balm regularly. If you develop a rash or if your skin becomes irritated and fragile, let your doctor know|
|Dry eyes, eye irritation||Ask your pharmacist or optician to recommend some suitable eye drops. If your vision is affected, let your doctor know as soon as possible. Do not drive and do not use tools and machines if you cannot see clearly|
|Dry mouth and throat||Try chewing sugar-free gum or sucking sugar-free sweets|
|Dry nose and nosebleeds||Try applying a thin layer of petroleum jelly (Vaseline®) to the inside edges of your nose|
|Blood in your urine||Speak with your doctor about this|
|Changes to blood tests||Your doctor will do regular blood tests to check for these|
If you experience any other symptoms which you think may be due to isotretinoin, speak with your doctor or pharmacist for further advice.
How to store isotretinoin
- Keep all medicines out of the reach and sight of children.
- Store in a cool, dry place, away from direct heat and light.
- Do not keep out-of-date or unwanted capsules. Return them to your local pharmacy which will dispose of them for you.
Important information about all medicines
Never take more than the prescribed dose. If you suspect that you or someone else might have taken an overdose of this medicine, go to the accident and emergency department of your local hospital. Take the container with you, even if it is empty.
This medicine is for you. Never give it to other people even if their condition appears to be the same as yours.
If you are having an operation or dental treatment, tell the person carrying out the treatment which medicines you are taking.
If you have any questions about this medicine ask your pharmacist.
Aevit capsules No. 10 (Retinol + Tocopherol)
Hypo- and avitaminosis A and E, as well as states of increased body demand for vitamins A and E and / or a decrease in their intake into the body: gastrectomy, diarrhea, steatorrhea, celiac disease, Crohn’s disease, malabsorption syndrome, chronic cholestasis, biliary atresia, obstructive jaundice, cystic fibrosis of the pancreas, tropical sprue, infectious diseases (incl.including chronic and colds), hemeralopia, xerophthalmia, keratomalacia, inadequate and unbalanced nutrition (including parenteral nutrition), rapid weight loss, nicotine addiction, drug addiction, prolonged stress, taking cholestyramine, colestipol, mineral oils, neomycin, iron-containing products, when prescribing a diet with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, hyperthyroidism. Peripheral neuropathy, necrotizing myopathy, abetalipoproteinemia. The effectiveness has not been proven – atherosclerotic changes in blood vessels, disorders of tissue trophism, obliterating endarteritis.
Hypersensitivity, hypervitaminosis A and E, children’s age (up to 14 years).
With care: thyrotoxicosis, cholecystitis, conditions accompanied by increased vascular permeability (CHF, chronic glomerulonephritis, etc.), cirrhosis of the liver, viral hepatitis, renal failure, alcoholism, pregnancy (especially the first trimester), lactation, old age, childhood, hypoprothrombinemia (against the background of vitamin K deficiency – it can increase with a dose of vitamin E of more than 400 IU).
Active ingredients: Retinol + Tocopherol.
Release form: Capsules.
Aevit is taken orally, regardless of food intake, daily at 1 caps / day. The duration of treatment is 20-40 days at intervals of 3-6 months.Repeated courses are possible.
Special instructions: To avoid the development of hypervitaminosis A and E, the recommended doses should not be exceeded.
A diet high in selenium and sulfur-containing amino acids reduces the need for vitamin E.
Interaction with other drugs: Retinol weakens the effect of calcium supplements, increases the risk of hypercalcemia.Cholestyramine, colestipol, mineral oils, neomycin reduce the absorption of vitamins A and E (an increase in their dose may be required).
Oral contraceptives increase plasma concentrations of retinol.
Isotretinoin increases the risk of developing retinol intoxication.
The simultaneous use of tetracycline and retinol in high doses (50 thousand units and more) increases the risk of developing intracranial hypertension.
Tocopherol (vitamin E) enhances the effect of GCS, NSAIDs, antioxidants, increases the effectiveness and reduces the toxicity of vitamins A, D, cardiac glycosides.High-dose vitamin E supplementation can cause vitamin A deficiency in the body.
Tocopherol (vitamin E) increases the effectiveness of antiepileptic drugs in patients with epilepsy (in whom the content of lipid peroxidation products in the blood is increased).
The simultaneous use of vitamin E at a dose of more than 400 U / day with anticoagulants (coumarin and indandione derivatives) increases the risk of hypoprothrombinemia and bleeding.
The use of iron preparations in high doses enhances oxidative processes in the body, which increases the need for vitamin E.Side effects: Allergic reactions (including skin rash), pain in the epigastric region, dyspeptic disorders (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). With prolonged use in high doses, exacerbation of cholelithiasis and chronic pancreatitis is possible.
Retinol acetate oily solution 34.4mg / ml bottle 10 ml (59119) | Instruction | Favorable price in Ukraine
Vitamins TD Uman
Country of origin
diyucha speech: retinol (in retinol acetate) – 34.4 mg (100 000 IU vitamin A) – 18 -20 drops;
additional speech: olia soєva.
10 ml each in vials inserted in a pack.
Cutaneous and oral solution, oily.
Transparent oily liquid from light yellow to dark yellow, no taste with bitterness; the presence of a specific smell is allowed.
Vitamin A (retinol) belongs to the group of fat-soluble vitamins.
Retinol acetate is an analogue of natural vitamin A and is necessary to restore the normal concentration of retinol in the body.Vitamin A plays an important role in the synthesis of proteins, lipids, mucopolysaccharides, regulates the balance of minerals.
The most specific function of vitamin A is to provide vision processes (photoreception). Retinol is involved in the synthesis of visual purpura – rhodopsin, located in the retinal rods.
Vitamin A modulates the processes of differentiation of epithelial cells, participates in the development of secretory glands, keratinization processes, regeneration of mucous membranes and skin.
Vitamin A is necessary for the normal functioning of the endocrine glands and the growth of the body, because it is a synergist of somatomedins.
Vitamin A affects the division of immunocompetent cells, the synthesis of factors of specific (immunoglobulin) and nonspecific (interferon, lysozyme) defense of the body against infectious and other diseases, stimulates myelopoiesis.
Retinol increases the level of glycogen in the liver, stimulates the production of trypsin and lipase in the digestive system; inhibits photochemical free radical reactions and oxidation of cysteine, activates the inclusion of sulfates in the components of connective tissue, cartilage, bones; satisfies the need for sulfocerebrosides and myelin, ensuring the conduction and transmission of nerve impulses.
With a lack of vitamin A, twilight vision disorders (night blindness) and atrophy of the epithelium of the conjunctiva, cornea, and lacrimal glands develop. Degenerative-dystrophic processes are observed in the respiratory tract (mucous membranes of the nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, trachea, bronchi), in the genitourinary system (epithelium of the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, urethra, vagina, ovaries, fallopian tubes and endometrium, seminal vesicles and cords prostate), in the digestive system (mucous membrane of the digestive tract, salivary glands, pancreas).Deficiency of vitamin A leads to disruption of skin trophism (hyperkeratosis), deterioration in the growth and quality of hair and nails, as well as the function of the sebaceous and sweat glands. In addition, there is a decrease in body weight and a slowdown in bone growth, a decrease in the synthesis of glucocorticoids and steroid hormones, a violation of the body’s resistance to infectious and other diseases. There is a tendency to chole – and nephrolithiasis.
Lack or excess of vitamin A in a woman’s body can lead to abnormalities in the intrauterine development of the fetus.
Retinol has an antitumor effect that does not apply to non-epithelial tumors.
Taken internally, retinol acetate is well absorbed in the upper small intestine. Then, as part of chylomicrons, it is transported from the intestinal wall to the lymphatic system and enters the bloodstream through the thoracic duct. The transport of retinol esters in the blood is carried out by β-lipoproteins. The maximum level of vitamin A esters in the blood serum is observed 3 hours after ingestion.The place of deposition of vitamin A is the liver parenchyma, where it accumulates in stable ester forms. In addition, a high content of vitamin A is found in the retina pigment epithelium. This depot is necessary for the regular supply of the outer segments of rods and cones with vitamin A.
Retinol is biotransformed in the liver, and then, in the form of inactive metabolites, it is excreted by the kidneys. Retinol can be partially excreted in the bile and is involved in enterohepatic circulation. Elimination of retinol occurs slowly – 34% of the taken dose of the drug is excreted from the body in 3 weeks.
A-avitaminosis and A-hypovitaminosis, eye diseases (retinitis pigmentosa, xerophthalmia, hemeralopia, superficial keratitis, corneal lesions, conjunctivitis, pyoderma and eczematous eyelid lesions), in the complex therapy of rickets, acute respiratory diseases against the background of exudative diathesis, acute and chronic bronchopulmonary diseases, hypotrophy and collagenosis, with pathological processes of the skin (frostbite, burns, wounds, ichthyosis, follicular dyskeratosis, senile keratosis, skin tuberculosis, some forms of eczema, psoriasis), inflammatory erosive and ulcerative intestinal lesions, liver cirrhosis, chronic gastritis; to prevent the formation of calculi in the urinary tract.
Hypersensitivity to the components of the drug, acute and chronic nephritis, heart failure in the stage of decompensation, cholelithiasis, chronic pancreatitis, hypervitaminosis A, overdose of retinoids, hyperlipidemia, obesity, chronic alcoholism.
Interaction with other drugs
Estrogens increase the risk of hypervitaminosis A.
Retinol acetate reduces the anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticoids.
Retinol acetate should not be taken simultaneously with nitrites and cholestyramine, because they interfere with the absorption of the drug.
Retinol acetate should not be used together with other derivatives of vitamin A due to the risk of overdose, development of hypervitaminosis A.
The combination with vitamin E contributes to the preservation of retinol acetate in active form, absorption from the intestine and anabolic effects.
The simultaneous use of vaseline oil can interfere with the absorption of the vitamin in the intestine.
The simultaneous intake of vitamin A and anticoagulants increases the tendency to bleeding.
Methods of application
Retinol acetate is prescribed internally 10-15 minutes after meals and externally. 1 drop contains about 5000 IU of vitamin A.
1 ml of the drug contains 100000 IU (18-20 drops) of vitamin A.
When determining the doses of the drug, it is assumed that the highest single dose of vitamin A for adults is 50,000 IU. The highest daily intake of vitamin A for adults is 100,000 IU.Therapeutic doses of vitamin A for mild to moderate vitamin deficiencies for adults are up to 33,000 IU per day. For this purpose, it is better to use the drug in dosage forms of pills or capsules (1 pill of 10 mg or 1 capsule per day). With skin diseases, as well as with retinitis pigmentosa, xerophthalmia, hemeralopia, the daily dose of vitamin A is 50,000-100,000 ME (riboflavin (vitamin B2) is prescribed at a daily dose of 0.02 g at the same time). In case of skin lesions (ulcers, burns, frostbite), after hygienic cleaning, the affected areas are lubricated with a solution and covered with a gauze bandage (5-6 times a day with a decrease in the number of applications to one as epithelialization progresses).At the same time, drugs are prescribed by mouth. For the prevention of calculus formation, prophylactic doses are established based on the daily requirement of the human body for vitamin A. The duration of treatment is from 10 days to 1 month.
Overdose symptoms: dizziness; confusion, diarrhea, severe dehydration, irritability; generalized rash followed by large-globular peeling that begins on the face; bleeding of the gums, dryness and ulceration of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity, peeling of the lips, sharply painful palpation of long tubular bones due to pidadic hemorrhages.
Acute and chronic hypervitaminosis A is accompanied by severe headache, fever, drowsiness, vomiting, impaired vision (double vision), dry skin, pain in joints and muscles, the appearance of age spots, an increase in the size of the liver and spleen, jaundice, a change in the picture blood, loss of strength and appetite. In severe cases, seizures, cardiac weakness, and hydrocephalus develop.
Treatment. Treatment is symptomatic, as an antagonist, thyroxine is prescribed, the use of ascorbic acid, vitamin E is rational.
Long-term intake of large doses of vitamin A can cause the development of hypervitaminosis A.
From the nervous system and sensory organs: fatigue, drowsiness, lethargy, irritability, headache, sleep loss, convulsions, discomfort, intraocular hypertension visual impairment.
From the digestive tract: loss of appetite, weight loss, nausea, very rarely vomiting.
Possible exacerbation of liver diseases, increased activity of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase.
From the urinary system: pollakiuria, nocturia, polyuria.
From the hematopoietic system: hemolytic anemia.
On the part of the musculoskeletal system: changes on the radiographs of the bones, gait disorder, pain in the bones of the lower extremities.
Allergic reactions: cracks in the skin of the lips, yellow-orange spots on the soles, palms, in the region of the nasolabial triangle, subcutaneous edema, in some cases on the first day of use, itchy maculopapular rashes may occur, which requires discontinuation of the drug, itching, erythema and rashes, dry skin, dry mouth, fever, flushing of the face followed by peeling.
Others: hair loss, menstrual irregularities, abdominal pain, aphthae, photosensitivity, hypercalcemia.
With a decrease in the dose or with a temporary discontinuation of the drug, side effects are left on their own.
In case of skin diseases, the use of high doses of the drug after 7-10 days of treatment may be accompanied by an exacerbation of the local inflammatory reaction, which does not require additional treatment and is further reduced. This effect is associated with the myelo – and immunostimulating action of the drug.
Appropriate safety precautions for use.
The drug is taken under medical supervision. With prolonged use of Retinol acetate, it is necessary to monitor the biochemical parameters and blood clotting time.
In the treatment of twilight vision disorders (night blindness), Retinol acetate should be used with riboflavin, nicotinic acid.
Use with caution in severe lesions of the hepatobiliary system, diseases accompanied by blood clotting disorders.
It is not recommended to use the drug during long-term therapy with tetracyclines.
Retinol should be taken 1 hour before or 4-6 hours after taking cholesterol.
The drug tends to accumulate and stay in the body for a long time. Women who have taken high doses of retinol can plan a pregnancy no earlier than 6-12 months. This is due to the fact that during this time there is a risk of abnormal development of the fetus under the influence of the high content of vitamin A in the body.
For the normal absorption of vitamin A, a prerequisite is the presence of fats in food.
Alcohol and tobacco abuse interferes with the absorption of the drug from the digestive tract.
Application during pregnancy or lactation.
Given the high dose of vitamin A, this drug is contraindicated for oral administration during pregnancy and lactation.
The ability to influence the reaction rate when driving or operating other mechanisms.There are no data on the effect of the drug on the ability to drive a car or work with complex mechanisms.
Children. Inside the drug in this dose, children are not used.
Vacation category. Over the counter.
Special storage conditions
Shelf life. 2 years.
Store in its original packaging at a temperature not exceeding 25 ° C, out of reach of children.
RETINOL, A-MULSIN FORTE, VITADRAL, VITAMIN A, VITAMIN A ACETATE 1.5 mln.IU / g (STABILIZED WITH TOCOPHEROL), DERMOVIT A, DRAGE RETINOL Acetate 0, 00114 g (VITAMIN A-3300 IU), DRAGE RETINOL PALMITATE 0, SOLUTION RETINOL PALMITATE 5, RETINOL PALMITATE 5, RETINOL PALMITATE 5, RETINOL PALMITATE 5%, RETINOL PALMITATE 5 -33 IN OIL, SOLUTION OF RETINOLA ACETATE IN OIL, RETINOLA ACETATE, RETINOLA ACETATE (VITAMINA), RETINOLA ACETATE (VITAMIN A-ACETATE)
The skin will become healthy, but you will continue to peel off retinoids.These are the same ones that are in carrots and in the liver of a polar bear, which can be eaten only once in a lifetime.
This is what happens when you overeat carrots. A source. I think every therapist in his practice had a patient “with jaundice” who just bought a juicer the day before
Retinoids are very effective in treating acne, which is often called acne. They also effectively smooth wrinkles and even out skin tone. This does not mean that you can eat pumpkins and carrots and become smooth like a baby’s bottom, but it does mean that they can be used to make different products.We in the laboratory, of course, could not help but touch on this. Because if something needs to be carried deep into the skin – it is to us.
Of course there are side effects! The first weeks after starting the application, you will flake off and look very peculiar. Therefore, today we will talk about carrots, carotene, orange patients and analyze the normal side effects of retinol. And I will also tell you why we add retinol to drugs in two different forms and why it is strictly forbidden for pregnant women.
Carrots and Liver
Meet β-Carotene. The same provitamin A, which gives the orange color to carrots and pumpkins. It is fat soluble, which is why carrot juice is served with cream, a drop of butter, or steak.
When you see orange-yellow Caucasian patients, the first thought is jaundice due to blockage of the bile duct by a stone or as a result of hepatitis. Normally, bilirubin, which is a breakdown product of hemoglobin, is excreted through the intestines.If problems arise with its removal, it begins to accumulate and stain tissues in its yellowish-brown hue.
If the patient is doing well with the liver and gallbladder,
send a nurse to search his house for three-liter cans. Take a history of different juices. Perhaps he wanted to become a sniper, improve his eyesight before a medical examination, or simply remembered his childhood. Why were we all childhood forced to eat carrots? Carotene from carrots is not a complete vitamin.To begin with, it must be cut in half to obtain two retinal molecules, which, after reconstitution, are converted into retinol – vitamin A. This is a polar molecule that is insoluble in water, but perfectly soluble in fats. A grated carrot salad with sour cream, garlic and nuts will give you more vitamin A in the end than fat-free coleslaw with cabbage and grated carrots.
Like any fat-soluble vitamin, it accumulates more slowly and is more difficult to eliminate. For example, the same water-soluble vitamin C can be taken once without much harm in a dose significantly higher than normal.The kidneys will quickly drop everything that is superfluous. In the case of fat-soluble vitamins, overdose is more likely to lead to poisoning, as they accumulate in adipose tissue and are more difficult to remove. That is why eating the liver of a polar bear is considered so dangerous. It contains toxic doses of vitamin A that can cause acute poisoning or even death. Therefore, if you suddenly decide to eat a bear, throw away the liver.
Vitamin A, in principle, is stored in the liver in most animals in the form of a complex with proteins albumin and transthyretin.In this form, the molecule becomes too large to be washed out by the kidneys during filtration. Due to these mechanisms, it is removed very slowly: some of its forms are removed only half in 120 days. Therefore, there is a potential danger of chronic overdose.
Functions of vitamin A
The classic symptom of chronic hypovitaminosis A is “night blindness”, impaired twilight vision. Normally, β-carotene is broken down by enzymes to the aldehyde retinal.The retinal, associated with the opsin protein, forms rhodopsin – visual purple. When a photon hits our retina, it causes the decomposition of this molecule and the activation of the visual receptor. It takes time to synthesize the new retinal, so it takes us a few minutes to adapt as we go from bright light to dark.
Strictly speaking, vitamin A is exactly retinol. But besides him, a whole group of structurally similar substances has similar effects, which are called retinol-like – retinoids.
Retinoids work as regulators of proliferation, differentiation and intercellular interactions between cells. They realize their effects by activating retinoic receptors in the cell nucleus. Due to this, retinoids regulate the transcription of certain genes. The retinoid molecule clings to a receptor in the promoted region of the corresponding gene and stimulates the synthesis of the desired protein. Due to this, the main therapeutic and side effects from the use of this group of drugs are realized.
Retinoids have a list of important effects:
- Ensure the normal functioning of the immune system.
- Necessary for complete regeneration of epithelial tissues, which include skin and mucous membranes.
- Participate in the synthesis of steroid hormones.
- Participate in the activation of genes responsible for suppressing tumor growth. Therefore, some retinoids are used as a local adjuvant in the treatment of skin manifestations of cancer.
Retinoids in the skin and mechanism of action
Quite often, retinoids are used in the treatment of dermatological diseases. For example, sea buckthorn oil with a bright aroma of fresh berries is a very cool remedy for treating poorly healing ulcers, erosions, burns and other damage to the skin and mucous membranes. It works precisely due to the high concentration of vitamin A and its synergistic vitamin E.
In addition to accelerating regeneration and stimulating the synthesis of new collagen by fibroblasts, retinoids can significantly slow down the differentiation of keratinocytes and reduce the production of keratin.This effect is very important in the treatment of a disease such as psoriasis, in which keratinocytes divide at an inadequate rate and produce large amounts of keratin. In addition, retinoids are used in the treatment of actinic keratoses, photoaging of the skin, and help to fight skin hyperpigmentation in inflammation foci.
Another key use case is acne treatment, often in combination with antibiotic therapy. Retinoids help relieve inflammation, and most importantly, eliminate follicular hyperkeratosis, which is the main cause of acne.They act as sebum regulators, reducing excessive sebum production. As a result, the opportunistic microflora ceases to actively multiply and cause inflammation in the ducts of the sebaceous glands, and the existing foci of inflammation disappear without leaving behind a pigmented spot.
Retinoid preparations are not vitamins
Retinoids, especially in medicinal dosages, are not vitamins that can be eaten uncontrollably. As I said, they are very slowly excreted from the body, there is a risk of cumulation and overdose.The task of the specialist in this case is to select the optimal dosage that will be tolerated by the patient.
Yes, like any fairly effective drug, retinoids have many predictable side effects. Moreover, if some time after the start of therapy you have not started to peel off, there is no slight irritation of the skin and increased sensitivity, then you have been sold some non-working drug. Retinoids should produce similar side effects at therapeutic concentrations.This is fine.
There is one more point that patients should always be warned about. Despite the fact that retinoids are well tolerated by most adult patients and provide an excellent cosmetic effect, in the right dosages they have a pronounced teratogenic effect. That is, they can damage the development of the embryo. Therefore, it is very important to use reliable contraception during the entire course and to ensure that there is no pregnancy.
The side effects of these drugs can be divided into two main groups.The first occurs almost immediately, after the first or second application in the form of hives or redness. This may indicate an allergic reaction to the drug. It is removed with classic antihistamines. The second appear not earlier than a week – these are already side effects from the effects of the drug itself. Eliminate on their own or after lowering the dosage. That is why a specialist is needed who can clearly distinguish an allergic reaction from the expected effects of the drug.
What we put interesting in our products
Since our scientific laboratory has extensive experience in transdermal drug delivery, we took on the task of developing an effective version of a topical retinol-containing agent.It is not enough just to pour vitamin A. It must also be delivered to the deep layers of the skin, where it will regulate the production of sebum, stimulate the synthesis of new collagen and even out the skin tone. Well, as you understand, as soon as the magic phrase “transdermal transport” sounds in the description of the product, we immediately begin to look closely at this story.
We managed to develop an effective Retiderm 0.25 cream serum from the Anti-Age series. And yes, it is not only for aging skin, but also for young skin with acne problems.Naturally, due to its pronounced effects, application is possible only after consultation with a good specialist. Just in case, I remind you again that in the comments, of course, you can ask clarifying questions, but Habr is NOT a consultation with a good specialist. The doctor needs to see and touch you.
To ensure correct delivery, we have added retinol in two forms. Just free retinol, which penetrates deep into the skin rather slowly and begins to work in the surface layers of the skin, and liposomal, which has high bioavailability and penetrates all skin barriers.
The liposome looks like this. In fact, it is an almost complete structural analogue of the cell membrane, which forms a double lipid layer. With the use of special technological processes in the center of the liposome, it is possible to “put” the desired substance that we need to deliver. It is extremely difficult to ensure the formation of such spherical vesicles. It is even more difficult to ensure that they remain stable throughout the entire shelf life of the cosmetic. But on the other hand, as a result, we get a means for effective deep delivery of retinoids and other substances deep into the skin.
The second feature of our laboratory is the ability to combine many active substances. In addition to retinol, we included niacinamide. There is also a lot of it, as much as 3%. It also improves skin turgor, regulates sebum production, and generally works great in synergy with retinol. Plus we also decided to add vitamin C in a stable form: ascorbyl glucoside. It is a strong antioxidant and is the first to react with any oxidants, taking a hit on itself. Therefore, it is very effective in increasing the skin’s resistance to ultraviolet light and, in general, contributes to the normalization of metabolic processes.
Of course, we also added high molecular weight hyaluronic acid, which retains moisture on the surface of the skin, providing immediate hydration.
And of course, we always work with the skin microbiome. Skin is a completely non-sterile environment and is normally colonized by thousands of different microorganisms. So that opportunistic pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus or other undesirable bacteria do not begin to dominate in this zoo, we need to selectively feed more friendly representatives who will not allow everyone else to multiply beyond measure.For this, we have added fukogel to the composition, which works as a prebiotic.
We want to warn you again
Retinol-containing drugs are very effective, but like any powerful drug, they have significant side effects. Please do not use them without consulting a specialist. Remember about the inadmissibility of use in pregnant women. And they also have a photosensitizing effect, because of which you should not appear in the sun during the entire course. Well, or at the very least, you should use sunscreens with the maximum SPF factor.
If you are interested in how we create new funds, visit our telegram channel (@geltek_cosmetics). There we tell interesting things about the chronicles of our cozy laboratory.
Instagram model body: 7 steps
Exfoliants are extremely multifunctional. Coarse brushes and scrubs allow not only to remove dead skin cells and make the skin smooth, but also serve as an excellent prevention of cellulite and hair ingrowth.
The main question that arises when it comes to body scrubs: how often can they be used? Korey L.Hartman, a board-certified dermatologist and founder of Skin Wellness Dermatology, says mechanical exfoliation products are recommended no more than twice a week, while chemical body peels can be used almost every day. This scheme is good for most skin types, but no one can guarantee that it will be right for you. In such a matter, it is best to build on your skin type and the tasks that you set for the cosmetic product.
You don’t have to buy a scrub from the store to get smooth skin.There are a lot of recipes for homemade peels on the Internet, but the most popular of them is probably coffee. Mix the grounds (you can also use salt or sugar instead) with one of the base oils (olive, jojoba, almond, or grape seed oil will work) in a 1: 1 ratio and apply the mixture to your skin. Experimenting enthusiasts can add a few drops of essential oil or a spoonful of honey to their scrub.
Ayurveda followers are very fond of using a dry brush instead of a scrub.Exfoliating the skin with this accessory has been proven to improve circulation, lymph drainage and even boost energy. The bristles of brushes are usually made from synthetic nylon or natural boar bristles. It is rare to see options with copper strands, but they are intended exclusively for very rough areas of the body, since they are very tough.
In the process of using a dry brush, be extremely careful: try not to put pressure on the tool, but you should not be afraid of it like fire either.Balance matters.
If you don’t want to bother making your own scrub, you can easily buy a ready-made one. Beauty brands offer many variations on the theme, from organic formulas to those ideal for sensitive skin. However, even the mildest body scrub should not be applied to the face.
Body exfoliators are often thicker and contain high concentrations of acids, which can cause irritation on the delicate skin of the face, says board-certified dermatologist Rachel Cochran Guaters. tangible benefits to the skin of the body. “
Acid body peels are a fairly rare product, so they can only be found in professional brands. As well as similar facial products, they fall into two categories: with alpha- (AHA-) and beta-hydroxy acids (BHA-). AHAs (which include lactic and glycolic acids) are known to have a stronger moisturizing effect. “They simultaneously exfoliate and moisturize the skin, making them suitable for most skin types,” says board-certified dermatologist Mona Gohara, MD.BHA acids (a striking example is salicylic) have a better effect on areas prone to oily content, therefore they are most often used in products for problem skin.
Yes, towels can also exfoliate your skin. Not all, of course, but those that consist of muslin, loofah and nylon. When used in combination with shower gel, they not only deeply cleanse pores, but also remove dead cells, improving microcirculation.
Top 6 best body scrubs
Softening exfoliating body cream Gommage Exfoliant Peau Neuve, Clarins
Despite the creamy texture, Clarins scrub contains a lot of exfoliating particles – as it turned out, bamboo powder is responsible for the exfoliation process.In addition to it, there are many other plant components in the composition: moringa seed extract helps to eliminate toxins, and mimosa extract restores. It is recommended to use this product before any cosmetic procedure.
Granita Body Scrub Noni & Coconut, Thermes Marins de Saint Malo
The scrub contains exfoliating crystals of sea salt, the action of which enhances the pulp of noni and coconut.Glycerin and algin are responsible for the moisturizing effect, and xanthan gum prevents inflammation and moisture evaporation. The product has a pleasant coconut scent that instantly evokes associations with the best spas in the world.
Body scrub Crushed Cabernet, Caudalie
The scrub is based on six essential oils, honey, brown sugar and grape seeds. The product nourishes the skin, instantly leaving it soft and velvety.To enhance the anti-cellulite effect, the manufacturer recommends adding a few drops of branded slimming concentrate to the scrub.
Weleda Birch Shower Peeling
A very delicate product that simultaneously cleanses and nourishes dry skin. Sugar particles in combination with the smallest abrasive granules gently exfoliate, while apricot kernel oil creates an invisible moisturizing film. Essential oils of cedar, cypress and lemon give the peeling a light fresh scent that reminds of carefree summer days.
Ilona Lunden Renewing Sugar Scrub
The action of cane sugar in the composition is enhanced by apricot seeds – together they not only remove dead cells, but also moisturize the epidermis. The formula contains five types of oils that protect the skin from dryness without creating a greasy film effect. It has been proven that the product enhances the effect of the components applied after its use.
Juniper Body Salt Scrub, Anna Sharova
Cleanses the skin and helps to restore the epidermis.A large number of natural ingredients (which include avocado and olive oils, juniper, oak and sage bark extracts) enhance skin regeneration, making it incredibly soft and smooth to the touch.