Ringworm painful: Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation and Acne
Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation and Acne
Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), those dark marks or spots left behind after a pimple heals, can be even more aggravating and distressing than pimples themselves. PIH is discoloration of the skin that follows an inflammatory wound. It is the skin’s natural response to inflammation. Why do those dark spots develop, and what can you do to get rid of them?
Verywell / Emily Roberts
Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation Symptoms
Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation usually looks like a flat area of discoloration on the skin. It can range in color from white, pink, red, purple, brown, or black, depending on your skin tone and depth of the discoloration.
PIH can develop in all skin types, but it tends to be more severe and longer-lasting for people with medium to dark complexions. PIH affects both men and women equally.
DermNet / CC BY-NC-ND
PIH develops when a wound or irritation, like a scrape, rash, or pimple, causes the skin to become inflamed. As the skin heals, it produces too much melanin. Melanin is the protein in the skin that gives the skin its color. It’s the excess melanin that darkens and discolors the skin. This discoloration remains even after the wound has completely healed.
Most people with acne have some degree of PIH. And it’s not just the big blemishes that cause these spots: Hyperpigmentation can follow even relatively minor pimples and papules.
That said, the more inflamed a breakout, the larger and darker the PIH spot tends to be. Picking or popping a pimple increases the chance of developing PIH, simply because you’re increasing inflammation.
There are other causes of PIH, including sunburn, chemical peels, dermabrasion, and laser resurfacing.
Acne Scars vs. Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation
You may be relieved to learn that PIH is not true scarring. It is often called “pseudo scarring” because although it leaves a mark on the skin for a period of time, it does not actually damage the follicle.
DermNet / CC BY-NC-ND
True acne scars occur when there is either a loss of tissue, causing a pitted or depressed area, or an overgrowth of tissue leaving a raised scar. PIH, on the other hand, is flat. It’s not pitted or raised, simply darker than the surrounding skin.
Fading Over Time
The good news is that PIH can fade away over time, even without treatment. But time is the operative word here. It can take three to 24 months for PIH to fully fade, although in some cases it may take longer.
The length of time it takes for PIH to fade depends on how dark the spot is compared to the surrounding skin. The bigger the contrast between the macule and your natural skin tone, the longer it will take to fade.
PIH doesn’t always fade away on its own. In some cases, it’s more or less permanent.
There are treatments that will help. Some may not completely erase dark marks, but will at least lighten them considerably. Treatment can also help speed up fade time if you’re not keen to wait for spots to lighten naturally.
Over-the-counter (OTC) products can be helpful in fading more subtle marks. For deeper marks or those that have been around for a long time, a prescription cream is a better choice. Your skin care doctor has a bevy of products that can do the trick.
Another good point to remember—if you beat acne you’ll also stop developing hyperpigmentation. This is an important step in clearing up PIH, and another step with which your skin care doctor can help. Whatever treatment option you choose, understand that improvement will take time.
Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHAs)
Alpha hydroxy acids, especially glycolic acid, are a good starting point for treatment. Alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) help speed up the skin’s natural exfoliation process, which can help improve the look of PIH.
You can find these ingredients in a plethora of OTC “brightening” treatments. Leave-on treatments like lotions, creams, and gels will give you better results than wash-off products like cleansers. Other OTC ingredients that can be helpful in fading hyperpigmentation are N-acetyl glucosamine, niacinamide, and vitamins A and C.
Stronger AHA treatments are available with a prescription. AHAs are often used as anti-aging treatments too and will leave your skin soft and smooth.
Hydroquinone is a widely used treatment for PIH. It’s available over the counter in 1 percent to 2 percent strengths, and in 3% to 4% prescription creams. Hydroquinone works by blocking the enzyme responsible for melanin production, thereby lightening the skin.
Hydroquinone creams often contain additional lightening ingredients, such as kojic acid, glycolic acid, tretinoin and other retinoids, or vitamin C. These combination creams can give you better results than using hydroquinone alone.
Hydroquinone creams should be carefully applied to darkened areas only to prevent the unwanted lightening of your natural skin color. Hydroquinone may cause skin irritation for some people so it’s worth talking to your doctor before beginning hydroquinone treatment.
Topical retinoids are often prescribed to treat acne. Retinoids help clear acne by speeding up cell turnover rates. This rapid exfoliation can also help fade PIH.
Retinoid creams include Retin-A (tretinoin) and Retin-A Micro, Tazorac (tazarotene), and Differin (adapalene). The fact that they lessen post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation as they treat acne breakouts is an added benefit.
With the exception of Differin, these medications are available by prescription only. Obvious results may not be apparent for several weeks to several months after beginning treatment.
Be on the lookout for excessive dryness, redness, and irritation. This can trigger PIH on its own.
Azelaic acid is another medication used to treat acne as well as PIH. It works by decreasing inflammation and speeding up cell turnover rates. Azelaic acid is sometimes used in conjunction with glycolic acid or tretinoin.
Some studies have shown azelaic acid to be as effective as hydroquinone at treating hyperpigmentation. It is a good alternative for those who may be unable to use hydroquinone.
Azelaic acid is available by prescription only. As always, monitor your skin for redness and irritation and let your doctor know right away if you experience these side effects.
More persistent cases of PIH can be treated professionally at your dermatologist’s office. Treatments include various chemical peels, lasers, microneedling, and microdermabrasion.
But just one treatment isn’t enough to fade hyperpigmentation. You’ll likely need a series of treatments spaced two to four weeks apart (depending on the procedure you’re having done). Your doctor can help determine which of these treatments, if any, would be most effective for you.
Before you jump in and start treating your PIH, use these tips to set the stage for the best results possible.
- Your acne should be under control. Otherwise, each new pimple could cause another dark spot and you would never get ahead of the curve (and never see the clear, even skin tone you’re looking for). Over-the-counter acne products are effective for treating mild acne. More stubborn or severe breakouts need to be treated with prescription acne medications if you want to see real improvement.
- Use sunscreen every day. The sun may darken the discolorations and increase fading time. Plus, many PIH treatments (and many acne treatments, too) can make your skin more sensitive to the sun. If you’re worried that sunscreen could make your breakouts worse, don’t be. There are many sunscreens available that are appropriate for breakout-prone skin.
- Monitor your skin for irritation. Although they are helping you clear your skin, acne treatments and PIH treatments alike also have the potential for causing irritation. Unfortunately, irritated skin could lead to even more dark spots and uneven skin tone. If PIH is a problem for you, let your doctor know if your skin becomes irritated from your acne treatments.
A Word From Verywell
When you’re ready to begin treatment, you have plenty of options. Be prepared to be patient. PIH takes a long time to fade, no matter which treatment option you choose. Think in terms of months rather than weeks. Steady and consistent treatment is your friend.
Remember, this isn’t a comprehensive list. Other treatments may be available. Your skin care doctor can help guide you to the right treatment for your skin.
Ringworm: Causes and Risk Factors
Ringworm has nothing to do with actual worms. Rather, the red, ring-shaped rash, clinically known as tinea, is a fungal infection. It’s highly contagious and spreads easily. Often, all you have to do to catch ringworm is to touch someone or something that may have been infected. Sometimes you can even get a fungal infection by touching the soil.
© Verywell, 2018
There are more than 40 species of fungi that can cause ringworm, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). These fungi are known as dermatophytes. Specific dermatophytes associated with the various types of ringworm, including athlete’s foot, jock itch, tinea capitis (a fungal infection of the scalp), and others include Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton.
Dermatophytes thrive in warm, moist areas of the body where they feed on dead keratin, skin cells on the epidermis and in nails and hair.
The infections they cause are highly contagious and can easily be transmitted by skin-to-skin contact—that is, by touching someone who has a fungal infection.
Ringworm can infect animals as well, and so when an infected pet—especially a new puppy or kitten—joins a household the human family members are at risk. If you adopt a pet, it’s vital to have it thoroughly examined by a veterinarian, but do look for signs of ringworm yourself: circular areas where there’s no fur or where the coat is brittle or has broken hairs and the skin is scaly, red, or crusty.
Dermatophyte fungi can thrive on inanimate surfaces as well. They produce spores that are shed into the infected child’s clothing, brushes or combs, and even into the air around the child. These spores can survive for months on objects.
This means, for example, that it’s possible to become infected by borrowing a hairbrush or a cap from someone with tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp) or by going barefoot in an areas where someone with athlete’s foot has been walking or standing, such as in a shower stall or gym locker room.
Children are especially susceptible to ringworm and other skin rashes. People born with weak immune systems or who have compromised immune systems due to illness such as HIV/AIDs or certain medications, including corticosteroids or chemotherapy drugs, also have an increased risk of fungal infections.
Lifestyle Risk Factors
Health habits and other behaviors can put you at an increased risk of developing ringworm and other fungal infections. These include:
- Not washing your hands frequently when around someone or something that might have been exposed to a fungus
- Having damp skin for extended periods of time—for instance, not showering and drying off completely after sweating a lot
- Minor skin and nail injuries
- Close contact with others who have ringworm, such as sharing a room or spending time in a classroom with someone who’s infected.
Tinea Infection | Cedars-Sinai
Not what you’re looking for?
What is tinea infection?
Tinea is a fungal infection of the skin. Tinea is also known as
ringworm. This is because it can cause red patches on the skin in the shape of
rings. But it’s not caused by worms. It’s caused by different types of fungi. Tinea
infection can affect any part of the body. Tinea infections of the feet, nails, and
genital area are not often called ringworm. This is because the red patches may not
look like rings. But it most often occurs in moist areas of the body and around
hair. The fungus can be spread from person to person.
Different types of fungal (tinea) infections are named for where
they occur on the body. The most common types are:
Athlete’s foot (tinea pedis).
This common type occurs on the feet and between the toes. It may be caused by
sweating, not drying the feet after swimming or bathing, wearing tight socks and
shoes, and warm weather.
Jock itch (tinea cruris). This
rash occurs in the groin. Jock itch may be hard to cure. This condition is more
common in men and rare in women. It happens more often in warm weather.
Scalp ringworm (tinea capitis).
Scalp ringworm occurs on the head. It is very contagious but rare in adults.
Nail infection (tinea unguium or
This is an infection of the toenails, and sometimes
fingernails. It causes thickened, deformed, and discolored nails instead of a
Body ringworm (tinea corporis).
This occurs anywhere on the body or the face. But it is more common in skin
folds. It is also more common in warmer climates.
What causes tinea infection?
The fungus that causes tinea is very common all over the world,
including the U.S. It’s very contagious. The fungus is spread through direct contact
It can take days or up to 2 weeks before you develop the infection
after being in contact with the fungus. The fungi that cause ringworm can live for
long time on objects. Because of this, you may not know the exact source.
Who is at risk for tinea infection?
You are more at risk for tinea infection if you:
- Live in a warm climate
- Have contact with people or pets that have tinea
- Play contact sports, such as wrestling
- Use communal baths or locker rooms
- Share towels, clothing, combs, or brushes
- Have poor hygiene
- Have a depressed immune system because of disease or
- Don’t have good nutrition
What are the symptoms of tinea infection?
Symptoms can occur a bit differently in each person.
Symptoms of athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) may include:
- Itchy, burning rash on the feet
- Whitening and breakdown of the skin between the toes
- Scaling of the feet
- Blisters on the feet
Symptoms of jock itch (tinea cruris) may include:
- Red, ring-like patches in the groin area and inner thighs,
but not scrotum
- Itching in the groin area
- Pain in the groin area
Symptoms of scalp ringworm (tinea capitis) may include:
- Red, scaly rash on the scalp
- Itching of the scalp
- Hair loss on the scalp
- Enlarged lymph nodes
Symptoms of nail infection (tinea unguium, onychomycosis) may
- Thickening of the ends of the nails
- Yellow color to the nails
Symptoms of body ringworm (tinea corporis) may include:
- Red, ring-shaped patches with raised, scaly edges
The symptoms of tinea infection can be like other health
conditions. Psoriasis, pityriasis rosea, and atopic dermatitis all look similar.
Make sure to see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
How is tinea infection diagnosed?
Your healthcare provider will ask about your symptoms and health
history. They will give you a physical exam. The physical exam will include looking
closely at your skin or nails. You may also have tests, such as:
Skin scraping. The healthcare
provider may scrape the top of your skin with a small tool. This does not hurt.
The scraped tissue is looked at with a microscope. This test can confirm the
Biopsy. If the infection is on
the scalp or in the nails, the provider will take samples of hair or nail
clippings to look at with a microscope to identify the fungus.
Skin culture. A sample of skin
may be sent to a lab to see what kind of fungus is growing. This is called a
How is tinea infection treated?
Tinea may be hard to cure. Scalp ringworm and nail infection are
hardest to treat. The length of the treatment depends on the location of the tinea.
Fungi can live for a long time on the skin. Because of this, tinea infection is hard
to cure and can come back easily. Treatment may need to be repeated.
Treatment of athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) may include:
- Antifungal cream
- Antifungal medicine by mouth
Treatment of jock itch (tinea cruris) may include:
- Antifungal cream
- Antifungal medicine by mouth
Treatment of scalp ringworm (tinea capitis) may include:
- Antifungal medicine by mouth for weeks or months
- A special shampoo to help kill the fungus. Shampoos are used
along with the oral medicine. They won’t get rid of the fungus by
Treatment of nail infection (tinea unguium) may include:
- Antifungal medicine by mouth for weeks or months. This is
the most effective treatment.
- Medicated nail lacquers. These are occasionally
- Treatment of body ringworm (tinea corporis) may
- Antifungal cream
- Antifungal medicine by mouth
- Don’t scratch at the rash or pick at the rash. This can
cause infection and scarring.
- Take medicine as prescribed. If you were prescribed a cream,
apply it exactly as directed. Put the cream on the rash and also on the skin 1
or 2 inches around the rash.
- Scrub your hands with warm water and soap for at least 20
seconds before and after you use the medicine on the rash. This will keep from
spreading the fungus.
- Take medicine by mouth as directed until your healthcare
provider says to stop.
- Keep tinea from spreading to others. It can be spread by
skin-to-skin contact and sharing personal items, such as brushes, shoes, or
- When you wash the area of your body that has ringworm, wash
your hands before touching any other part of your body. Use a different towel to
dry the rest of your body to prevent spreading the ringworm. Wash towels in hot,
- Keep the part of your body that has ringworm clean and
- Wear shower shoes in public pools, gyms, locker rooms, and
public showers. Ringworm can live on gym equipment for a long time.
- Talk with your healthcare providers about the risks,
benefits, and possible side effects of all treatments.
What are possible complications of tinea infection?
Tinea of the scalp can also develop into a kerion. This is a
large, painful, swollen sore over the area of the tinea infection. This is caused
a hypersensitivity to the tinea. The lymph nodes in your neck may be swollen and
sore. You may also have a rash on another part of your body. A kerion may be treated
with steroid medicine to help reduce inflammation and swelling.
In some cases, a tinea infection can lead to an infection by
bacteria. This may be treated with antibiotics.
Can tinea infection be prevented?
Some types of tinea infection can be prevented if you:
- Wash after you get dirty or sweaty, or after using a locker
- Don’t go barefoot. Wear shower shoes in public showers,
gyms, locker rooms, and pools.
- Don’t share towels, combs, brushes, clothing, or shoes.
- Keep your skin and feet dry.
- Wear clean, loose-fitting underwear.
- Make sure your pet does not have ringworm. People can get
ringworm from animals. If you think your pet has ringworm, take the pet to a
veterinarian for treatment. The vet can advise you on how to disinfect your
When should I call my healthcare provider?
Call the healthcare provider if:
- The rash does not get better after 10 days of treatment
- The rash spreads to other areas of the body
- Redness around the rash gets worse
- Fluid leaks from the rash
- You have a fever of 100.4º (38ºC) or higher, or as directed
by your healthcare provider
Key points about tinea infection
- Tinea is a fungal infection of the skin. It is also known as
ringworm. But it is not caused by worms.
- The fungus is very contagious and can be spread from person
- Tinea infection can affect any part of the body. But it most
often occurs on the feet, groin, nails, body, and scalp.
- Treatment depends on what part of the body is infected. It
may include antifungal cream, shampoo, or medicine by mouth.
- Some types of tinea infection can be prevented if you don’t
share personal hygiene products, clothing, or shoes and keep your skin dry.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare
- Know the reason for your visit and what you want to
- Before your visit, write down questions you want
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and
remember what your provider tells you.
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis and any
new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your
provider gives you.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how
it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the
results could mean.
- Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have
the test or procedure.
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date,
time, and purpose for that visit.
- Know how you can contact your provider if you have
Not what you’re looking for?
Is My Rash Ringworm or Something Else?
posted: Sep. 16, 2020.
There are many reasons that you might be dealing with a skin rash; however, if you suspect that it might be ringworm you may be surprised to discover that there are other conditions that can often masquerade as ringworm but aren’t. This is why it’s important to have any rashes or skin problems thoroughly evaluated by a qualified dermatologist. After all, you want to make sure that you are getting the proper treatment you need depending on the type of condition you’re dealing with.
What does ringworm look like?
If you have ringworm, common symptoms include:
- A circular or ring-like rash that may be raised along the edges
- A rash that may be scaly, itchy, red, or burning
- Hair loss in the area where the rash has appeared
The rash may develop several red, raised rings at once, some of which may overlap. While ringworm can develop just about anywhere on the body it’s most commonly found on the arms, legs, and trunk.
If it’s not ringworm, then what else could it be?
There are a variety of ringworm imposters that could be causing you or your child’s rash. The two most common conditions are nummular eczema and granuloma annulare.
Nummular eczema causes circular patches of dry skin that can burn or become dry and scaly. This type of skin condition is often triggered by bug bites, certain medications, or a metal allergy. Granuloma annulare causes red or flesh-colored bumps to appear on the skin, but because they often appear ring-like this condition can be mistaken for ringworm. Everything from medications and viral infections to skin trauma and thyroid disorders can trigger granuloma annulare.
Other less common symptoms that may look like ringworm include,
- Contact dermatitis
- Pityriasis rosea
- Tinea versicolor (more common in children)
- Erythema migrans (common in those with Lyme disease)
Sometimes a skin biopsy of the lesion or rash is required for a dermatologist to be able to diagnose whether it is ringworm or not. If you are experiencing symptoms of ringworm or are concerned about a new or worsening rash, then call your dermatologist today to schedule an appointment.
Ringworm (Tinea Corporis) | Symptoms and Treatment
What is ringworm?
Ringworm is a fungal skin infection. (It is not due to a worm as its name implies!) There are many types of fungal germs (fungi) and some can infect the skin, nails, and hair. Fungal infections are also known as ‘tinea’ or ‘dermatophyte infections’ or ‘dermatophytosis’. This leaflet just deals with ringworm of the skin (sometimes called tinea corporis). See also the separate leaflets called Fungal Scalp Infection (Scalp Ringworm), Athlete’s Foot (Tinea Pedis), Fungal Groin Infection (Tinea Cruris) and Fungal Nail Infections (Tinea Unguium).
How can you catch ringworm?
Generally speaking fungal skin infections are not that contagious. You can touch someone’s skin if they’ve got a fungal infection and, as long as you wash your hands afterwards, it’s unlikely you’ll catch it.
Occasionally you can catch fungal skin infections and here is a list of how:
- From person to person by touching a person who has the infection.
- From touching items which have been in contact with an infected person. For example, towels, clothes, bed linen or chairs which have been used by somebody who has ringworm.
- From animals. Some animals, such as dogs, cats, guinea pigs and cattle, have fungal infections on their skin. They can pass on the infection, especially to children. (Animals can be treated too if you suspect a pet is the cause. See your vet.) Farm animals can also be a source. Touching a farm gate where infected animals pass through may be enough to infect your skin.
- From soil. Rarely, fungi can be present in soil, and you can get the infection from contact with soil.
What are the symptoms of ringworm?
Corina G., Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
By Corina G., Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
A small area of infected skin tends to spread outwards. It typically develops into a rounded, red, inflamed patch of skin. The outer edge is more inflamed and scaly than the paler centre. So, it often looks like a ring that becomes gradually larger – hence the name ringworm. Sometimes only one patch of infection occurs. Sometimes several patches occur over the body, particularly if you catch the infection from handling an infected animal.
The rash may be irritating, itchy and inflamed. If it’s not itchy and annoying, it’s very unlikely it’s fungal.
Sometimes fungal skin infections look similar to other skin rashes, such as psoriasis. If you have a ring of slightly bumpy skin, but it isn’t itchy at all, it could be something called granuloma annulare: a harmless skin condition that requires no treatment.
Treatments for ringworm
You can buy an antifungal cream from pharmacies, or get one on prescription. There are various types and brands – for example, terbinafine, clotrimazole, econazole, ketoconazole and miconazole. These are good at clearing fungal skin infections. There is no evidence that any one cream is better than any other one.
Apply the cream for as long as advised. This varies between the different creams, so read the instructions carefully. Briefly:
- Clotrimazole: apply 2-3 times a day for at least four weeks.
- Miconazole: apply twice a day and continue for 10 days after the skin is back to normal.
- Econazole: apply twice a day until the skin is back to normal.
- Ketoconazole: apply once or twice a day and continue for a few days after the skin is back to normal. Cannot be used for children.
- Terbinafine: apply once or twice a day for one to two weeks. Cannot be used for children.
For skin that is particularly inflamed, your doctor may prescribe an antifungal cream combined with a mild steroid cream. This would normally be used for no more than seven days. You may need to continue with an antifungal cream alone for a time afterwards. The steroid reduces inflammation and may ease itch and redness quickly. However, the steroid does not kill the fungus and so a steroid cream alone should not be used: in fact, it will probably make the fungal infection worse.
An antifungal medicine taken by mouth is sometimes prescribed if the infection is widespread or severe. For example, terbinafine, griseofulvin, or itraconazole tablets.
Not all treatments are suitable for everyone. People who may not be able take antifungal tablets include:
- Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding.
- People with certain liver diseases.
- People at risk of heart failure.
- People with long-standing lung disease.
- Elderly people.
- People taking other medication which may interact with antifungal tablets.
Antifungal creams and tablets are covered in more detail in the separate leaflet called Antifungal Medicines.
General advice tips
Keep the affected area clean and dry.
To prevent passing on the infection, do not share towels. Wash towels, sheets and clothes frequently. Clean your shower or bath well after use. Try not to scratch the rash, as this may spread the fungus to other areas of your body.
You do not need to stay off work or school once treatment has started.
Treatment, Pictures, Causes, and Symptoms
Dogs and Cats, and Other Pets
When a person contracts ringworm, dogs and cats are the most common culprits. Cats are especially vulnerable to this infection. One study showed that when a cat has it, there is a 30 to 70 percent chance someone in the household will contract the disease, too.
Ringworm on a cat usually goes away without treatment, but it takes nine months to a year. During that time the cat’s hair will continue to fall out, putting it at greater risk of wounds and infections. Plus, the cat remains contagious to anyone in the home. Symptoms in cats include:
- Broken or stubbly hair
- Crusty, scaling skin
- Changes in hair or skin color
- Inflamed skin
- Circular spots where hair has fallen out
- Excessive grooming
- Infected claws
With treatment, a cat can be cleared in as little as six weeks, though it can take much longer.
For dogs, ringworm infection usually comes from the fungal species Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.
Unlike cats, dogs often (but not always) show symptoms. Hairless, circular lesions on the head, ears, paws, and forelimbs are the main symptoms dogs show. These lesions expand, and when they do, they become more irregular in shape and may become scabby.
Puppies, malnourished or stressed dogs, and dogs that have been in a kennel or shelter are especially prone to infection.
Treatment for Dogs
A veterinarian will determine the severity of an infection before recommending treatment. There are various treatments available, including shampoos, ointments, dips, oral treatments and simply clipping back fur.
The lesions should begin to clear up in about one to three weeks. But keep treating your dog for as long as the veterinarian recommends. Just because a lesion heals does not necessarily mean the infection has been cured.
Cats and dogs aren’t the only mammals susceptible to these infections. Ringworm can be transmitted from horses, pigs, cattle, rodents, and hedgehogs. These are only some of the animals that might pick up this potentially itchy disease.
Ringworm: A Serious but Readily Treatable Affliction
Ringworm (feline dermatophytosis) is among the most frequently occurring skin disorders affecting the worldwide cat population. Despite its name, it is a fungal infection having nothing at all to do with worms. And the only thing it has to do with rings is the circular area of itchy rash that typically—but not necessarily—will appear on the skin of an infected animal.
The fungi responsible for the condition are called dermatophytes, microscopic organisms that originate in soil but can flourish as parasites beyond their home environment. Once entrenched in a host’s body, the fungi thrive by digesting keratin, a protein substance that is the main structural component of hair and nails. As they consume the keratin, the microscopically small fungi reproduce rapidly, creating millions of single-cell reproductive bodies (spores) that are capable of developing into new microorganisms.
When the dermatophytes come into contact with healthy feline tissue, several different phenomena may occur: they may be brushed off by a meticulously self-grooming cat; they may lose out in competition with more robust microorganisms and eventually disappear; they may establish residence on the skin without causing any adverse reactions; or, worst case, they may settle in droves on the animal’s skin and cause dermatitis—an inflammatory disease that can manifest itself in a variety of unpleasant ways.
If untreated, says William Miller Jr., a professor of dermatology at Cornell University’s College of Veterinary Medicine, ringworm in an otherwise healthy cat will probably self-resolve over time. Nevertheless, he points out, “Feline ringworm is not something that you want to take lightly. If it does go away without treatment, the process will typically take anywhere from nine months to a year, during which time the animal’s hair will keep falling out and its bare skin will be exposed. This can increase the animal’s risk of skin wounds and subsequent infection.”
Moreover, he points out, ringworm is a zoonotic disease—it can be passed from an infected cat to a human who comes in contact with it. Thus, the condition can pose a significant threat to people as well as to cats.
The clearest and most common clinical signs of feline ringworm include the following: circular areas of hair loss, broken and stubbly hair, scaling or crusty skin, alterations in hair or skin color, inflamed areas of skin, excessive grooming and scratching, infected claws or nail beds, and dandruff.
If ringworm is suspected, a veterinarian will first attempt to exclude the presence of other dermatologic conditions that the infection may resemble, such as flea allergy. Toward this goal, says Dr. Miller, the veterinarian may examine the cat’s coat with a Wood’s lamp—an ultraviolet light under which a fungus-coated hair will glow with a yellowish-green color. The hairs that fluoresce in this manner are then examined microscopically for specific spores and other fungal characteristics.
If ringworm is diagnosed, treatment will typically involve the application of topical antifungal medications to all infected areas and, in most cases, a systemic medication as well. If the lesions are present in many areas of a cat’s skin, a full-body rinse or dip may be used. It will take at least six weeks or so of repeated treatments to completely cure a feline ringworm infection, he notes, “and maybe a whole lot longer in some cases.”
Ringworm of the scalp – causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Astrakhan | Diseases
- Various types of fungal infection
- Dry scaly rash on the scalp
- Loss of hair clumps on the scalp
Dermatomycosis of the scalp can cause a dry, scaly rash that may cause some itching or hair loss (alopecia), or both.One type of fungus causes the so-called “black dot” ringworm, which causes the hair shaft to break at the very surface of the scalp.
Another type of fungus causes the so-called “gray spot” ringworm, in which the hair shaft breaks above the scalp, leaving short roots. Dermatomycosis of the scalp can sometimes cause dandruff-like scaling.
Occasionally, a dermatophyte infection can cause the formation of a kerion, a large, painful, inflamed, swollen patch on the scalp from which pus may occasionally come out.Kerion may be blistered and crusty, and may resemble an abscess in appearance. The reason for the formation of kerion is the reaction of the immune system to the fungus, and a possible consequence is scarring against the background of hair loss.
The diagnosis of mycosis of the scalp is established on the basis of clinical data and research results. Taking into account the cause of the disease and the existing symptoms, the doctor may prescribe the following types of examination:
- microscopic examination of scraping from the affected area of the skin;
- research with Wood’s lamp;
- microscopic examination of hair.
Treatment depends on the cause and symptoms of the disease, the severity of the course, as well as the presence of concomitant diseases and drug therapy received for concomitant pathology. With this in mind, the doctor can prescribe:
- antifungal drugs for oral administration;
- antifungal creams;
- sometimes glucocorticosteroids.
Caution: ringworm !!!
Just one mention of a skin disease, popularly known as “ringworm”, will make you involuntarily shiver.Probably, it would not even occur to you that a baby carriage left in the stairwell could become a cause of infection in a newborn. But this is really so. It’s just that a homeless sick kitten also wants to relax in a cozy and warm place.
Ringworm is a contagious skin disease caused by dermatophyte fungi (literally – growing on the skin) of two types: trichophytosis or microsporum. It should be noted right away that modern doctors practically do not use the term “ringworm”.because it is rather a generalized concept than a specific diagnosis. It is more correct to call this pathology trichophytosis and microsporia (depending on the type of pathogen). The external manifestations of these diseases are very similar. Microsporia and trichophytosis are ubiquitous, and children are especially susceptible to infection.
Deprive in children: sources of infection …
Microsporia and trichophytosis are divided into:
- anthroponous – the source of infection is a sick person, or rather his hair, affected by fungi, skin flakes that can get on the skin of a healthy person through direct contact or through household items (hats, combs, underwear, etc.)etc.).
- zoonotic (more common) – human infection occurs through contact with a sick animal. With trichophytosis, these are usually pets (cows, calves, horses, etc.) and rodents (mice, hamsters, guinea pigs). With microsporia, sick kittens are also a source of infection, less often adult cats and dogs. In 80–85% of cases, a person becomes infected through direct contact with animals or things and objects infected with wool and scales of their skin. There are two peaks in the incidence of zoonotic microsporia – in late summer and autumn, which coincides with two litters in cats.
Why a child may have lichen:
- immunity disorders;
- skin microtrauma;
- acute and chronic diseases coinciding in time with fungal infection.
In addition, high humidity and air temperature, as well as poor personal hygiene, contribute to infection. According to some reports, fungal spores in the skin scales in the hair can retain infectious properties for up to one and a half years, if spores get into the soil – up to 2 months.There have been cases of infection of children after playing in the sandbox. However, with the observance of the rules of personal hygiene, even if the spores come into contact with the skin, infection can be avoided.
What are the manifestations of deprivation in a child?
After an incubation period of 5–7 days on average, foci of infection appear on the skin or scalp. Trichophytosis and microsporia occur on any part of the skin, but more often on open parts of the body – the face, neck, hands and forearms.
In milder forms of the disease, with skin lesions, rounded foci are formed, clearly delineated, covered with scales, nodules and vesicles along the periphery. They often form bizarre ring-in-a-ring shapes. When the scalp is affected, foci of a rounded shape, of various sizes, also appear.
With trichophytosis, they have fuzzy vague boundaries, mild inflammation and desquamation in the form of silvery scales. The hairs in the lesions are partially broken off at a height of 1–2 mm or at the level of the skin.With microsporia, 1–2 large rounded foci with clear boundaries and abundant pityriasis desquamation are formed. Hair breaks off at a height of 6–8 mm above the level of the skin (hence the common name of the disease – ringworm , since the hair in the lesion is, as it were, cut off).
Possible slight itching in the affected area. The general condition of children, as a rule, is not disturbed. An increase in the incidence of microsporia among newborns should be noted. There are observations of infection through baby carriages.Some parents leave them at night in the stairwell, which is used by homeless cats with microsporia (they sleep there). After that, the wheelchair may contain single infected hair and scales of an animal, invisible to humans, but as a result of contact with them, the child is infected with microsporia.
With a decrease in immunity in a child and in advanced cases, severe forms of microsporia or trichophytosis can be observed: infiltrative (from Latin infiltro – I pour in) – the penetration and accumulation of elements in the tissues that are not their normal component, and suppurative forms of the disease.The infiltrative form is characterized by the development of infiltration (compaction) in the area of lesions, the appearance of an increase and soreness of nearby lymph nodes. Suppurative form is characterized by the formation of painful dense lesions of a rounded shape, consisting of deep abscesses (cavities filled with pus), when squeezed, droplets of pus are released. Regional (axillary, submandibular, posterior cervical) lymph nodes are enlarged, painful. The general condition of the child worsens, the temperature rises.After recovery, scars remain on the skin, and focal baldness on the scalp. If a child has suffered mild microsporia or trichophytosis, then there are no traces of the disease on the skin or scalp.
Deprive a child: diagnostics …
A dermatologist is involved in the treatment of microsporia and trichophytosis. The diagnosis is established on the basis of external signs of the disease and special examination methods, such as: examination under a Wood lamp (a mercury lamp on which a filter consisting of silicon and nickel oxide is installed, which gives ultraviolet light).In a darkened room, the patient’s scalp is examined using this lamp. When hair is damaged by fungi, a green glow appears in its rays – examination of hair or skin scales under a microscope . For this, skin or hair scales are taken from the lesion with a scalpel or the edge of a glass slide (glass on which the object of study is examined under a microscope), placed in the center of the slide, and then covered with a second glass. The resulting material is treated with a special solution and its structure is studied.In the presence of fungi on the skin or hair, plexuses of thin tubes are found, inside which partitions are visible – sowing on a nutrient medium material taken from lesions on the scalp or skin. If the material contains fungi, their colonies grow on the nutrient medium by 10-14 days.
The diagnosis of microsporia or trichophytosis must be confirmed by microscopic examination of and isolation of the pathogen (growing it on a nutrient medium).
Treatment of foci of microsporia or trichophytosis located on the skin in a limited number is carried out on an outpatient basis, i.e. at home under the supervision of a doctor, and in case of multiple lesions and localization of foci on the scalp – in a hospital setting. Outwardly (and in case of hair damage and inside), antifungal drugs are prescribed. Iodine is also used, ointments containing sulfur, salicylic acid, tar, which are rubbed into the lesions. Water procedures on areas of the body with lesions are completely excluded until negative tests for fungi are obtained.
How to understand that a child’s lichen is cured
- disappearance of external manifestations;
- Three negative tests for fungi at intervals of 5-7 days. Patients can be discharged from the hospital with two negative tests for mushrooms for subsequent follow-up treatment on an outpatient basis.
Children’s collective (kindergarten, school) children can attend after two negative tests for mushrooms (with an interval of 5-7 days) and the final disinfection of the house.In case of damage to the scalp, children are under dispensary supervision for 2.5 months after the end of treatment. With skin lesions – observed within one month.
Preventive measures (if there is a sick home)
In each case of a disease with microsporia and trichophytosis, current and final disinfection is carried out (final disinfection in a hospital or at home, if necessary, is carried out by SES). The current disinfection is carried out by parents on the recommendation of medical personnel (boiling underwear and bed linen in a soap-soda solution, five-fold ironing of outerwear with a hot iron through a damp cloth, wet cleaning of the room with the use of detergents).The patient is allocated a separate room, provided with a separate bed and household items. In case of damage to the scalp, it is necessary to constantly wear a cap made of cloth tightly adhering to the head until the moment of discharge from the hospital, which is boiled daily.
Recommendations for parents
If a suspicious rash appears on the skin or scalp, consult a dermatologist without first lubricating the lesions, as this may complicate the diagnosis of the disease.
- If one of the family members is sick with microsporia or trichophytosis, then it is necessary to follow the basic rules of hygiene (do not share a towel with him, do not sleep in the same bed, do not swim together in the same bath) and limit contacts.
- It is necessary to conduct explanatory conversations with children – forbid them to touch stray kittens and puppies.
And the last one. The sooner you see a doctor when an incomprehensible kind of spots or scaly areas appear on the skin of a child, the sooner you will minimize the likelihood of common and severe forms of microsporia or trichophytosis.
Herpes zoster – causes, diagnosis and treatment
- Article updated: February 17, 2021
Herpes zoster (shingles) is a rash, a viral infection.
Occurs more often in autumn and winter, mainly in the elderly. The disease is caused by the same herpes virus (herpes zoster), which is the causative agent of chickenpox (chickenpox).After chickenpox passes, the virus does not disappear from the body, but “dormant” in the cells of the nervous system. While the body is healthy, the herpes zoster virus does not manifest itself in any way, but sometimes after many years, it re-enters the bloodstream, causing the symptoms of herpes zoster. The reasons causing the “awakening” of the virus: – Taking drugs that reduce immunity (corticosteroid hormones, immunosuppressants). – Chronic stress and overwork. – Oncological diseases: lymphogranulomatosis and other tumors.- Consequences of radiation therapy. – HIV infection and AIDS. Shingles is contagious – the virus is contained in the secretions from the vesicles. For people who have had chickenpox, there is no danger of infection. However, those who have not had chickenpox, especially children who have been in contact with someone with herpes zoster, can get chickenpox (chickenpox). ## What’s happening? A few days before the onset of the disease, a flu-like condition may occur: headache, fever, chills, lethargy.At the same time, pain, burning and itching may occur, as well as numbness and tingling in the area of future rashes. After 1-4 days, rashes appear on the skin; at the same time, the body temperature can rise to 38-39 C. The rash has the appearance of pinkish spots, which on the same or the next day are transformed into small bubbles with transparent contents. The rash is usually unilateral and is located along one of the sensory nerves. Most often they occur in the chest area (in the intercostal space), on the face, less often along the nerves of the extremities.The rashes are usually painful. The severity of pain varies from person to person. Some people experience a burning sensation that turns into itching during the healing period, as is often the case with chickenpox. Others experience such unbearable pain that they cannot even do their daily work. During the week, the number of bubbles increases significantly. In the future, the liquid contained in them becomes cloudy, the bubbles dry out, are drawn in and covered with a crust. When dry, they form plaques protruding above the skin.At the site of the lesion, a lighter colored area of skin or a scar remains. Patients with normal immunity recover within 15 days to 1 month. Elderly and debilitated patients are prone to a longer and more severe course. The most annoying thing about this disease is that even after the symptoms of herpes zoster are cured, the pain can persist for several months or even years. These pains are called postherpetic neuralgia. It is possible to recover from herpes zoster only once in a lifetime; the disease does not relapse.The only exceptions are people with AIDS and immunodeficiencies. ## Diagnosis and treatment The diagnosis is established by a dermatologist based on the patient’s complaints and examination. In immunocompromised people, the rash may be suppurative and spread over a large area. Such patients, as well as patients with eye damage, which is manifested by a rash on the tip of the nose, need hospitalization. Otherwise, they may develop serious complications. Treatment for herpes zoster should only be done under medical supervision.Herpes zoster is usually treated with analgesics, sedatives, and sleeping pills. Antiviral drugs are also necessarily prescribed: acyclovir, valacyclovir or famciclovir, which quickly eliminate the rash, stop the spread of the virus and reduce the severity of pain. The affected areas of the skin are recommended to be lubricated with brilliant green or other disinfectant solutions to prevent suppuration. With postherpetic neuralgia, physiotherapy may be additionally prescribed.
Ringworm in dogs symptoms and treatment – Animal Health
Ringworm in dogs – a contagious skin disease, unpleasant and dangerous for humans, has been spreading quite actively recently. If you pay attention to the longest queue at the veterinary clinic, you will understand that this is the queue for a dermatologist. And of course, there are many reasons that can lead to a change in the skin and hair loss, but in 80% of cases, a fungal or bacterial infection leads to this pathology.Dermatomycosis, dermatophytosis, microsporosis, trichophytosis, superficial mycosis, ringworm – all this range of diseases is caused by microscopic fungi that parasitize on the surface of the skin, hair and claws of the animal with the emergence of baldness of certain areas on the body, the development of various types of dermatitis, and changes in the structure of the claws.
Some time ago the word “lichen” had a very frightening character, it was even scary to pronounce it. First, because this disease is transmitted to humans.And secondly, because it really was incurable. In addition, the disease is insidious, since visible signs of the disease are not always present and, upon external examination, the animal’s coat and skin may look quite normal. At the same time, the four-legged friend is the source of the disease, spreading the fungus and its spores and can infect the people in whose house he lives. To determine the disease, in this case, it is possible only in a veterinary clinic, with the help of studies of the affected areas under a Wood lamp.It is necessary to know and understand that it is possible to become infected with lichen not only from the animal itself, but also from care items, bedding, dog toys, because fungal spores can be found absolutely everywhere. The active spread of this disease, like many others, is facilitated by a huge number of stray dogs and cats (therefore, in many countries there is a dog chipping program, the goal of which is to reduce and completely eliminate stray animals).
In this article, we will cover topics such as:
- Types of lichen in dogs;
- Signs of lichen in dogs and cats;
- How to treat lichen in a dog;
- Prophylaxis and lichen vaccine for dogs.
Types of lichen in dogs.
Let’s take a closer look at a disease such as lichen in a dog, the signs and treatment of which depend on the type of this disease. From that looks like lichen in dogs and it is divided into four types:
- Pityriasis versicolor;
- Pink lichen;
- Weeping lichen.
- Ringworm in dogs is the most common type of ringworm that a four-legged friend can pick up while walking on the street, and even while in the house.Spores of this fungus can live on the soil (a person entering an apartment can bring them on his shoes), it can also be obtained by contact with a sick animal, fungal spores can be found on the household items of a sick animal – in its bowls, rug, on a collar or toys … The peculiarity of this disease is the very rapid transmission and spread of the fungus throughout the dog’s body, which can lead to quite tragic consequences, including death. What does ringworm look like in dogs ? This disease has quite characteristic signs for it: first, in areas of 20-25 mm, hairs breaks appear as if they had been recently cut (that’s why such a “telling” name of the disease – ringworm).After that, hair will begin to fall out and clear bald patches of skin of pink, reddish or brown color will appear. As a rule, not one area appears, but several at once. Photos of dogs suffering from ringworm are most often found on the Internet. Symptoms disease ringworm in dogs will also be severe itching of these areas and constantly appearing new lesions. You will also notice a change in the dog’s behavior – the animal will constantly try to comb these areas, it will become more nervous and even aggressive. Can you get shingles from a dog? Once again we will confirm, yes it is possible and ringworm a direct confirmation of this conclusion.
- Pityriasis (the second name is multicolored) versicolor in dogs is another type of lichen in dogs, which is caused by opportunistic fungi Malassezia, which normally lives on the surface of the skin of not only dogs, but also other animals and people … These yeasts can stay on the skin and coat of dogs for a very long time without signs of aggression, without causing damage in healthy animals with good immunity and in the absence of damage to the epidermis.But as soon as the immune system weakens significantly, as in any wound on the skin, the yeast fungus begins to multiply vigorously, releasing a large amount of corrosive acid, which literally “corrodes” the layer of the epidermis. On the dog’s body, areas with loose hair appear, and the skin itself acquires a reddish-brown color with different shades. Hence the other name – multi-colored. This is due to different shades of lesions: pinkish, brownish, brownish. The lesions grow rapidly and can reach very large sizes.Since the spots quickly grow and merge, the disease can quickly spread throughout the dog’s body. According to doctors, pityriasis versicolor can in rare cases become infectious for a person with a weakened immune system.
- Pink lichen – this type of lichen causes an allergic reaction in dogs to an internal infection, presumably of a viral nature. Skin lesions, almost always, occur against the background of viral diseases of the digestive tract, respiratory system, and also after vaccinations.According to most veterinarians, lichen pink is caused by a genetic predisposition of the animal against the background of a general weakening of the immune system. Unfortunately, this is a chronic disease, so it will not be possible to completely cure the animal. The disease will return every time throughout the life of the four-legged friend. Every time the pet’s immune system activity decreases – for example, under stress, inadequate diet, frequent illnesses, and so on, the pet’s owners will again observe a picture of the disease in their pet.First, one small spot appears on the dog’s body with completely shed hair and pink skin. Gradually, the color of the skin on the spot turns yellow, and the skin itself becomes covered with a flaky crust. Then a second spot appears nearby … In this case, the dog is not a source of danger for other animals and humans, but it is advisable to limit the contact of children or sick people with a dog suffering from pink lichen. This disease spreads rather quickly and can cover a significant surface of the dog’s body.How to distinguish lichen rosacea from other diseases? The main clinical picture: spots do not exceed 2 cm; lesions have a pink tint with a yellowish middle; in the bulk, lichen is localized in the dog on the face or in the groin; over time, the destruction of foci occurs with the formation of yellow areas with peeling of the epidermis.
- Weeping lichen is eczema, the immune response of the dog’s body to an allergen. Most often, the allergen is found in the ingredients of the feed, possibly in the medicine.This disease is also chronic in nature and is distinguished by the following obvious signs: initially, swellings appear on the surface of the dog’s skin, hot to the touch, itchy and painful; gradually small bubbles swell in their place – papules filled with liquid; baldness occurs in the lesion; at first, just wet transparent discharge from the vesicles appears, which eventually becomes purulent. The most common localization of such foci is the cheeks, coccyx, neck. Weeping lichen is not contagious to humans.
The main signs of the disease
How to identify lichen in a dog ? In order not to miss the onset of the disease and notice the first signs of lichen in their pet in time, the owners need to be as careful as possible when examining the body of the animal, especially for long-haired pets. Remember that first of all, lichen foci will appear on the face, paws and belly of the dog. And if you notice any, even small areas, on which a change in hair is noticeable – broken hairs, hair balding, hair loss, this is a sign to show your pet to the specialists of the veterinary clinic, who will take a culture or check the hairs under a microscope.The sooner lichen is diagnosed in a dog, the faster and easier its treatment will be. And if your beloved pet is combing the skin in the same place, his skin is peeling or it has changed color, the animal’s behavior has changed: it has become apathetic, refuses to eat or food preferences have changed greatly, fever are signs that that the dog developed lichen.
As you already understand, animals are faced with a disease such as lichen in the environment every day, but not everyone gets it.Of course, the main role in this process is played by the state of cell-mediated immunity, which is involved in the defense mechanism against infectious diseases. Also, the likelihood of the disease is very actively and directly affected:
- the state of local immunity of the skin, skin damage, constant moisturizing of the skin;
- the presence of other chronic diseases of the skin, digestive system, metabolic and hormonal disorders;
- oncological diseases, chemotherapy, the use of anti-inflammatory drugs and immunosuppressants;
- viral and bacterial infections;
- age – puppies are more susceptible to fungal infection due to an imperfect immune response;
- pregnancy and lactation period in the female;
- improper feeding, hygienic care and maintenance of the animal;
- constant stress – remember animals, like people, can endure one-time stresses, but chronic stress will surely turn into a disease;
- A dog owner can also become a source of infection for his four-legged pet;
- Insects, most often mites, are also very often active carriers of fungi that lead to this disease.
When an infection occurs, fungal spores first enter the dog’s skin and coat, then germinate and invade the hair follicles. The hair itself is destroyed, but its growth does not stop. At the site of the fungal infection, local skin inflammation develops, the hair becomes brittle, dry and loses its shine.
There are two forms of the course of the disease – classical and latent. In the classic course of lichen, a superficial skin lesion appears, with limited areas of baldness with peeling and signs of inflammation, hair in this area is rare, short, broken off.With a high degree of infection, large areas of baldness appear. With the latent form of lichen, there are no clinical symptoms or they are nonspecific – in the form of small single baldness and skin lesions.
With a long course of the disease, the inflammation spreads deep enough, affecting the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. In this case, weeping areas of the skin with crusts and damage to the hair follicles are formed, as well as the appearance of inflammatory foci in the subcutaneous tissue, after which a scar remains on the skin.It can also be accompanied by damage to the fingers and claws with the development of degenerative processes. Severe lichen is often complicated by a bacterial infection, can occur in combination with demodicosis, especially in young animals with poorly formed immunity.
How to cure lichen in a dog?
Treatment of lichen in a dog – is a complex and rather lengthy process that depends on the neglect of the disease and consists of several stages:
- Local treatment,
- Taking internal drugs,
- Treatment of the external environment.
Diagnostics – always only in the veterinary clinic. Treatment lichen in a dog only according to photo is impossible, even with the use of the latest and most expensive drugs. First of all, high-quality diagnostics should be carried out, which is carried out using a scraping or a Wood lamp. Unfortunately, Wood’s lamp is not always able to show the real picture of the disease, since only 50% of fungi have a specific yellow-green glow in the ultraviolet spectrum.Therefore, for a more accurate diagnosis, the doctor of the veterinary clinic makes a scraping (sampling) of material from the affected areas of the skin, in order to subsequently check this material under a microscope. In some cases, inoculation is performed on special selective media to determine dermatophytes. Sometimes a biopsy is used, followed by specific staining.
Topical treatment of lichen in a dog – consists in applying to the skin, prescribed by a veterinarian, antifungal preparations .They are presented in the form of ointments, sprays, shampoos and solutions. In veterinary pharmacies, topical preparations for the treatment of lichen in dogs are now presented in a fairly large assortment. There are now a plethora of 90,067 low-cost medications for treating shingles in dog . Which ointment for treating dogs from ringworm or another type of lichen is best used in a particular case – only the doctor can tell after diagnosing the animal. Self-treatment of lichen is not recommended, as it threatens the aggravation of the disease and the development of complications.
How to properly apply
ointment to the affected area to treat lichen in a dog.
I think everyone understands that the better the affected area of the dog’s skin is prepared, the greater the effect of the medicated ointment will be. We suggest you use this simple algorithm:
- Prepare medical rubber gloves, tweezers, metal container and matches, soap solution, antiseptic (furacilin, chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide), tweezers, gauze wipes, medicated ointment;
- First put on gloves;
- Treat the affected area with an antiseptic solution;
- Cut all hairs about 5 mm in diameter from the affected epidermis.The cut hair is immediately burned.
- If there is a scab, it must be soaked in a soap solution until it is completely softened.
- Use tweezers to remove the keratinized dead skin, and the area is again treated with an antiseptic.
- Wipe off any remaining moisture with a tissue.
- Apply ointment.
Internal preparations – in difficult situations, when lichen has many foci, tablets are also used. Their dosage should only be prescribed by a veterinarian. Depending on the condition of the dog, the veterinarian prescribes additional symptomatic, supportive and antifungal therapy in the form of drugs for internal administration
- antifungal agents;
- antibacterial drugs;
- immunostimulants and immunomodulators;
Treatment and care of the external environment. We propose, first of all, to restrict the movement of a sick dog around the apartment, so as not to aggravate or expand the infection of the environment. You also need to prevent a sick pet from communicating with children and other animals, walking on the street in a certain place without crowds of people and dogs. The room in which the sick animal is located must be cleaned two to three times a day, especially with regard to wet cleaning. It is very important to disinfect the apartment to kill the lichen spores and to prevent contamination of family members and other pets.To do this, you need to use specialized antifungal drugs in the form of solutions, sprays and smoke bombs. This can also be done with a solution of Imaverol or chlorine-containing agents. Wash the floors with the solution, wipe all surfaces, skirting boards. Furniture, rugs, carpets must be treated with hot steam. Disinfect the dog’s care products and toys, and it is better and safer to replace them with new ones.
Now on specialized forums you can read a lot of information and advice how to treat lichen in a dog on your own, at home.Remember, lichen is a rather dangerous skin disease that requires accurate diagnosis and selection of the correct therapy, contact your veterinarian. Only by photos of depriving the dog of , the owner will not be able to make the correct diagnosis and provide the necessary assistance to his pet. Depending on the type of lichen, its severity, the degree of damage to the skin of the dog, the general condition of the animal, the veterinarian prescribes the necessary treatment. It is aimed at destroying pathogenic fungi with ringworm and pityriasis versicolor, eliminating allergens with pink and weeping lichen, and eliminating internal infection with pink lichen.And to restore the affected skin for all types of lichen. Treatment of lichen species at home is allowed only sometimes, for example, with signs of pink lichen.
Prevention of shingles in dogs
Let’s remember what we talked about at the very beginning of the article – the disease is really around us, but not everyone suffers from it. Most often, dogs with poor immunity are susceptible to this ailment. And this means that the owners do not take good care of the animal, the dog’s diet lacks important vitamins and minerals, the animal is not very active, spends insufficient time in the air, requires more hygienic care and mental attention.
There are general rules for the prevention of dogs from lichen, which any owner of a four-legged friend must follow:
- Protect the pet from contact with strangers and stray animals that may carry this disease;
- Observe sanitary and hygienic standards, wash the dog in a timely manner with suitable means (including prophylactic). Bathe your pet with an antifungal shampoo available from your veterinarian.Regularly examine the fur and skin of animals, especially long-haired animals, in whose hairs the fungus feels very comfortable. Remember, any areas of the coat where the hairs began to break or fall out is a reason to go to the veterinary clinic for an examination;
- The dog’s diet should be complete. You need to learn how to feed your pet correctly, avoiding the presence of possible allergens in the food. The animal’s food should be balanced, rich in vitamins, and not cause an allergic reaction;
- Get all vaccinations on time.
- do not restrict the animal for walks in the fresh air;
- Under no circumstances use foreign bowls, collars and other household items – spores of fungi that cause lichen in dogs can persist for a long time on contaminated objects. Rugs, bedding, toys, bowls are items of exclusively personal use that do not need to be lent or given to someone;
And remember, love, care and attention are the three whales that keep the health and well-being of our four-legged friends!
Dermatology at the ON Clinic Medical Center
Any of us can face a problem like shingles.This disease has an extremely negative effect on our appearance, because lichen spots are clearly visible against the background of healthy skin. Lichen is largely a constraint on communication with other people, at least due to the fact that some of its forms can be contagious. It can also ruin the long-awaited vacation in the bud, depriving you of the opportunity to sunbathe on the beach without hesitation. Therefore, lichen treatment cannot be postponed until later. Moreover, one cannot do without the help of a dermatologist, since effective treatment of lichen in humans can only be performed by a specialist in the field of dermatology who is familiar with the nature of pathogenic microflora and ways to eliminate it.
What is lichen?
Lichen is a disease caused by disease-causing fungi and viruses. It affects areas of the body with an increased number of sweat glands: face, back, armpits, groin area.
Lichen can be transmitted both from person to person and from pets, because the main causes of lichen are close contacts with the pathogen (fungus, virus), which can even settle on household items and devices, and not only on the skin of a person.Infection occurs instantly – within a few seconds, but the incubation period lasts about a week. After that, a person will find on the skin a small speck of red, pink or purple color, which gradually increases in size, is characterized by itching and peeling.
Please note: people can get shingles at any age, regardless of gender.
What are the varieties of lichen
As you might have guessed, the term lichen is generalized and implies a number of diseases.In medicine, there are several types of lichen:
Ringworm. Young children are more susceptible to this disease, as a rule, they become infected by contact with a sick animal. The first symptoms of the disease begin to appear 1-2 weeks after infection. On the head and skin of the patient, small pink spots appear, which are accompanied by itching and peeling.
Ringworm on the scalp causes thinning of the hairline in the infection foci.
Pityriasis versicolor. This type of lichen is characterized by the spread of red spots in places of increased sweating. The fungus that causes pityriasis versicolor prevents sunburn, making the affected skin lighter.
Shingles is caused by the Herpeszoster viral infection. This type of lichen first affects nerve cells, then manifests itself in the form of inflammation on the surface of the skin.
Shingles causes severe itching and unpleasant painful sensations in the patient.
Pink lichen (also known as Gibert) begins with a small pink patch on the body. Over time, its core turns yellow and begins to peel off. Pityriasis rosea often occurs during periods of weakened immunity, for example, after a cold.
Red lichen. To date, doctors cannot give a definite answer about the factors that cause this disease. Symptoms of lichen redness include the appearance of many small red nodules in places of increased sweating, which itch very much.
In any case, regardless of the type of lichen, this skin disease must be treated if you do not want to spread a single lesion to other parts of the body. How to cure lichen?
Treatment of lichen in ON Clinic
In addition to high efficiency, the methods of treatment practiced at ON Clinic are widely known for their safety for health. The treatment of lichen, like any other disease, begins with a detailed examination of the patient. The Department of Dermatology of the Medical Center “ON Clinic” has at its disposal modern diagnostic equipment, which allows already at the first session to determine the cause of the disease and make the correct diagnosis.
For the treatment of lichen, ON Clinic uses both drugs from the pharmacy chain and unique creams, shampoos and ointments developed in the corporation’s own laboratories. Treatment of lichen in ON Clinic is carried out in a complex, therefore it is very effective and allows you to achieve high positive results in a short time.
To make an appointment with a dermatologist at ON Clinic, just call the phone number indicated for your region, or fill out a simple appointment form on our website.You can find out the cost of lichen treatment at an appointment with a doctor. Lichen, the treatment and price of which depends on the degree and depth of the lesion of the skin area, is a disease that can threaten with the addition of a bacterial infection. Don’t risk it. Make an appointment with your doctor!
90,000 Lichen in cats, cats: how to treat, types of lichen, how to smear, how to determine ringworm in a cat, is it dangerous for humans, symptoms and signs, pink lichen, injections
In veterinary medicine, lichen has various names – trichophytosis, microsporia, ringworm.In cats, the disease is manifested by the formation of hairless areas on the skin. They turn red, rash, scaly and itchy. The animal is anxious.
Causes of lichen in cats
Lichen in cats is a disease transmitted by contact from one animal to another. The most common carriers are domestic rodents – mice, rats. It can be transmitted from stray cats to pets in violation of zoohygienic content. In some cases, the source of infection is a recovered animal.
Most often sick:
- small kittens that do not have natural immunity;
- cats after serious illness;
- cats walking freely on the street;
- infected with parasites;
- burdened by a genetic factor.
For a long time, disease-causing spores can be present in the environment or outdoors. Their livelihoods are enhanced in warm and humid environments.Over an extended period, the disease may not be detected in any way.
Types of lichen in cats and their symptoms
The disease is caused by various fungi of the genera Trichophyton, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum. The microorganisms that provoke diseases are different, the diseases have different names, but very similar symptoms of lichen in cats.
The first pathogen has a consonant name for the disease of trichophytosis. Due to the influence of Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum, microsporia appears.All three species have identical symptoms and are called ringworm.
In addition to ringworm, there is also shingles, pink, weeping, pityriasis versicolor. Each species has its own external signs and methods of treatment.
With ringworm, lightened areas appear on the head or limbs of the animal. The skin begins to peel off, hair falls out, sometimes in lumps. In some cases, small abscesses form. Gradually, a small spot grows and can affect the entire muzzle, and in advanced cases, the trunk.With a protracted form, the hair follicles rot, and pus accumulates under the crust. When the claws are affected, they thicken and deform.
Microsporia is caused by fungi of the genus Microsporon. They have a filamentous body that forms many spores that are resistant to environmental influences and multiply rapidly. The disease can occur at any time of the year.
The affected skin areas cause discomfort to animals, they constantly itch and thereby transfer pathogens to other areas.In adult animals, microsporia occurs in a latent form. In young people it can be superficial, deep, worn out and hidden:
- with a superficial form, hairless areas of a rounded shape are formed. They flake off without inflammation;
- with a deep form, purulent areas appear on the skin. Small spots merge and form extensive foci;
- deep stage – with it, extensive areas with purulent discharge are observed;
- erased form – characterized by the presence of areas of sparse wool.
Ringworm is the most dangerous, as it can be transmitted very quickly to surrounding animals and people
This lichen appears as a result of allergic or infectious factors. It has another name – Gibert’s lichen. If the animal receives adequate nutrition, it is healthy and has a strong immune system, then this type of lichen does not threaten such a cat. A sick animal can only infect weakened kittens.In the presence of such a disease, you should consult a veterinarian to identify latent pathology. The lichen virus has not yet been studied.
Cats, like humans, have hormonal disruptions. In such a situation, weeping lichen may appear. It is not caused by spores and viruses, but by the malfunctioning of the nervous system, hormonal disruptions, the presence of various parasites or allergies. In addition, it can provoke skin damage in the form of burns or frostbite.With improper nutrition, cats have vitamin deficiency or hypovitaminosis, which also stimulates lichen.
A pink seal forms on the skin of the animal, on the surface of which there may be blisters or abscesses. It is painful and the cat does not always allow it to be examined. The disease may be accompanied by an increase in temperature.
Pityriasis versicolor versicolor is a pathogenic yeast that can be transmitted to other animals and humans.As a result of the disease, multi-colored flat spots appear on the skin. Flakes may be present on the surface. For this variety of lichen, a characteristic feature is the absence of itching and disappearance with a decrease in the ambient temperature. In this case, the disease does not go away, as soon as it gets warmer, the spots appear again.
Diagnostics at the veterinarian
As soon as a pet has any symptoms of shingles, it should be isolated as soon as possible and shown to a veterinarian as soon as possible.The early stages of the disease are difficult to diagnose. When visiting a doctor, it is advisable to have a medical card of the animal with you. Records made in previous visits will help to diagnose the disease as fully and quickly as possible.
Your veterinarian will do additional testing before prescribing treatment.
- Wood lamp – allows you to identify some types of fungi. Its light reflects the affected areas of the coat. But not all types of mushrooms are sensitive to such light or do not light up at all.The disadvantage of such a study is the highlighting of accidentally caught extraneous harmless microorganisms that can give a false signal;
- scrapings from the affected skin are examined under a microscope. This allows you to immediately diagnose the disease. Still, it is not always possible to identify pathogenic microbes and accurately diagnose.
- The most accurate way to identify a disease is the isolation of the pathogen using a nutrient medium. A scraping is taken from the cat’s skin and placed in a special compound, where bacteria can freely multiply for 1-2 weeks.After that, a specialist will examine the grown fungus under a microscope. This method is quite accurate, but time-consuming. It takes 1 to 3 weeks to make a diagnosis.
In addition to the above studies, the animal will take a blood test, check for the presence of parasites and the absence of other diseases.
How to treat lichen in cats
Only a specialist can prescribe the correct treatment. When prescribing a treatment regimen, he takes into account the condition of the animal, its age, immunity, breed.Timely treatment guarantees a quick recovery. But even after it, pathogenic microorganisms can remain on the cat. After treatment, it is important to be tested again for spores.
There is a different method of treatment for each type of feline lichen. When the disease has not had time to spread, treatment is carried out with simple ointments, but in advanced cases it can be a long therapy with the use of strong medications. In any case, only a specialist decides how to treat lichen in a cat.
Usually, if all the doctor’s recommendations are followed, the rash disappears within 10-15 days, and the coat is renewed in 2-3 weeks.
It should be remembered that after a course of treatment, pathogens may still live on the cat’s body. Therefore, the cat is cured or not, only laboratory specialists will say after repeated tests.
Ringworm in cats is one of the most aggressive diseases, therefore it requires complex treatment with the use of special antifungal ointments, shampoos, and tablets.
For therapeutic and prophylactic purposes, the animal may be vaccinated with live and inactivated vaccines.
The most important preventive measure is timely vaccination. It will protect the cat from various diseases for a long time.
In addition, it is important to observe the measures for the zoo-hygienic keeping of animals:
- protect your pet from contact with unfamiliar animals;
- inspect wool and treat identified wounds in time;
- to visit the veterinarian periodically for preventive purposes;
- to carry out timely vaccination;
- provide a balanced diet.
At home, it is necessary to regularly disinfect the cat’s bed. Furniture is wiped with chlorine solution once a week.
Fungi are resistant to disinfectants and can persist for a long time on a cat’s litter and toys. Therefore, cleaning is not a one-time event, but a necessary measure.
Is lichen transmitted from cat to person
Lichen is dangerous because it can be transmitted from a sick animal to the owner.In case of infection, treatment should be carried out simultaneously with the animal.
The disease is dangerous because it can spread to other parts of the body, which will complicate treatment. Ugly scars may remain at the site of suppuration. An infection of the scalp can trigger baldness. Untreated lichen attacks the lymphatic system and the brain.
Infected skin should be treated with antifungal ointments such as Clotrimazole or Miconazole. The diet includes a complex of vitamins and takes antifungal and antihistamines.
A disease detected in time is easier to cure. Therefore, it is important to regularly check your domestic cat. If small spots are found, start treatment immediately.
Shingles ( Herpes zoster ) (synonym – herpes zoster) – a viral disease characterized by unilateral skin rashes with severe pain syndrome. The causative agent – the varicella-zoster virus ( Varicella zoster ) of the herpesvirus family, at the first meeting with the body (more often at a young age) causes typical chickenpox.
People who have had chickenpox before fall ill. Mostly people of the elderly and senile age, as well as people with weakened immunity, are ill: patients with leukemia, lymphogranulomatosis, neoplasms, receiving chemotherapy, long-term corticosteroids and immuno-depressants. Especially often, the infection develops in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
In children who have not previously had chickenpox, on contact with patients with shingles, a typical “chickenpox” develops.
It has been proven that after the transferred chickenpox, the virus persists for many years in the human nerve fibers, without causing any damage to human health. With a sharp weakening of local and general immunity, the activation of the virus may occur, and the infection manifests itself in the form of rashes in those skin areas for which the affected nerve is responsible. It is the participation of nerves in the development of the disease that provides a pronounced pain syndrome. In most cases, the intercostal nerves or the trigeminal nerve are affected.
A characteristic feature of herpes zoster is one-sided lesion.
Depending on the location of the nerve damage, the following conditions may develop:
- Ophthalmic herpes zoster – the virus enters the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve, which is dangerous with damage to the cornea.
- Ramsey-Hunt syndrome – rashes occur in the external auditory canal or oropharynx and are accompanied by unilateral paralysis of facial muscles. In some cases, hearing loss and vertigo also develop.
- Motor herpes zoster – muscle weakness in areas of skin rash.
Symptoms of herpes zoster
Movement herpes zoster is characterized by an acute onset, general malaise, fever, slight itching, tingling sensation, severe burning pains at the site of future rashes. Rashes appear along the course of individual sensory nerves in the form of indistinct pinkish spots (3-5 cm), against which, after 18-24 hours, groups of painful vesicles are formed, filled with transparent and then cloudy contents.The rash disappears within 2-4 weeks: the bubbles dry up, forming yellow-brown crusts, which then disappear, leaving little pigmentation. The pains sometimes become unbearable, intensified at the slightest touch to the skin, with cooling, movement. Sometimes the disease is characterized by intoxication and neuralgic pain, the rash is absent. When skin rashes appear, the pains usually become less intense. The pain can persist for weeks or months.
Ophthalmic herpes zoster is characterized by a particularly severe course that can last for several weeks.With the ocular form, specific viral keratitis is observed, less often iritis, glaucoma. the virus enters the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve.
Ramsey-Hunt syndrome is characterized by a red, painful rash in the ears or mouth and facial paralysis (eg, eyelids or mouth) on one side of the face. Symptoms such as ear pain, dizziness, dry eyes, changes in taste may occur.
Treatment is aimed at combating intoxication, relieving pain and preventing the generalization of infection.As a rule, patients with shingles do not need hospitalization and the further prognosis is favorable. However, in order to prevent complications in case of suspected shingles, an urgent need to consult a doctor.
- Physical activity;
- Rational nutrition;
- Regular stay in the fresh air, walks;
- Prevention of contact with patients with chickenpox.