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Roles of water: Biological Roles of Water: Why is water necessary for life?

Biological Roles of Water: Why is water necessary for life?

by Molly Sargen
figures by Daniel Utter

Water makes up 60-75% of human body weight. A loss of just 4% of total body water leads to dehydration, and a loss of 15% can be fatal. Likewise, a person could survive a month without food but wouldn’t survive 3 days without water. This crucial dependence on water broadly governs all life forms.  Clearly water is vital for survival, but what makes it so necessary?

The Molecular Make-up of Water

Many of water’s roles in supporting life are due to its molecular structure and a few special properties. Water is a simple molecule composed of two small, positively charged hydrogen atoms and one large negatively charged oxygen atom. When the hydrogens bind to the oxygen, it creates an asymmetrical molecule with positive charge on one side and negative charge on the other side (Figure 1). This charge differential is called polarity and dictates how water interacts with other molecules.

Figure 1: Water Chemistry. Water molecules are made of two hydrogens and one oxygen. These atoms are of different sizes and charges, which creates the asymmetry in the molecular structure and leads to strong bonds between water and other polar molecules, including water itself.

Water is the “Universal Solvent”

As a polar molecule, water interacts best with other polar molecules, such as itself. This is because of the phenomenon wherein opposite charges attract one another: because each individual water molecule has both a negative portion and a positive portion, each side is attracted to molecules of the opposite charge. This attraction allows water to form relatively strong connections, called bonds, with other polar molecules around it, including other water molecules. In this case, the positive hydrogen of one water molecule will bond with the negative oxygen of the adjacent molecule, whose own hydrogens are attracted to the next oxygen, and so on (Figure 1). Importantly, this bonding makes water molecules stick together in a property called cohesion. The cohesion of water molecules helps plants take up water at their roots. Cohesion also contributes to water’s high boiling point, which helps animals regulate body temperature.

Furthermore, since most biological molecules have some electrical asymmetry, they too are polar and water molecules can form bonds with and surround both their positive and negative regions. In the act of surrounding the polar molecules of another substance, water wriggles its way into all the nooks and crannies between molecules, effectively breaking it apart are dissolving it. This is what happens when you put sugar crystals into water: both water and sugar are polar, allowing individual water molecules to surround individual sugar molecules, breaking apart the sugar and dissolving it. Similar to polarity, some molecules are made of ions, or oppositely charged particles.  Water breaks apart these ionic molecules as well by interacting with both the positively and negatively charged particles. This is what happens when you put salt in water, because salt is composed of sodium and chloride ions.

Water’s extensive capability to dissolve a variety of molecules has earned it the designation of “universal solvent,” and it is this ability that makes water such an invaluable life-sustaining force.  On a biological level, water’s role as a solvent helps cells transport and use substances like oxygen or nutrients. Water-based solutions like blood help carry molecules to the necessary locations. Thus, water’s role as a solvent facilitates the transport of molecules like oxygen for respiration and has a major impact on the ability of drugs to reach their targets in the body. 

Water Supports Cellular Structure

Water also has an important structural role in biology. Visually, water fills cells to help maintain shape and structure (Figure 2). The water inside many cells (including those that make up the human body) creates pressure that opposes external forces, similar to putting air in a balloon. However, even some plants, which can maintain their cell structure without water, still require water to survive. Water allows everything inside cells to have the right shape at the molecular level. As shape is critical for biochemical processes, this is also one of water’s most important roles.

Figure 2: Water impacts cell shape. Water creates pressure inside the cell that helps it maintain shape. In the hydrated cell (left), the water pushes outward and the cell maintains a round shape. In the dehydrated cell, there is less water pushing outward so the cell becomes wrinkled.

Water also contributes to the formation of membranes surrounding cells. Every cell on Earth is surrounded by a membrane, most of which are formed by two layers of molecules called phospholipids (Figure 3). The phospholipids, like water, have two distinct components: a polar “head” and a nonpolar “tail.” Due to this, the polar heads interact with water, while the nonpolar tails try to avoid water and interact with each other instead. Seeking these favorable interactions, phospholipids spontaneously form bilayers with the heads facing outward towards the surrounding water and the tails facing inward, excluding water. The bilayer surrounds cells and selectively allows substances like salts and nutrients to enter and exit the cell. The interactions involved in forming the membrane are strong enough that the membranes form spontaneously and aren’t easily disrupted. Without water, cell membranes would lack structure, and without proper membrane structure, cells would be unable to keep important molecules inside the cell and harmful molecules outside the cell.

Figure 3: Phospholipid bilayers. Phospholipids form bilayers surrounded by water. The polar heads face outward to interact with water and the hydrophobic tails face inward to avoid interacting with water.

In addition to influencing the overall shape of cells, water also impacts some fundamental components of every cell: DNA and proteins. Proteins are produced as a long chain of building blocks called amino acids and  need to fold into a specific shape to function correctly. Water drives the folding of amino acid chains as different types of amino acids seek and avoid interacting with water. Proteins provide structure, receive signals, and catalyze chemical reactions in the cell. In this way, proteins are the workhorses of cells. Ultimately proteins drive contraction of muscles, communication, digestion of nutrients, and many other vital functions. Without the proper shape, proteins would be unable to perform these functions and a cell (let alone an entire human) could not survive. Similarly, DNA needs to be in a specific shape for its instructions to be properly decoded. Proteins that read or copy DNA can only bind DNA that has a particular shape. Water molecules surround DNA in an ordered fashion to support its characteristic double-helix conformation. Without this shape, cells would be unable to follow the careful instructions encoded by DNA or to pass the instructions onto future cells, making human growth, reproduction, and, ultimately, survival infeasible . 

Chemical Reactions of Water

Water is directly involved in many chemical reactions to build and break down important components of the cell. Photosynthesis, the process in plants that creates sugars for all life forms, requires water. Water also participates in building larger molecules in cells. Molecules like DNA and proteins are made of repetitive units of smaller molecules. Putting these small molecules together occurs through a reaction that produces water. Conversely, water is required for the reverse reaction that breaks down these molecules, allowing cells to obtain nutrients or repurpose pieces of big molecules. 

Additionally, water buffers cells from the dangerous effects of acids and bases. Highly acidic or basic substances, like bleach or hydrochloric acid, are corrosive to even the most durable materials. This is because acids and bases release excess hydrogens or take up excess hydrogens, respectively, from the surrounding materials.  Losing or gaining positively-charged hydrogens disrupts the structure of molecules. As we’ve learned, proteins require a specific structure to function properly, so it’s important to protect them from acids and bases. Water does this by acting as both an acid and a base (Figure 4). Although the chemical bonds within a water molecule are very stable, it’s possible for a water molecule to give up a hydrogen and become OH–, thus acting as a base, or accept another hydrogen and become h4O+, thus acting as an acid. This adaptability allows water to combat drastic changes of pH due to acidic or basic substances in the body in a process called buffering. Ultimately, this protects proteins and other molecules in the cell.

Figure 4: Water acts as a buffer by releasing or accepting hydrogen atoms.

In conclusion, water is vital for all life. Its versatility and adaptability help perform important chemical reactions. Its simple molecular structure helps maintain important shapes for cells’ inner components and outer membrane. No other molecule matches water when it comes to unique properties that support life. Excitingly, researchers continue to establish new properties of water such as additional effects of its asymmetrical structure. Scientists have yet to determine the physiological impacts of these properties. It’s amazing how a simple molecule is universally important for organisms with diverse needs. 

Molly Sargen is a first-year PhD Student in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences Program at Harvard Medical School.

Dan Utter is a fifth-year PhD student in Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University. 

For More Information:

  • To learn more about the importance of drug solubility see this article. 
  • Check out these articles for more information about proteins and how water impacts their folding.
  • Learn more about phospholipids here. 
  • Learn more about water affects DNA structure here.
  • Learn more about acids and bases here. 
  • Check out the unique properties of water at this page or recently discovered properties of water at this article.

This article is part of our special edition on water. To read more, check out our special edition homepage!

Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration

A normal hydration status is the condition of healthy individuals who maintain their water balance. It is of practical importance to be able to assess the degree of hydration in individuals exposed to ambient conditions that can induce dehydration (Armstrong, 2005). In particular, elderly persons are prone to water deficit during the summer period because of blunted thirst and less efficient renal urinary concentrating mechanisms. Mild dehydration of 1 or 2% of body water can impair cognitive functions, alertness and capacity for exercise. Young infants are also prone to dehydration because they cannot express their sensation of thirst.

Body weight

The commonly used technique to measure changes in hydration status is the measurement of body weight changes that occur during short periods of time (Shirreffs, 2003). When an individual is in a caloric balance, a body weight loss essentially equals water loss. Measurements of body weight must be carried out under standard conditions, preferably in the morning in the fasted state and after micturition and defecation.

Tracer techniques

Total body water can be measured by using tracer techniques, such as the use of deuterium oxide, which is a stable isotope of hydrogen (Grandjean et al., 2003). By determining the amount of tracer given and the equilibration concentration of the tracer in a body fluid, one can calculate the volume into which the tracer has been diluted. Tracer methods are mainly research tools and are not used in clinical practice.

Bioelectrical impedance

It is a technique that measures the resistance of body tissue and water to an electrical current that flows through the body (Pialoux et al., 2004). The method is easy to use, but many factors reduce the reliability and accuracy of this technique. These factors include the site placement of electrodes and problems of inadequate skin contact of electrodes, changes in plasma osmolarity and plasma sodium concentration and effect of posture. In spite of improvements in the initial technique that used a single frequency, the technological advancements, which allow impedance to be measured at numerous frequencies, have not brought about a significant improvement, and the bioelectrical impedance method remains inappropriate for measuring small changes in total body water in the range of 1 l (Ellis and Wong, 1998; Gudivaka et al., 1999; Ritz, 2001; Mathie, 2005).

Plasma or serum osmolarity, plasma indices

The term osmolality (osmol/kg solvent) is also used instead of osmolarity (osmol/l solution). However, because in dilute aqueous solutions the molal concentrations (mol/kg water) closely approximate molar concentrations (mol/l solution), the terms osmolality and osmolarity are used interchangeably. Plasma or serum osmolarity is tightly controlled and rarely varies by more than 2% around a set point of 280–290 mosm/l. In well-hydrated individuals, a basal mean value of 287 mosm/l is maintained by hypothalamic osmoreceptors that control ADH secretion (Figure 1). An osmolarity increase of 1% is sufficient to initiate a sensation of thirst and to increase the ADH plasma concentration by 100% of the basal value. Therefore, measurement of changes in plasma osmolarity is the most widely used hematological index of hydration (Francesconi et al., 1987). However, if osmolarity is increased by solutes such as urea and glucose, which penetrate plasma membrane, ADH release and thirst are not initiated. Although hypernatraemia is a sign of hypertonic dehydration, an increase in blood urea is not a valid indicator of a negative water balance, as its value depends on kidney function and protein intake.

Urine indices

Urinary indices of hydration, such as urine osmolarity (Oppliger et al., 2005), urine-specific gravity or 24-h urine volume, may be used, but urine variables often mirror the recent volume of fluid consumed rather than the state of hydration (Armstrong et al., 1998). For example, the intake of a large volume of water rapidly dilutes the plasma and the kidneys excrete diluted urine even if dehydration exists.

In conclusion, even if there is no real consensus with regard to the method by which to measure hydration status, for clinicians and general practitioners, the urine colour chart can be used as an indicator (Mentes et al., 2006). This is used, for example, in nursing home residents because it is a low-cost and rapid method for assessing hydration status, which can help in early intervention. Depending on the colour of the urine sample that matches with the colour on the chart, one can identify patients who are well hydrated or those who are poorly hydrated and who should consume fluids.

Finally, an approximation of hydration status can be obtained by measuring the sensation of thirst with a simple numerical scale. This approach is, however, of limited value in elderly individuals who have a blunted sensation of thirst.

5 Critical Roles Water Plays in Your Body

We all know that water is important. It keeps you healthy, and without it, you will die. However, most people don’t really understand what water does to our bodies and how it keeps us going. There are several biological functions you should be aware of. Even slight dehydration can cause significant problems in your body.

Water helps regulate the body’s environment. The human body is made up of about 60% water. One of the important roles that water plays is that it helps regulate everything in our bodies. In fact, it helps with the regulation of body temperature.

Without enough water, the human body will not be able to stay at a regulated temperature, either causing a fever or throwing the body into a too-low temperature. Usually, with a lack of proper hydration, the body gets too hot, unable to perspire and release the heat.

» Read more: Five Critical Roles Water Plays In Your Body

Water helps kidneys eliminate waste. Nearly everything that you put in your body has some type of toxin in it. Luckily, the majority of these will not make you sick if you are properly hydrated. This is because the water you drink helps the kidneys function properly.

As the food, drink and even medicine that you put into your body filters through the kidneys, these organs pull and filter toxins. If your body is functioning on too little water, the kidneys can’t pull out toxins properly, which will eventually make you sick. If you’re not a fan on the bland taste of water, try some of our flavored water recipes instead!

Water helps keep joints lubricated. There are many joints in your body. If those joints aren’t properly lubricated, they’re going to ache and rub, and eventually the joints will get worn down to where they simply won’t function properly. The water in your body will help keep the joints lubricated and working properly.

If you suffer from joint pain, make sure that you’re drinking enough clean water regularly. Using a filtration system is a good way to make sure no extra salt or bacteria is added to your home tap water.

For those who don’t currently have joint problems, ensuring you don’t get dehydrated will help stave off pain. Once you start getting joint pain due to dehydration, the damage is done and can be difficult to remedy.

Water helps with oxygenation. If you have trouble breathing, make sure you’re getting enough water. This is because water helps the body oxygenate more efficiently. As oxygen goes through the body, it is water that helps carry it. When you become dehydrated, the oxygen your body needs to survive isn’t going to get around properly. This can lead to several problems. Lack of oxygen to the lungs will make it feel like it is difficult to get a proper breath.

However, this is not the only problem you will face. If your muscles aren’t getting the oxygen they need, they will ache and not function properly. Deoxygenated muscles can die or atrophy, causing you to be unable to use those muscles. This is one of the many reasons that it is crucial to drink enough water when you are exercising. Without it, the muscles won’t get the oxygen they need to repair after the exercise.

Water helps with digestion. One of the biggest parts of your saliva is water. Without saliva, your body is unable to break down food, making it difficult to eat and digest. Have you ever had a dry mouth that made chewing and swallowing food difficult?

This is because of dehydration. Your body doesn’t have enough water to create the saliva. Saliva helps break down the food enough to ensure that your stomach is able to continue the digestion process. In addition to this, water helps with the digestion process in other ways, such as ensuring that waste is processed through the body correctly.

There are a lot of benefits to drinking enough water. Staying properly hydrated will keep your body functioning at its best. With so many negatives to being dehydrated, it’s surprising that approximately 75% of Americans are actually suffering from mild dehydration regularly. Drinking water helps keep you healthy and can even keep many types of sickness at bay.

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Role of Water in the Ecosystem

Updated November 15, 2019

By Laurie Brenner

Ecosystems are distinct biological societies made up of biotic, living elements like plants, animals and organisms and a physical environment – the abiotic components – such as soil, water, air, sunlight and climate. The physical interactions and symbiotic relationships developed between all these elements in an ecosystem not only define it, but bring distinctive focus to the cycles in nature. The role and function of water in the ecosystem is to provide the lifeblood of the community.

TL;DR (Too Long; Didn’t Read)

The importance of water in the ecosystem makes water a key element for sustaining life as it is a foundational building block that supports the biochemistry of all life on the planet.

The Importance of Cycles

Everything in nature follows a cyclic pattern, which is how the environment constantly replenishes itself. In the physical sciences, the first law of thermodynamics essentially says that energy is neither created nor destroyed; it just changes forms. Nature adheres to this law without fail by continuously recycling all matter in an ecosystem (energy in physical form). The first law of thermodynamics also speaks to the cycles prevalent in nature, and in all life on the planet. For example, sunlight, carbon dioxide and water in the atmosphere become food for a plant during the carbon cycle, releasing oxygen into the environment where it is then used by other plants, animals, insects and humans. The main cycles in an ecosystem include the water cycle, the carbon cycle, and the nitrogen and phosphorous cycles. A break in any one of these cycles can threaten or destroy an ecosystem.

The Role and Function of Water

Water links and maintains all ecosystems on the planet. The main function of water is to propel plant growth; provide a permanent dwelling for species that live within it, or provide a temporary home or breeding ground for multiple amphibians, insects and other water-birthed organisms; and to provide the nutrients and minerals necessary to sustain physical life. As nature’s most important nutrient, people need water to survive.

Water helps to transport oxygen, minerals, nutrients and waste products to and from the cells. The digestive system needs water to function properly, and water lubricates the mucous layers in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Bereft of calories, water serves as the medium for the metabolic functions and other chemical reactions that produce energy in the body. Water regulates body temperature and serves as padding between the spinal cord and the brain and between the joints in the skeletal system.

The Water Cycle

Water continually cycles around the planet in 10 distinctive steps:

  • Evaporation happens when liquid water changes to a gaseous state as vapor
  • Transpiration represents evaporation of water from plant and tree roots into the atmosphere
  • Sublimation describes how snow and ice change to water vapor without becoming liquid
  • Condensation happens when water vapor becomes water droplets via cloud formation
  • Transportation defines how water moves through the atmosphere in its solid, liquid or gaseous form
  • Precipitation is the water that falls to the planet as ice, rain, snow, sleet, drizzle or hail
  • Deposition is how water vapor changes to a solid state without becoming liquid, like frost
  • Infiltration defines how water seeps into the ground and then percolates into the water table
  • Surface flow describes how rivers, lakes and stream flow to the ocean along with underground aquifers
  • Plant uptake explains that plants only use 1 percent of the water pulled in by their roots, while the rest goes back into the atmosphere

The Importance of Water to All Life

Looking at the planet from space, if the Earth were hypothetically a body, then water would be its lifeblood. Like air, sunlight and food, without water, there would be no life on the planet.

When humans change an ecosystem without thought to maintaining its natural balance, the cycle of life in the ecosystem can skew to one side or other and disrupt the delicate equilibrium necessary to sustaining the community. Some species may die off, and others may thrive, but in the end, the symbiotic relationships begin to break down and the ecosystem dies. Global warming and climate change caused by pollution are on track to do just that, unless humans work together to restore nature’s balance.

The Roles of Water in Earths Surface Processes Science Games

In this series of games, your students will learn about where water can be found on Earth, and about the effects water has on our planet. The Roles of Water in Earths Surface Processes learning objective — based on NGSS and state standards — delivers improved student engagement and academic performance in your classroom, as demonstrated by research.

Scroll down for a preview of this learning objective’s games and the concepts.

Concepts Covered

The hydrosphere includes Earth’s water in liquid, ice, and gas form, including the water in the atmosphere, oceans, rivers, lakes, glaciers, soils, and groundwater. Water vapor is a gaseous form of water found in the atmosphere in fog or clouds. Water can fall from clouds in the atmosphere as precipitation, such as rain or snow. Water on the Earth’s surface can be found in the form of ice, snow, and running water.

Groundwater is water that flows beneath the Earth’s surface through soil and rocks. Surface runoff is water that moves downhill across the Earth’s surface towards the ocean due to the force of gravity. The flow of water downhill causes weathering and erosion that can shape landforms on Earth. Weathering is the process by which rocks, soil, and sediments are broken down into smaller particles.  Erosion is the process by which rock, soil, and/or sediments are transported from one location to another.

97% of Earth’s water is salt water located in the ocean. Ocean water is a mix of gases and solids, such as salts. The ocean floor has different features such as the continental shelf, continental slope, and continental rise. Most of Earth’s freshwater is located in glaciers, polar ice caps, or groundwater. Only a small fraction of Earth’s freshwater is located in Earth’s streams, lakes, wetlands, and the atmosphere.

A preview of each game in the learning objective is found below.

You can access all of the games on Legends of Learning for free, forever, with a teacher account. A free teacher account also allows you to create playlists of games and assignments for students and track class progress. Sign up for free today!

earth, water, water cycle, water vapor, ocean, rain, snow, clouds, freshwater, salt water, glacier, polar ice caps, groundwater

The Functions of Water in the Body

​For the human body, water is a vital resource. 

We know it is indispensable for life itself, and the functions of water in the body provides a host of essential functions for good health. 

There is no more important nutrient in our bodies than water. It is the most widely used nutrient at work within the body’s functions and processes, as well as constituting a huge part of its physical makeup.

In this article you will learn the functions of water in the body, its most important properties, the different types and recommended daily intakes. 

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The typical man is made up of around 60% water, a woman around 50% and our brains around 75%. We can only survive a small number of days without water, yet can survive weeks without food. 

Daily water intake is extremely important in helping to replenish the water lost through our bodily processes including urination, sweating and breathing. 

When the water is not replaced, we become dehydrated: 

  • 1 % dehydration – we become thirsty with reduced concentration (1) 
  • 5% dehydration – we become hot and tired with decreased performance (2) (3) (4) 
  • 10% dehydration – delirium and blurred vision (5) (6) (7) 
  • 20% dehydration – may result in death. 

Water is a chemical compound with the chemical formula h3O. A water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are connected by covalent bonds. 

The Functions of Water In The Body

Transports nutrients through the body

Once a substance is dissolved in water, water becomes vital for transporting it throughout the body. Blood – which is 83% water – transports oxygen, CO2, nutrients, waste products and more from cell to cell. Urine is also mostly water.

Another very important transporter, urine removes waste products from the body. 

Moistens eyes, mouth and nose

Water is needed for protection as well. It keeps your mouth moist and washes away dirt and grime on your eyes. Water even lubricates our joints, keeping them from getting stiff and making sure motion is smooth. 

Can help maintain pH and electrolyte balance

Our bodies must maintain a very specific pH level of 7.4. pH values of less than 6.9 or greater than 7.6 are life threatening so it is essential that we have ways to keep pH from deviating too far from normal. Water is a reactant within a very important reaction that maintains pH at 7.4. 

Water is essential to maintaining electrolyte balance within our bodies. Electrolytes are charged ions (such as Na+ or Cl- ) which must be kept at certain levels to maintain the proper amount of water in our cells. 

Participates in many chemical reactions

As a chemical reactant, water is involved in many processes and pathways of the body. We use it to digest food in the gastrointestinal tract, to access stored energy for muscles and organ systems, and for countless other reactions. 

Helps maintain normal body temperature

Serves as a shock absorber inside the spinal cord and in the amniotic sac surrounding the foetus 

Reduces chances of kidney stones

Increased water intake appears to decrease the risk of kidney stones. (8) (9) 

May reduce cancer risk

There are some studies showing that those who drink more water have a lower risk of bladder and colorectal cancer, although other studies found no effect. (10) (11) (12) 

May reduce constipation

Increasing water intake can help with constipation. (13) (14) 

Properties of Water

  • Boiling point 100 degrees Celsius
  • Freezing point 0 degrees Celsius
  • PH=7
  • Polarity = polar
  • Conducts electricity = Not in pure h3O form
  • Density at 25 degrees Celsius: 1g/cm3 

Water As A Solvent

Water is the fundamental solvent for all the biochemical processes within the body. A solvent is the dissolving medium to which a solute (the substance to be dissolved) like a solid, liquid or gas is added. Water is a very important solvent that many different molecules in our bodies dissolve in.

When a solvent dissolves a solute, it is known as solvation. Solutes that solvate in water into ions in the body are known as electrolytes. These play important roles in our bodies from nerve transmission to muscle contraction.

Molecules that can be solvated by water molecules are called hydrophilic. Molecules that do not dissolve in water are called hydrophobic.

Electrolytes are single, electrically charged particles and play an important role in maintaining water balance and acid base balance in the body.

Sodium, potassium, prosperous and chloride are examples of electrolytes – dissolved substances in blood and body fluids that carry electric charges.

The key role of electrolytes is to balance the fluids inside and outside of the cells, so they can function properly and allow body fluids to bring cells the necessary nutrients while removing waste products.

Electrolytes also help create the environment in which the cells work takes place e.g. nerve-nerve communication, heartbeats and contraction of muscles.

There is another key reason why remaining hydrated is so important. When we lose fluid from the body, we also lose electrolytes. Maintaining healthy concentrations of electrolytes is critical in supporting the important activities of the vital organs.

Types Of Water

Water enters the body via liquid and foods, and some water is created within the body itself as a by-product of metabolic processes.

There are two types of water that we typically consume. This is usually determined by its source and how it is processed. It is also based on its concentration levels of three minerals – calcium, magnesium and sodium.

Hard water

Is usually sourced from low level sources and is known to contain high levels of minerals, primarily calcium and magnesium.

Soft water

Is usually sourced from high level sources or from deep in the earth, and has a higher level of sodium. 

Sources Of Water

Potable (drinking) water

Drinking water is safe enough to be consumed by humans or used with a low risk of immediate or long-term harm.

The majority of our drinking water in the UK is consumed from the tap, but this is also used for toilet flushing, washing and landscape gardening etc.

All of our drinking water has been ‘treated’ before use and the extent of this depends on the source of the water.

Bottled water

Bottled water is big business and many people are buying this because of perceived health and safety benefits, or for its improved purity and ‘taste free’ factors.

This may not be the case, as there are no existing guidelines in place to require bottled water to meet higher standards for quality, such as a maximum level of contaminants, than for public drinking water supplies.

It is suggested that anywhere between 25-40% of bottled water comes from the same municipal supplies as tap water, and has only been filtered to remove chlorine to improve taste.

It’s therefore important to understand the various sources of bottled water and how this may affect its overall quality.

Artesian water

Water drawn from a well that taps into a confined water-bearing rock.

Ground water 

Water which comes from an underground source of water that does not come into any contact with surface water.

Mineral water

Water that is drawn from an underground source and contains at least 250 parts per million of dissolved solids. Low mineral content = 250-500 parts per million of total dissolved solids.

High mineral content = 1500+ parts per million of total dissolved solids.
Purified water

Water from which all minerals have been removed. Also known as distilled water.

Sparkling bottled water

Water in which carbon dioxide is naturally present.

Spring water

Water derived from an underground formation from which water flows naturally to the surface of the earth.

Well water

Ground water derived from a rock formation. 

Water Intake

Water leaves the body through several routes – the evaporation of sweat, in the moisture of exhaled breath, in the urine and in the faeces. It is also used to facilitate all the previously mentioned functions in the body. 

This amounts equals between 1.4-2.8 litres per day.

Adults are advised to consume 1-1.5 ml of water for each calorie-expended daily.

For example: if your daily energy expenditure (BMR x activity level) is 2000kcal per day, then you would require 2-3 litres of water per day.

Water consumption throughout training should be a given, and it is suggested for every pound in bodyweight lost between the start and finish of training, 500ml of water per pound should be replaced.

When recommending daily water intake to clients, the general guidelines work very well:

  • When thirsty, drink.
  • When not thirsty anymore, stop.
  • During high heat and exercise, drink enough to compensate for the lost fluids.

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References & Further Reading

Roles of Companies in Water Management – Extending the Boundaries of Private Sector Responsibility? (2012)

This background paper reviews development in water use and management by looking at example companies in selected sectors that make significant use of water. It responds to the ERD brief to ‘examine appropriate roles for the private sector and public sector in effective natural resource management’ in the context of ‘increased natural resource scarcity and climate change’. The management challenge to be addressed in the ERD is that those roles ‘ensure transitions to inclusive and sustainable growth in developing countries’.

The focus of this paper is on what the private sector is doing – on the evolution of private companies’ voluntary actions in water ‘use’ and ‘management’, including both unilateral actions and collaborative actions with government and other stakeholders. By ‘voluntary’ we refer to action that is not imposed by law or regulation, or led by government policy.

The presence in developing countries of multinational companies (MNCs) in the selected sectors brings economic activity and jobs, but also makes demands on natural resources, including water.

Examples of private sector innovation in water use are set out in section 3. The companies consulted are working to evaluate their water use and initiating actions to reduce (unit) volumes used in their operations. Savings in water usage, making the best of increasingly available technologies, can help reduce pressure on water resources and go some way to alleviate water scarcities. Private sector efforts may also include companies influencing their suppliers to reduce water use. In tackling the latter task, the companies consulted are to date considerably less advanced. Nevertheless, in relation to achieving water-use efficiencies, the private sector has a major and critical contribution to make.

Examples of private sector innovation in water management are set out in section 4. Companies are assessing ‘water risks’ arising outside their premises/processes and those of their suppliers, and looking to protect themselves from those risks. Risk management includes – according to the company policies consulted and comments of key informants – maintaining satisfactory relations with populations living close to company plants or premises. According to the companies, entering into voluntary agreements to support projects that provide funding for local water projects and/or compensate local communities for the impact of company activities makes good business sense. As well as offering some benefits to local people, those actions are also clearly designed by companies to provide themselves with a reputational ‘buffer’.

90,000 Your well-being depends on the amount of water you drink – Baltic Medical Center


my name is Alla Ragauskienė, I am a general practitioner at the Baltic Medical Center. Have you ever wondered how important, irreplaceable and vital water is for our life and health? A person can survive without food for several weeks or even months, but without water – only a few days. Water is freshness, health, energy. Water is at the heart of our metabolism and vitality.Drinking water is the best way to maintain health and strength in our body. This is especially important on hot summer days, because at higher ambient temperatures, the body sweats and loses a lot of fluid. Therefore, today I invite you to learn more about our body’s need for water.

How is water good for our body?

Water, like air, is the main source of life and health. The body of an adult consists of about 70% of water, in the blood its content is 98%, in the muscles – about 75%, and in the bones – about 28%.Water influences all vital processes of the human body. Thanks to water, many metabolic reactions take place in the body, which ensure a continuous process of decay and regeneration of living tissues.

Almost all chemical, physiological and colloidal processes in the human body take place in aqueous solutions or together with water. In a liquid aqueous medium, the processes of digestion and assimilation of food in the stomach and intestines, the synthesis of living material in the cells of the body take place.Together with water, harmful substances or metabolic products are excreted from the body. In case of untimely withdrawal of these products from the body, a person can get severe poisoning and even die. Water also plays an important role in the body’s thermoregulation.

Here are some more examples of the benefits of water:

Water slims. Oftentimes, people tend to confuse hunger with thirst. Therefore, at the first sign of hunger, drink water first. This will help you feel fuller.Drink a glass of water before every meal. The feeling of fullness will come faster, and therefore you will eat less food and replenish your body with water.

Water not only suppresses hunger, but also activates metabolism. The colder the water, the more the metabolism accelerates. to warm the water, the body must work while burning calories.

Water gives more strength. If you feel fatigue, drink water and it will restore your strength. When dehydrated, you feel tired.The right amount of water will help your heart pump blood, and your blood will help carry oxygen and other nutrients to your cells.

Water reduces stress. Water makes up approximately 70% to 80% of the volume of the human brain. If you are dehydrated, your body and mind are stressed. To keep your stress levels low, keep a glass of water on your desk or carry a bottle of water with you, and drink the water regularly in small sips.

Water strengthens muscle tone.Drinking water helps prevent muscle cramps and lubricates the joints in our body. If there is a lack of water, the workout will take longer and be more intense to achieve the desired result.

Water improves digestion. Fiber, along with water, play a very important role in good digestion. Water helps dissolve waste particles and facilitates their transfer to the digestive tract. When dehydrated, your body absorbs all the water and the process of transferring waste becomes more difficult.

Thus, water is necessary for almost every function of the body, and drinking water is a healthy and simple thing that we can do for the body.

How much water does a person need?

According to the Food Pyramid prepared by the Ministry of Health, 8 glasses of water a day is the vital amount of water needed for cells that perform extremely important physiological functions. To calculate the individual amount of water, you can use a simple formula: for each centimeter of growth, 10 ml of water is required.So, if your height is 1.75 m, then you need to drink about 1.75 liters of water per day. The amount of water you need also depends on age, climatic conditions, your general health, diet, and physical activity. If you exercise or sweat a lot, you will need more water. Do not be afraid that there will be too much water. In case of consuming an excessive amount of water, the body of a healthy person will safely remove the excess water.

The lack of even a small amount of water in the body affects our well-being: blood flows more slowly, the supply of cells with oxygen decreases, the general physical condition worsens – concentration of attention is disturbed, irritability appears, headache, memory begins to change, the reaction slows down.If there is a shortage of at least 1% of water in the body, there is a danger to the cardiovascular, respiratory systems, and if about 15% of water is lost, the body can be poisoned by the products of its metabolism. With a loss of 6-8% of its mass due to lack of water, the human body’s metabolism is disturbed, oxidation processes slow down, blood viscosity increases, the temperature rises, the pulse quickens, the skin turns red, the muscles and the whole body become flabby, and dizzy. With a loss of 10% of water, irreversible pathological processes begin: the skin cracks, the eyeballs fall in, vision is impaired, cramps in the throat begin, anuria develops (the kidneys stop excreting urine), the mind becomes cloudy.With a loss of 21% of water, a person dies. The lack of water for a person is much more dangerous than food: without food, a person can live up to 40 days, and without water only about 8 days.

The human body does not have water reserves that it could use when a large amount of water is lost, so we must replenish the lost amount of water every day. Together with drinking water, we get about half of the daily intake of essential minerals.

Should I drink water only when I feel thirsty?

It is necessary to drink water earlier, before the feeling of thirst arises, i.e.because it indicates a lack of about one liter of water in the body. Dehydration can cause serious physiological reactions, such as urethral infections and constipation, fatigue, headaches, and migraines. For example, if you are working in hot conditions or have a headache, drink two glasses of water. If the headache is due to dehydration, it should go away within an hour. Dehydration can affect mental performance as well. According to studies, the ability to concentrate on mathematical problems in children worsened when their body was dehydrated from 1% to 2%, although this figure is not enough even for the appearance of a feeling of thirst.Despite the fact that we get water together with various food products (the mass of vegetables and fruits accounts for approximately 90% of water, bread – 40%, meat – 45-65%), this amount is not enough to meet the needs of the body. Therefore, you need to drink water even if you are not thirsty.

Can you quench your thirst with tap water?

The quality of the tap water in our country is very good. Lithuania is the only one of the Baltic and European countries that uses exclusively ground (ground) water for public water supply.The quality of groundwater is better compared to surface water, since groundwater is better protected from microbiological and chemical pollution, i.e. environmental pollution does not have a significant negative impact on them. In addition, the quality of the water is constantly monitored and monitored. Water is a national treasure given to Lithuania by nature itself, as well as a huge advantage in relation to other countries, since they most often use purified and chemically treated surface water of rivers or lakes.Even a developed country like the United States supplies its citizens with water, which consists of 80% of chemically treated surface water.

Do you have your own formula for wellness?

Drink a glass of water after reading this interview. And share it so that your friends can do the same. Make it a habit that will help you stay in a good mood and healthy.

90,000 The role of ecosystems in the global water cycle

An ecosystem is usually defined as a complex of all living (plants, animals, microorganisms) and nonliving (soil, climate) components interacting as a functional unit in a certain area.Each component contributes to the maintenance of the health and performance of the ecosystem as a whole. Ecosystems such as forests, wetlands and grasslands play an important role in the global water cycle. Recognizing this role and the interaction of both components is critical for sustainable water resources management.

It is often postulated that ecosystems provide a range of “services” that can be classified as: a) the supply of consumer goods such as food and water; b) regulation, including, inter alia, water purification and erosion prevention; c) habitat that supports the life cycles of different species or supports genetic diversity through the quality and quantity of natural vegetation or substrate for fish, and d) culture, which includes, for example, aesthetic, tourism and spiritual services (TEEB, 2010).

In 2011, the total economic value of the world’s ecosystem services was estimated at $ 124.8 trillion, double the world’s gross domestic product in the same year (Costanza and others, 2014). It is now generally accepted that various ecosystems – both aquatic and terrestrial – are in decline, mainly due to the effects of economic development. There are plenty of relevant statistics. Since 1900, the world has lost about 50 percent of all wetlands (WWDR 3, 2009).Changes in land use patterns resulted in ecosystem services lost annually between 1997 and 2011, valued at $ 4.3 trillion to $ 20.2 trillion. (Costanza and others, 2014) An estimated 20 percent of the world’s aquifers are overexploited, resulting in, among other things, subsidence and saltwater intrusion (Gleeson and others, 2012). More than half of the world’s major river systems are adversely affected by dams (Nilsson and others, 2005).Inefficient water use in crop production has caused salinization of 20 percent of the total irrigated land (FAO, 2011). Ecosystem decline has a number of adverse effects on humans, as billions of people live in water-stressed regions and / or areas of low water quality (Guppy and Anderson, 2017; Veolia and IFPRI, 2015).

Today, scientific discourse uses expressions such as “payments for ecosystem services”, “ecosystem approach”, “green” and “gray” infrastructure, “green solutions” and many other terms directly or indirectly related to the concept of ecosystems (Lautze, 2014 ).This discourse reflects growing concern about the state of global ecosystems and a deeper understanding of the important role that ecosystems play in development, including the development of water resources.

In the process of modification of a natural (for example, aquatic) ecosystem, some of the services initially provided by it and, accordingly, the benefits derived from it, are lost and are replaced by benefits from the implemented modifications. However, there is a “tipping point” in this process, when the sum of all benefits from the ecosystem reaches its maximum value, and further changes only reduce the totality of these benefits (Acreman, 2001).In practice, this moment is very difficult to determine – and, probably, this circumstance is one of the many reasons for the ongoing decline of ecosystems.

Defining and quantifying the services provided by ecosystems can also be important in a policy context. Thus, a conflict over a river’s water resources can be viewed as a conflict over which side will gain access to the supply services provided by the river and which side will lose it. The negative consequences of the impact of various large and small water development projects on the availability of ecosystem services and associated social conflicts are quite common – for example, in the context of irrigation and nature conservation or hydropower production and habitat maintenance.

Ecosystem services, including those provided by aquatic ecosystems, are critical to the survival and livelihood of the rural poor; their loss can lead to an increase in poverty. The concept of payments for environmental services is often proposed as a solution to this problem. A city downstream could pay upstream rural communities to conserve surplus water by replenishing an aquifer through regulated systems to reduce or reduce flood risk (Pavelic and others, 2012), or to implement various soil conservation measures designed to reduce the amount of sediment carried to reservoirs downstream.However, such schemes are rather difficult to implement in practice. More importantly, the very concept of “ecosystem services” and the associated idea that nature can be labeled with a price tag has its opponents (Kosoy and Corbera, 2010). In addition, it is hardly possible to compensate for the damage caused to the ecosystem during the development of water resources – for example, in cases when places of mass visits to water bodies are constantly flooded or when river fishing becomes impossible due to water pollution or river fragmentation.

Ecosystem degradation is also an important cause of increased water-related risks and extreme situations such as floods and droughts. Ecosystems provide natural (“green”) infrastructure that performs specific disaster risk reduction functions and therefore partially replaces or complements “gray” (man-made) infrastructure designed for the same purpose. The combination of green and gray infrastructure, for example in the context of integrated flood and drought risk management in a single river basin, can generate cost savings when compared to using exclusively gray infrastructure (WWDR, ​​2018).In addition, green infrastructure performs functions and provides benefits that can directly improve the performance of gray infrastructure and reduce risks to the latter. However, it is unlikely that ecosystems on their own will be able to provide the same level of risk reduction as gray infrastructure, or completely replace it in the future. Therefore, relying on ecosystems alone appears to be an oversimplified approach to mitigating water-related disasters, and could potentially lead to ineffective strategies (McCartney and Finlayson, 2017).

There are a number of obstacles to the large-scale implementation of ecosystem-based approaches to water resources management. Among them – the predominance of solutions related to “gray” infrastructure in the toolkit of many states, the inaccessibility of quantitative data on the success of the application of ecosystem-based approaches in practice and the lack of capacity for their implementation. Many of the above concepts are complex, underdeveloped for practical application, or simply unknown to practitioners and policymakers.Thus, although the scientific discourse on ecosystem issues is quite lively, today it does not meet current applied and political demands.

However, there is a paradigm shift in the progressive recognition of ecosystems as an integral part of development solutions. This shift is reflected in international multilateral agreements on sustainable development, such as the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (approved in 2015), the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (adopted in 2015) and the Paris Agreement on Climate ( concluded in 2015).A clear emphasis on ecosystems is found in at least three of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and is implied in many others. SDG 6 represents a revolutionary step in global water development. For the first time in history, it addresses not only the issues of universal access to water and sanitation, including those inherited from previous decades, but also issues related to the efficient management of resources, their rational use and freshwater ecosystems.

SDG 6 Target 6.3 aims to significantly improve water quality worldwide. Target 6.4 focuses on the efficient use of water by various sectors of the economy. One of the measurable indicators of the achievement of this target is the calculation of water scarcity in each country, which makes it possible to estimate the pressure on the national renewable freshwater resources. Water scarcity is defined as the total amount of fresh water withdrawn per year by all sectors of the economy divided by the difference between all renewable freshwater resources and environmental water requirements.The latter term is essentially defined as water intended for the sole purpose of maintaining a healthy freshwater ecosystem (Smakhtin, Revenga and Döll, 2004). This clear recognition of the water needs of ecosystems in the context of the global development agenda reflects the understanding that maintaining a balance between meeting the demands of the aquatic environment and using water resources for other needs has already become critical in many river basins around the world due to continued population growth and associated demand for water resources.

Indicator of achievement 6.6 was specifically designed to protect water-related ecosystems so that they continue to provide ecosystem services for the well-being of humankind. Protective measures extend to wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes. There is a clear link between the performance indicators for target 6.6 and target 6.4 (water scarcity assessment).

Although not directly stated, it is logical to assume that achieving Goal 6.5 – the creation of an integrated water resources management (IWRM) system – is not possible without ecosystem services.For the correct application of IWRM principles, each country or basin administration will need, for example, to know the required volumes of water for each ecosystem in order to keep water withdrawals from rivers and aquifers within acceptable limits.

All ecosystem-related SDG targets are voluntary and not quantified. Many of the proposed indicators are highly simplified models of larger or more abstract problems.Keeping to the timeline of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is not a trivial task in itself. The future will show whether we will be able to fulfill at least some of the tasks set, or whether we will have to continue to quote the gloomy statistics of ecosystem degradation. However, the hope for a positive outcome, of course, remains.


Acreman, Mike (2001). Ethical aspects of water and ecosystems. Water Policy, vol.3, No. 3, pp. 257-265.

Costanza, Robert, and others (2014). Changes in the global value of ecosystem services. Global Environmental Change , vol. 26 (May), 152-158. The publication is available online at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959378014000685.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2011). The State of the World’s Land and Water Resources for Food and Agriculture: Managing systems at risk .London, Rome, Earthscan and FAO. The publication is available on the website: http://www.fao.org/nr/solaw/solaw-home/en/.

Gleeson, Tom, and others (2012). Water balance of global aquifers revealed by groundwater footprint. Nature, vol. 488 (9 August), pp. 197-200.

Guppy, Lisa, and Kelsey Anderson (2017). Water Crisis Report . United Nations University Institute for Water, Environment and Health, Hamilton, Canada. The publication is available on the website: http: // inweh.unu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Global-Water-Crisis-The -….

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and VEOLIA (2015). The murky future of global water quality: New global study projects rapid deterioration in water quality. A White Paper. Washington, D.C. and Chicago, IL. The publication can be consulted on the website: http://www.ifpri.org/publication/murky-future-global-water-quality-new-g ….

Kosoy, Nicolás, and Esteve Corbera (2010). Payments for ecosystem services as commodity fetishism. Ecological Economics , vol. 69, No. 6 (April), pp. 1228-1236.

Lautze, Jonathan, ed. (2014). Key Concepts in Water Resource Management: A Review and Critical Evaluation . New York, Routledge and Earthscan.

McCartney, Matthew, and Max Finlayson (2017). Exaggerating the value of wetlands for natural disaster mitigation is a risky business. The Conversation, 2 February. The publication can be viewed on the website: http://theconversation.com/exaggerating-the-value-of-wetlands-for-natura….

Nilsson, Christer, and others (2005). Fragmentation and flow regulation of the world’s large river systems. Science, vol. 308, No. 5720 (15 April), pp. 405-408.

Pavelic, Paul, and others, (2012). Balancing-out floods and droughts: opportunities to utilize floodwater harvesting and groundwater storage for agricultural development in Thailand. Journal of Hydrology , vols. 470-471 (12 November), pp. 55-64.

Smakhtin, Vladimir, Carmen Revenga, and Petra Döll (2004).A pilot global assessment of environmental water requirements and scarcity. Water International, vol. 29, No.3, pp. 307-317.

The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity TEEB (2010). The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Ecological and Economic Foundations. Pushpam Kumar, ed. Earthscan, London and Washington.

United Nations World Water Assessment Program (2009). The United Nations World Water Development Report 3 (WWDR3): Water in a Changing World .The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Earthscan, Paris, London.

United Nations World Water Assessment Program (forthcoming), The United Nations World Water Development Report 2018 (WWDR): Nature-based Solutions for Water . The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Paris.

Liquid number 0: Eva Radionova

At the Shchusev State Museum, landscape architect Eva Radionova gave a lecture on the role of water in city architecture, during which the audience learned why h3O liquid is an extremely beneficial tool for shaping urban space, as well as how water systems help lower the average temperature of the city center.

– I got into a story called “The first green roof of the city of Moscow”. It was carried out with the participation of a German firm and the Faculty of Geography of the Department of Biogeography. We tested the first roof in the MSU Science Park, watched it, watched what was happening to the plants. I will not tell you in detail how it ended. The only thing is that 70% of the roof flew away and the rest was eaten by crows. The recommendation of the Faculty of Geography was: do not make green roofs in Moscow.

You know very well that green roofs, which are called green roofs, are now perfectly made in our country. I have a person in the front row who is doing this very well, this is the Ecopoil firm. Here is what is called a discrepancy with science and its subsequent application. My next education: I was very interested in green roofs and all that, I was offered to go to graduate school of the Academy of Sciences, and I took up American introduced species in the botanical garden. To put it simply, an introduced species is something that does not grow in our country, it is something that is imported.I can give you the simplest example: the first American introduced is a potato. Well, I was no longer engaged in potatoes, but such an experimental project was – the thesis was defended, and I tested some of the plants in my dacha. My mother still cannot get rid of American introducers, they have filled everything.

The next such an interesting call: there was my move to Amsterdam, and with my geographical, botanical background, I decided that it was time for me to move from gardens to serious architecture and graduate from the Academy of Architecture – landscape direction.For me and for the Academy of Architecture it was a great experiment. They did not understand at all why it was necessary to go to a magistracy with such a scientific education, but the interest of all this was that this education is four years old, and you have been designing for four years. But a prerequisite: you study in the evenings, and the rest of the time you work by profession. Accordingly, I worked in different landscape and architectural bureaus, gained experience and fought for the first two years with my scientific background.Because when you start to design something, you need to not think that it is impossible, you need to think all the time that it is possible. And this is very difficult, because our system says that no – the rivers cannot be turned, but in landscape design you need to think: you can turn it, and then think about how not to do it. Actually, there will be a lecture about this now.

We are now in Greece, Athens. Before starting to talk about this project, I will say that this is a project of the Dutch office, which is called Okra, but here a colossal team was involved.In addition to Okra, the Mix urbanist office also participated; the University of Wageningen – Faculty of Meteorology; the Technical University of Athens participated here, from the Faculty of Hydrology to Engineering; German engineers took part here, who calculated climatic changes with the help of some very complicated, for me absolutely incomprehensible, programs, but, nevertheless, I will show you the result now.

If you know Athens, if you have been there, you know that in summer it is a rather uncomfortable climate.The center of Athens is hot, there are a huge number of cars, and the average temperature in the shade is +40. But this is what happens to Athens in winter, for me it was a revelation, because I never got there, and when we started the project, we went to watch the whole project, we got into a flood in Athens in winter, when it’s not worth it. transport – you cannot cross the road. This, in fact, is the precipitation. Of course, this is due to the fact that it is wrong or some kind of oversight that they do not correctly collect water, sewage, but, nevertheless, these are two extreme factors that played a huge role in the design and, in general, in the approach to design of this project.This is a map of rivers that no one knows about, because they were just somewhere, but not a single Greek living in Athens can answer the question: “where did you have rivers here?” This is an old map, we were looking for it specifically to understand why on the streets of Athens, where 40 degrees, a plane tree grows, which requires a colossal amount of water, it grows, where, apparently, there was a river or underground waters.

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The project is, in principle, about 56 hectares, to be more precise, 25 hectares were projected, all other hectares are partial design.I probably will not specify for you all 56 hectares, I will tell you, from the point of view of water, how we approached this. First, when we faced these two interesting facts, that it is hot in summer and floods in winter, then, in general, the logical conclusion, if you think about these two points, would be to calculate the amount of precipitation, and the idea was that , if there are so many of them in winter, although this rarely happens, then maybe there is an opportunity to collect and use them in the summer. This was the main idea of ​​this project, before I turn to the water problem, in general, I can tell you that this is one of the most “a” – complex projects, “b” – new projects for all European landscape architects, because managed through the bureaucratic system of Greece to work with all scientific and, accordingly, engineers, architects, managed to create such a team that helped us to implement this project.If this command did not exist, nothing would have happened, because everything that was originally proposed, it seemed to all of them that it was absolutely impossible.

But, on the other hand, since it was an indicative project of Athens, in principle, because Greece decided to prove to the European Union that the money is being spent on solving some problems, this project became indicative for the entire government. We had some huge presentations where we showed what we were going to do and convinced the Greek government.This, in fact, is how much water can be collected in order to use it in the summer, believe me, this is a lot. This is the idea that I’m talking about, that we collect water, and in the summer we use it for watering, for irrigation. In Holland, there is no question of watering at all, so for the Dutch colleagues it was very difficult: to think about the need to water something else. But, nevertheless, as a result of working with Greek colleagues, and when you travel to Athens every two weeks, you finally realize that water is the main thing that is lacking in this city.This is a fairly simple scheme when watering is in progress, when you can collect something, when there is enough, when there is not enough. We counted with the Technical University, with the Wageningensky we occupied with water in great detail.

Athens, if anyone is guided, I can say that this is the Parliament and Syntagma Square, here is Panepistimiou Street, and this is a fairly well-known Omonia Square, this street is called October 28th. This whole flat picture is an amazingly interesting landscape, or rather the relief, and, of course, before collecting water, it was studied in detail where it can be collected, where are the lowest points, where it needs to be slowed down, because when water falls out in such an amount , the first thing to do is to slow it down.Therefore, it was thought out where to create pools, and also a system was invented, I, unfortunately, do not know how this can be called in Russian, such underground cells that collect water.

From the audience: Reservoirs.

No, water reservoirs? .. Small, but maybe … But, like in a pool, reservoirs, they slow down and collect water, and this system, as it were, filters, it also collects and conducts. Tanks … Okay. Here it is indicated where these conducting systems lie and where the water was collected on the territory of these, let’s say, 25 hectares, is not very visible, because the color merges.In Athens, an absolutely colossal problem, we could not dig more than 1 meter, because everywhere there is archeology and it is impossible to get around this prohibition, this is a wild bureaucracy. Therefore, where it was possible to create pools, a technical university did special research on them, whether it is possible to dig there, if there is something lying there. Not a single Athenian knows exactly what they have and what century, moreover, they do not even know what their metro design is, as this project has shown.

This is an irrigation system that was later invented.Water was collected from all the surrounding streets, and along this line it was used for irrigation. But these are the very reservoirs – the conducting system, how it was laid, this is in order to imagine that it is really possible, that I am not just telling it, they will still build it.
From auditorium: These are called drain tanks.

Drain tanks, okay, now I know about it. This collected water allowed us to think about greening the center of Athens. Probably, it should be said that there were 8 lanes of traffic, and it was decided initially, when the project began, that a tram would run here and only perpendicular traffic would remain, and traffic would completely leave these three streets.Transport magnifiers were invented, it was calculated how transport would go throughout the city. Everything was supported by the government and we moved on with our water and greenery. This I am showing you the areas that meant, and still mean, additional water pools. Now let’s get to the most interesting thing, and on top of that, these water pools, we had a limited amount of water, and it had to be used in a smart way, not only for watering. And if we want to use this for fountains so that people feel comfortable, it was understood that we are building a fountain with a maximum of 5-10 centimeters of water, or it can be empty, it can be filled, a system was provided and, in addition, there are small irrigation systems, sprinklers, which slightly increase the humidity of the surrounding air.

In the end, all this calculated water, complex calculations throughout the year showed that we can supply about 15 such small fountains, make three or four large fountains in squares and collect water in reservoirs where possible. This is the plan itself, here is the project. Naturally, when the issue is resolved with water, you can plant trees and you can plant flowers. On 25 hectares it was envisaged, and it will be done, 800 new trees will be planted, this is a colossal event on the scale of Athens.And it is clear that this makes the locals incredibly happy, because it gives shade, it is comfortable, it is beautiful, it is green and the center of Athens becomes a place where you can spend time in the summer months, and not run away from the city, as they do. do for three months. And here are the calculations: the average summer temperature is 34 degrees, naturally, all this is still increasing due to the fact that the endless asphalt. And next to it, a picture of the temperature change and a calculation in some places allowed us to say that in some places we reduce the temperature to 3 degrees.

Of course, it is not only water, trees, it is of great importance what kind of coating you have and its thickness. Thickness is the heating of the surface, it was necessary to choose: we build something that heats up for a long time, and then smooths out the temperature at night, we have exactly the same temperature as during the day. Or we choose something subtle, it quickly warmed up, and this raises the temperature, we looked for a compromise, as a result, it was thought that there are several different coatings and where the shadow of the trees allows, we make it thin, where the shadow of the trees allows less , we make it a little thicker.But still, we were looking for an option to make it even more comfortable in the evening, so that 34 degrees would not continue at night too. This is Omonia Square, as it looks now, a transport interchange; here, if you walk through some street, here you can see a view of the Colosseum, this is a new design that was proposed during the competition, these are the very complex calculations that were made by German engineers, they considered what the temperature was. The University of Wageningen and the University of Technology of Athens measured the temperature repeatedly throughout the project.

In Athens there are two wind directions, the sea is far away, there is a north wind, and there is a wind from the sea, which heats up to madness, going from the sea through all the suburbs of Athens, and comes into the city and heats up even more. Accordingly, they measured in different months what kind of winds, and added it up. If you look closely, you will see: pink is already 36.5 degrees, but most of the area is 35.5-36 degrees, believe me, this is uncomfortable. This is what happens to this area when that number of trees are planted, water bodies, fountains are made, a new coating is made, that is, our temperature becomes 32 degrees.The difference in this place is already up to 4 degrees, this is the average statistical change, where the biggest changes take place, well, as with this wind, you can see, here you can, as they say, have a rest. This was very important for the municipality of Athens, because the question was being decided where to put the cafe? If there are no cars and there is an opportunity to sit, and it will be comfortable, where are we going to make cafes, terraces and all that? This area has become the main entertainment destination. This is pet – I will not go into what it is, I will say in a nutshell – this is a feeling of comfort.

Temperature is not everything, there is also humidity, wind, various shade, which can be deep, medium. This is a great ratio, it calculates how comfortable you feel for you. This is a very complex phenomenon, it is not directly related to temperature, but is associated with many factors. This is how it feels in this square for a person who stands there. This is yellow, it means sensations, the person who is standing there, who is not there yet in the present situation, is 53 degrees, that is, you feel in the Sahara Desert.Well, we managed to reduce part of the area, this is again the wind from the sea and a comfortable feeling up to 33 degrees. This, accordingly, highlighted all the positions that need to be further addressed. If it is not possible to plant trees, then you need to put shading pergolas, etc., etc.

Eva Radionova

This is how this Panepistimiou street looks like, or rather it will look from the moment they start this construction. This is a university, here is a building. This is one of the squares, one of the most favorite places for drug addicts.Accordingly, an additional, the so-called social factor was envisaged, which greatly affects social security, this is coverage. When all the water objects are highlighted, when the place is clearly visible, it is clear that people come there, they are comfortable there, but they are not comfortable injecting. This is the same Omonia square – as it is and how it will be, I will not delve into what we planted there, it is clear that local hardy varieties were provided that do not need to be cut, this also applies to flowers, in general, this is how- then everything was agreed.

And now I’ll probably move to the city of Moscow. And you, I think, should be closer than Athens. This is a map of Moscow until the moment Moscow received another bun in the South-West in 2011, and what I will tell you about is a project that was originally a diploma project, then it smoothly swam into a research project that became interested in the master plan , “Mosvodostok”, the cultural heritage of Holland, as well as the Academy of Architecture and the Municipality of Amsterdam. What you see is the contour of the Moscow Ring Road and the tributary of the Moskva River, the Yauza, which is one of the largest tributaries still on Earth.This is what the Yauza looks like if someone is unfamiliar, it is a very pleasant place that is absolutely impossible to cross, along which cars endlessly drive, and the level of water pollution is such that it does not freeze in winter. This is how the Yauza looked at the end of the 19th century and what is happening now, and in general, the Yauza is an incredibly interesting river.

A favorite place of Peter the Great, where, as it turned out, when I started digging into history, he used the Yauza to play with the boats while he was little.Because in the area of ​​the Electrozavod, if anyone knows, there was the first house of Peter, where he lived with his mother. Then, when Peter grew up, he had such an idea that Lefortovo Park and Yauza would be something that could be visited by ship. Despite the fact that the width of the Yauza was then a maximum of 7-8 meters. In addition, the active use of this river begins with Peter. I will tell you only about 9 kilometers of this river within Moscow, which are concreted, and in general the length of the river is 48 kilometers, it has a colossal number of tributaries.Almost all tributaries within Moscow are in pipes. I had only one association when I started this project, that this is a dying tree, and what needs to be done to resurrect this dying tree.

When you come and look at a channel, which, not that it is unpleasant, it is simply even dangerous, because if you have already reached it, then you cannot leave because of the flow of cars. Or maybe with a speed limit of 30-40 km / h, they go 90 km / h. Some additional inspiration is needed here, and here it came from the moment when I began to delve into the history of the river very thoroughly.What you see in the corner is the Yauza River basin within Moscow, that is, roughly speaking, the Yauza has an influence on a quarter of Moscow. Well, in the old borders, we do not take the western bun again. And since 1760, here it is – a river, a colossal number of tributaries, and by 2010 there are practically no tributaries, all of them are put into pipes, the most famous tributaries that are heard is the Golden Horn, which is located next to the Andronikov Monastery, near Khapilovka , Titmouse, Chernogryazka, etc.

And from that moment an epiphany came, in 1936 a project began to transform the Yauza into a second water ring.You know that there was a project for the first water ring, which was actually completed, but it was related to the Moskva River. And this is the second water ring, and it was planned that the Yauza river will have 4 locks, and at some stage it will certainly be navigable, it will be expanded almost 5 times, which, in fact, happened and will receive additional water. In 1939, the only lock that exists on the Yauza was built, in the same year Yezhov was imprisoned or killed, which, in fact, is equivalent, and at this stage the project completely ends.And they only managed to straighten the river bed and widen it, make concrete embankments, only 9.5 km.

In fact, they did not carry out all this huge work that was supposed to happen, and the river froze at the moment that the river system was even more disturbed. It has been expanded, and nothing has been brought to an end, so the river did not like it at some stage. This slide shows that this is an old river and all its tributaries, this is how the channel was straightened, but these orange shallow places are where the river even at the moment, if it rains, it gets flooded, so sometimes it is quite difficult to drive by car …And this is a photo of Semenovskaya Street in 2010, which goes along the Khapilovka River, Electrozavodskaya then next to Electrozavod, and this is what the profile of the river looks like and what you feel if you are on its embankment. You may not need to feel the water, that is, you may not need to feel it, but you actually do not see it, it is, in principle, the maximum – 3 meters, because the channel was expanded to 20 meters from 5 to 23-25 ​​- in different ways, in the area of ​​the locks – there is about 60 meters, the height of the concrete tank is 9 meters, it was planned that additional water would come, everything would be fine.It is not navigable, it is not interesting, it is dirty, it has a lot of cars around it, in general, it is not clear what this river is doing, that is, in principle, the question arises: let’s bury it altogether, and there will be more space for cars.

And this is, in fact, how you can approach design with the help of water, when there is such a problem and when you don’t want to bury the river, but you want this flowering tree, which was in 1760, so that it becomes back somehow restore. And this ignoring and absolute destruction of the river system in the city at the moment in landscape architecture is absolutely no longer justified, that is, to some extent, you need to try to learn to live in peace with natural systems.The first thing that could be done, all these points were counted here – these are low places, the pool was divided, accordingly, it was calculated where the lowest places are and where you can collect. First of all, when the water requires additional space, it needs to be slowed down, that is, if it is raining, then it needs to be slowed down a little so that there is no flooding in the city.

This is the first solution. That is, this is all – these are so-called water points that can be turned into water areas, which are water only at the moment of rain, and then they are just squares.You can solve this in different ways, but the first thing you need to strive for is to slow down the water. Second, at this stage we had colossal discussions with Mosvodostok, which calculated all the risks. I told them that we are opening the sluice, we do not have enough water in the river, and we open the sluice and say that the river will behave the way it wants. We have a sufficient height of concrete barriers for it to recover, so that its natural dynamics can be restored naturally, that when there are seasonal floods, it will rise, it will change, but this will allow any landscape architect, city planner who knows a little water dynamics, to use it to absolutely solve this space in a different way.Third: these are all tributaries that collect water in a quarter of Moscow. For each of these tributaries, in the ecology of this city, of course, it is necessary to put a collecting pool that will clean it all.

Now there are a lot of European technologies, which provide that this is not a technical engineering structure, but perhaps something that is interesting not only to people as engineers, not only to clean water, but also interesting as an urban space. A river is a very complex organism, and as a result, it was roughly divided into several zones, and these zones had a completely different approach in terms of: how to clean the water, how to make pools, how to approach the river.Here I will run very quickly, this is actually a decision, this is already a general plan, if we are interested in the water system, then here additional pools are indicated, absolutely all adjacent parks are used, the green area has been calculated, a new transport system; Of course, if the river is restored, it cannot be left two-sided, it was calculated how to make it one-sided. Here, one of the two sides remains, and what becomes of perpendicular transport systems, but this is not what we are talking about now, we are interested in water.This is not a dam – this is a dike. Controlling dike, that is, if something happens, some kind of flood associated with the entire system, because the Yauza is the Moskva River basin, the Moskva River … and so on.

If something happens and some extreme amount of water, you always need a structure that protects the city from flooding and can regulate the river. If we removed the sluice, then we still need something that helps, but at the same time it is a tool that completely connects the entire line of the river and provides space for a person.This is the following scheme, these are all historical buildings, you know, there is Artplay, Winzavod, Kristall plant, Manometr plant, Catherine Palace, Lefortovo Palace, Electrozavod, which itself is a neo-Gothic building, etc. .d. etc., a hospital, a sufficient number of buildings that can be incredibly interesting and connected with the river. And besides that, if you dig a little into the history of Moscow, then Yauza has been an interesting district of Moscow since about 1939, because it housed all the closed Moscow enterprises that could be imagined, the Tupolev company, the same “Manometer” plant, these are closed clusters that had security, people were not allowed there, and this is such an urban planning problem that these clusters need to be opened.Patios, well, for me, they are patios, these inner spaces that need to be opened so that people can pass.

Actually, this has already been done at Artplay, this is a master plan, I will speed up the process a little, if anyone is interested, this is already a thorough project. But this is one piece of the same “Electrozavod”, which I like the most, because here is the biggest problem, because Khapilovka is a very large river, and it was one of the last to be taken into the chimney. This is the whole territory, this is Electrozavod, here at this stage there is a nice office center Lefort, if my memory serves me, this is what the plant looks like inside.This is a map of the Khapilovka river, how it flowed into the Yauza, here, according to the town-planning structure, you can see that it was a river, but this is, in fact, what can be done with this place, since the place is, first of all, an insane number of rooms, which are not used and can be destroyed; secondly, it has a drop of 16 meters in relief, and thirdly, the lines of the project itself have been preserved, which you see, these are industrial conveyors along which the products moved. What do we mean when we say that each tributary needs to be cleaned, there was enough square area, enough space for the Khapilovka river on the territory of Electrozavod to be released from the pipe and started to be cleaned with the help of four pools.

There are enough buildings that can be destroyed, and all this material is used for cleaning. Why am I so confident about this, because the Dutch constantly use bricks, gravel, different fractions, sand, and various materials for water purification. This is the first mechanical cleaning of water, which will allow a piece of Yauza to become a little cleaner. Further, if the river is advancing, and there you still have pieces, then it has additional cleaning, since everything is there. The number of buildings that can be destroyed was considered and, accordingly, the first: these are bricks that are collected … Of course, this is such a system that needs to be cleaned, you need to monitor it, it is very difficult, but, nevertheless, it is not on the verge of fantasy …When this project was being done, it was very important that this place was important not only at the local level for the residents who live there, this project had to be important for the city as a whole, and, in principle, it is very important for absolutely every urban project. what he does for the city, because if he does nothing for the city, then he can be done anywhere. And if we think about design, especially using water and water systems, then, of course, it is more logical to think that each place has its own history, its own natural structure, even if it is almost destroyed; and if all this is put together correctly, then you can make a project that is only for this place.And, in fact, this is design, from my point of view, water helps in this, because it has its own meaning and place.

I will slowly finish the lecture. This is a section, all the trees are preserved, they remain on such isolated islands, the existing trees are preserved and water flows between them, but here, you see, the Yauza River. Accordingly, it turns out that a person enters the theater, now I will return to this slide, here you have the main entrance, this is, so to speak, the curtain.You have a colossal amphitheater, there is a 16-meter drop, and you can cross all the pools, walk along the pools, there are steps, and you see the whole system, not only the cleaning of the river, but you understand that there was a river here, so it came here. This is an attempt to show a person that a water structure can be restored, can be proud of it, can be loved, and this place can become very interesting. Probably, that’s all, I have one single shot for you, so to speak, “for a snack.” It absolutely does not belong to a lecture, to anything, it is just to think, this is a famous sculpture in Berlin – these are politicians who are discussing global warming.Thank you for your attention.

From the audience: And what is the area of ​​the museum, which street do you have?

Eva Radionova: It’s all within the Electrozavod.

From the audience: Do you want to propose a museum instead?

Eva Radionova: No, there is an operating system of the plant, which still exists and works, but this part is the same neo-Gothic unfinished building. When it was being built, there was a river, and it was built like a castle, it also does not work halfway, but it is being used.But these buildings, they are all completely abandoned, that is, in fact, this is the reuse of industrial territories.

From the audience: And how is the plant supposed to be used, you are not proposing a museum instead of it?

Eva Radionova: Well, you know, you need to look at the premises. Unfortunately, no one will ever let me into the plant itself – this room here. No, you can use it as a space for exhibitions, just like the winery and Artplay are used, this opens up a lot of possibilities.

90,000 Administration of the Moskovsky district – The role of water in human life

Water is an amazing liquid. It has no color, no taste, no smell. The caloric content of water is zero. Some people call it a real mystery. In water, both simplicity and complexity are amazingly combined. It would seem: there are only three atoms in a water molecule – one oxygen, and two hydrogen. However, scientists are still not completely clear on how these molecules work. But one thing is certain: if there is no water, there will be no life on Earth.

The role of water in human life can be judged by a simple example – most of the person himself consists of water. The human brain contains 75 – 85% water, and muscle tissue approximately 70%. Water helps the food we eat to be quickly digested and absorbed by the body. The important role of water in nature and human life is reduced to the removal of toxins and other waste from the human and animal body. Water serves as a lubricant for our joints and also regulates and maintains our body temperature.And did you know that for a person who plans to lose weight, water will be of great importance in life, as it will contribute to weight loss. The fact is that water does not contain calories. Moreover, it contains no fat, no cholesterol and practically no sodium. Drinking water regularly can lower your appetite. Also, water helps the process of processing fat in the body. If you drink little water during the day, the kidneys become unable to function as expected.In this regard, the liver begins to take on some of the work that the kidneys have to do, and this reduces its ability to process fats. Thus, fat begins to accumulate in the body, in other words, the person begins to gain excess weight. Already many doctors have long recognized the fact that sufficient water intake is simply necessary in the fight against excess weight. If those who strive to lose weight neglect water, then the body is simply not able to process all the fat and the desired effect may simply not be achieved.

Water must be drunk evenly throughout the day. You should not compensate for the loss of water with tea or coffee, because they have diuretic properties. It is necessary to drink without waiting for dry mouth, thirst (at this time dehydration has already occurred), do not drink a glass or a mug of water in one gulp – it is better to drink several times at regular intervals (including during breaks in work) sips. During heavy physical exertion, in hot climates and other conditions, there may be a need for increased consumption of drinking water, therefore, if there is no free access to drinking water, then during sports, in hiking conditions, when staying in conditions of high air temperature, etc. …it is necessary to have a sufficient amount of drinking water with you (do not use sugary carbonated drinks for this purpose, which supply the body with unnecessary additional amount of sugar and contribute to dehydration).

The role of water in human life

Water is essential for life on earth for all living things and plants. All metabolic processes in the human body take place in the aquatic environment. Disruption of metabolic processes largely depends on the use of low-quality water by a person.Hence the illness and excess weight.

From birth, a person uses water in everyday life and at work.

The development of civilization on earth has led to the fact that an irrational and harmful attitude to water when used in various industries has become the primary cause of water pollution.

People extract water from underground sources, ground storage. The degree of water pollution today is such that even from deep wells water is not always suitable for human use without additional treatment.At first glance, clean and clear water may contain substances that are detrimental to human and animal health.

The reason for the receipt of low-quality water for human household needs is also worn-out and outdated equipment for the delivery of drinking water, the unscrupulous behavior of employees of pumping stations, who, in pursuit of supplied cubic meters, forget about the rules for checking water quality.

The factors of water pollution are a) landfills, where the rules for the disposal of household waste are violated everywhere; b) the presence of industrial enterprises located in the immediate vicinity of water intakes, c) agricultural facilities (cowsheds, pigsties, poultry farms).Rarely at what enterprise there are water treatment plants, more often directly the water that took part in technological processes is discharged into the general sewage system. Such a drain is unacceptable, huge water basins are contaminated with harmful waste.

The most reliable water analysis is chemical. Complete qualitative and quantitative chemical analyzes can provide reliable data on the purity of the water. No amount of home testing and taste sensations ever corresponds to the true state of the water, and such research cannot be relied upon.Chemical analysis of water is indispensable not only for water supplied for use by the city, but also mandatory for every rural well. Underwater currents of water are little known, they can bring the most unpredictable dirt into a simple rural well, for example, trivalent chromium, which, in terms of toxicity, follows potassium cyanide.

Chemical analysis data are still needed for the selection of cleaning filters, provided that the water is not quite suitable for use.Modern filters can significantly improve the condition of water, remove from water not only suspended impurities (sand, litter), but also harmful substances dissolved in water. Highly efficient water purification systems can also purify water from biological, mechanical and chemical impurities at home.

It is worth paying attention to the state of water in summer cottages. There, as a rule, water is not tested, for drinking and cooking there is one source of water (imported or from a checked well), and for watering gardens and vegetable gardens – another source: a common water supply from a well, water from which was either not tested at all or was tested in the moment of commissioning.The leaders of such settlements and associations forget that the water in any well should be checked periodically, regardless of taste. Gardens and vegetable gardens are watered with water that has not passed the study. People carelessly believe that it does not matter: what kind of water to water ripening fruits. And here it is! And what a meaning! After all, the fruits are grown for human consumption. Along with the use of clean water, a person also needs clean food, which we prepare from vegetables and fruits, which we eat in large quantities raw.Both clean water and clean food are key to good health.

Many people living in ecologically clean places live up to a hundred or more years without diseases. This is a direct consequence of the use of clean water, food and fresh air that is not loaded with industrial waste.

Water is a substance without which life is impossible on our planet Earth.

Plants are 90% water, humans – 75%.Human life activity is supported by metabolic processes taking place in the aquatic environment. As pure as the water component of the body, the whole body as a whole works so effectively. Without constant access to water, the human body dies. All nutrients enter the cells with the help of water. Water removes decay products from the body: toxins, toxins, excess salts and other substances. Water regulates body temperature, provides skin elasticity. Adequate intake of water by the body (30 ml per 1 kg of body weight per day) is one of the ways to avoid salt deposits in the joints, kidney stones.Water is essential for the digestion of food by the gastrointestinal tract. Lack of water in the body is manifested by rapid fatigue, a decrease in working capacity – the result of a slowdown in biochemical processes. Lack of water leads to the fact that the body begins to reserve water, due to which stable deposits of internal fat appear, and the viscosity of the blood increases. The viscous state of blood is a direct path to the formation of blood clots. Dehydration causes stress in the brain cells, the body does not resist disease-causing microbes and viruses.

Experts believe that chronic dehydration is the cause of diseases such as asthma, hypertension, obesity, depression.

It should be noted that with untreated water entering the city water supply network, you can get a lot of infectious diseases: cholera, typhus, dysentery, get through dirty water and eggs of various worms (worms). You can get infected not only by drinking water, but also by absorbing water through the skin.

Pure water entering the human body in the right amount is one of the most important components of a healthy body and mind.

90,000 Revealed the special role of “heavy water” in thinning viscous oil

Experts from Kazan Federal University and Zarubezhneft have investigated the role of water in the catalytic aquathermolysis process using isotope tags. For this, a unique set of equipment for the study of isotopes was used, as well as installations for thermal steam exposure.The Devon news agency learned about this from the press service of the university.

“Water in the form of steam has long been used in the production of unconventional hydrocarbons, being one of the main technologies for in-situ upgrading, as well as reducing the viscosity of heavy and high-viscosity oils,” explained Amin MUNTASER, a junior researcher at the Rheological and Thermochemical Research Laboratory. – Despite this, for many years the real role of water in the process of aquathermolysis under thermal steam exposure has not been sufficiently clear.Water was no more familiar to specialists than an agent for transferring heat to an oil reservoir, and not as a source of hydrogen. ”

Zarubezhneft uses steam injection into a well for heavy oil production. Due to the high temperature, oil decreases its viscosity, after which it is much easier to extract. Therefore, water can act not only as a heat transfer agent, but also reduce the viscosity of oil by chemical reactions with heavy oil components.

“Instead of the usual we took“ heavy ”water, which has a high level of“ heavy ”hydrogen, – explained Danis NURGALIEV, Vice-Rector for Research, Director of the Institute of Geology and Oil and Gas Technologies (IGINGT) of Kazan Federal University.- During the experiment, scientists looked at how hydrogen will manifest itself. In the processes of oil production, one of the important roles belongs to him. A significant part of the hydrogen in the “heavy” water passed into the “heavy” fractions. ”

Deuterated (heavy) water was used by scientists as an isotopic marker to track whether it participates in chemical reactions. Heavy water has the same chemical formula as regular water. However, instead of two atoms of the light isotope of hydrogen, it contains two atoms of the heavy isotope of hydrogen, deuterium.

“When we make steam out of“ heavy ”water and act on oil, then if there is a chemical reaction, deuterium atoms get into the molecules of oil components,” said the head of the priority area of ​​“Ekoneft”, head of the department of development and operation of hard-to-recover hydrocarbon fields IGINGT KFU Mikhail VARFOLOMEEV. – We saw that deuterium atoms appeared in oil after the thermal steam exposure. Consequently, a chemical reaction has occurred with the participation of “heavy water” molecules.

Another stage of research was the consideration of the catalytic aquathermolysis process. This is a process when catalysts are injected into the formation along with steam. It turned out that water also takes an active part in these operations and, together with the catalyst, helps to even more effectively reduce the viscosity of oil in the course of thermal exposure. When using the catalyst, specialists saw that a larger volume of isotope tags appears in oil and its viscosity decreases more.

JSC “Zarubezhneft” has been closely cooperating for several years with scientists of the priority direction “Econeft” of Kazan Federal University.The catalysts created on the basis of the laboratories of “Econft” successfully proved themselves at the Boca de Jaruco field in Cuba in 2019, the Devon news agency reported earlier. KFU and Zarubezhneft conducted pilot tests on catalyst injection at other large fields.

Both partners have state-of-the-art developments and equipment at their disposal, capable of operating in aggressive environments and at high temperatures. One of them – the technology of catalytic aquathermolysis, which provides in-situ refining of oil, was also created in cooperation with KFU.

Let us remind you that thermal methods of oil production by KFU and Tatneft are being tested at the Ashalchinskoye field in Tatarstan.

Coach complained about water problems in the Olympic Village in Tokyo :: Tokyo Olympics :: RBC Sport

According to Ilgar Mammadov, he also had to repair the shower head himself.Earlier, he criticized the living conditions of athletes in Tokyo, comparing them to the Middle Ages.

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Photo: Takashi Aoyama / Getty Images

Head coach of the Russian fencing team Ilgar Mamedov complained about the lack of hot water in the rooms in the Olympic village in Tokyo.His words are quoted by TASS.

“There is no hot water, wires run through all the rooms, one outlet and that on the opposite wall. On the beds, everyone is already asking questions. Today I played the role of a plumber – no water came out of the watering can in the shower, I had to unscrew it with a screwdriver, remove and clean the filter, ”Mammadov said.

“When we flew here, we understood that a lot would be annoying. We just have to be with reinforced concrete nerves, this is a given, there is no getting away from it, ”the coach added.

Earlier, Mamedov criticized the living conditions of athletes in Tokyo, comparing them with the Middle Ages. “This is not Japan in the 21st century. The Olympic Village is a true Middle Ages. I’m not worried about myself, but I really feel sorry for my athletes, ”he said.

Tokyo Games will be held from July 23 to August 8. Due to WADA sanctions, Russian athletes will compete at the Olympics under the flag of the Russian Olympic Committee. Instead of the national anthem, a fragment from the First Concerto for Piano and Orchestra by Pyotr Tchaikovsky will be used at the awards ceremony.

The Olympic fencing tournament will start on 24 July.


Ivan Vitchenko