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Roles of water in the body: The request could not be satisfied


8.4: Roles of Water in the Body

Learning Objectives

  • Learn about the importance of water

You get up in the morning, flush wastes down the toilet, take a shower, brush your teeth, drink, eat, drive, wash the grime from your windshield, get to work, and drink coffee. Next to a fountain you eat lunch and down it with a glass of water, you use the toilet again and again, drive home, prepare dinner, etc. Add all the ways you use water every day and you still will not come close to the countless uses water has in the human body. Of all the nutrients, water is the most critical as its absence proves lethal within a few days. Organisms have adapted numerous mechanisms for water conservation. Water uses in the human body can be loosely categorized into four basic functions: transportation vehicle, medium for chemical reactions, lubricant/shock absorber, and temperature regulator.

Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): Image by NASA on unsplash.com / CC0.

Water is the foundation of all life—the surface of the earth is 70 percent water; the volume of water in humans is about 60 percent.

Water As a Transportation Vehicle

Water is called the “universal solvent” because more substances dissolve in it than any other fluid. Molecules dissolve in water because of the hydrogen and oxygen molecules ability to loosely bond with other molecules. Molecules of water (\(H_2O\)) surround substances, suspending them in a sea of water molecules. The solvent action of water allows for substances to be more readily transported. A pile of undissolved salt would be difficult to move throughout tissues, as would a bubble of gas or a glob of fat. Blood, the primary transport fluid in the body is about 78 percent water. Dissolved substances in blood include proteins, lipoproteins, glucose, electrolytes, and metabolic waste products, such as carbon dioxide and urea. These substances are either dissolved in the watery surrounding of blood to be transported to cells to support basic functions or are removed from cells to prevent waste build-up and toxicity. Blood is not just the primary vehicle of transport in the body, but also as a fluid tissue blood structurally supports blood vessels that would collapse in its absence. For example, the brain which consists of 75 percent water is used to provide structure.

Water As a Medium for Chemical Reactions

Water is required for even the most basic chemical reactions. Proteins fold into their functional shape based on how their amino-acid sequences react with water. These newly formed enzymes must conduct their specific chemical reactions in a medium, which in all organisms is water. Water is an ideal medium for chemical reactions as it can store a large amount of heat, is electrically neutral, and has a pH of 7.0, meaning it is not acidic or basic. Additionally, water is involved in many enzymatic reactions as an agent to break bonds or, by its removal from a molecule, to form bonds.

Water As a Lubricant/Shock Absorber

Many may view the slimy products of a sneeze as gross, but sneezing is essential for removing irritants and could not take place without water. Mucus, which is not only essential to discharge nasal irritants, is also required for breathing, transportation of nutrients along the gastrointestinal tract, and elimination of waste materials through the rectum. Mucus is composed of more than 90 percent water and a front-line defense against injury and foreign invaders. It protects tissues from irritants, entraps pathogens, and contains immune-system cells that destroy pathogens. Water is also the main component of the lubricating fluid between joints and eases the movement of articulated bones.

The aqueous and vitreous humors, which are fluids that fill the extra space in the eyes and the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord, are primarily water and buffer these organs against sudden changes in the environment. Watery fluids surrounding organs provide both chemical and mechanical protection. Just two weeks after fertilization water fills the amniotic sac in a pregnant woman providing a cushion of protection for the developing embryo.

Water As a Temperature Regulator

Another homeostatic function of the body, termed thermoregulation is to balance heat gain with heat loss and body water plays an important role in accomplishing this. Human life is supported within a narrow range of temperature, with the temperature set point of the body being 98.6°F (37°C). Too low or too high of a temperature causes enzymes to stop functioning and metabolism is halted. At 82.4°F (28°C) muscle failure occurs and hypothermia sets in. At the opposite extreme of 111.2°F (44°C) the central nervous system fails and death results. Water is good at storing heat, an attribute referred to as heat capacity and thus helps maintain the temperature set point of the body despite changes in the surrounding environment.

There are several mechanisms in place that move body water from place to place as a method to distribute heat in the body and equalize body temperature (Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\)). The hypothalamus in the brain is the thermoregulatory center. The hypothalamus contains special protein sensors that detect blood temperature. The skin also contains temperature sensors that respond quickly to changes in immediate surroundings. In response to cold sensors in the skin, a neural signal is sent to the hypothalamus, which then sends a signal to smooth muscle tissue surrounding blood vessels causing them to constrict and reduce blood flow. This reduces heat lost to the environment. The hypothalamus also sends signals to muscles to erect hairs and shiver and to endocrine glands like the thyroid to secrete hormones capable of ramping up metabolism. These actions increase heat conservation and stimulate its production in the body in response to cooling temperatures.

Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\): Thermoregulatory Center.

Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to maintain body temperature despite changing environmental temperatures.

Contributors and Attributions

Water and hydration: Physiological basis in adults

II.1.2. Fecal water losses

Fecal water losses are relatively small in healthy adults, about 200 mL/d in normal conditions (EFSA 2010). This quantity can increase dramatically in case of diarrhea, from 5 to 8 times above normal in infants (Fomon 1993).

II.1.3. Sweat production

Sweat production is highly variable: low for sedentary people exposed to moderate temperature, it can reach several liters per day during intense physical activity, high ambient temperature, and/or high humidity (EFSA 2010). The body adapts sweat production to maintain body core temperature (Powers and Howley 1997).

Sweat is produced in the dermis by sweat glands. It comes from interstitial water and is filtered deep in the sweat gland tubule before being reabsorbed distally (Figure 4). Sweat is usually 99% water, with a pH between 5 and 7. It contains approximately 0.5% of minerals (potassium and sodium chloride) and 0.5% of organic substances (urea, lactic acid) (Montain et al. 2007).

Figure 4. Sweat production by sweat glands.

Sweat is the major mechanism for thermoregulation for active people. During physical activity, for example, metabolic efficiency of the muscles is about 20%, liberating 80% of energy as heat (Powers and Howley 1997). Sweat evaporation is, in this process, particularly efficient: the evaporation of 1 liter of sweat at 30°C results in 580 kcal lost as heat (Wenger 1972).

However, sweat evaporation is influenced by several factors including temperature, humidity, air currents, intensity of sunshine, and clothing (EFSA 2010). The higher the  humidity, the less sweat will evaporate and therefore cool the body (Powers and Howley 1997). Wearing impermeable clothing, i.e. which does not allow sweat evaporation, both increases sweat losses and hampers body cooling (Havenith et al. 2008). On the contrary, convective currents around the body help in sweat evaporation (Powers and Howley 1997).

Sweat production during physical activity can be very different depending on factors such as the considered sport and intensity (training or competition), and on personal and environmental factors. Sweat rate varies within a range of about 0.3 to 2.6 L/h (Sawka et al. 2007). Examples of sweat rate for male practicing different sports are given in Table 1.

Table 1. Approximate sweat rate for males practicing different sports. Adapted from Rehrer and Burke 1996.

Sweat losses can therefore have an important impact on the water balance, and water intake should be adapted depending on the activities and subsequent sweat losses (Armstrong 2007).

II.1.4. Urinary water losses

Quantitatively, urinary water losses usually represent the largest loss of water in healthy, adults who do not exercise. Urine volume can however vary over a wide range, from about 500 mL to about several liters per day (EFSA 2010). Most of the other water losses are unregulated and occur irrespectively of the body fluid status; intakes are also partially regulated. On the opposite, urine volume is tightly controlled and serves as a way to tightly regulate the body fluid balance (see part II.3), along with its other role of solute waste excretion.

Urine is in the fact the result of the two major functions of the kidneys; the excretion of solute wastes and the regulation of body fluid volumes. In most cases, these functions can be achieved independently: for example if there is a high amount of water to eliminate, there will be no substantial changes in the amount of total solute load to be excreted. This relies on the ability of kidneys to produce a wide range of urine concentration, from 50 mOsm/L to 1200 mOsm/L (Brenner and Rector 2008). This maximal urine osmolarity constitutes a limit above which the two functions of kidneys cannot coexist anymore: it defines a minimal obligatory volume strictly necessary to excrete the solute load, whatever the body water balance status. Most of the solute load eliminated by kidneys come from the ingested foods, either as such (e.g minerals) or as a result of metabolism (e.g urea). For example, in a diet containing 650 mOsm, the minimal obligatory urine volume will be 500 mL, if kidneys are at their maximal concentration capacity (EFSA 2010). The water eliminated on top of this minimal obligatory volume is the excess water eliminated during water balance regulation. The table below (Table 2) indicates the urine volume to be excreted depending on the solute load and on urine osmolality.

Table 2. Urine volume (Uvol, L) as a function of solute load to be excreted and urine osmolality. Uvol = SL/Uosm.

The determination of a desirable urine osmolality is therefore a key element for determining desirable urine volume, and consequently adequate intake. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was the first agency to integrate this parameter for the setting of water adequate intake, considering a desirable urine osmolarity to be 500 mOsmol/L. Considering a typical diet of 1600 mOsmol/day for men and 1000 mOsmol/day for women, the EFSA suggests that men would need a urine volume of 2.0 L/day and women of 1.6 L/day (EFSA 2010). These values are far above the minimum urine volume (and therefore the minimum fluid intake volume) required for the excretion of metabolic wastes. The hypothesis that desirable urine osmolality could be lower than the concentrating capacity of kidneys is also supported by observational results suggesting that high urine volumes and high fluid intakes could slow the decline of kidney function associated with aging and protect against chronic kidney disease (Clark et al. 2011; Sontrop et al. 2013; Strippoli et al. 2011). 


2. Body water inputs

To compensate for daily water loss, water inputs are necessary. The body produces a small quantity of water from its metabolic activity, but most of the water inputs come from the diet (food and fluids).

II.2.1. Metabolic water production

Metabolic water is a produced by the oxidation of hydrogen-containing substrate or energy-yielding nutrients (IOM 2004).  Lipid oxidation produces the most water per gram (Table 3).

Table 3. Metabolic water produced by oxidation of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. From EFSA 2010; IOM 2004.

Metabolic water production is therefore proportional to the energy intake. Metabolic water production is estimated to represent on average approximately 250 to 350ml/day for sedentary persons (EFSA 2010) but can increase up to 600 ml/day with strenuous physical activity (Pivarnik and Palmer 1994). However, as seen in part II.1.1, respiratory losses also increase with physical activity, and these two processes approximately offset each other (Hoyt 1996).

II.2.2. Dietary intakes

Dietary total water intakes are, by far, the most important source of water for the body. Because production of water by the body is limited, dietary intakes should compensate for most of the losses.

Water is consumed as drinking water, beverages, and food moisture. But drinking water and beverages represent the majority of the total fluid intake, on average 70-80%, while water in food represents only 20-30% (EFSA 2010).

This distribution varies depending on the diet: the higher the consumption of water-rich foods (e.g., fruits, vegetables or soup), the higher the intake of water from food. Fruits and vegetables are indeed the food group which contains the most water: from 96% in a cucumber to 72% in an avocado, most contain more than 85% water. It is noticeable that most fruits have approximately the same water content (in terms of %) as most beverages. Soups are the category that contains the second highest level of water, with values ranging between 82 and 95% water, depending on recipes. Dry products such as breakfast cereals, nuts, biscuits and chocolates often have a water content below 5% (Food Standard Agency 2002).

Water intake through drinking water and beverages varies widely between individuals, as shown in dietary surveys. In the 2005-2006 NHANES survey, the total water intake was more than three-fold higher in the 80th percentile (5.4L/day) compared to the intake in the 20th percentile (1.6L/day) (Sontrop et al. 2013). A recent survey in China reported individual daily total fluid intake ranging from less than 100mL to over 7L (Ma et al. 2012). Drinking habits also seem different depending on countries: national surveys in Europe report median daily fluid intakes ranging from 635 to 2490 mL/day (EFSA 2008). However, these surveys are difficult to compare, and these wide variations are difficult to interpret, as it is not known whether they are due to actual consumption differences, or to differences in survey methodologies (i.e., 2-day dietary record, 7-day dietary record, 2-times 24h recall) and in liquid categorization (EFSA 2010). These limitations of fluid intake surveys have an important impact, as dietary recommendations are often based on consumption observed in these surveys (see also part III).

Water inputs and losses are dependent upon numerous factors, and some of them can be highly variable. Typical figures are summarized in Figure 7

Figure 7. Typical dally water inputs and losses.

As illustrated above, urine is critical for the body to adjust losses, whereas dietary intakes, and in particular fluid intakes, are the main sources of water inputs.


3. The regulation and maintenance of body water balance

Despite continuous water losses and wide variations in water and salt intakes, the human body generally has the ability to maintain a tight constancy in water content: total body water is estimated to vary by less than 1% over 24 hours (Cheuvront et al. 2004). This is of primary importance for the maintenance of a constant composition of extracellular fluid, needed for the cells to function properly. Body water is controlled, on one hand, by fluid intake, stimulated by thirst, and on the other hand by renal excretion of water (Brenner and Rector 2008).

II.3.1. Regulation of fluid intake: physiological thirst, social and environmental factors

Physiologically, fluid intake is regulated by thirst, defined as the conscious desire to drink (Guyton and Hall 2006). But fluid intake can also occur, for example, because of habits, social influence, dry mouth, or accompanying food during meals (McKinley et al. 2004; McKinley and Johnson 2004). Thus, purposeful fluid intake has a substantial behavioral component that interacts with physiological mechanisms.

The main stimulus for thirst is an increase in plasma osmolality. This increase is detected by osmoreceptors that initiate neural mechanisms resulting in the sensation of thirst (McKinley and Johnson 2004). However, the secretion of the anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) in response to increased plasma osmolality occurs at a lower threshold than the threshold for thirst, around 280 mOsm/kg versus 290-295 mOsm/kg respectively (Bouby and Fernandes 2003; Peters et al. 2007; Verbalis 2003). It is worth noting that the sensitivity and threshold of the osmoregulatory system, and of thirst in particular, vary widely between individuals (Bouby and Fernandes 2003).

Other factors can also induce thirst: a decrease in blood volume (>10%) or pressure, an increase in circulating angiotensin, or mouth dryness. On the contrary, gastric distension decreases thirst (Guyton and Hall 2006; Tanner 2009).

Fluid intake also often occurs without thirst sensation and without increased plasma osmolality (McKiernan et al. 2009; Phillips et al. 1984). Drinking is indeed often associated with eating: some studies have found that approximately 70% of fluid intake occurs peri-prandialy (de Castro 1988; Engell 1988; Phillips et al. 1984). The intake of fluids is also influenced by their direct availability (Engell et al. 1996), and can be socially facilitated or inhibited by the presence of other individuals (de Castro and de Castro 1989; Engell et al. 1996; Peneau et al. 2009).

Fluid intake is therefore not driven only by physiological mechanisms, and the final regulation of body water balance relies on the regulation of water excretion by the kidneys.

II.3.2. Regulation of water excretion by the kidneys

As seen previously (part II.1.4), the kidneys have the ability to widely adapt the quantity of excreted water, while maintaining stable solute excretion. Depending on body hydration state and fluid intake, metabolic waste is therefore excreted in a more or less concentrated urine.

The excretion of water by the kidney is indeed regulated to maintain a constant composition and concentration of extracellular fluids and in particular a constant plasma osmolarity. This is made possible thanks to a feedback system based on the anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin.

In the case of water deficit, osmolality of the extracellular fluids, in particular of plasma, increases above its normal value (about 280 mOsmol/kg h3O). This increase, which in practice means an increase in plasma sodium concentration, is detected by osmoreceptors that stimulate the release of ADH. ADH is synthetized in the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. Once ADH released, it is transported via the blood to the kidneys, where it increases the permeability of the distal tubules and collecting ducts to water. The increased water permeability causes increased water reabsorption and excretion of a small volume of concentrated urine. Water is therefore conserved in the body, while sodium and other solutes continue to be excreted. This causes the dilution of the extracellular fluids and therefore corrects the plasma osmolality (Figure 8) (Guyton and Hall 2006).

Figure 8. Regulatory mechanisms that respond to a water deficit.

On the contrary, in case of excess water in the body, ADH secretion is decreased, water permeability in the nephrons is increased, which leads to less water reabsorption and larger amount of dilute urine excretion (Guyton and Hall 2006).

It is worth noting that ADH release is also stimulated by decreased blood pressure and blood volume, which occur in cases such as hemorrhage. However, ADH is considerably more sensitive to small changes in osmolality than changes in blood volume: a 1% decrease of plasma osmolality stimulates ADH secretion, whereas a 10% decrease in blood volume is necessary to clearly increase ADH levels (Guyton and Hall 2006).

The maintenance of body water balance therefore depends on different physiological processes: the renal regulation, thirst and drinking behavior, but also sweating. The relative importance of those physiological processes and their interactions depend upon the prevailing activities, as illustrated in Table 4 below (Armstrong 2007).

Table 4. Relative roles of physiological processes in body water balance, for different life scenarios. Adapted from Armstrong 2007.

II.3.3. Body water balance impairments: dehydration and hyponatremia

Although tightly regulated, body water balance can encounter challenges leading to a temporary state of hypohydration or hyperhydration.

Dehydration is the process of losing body water, while hypohydration refers to an equilibrated state of body water deficit, and is therefore the result of dehydration (EFSA 2010). Depending on the relative loss of water and solutes from extracellular fluids, dehydration can be hypertonic (water loss concentrates extracellular water), hypotonic (sodium loss dilutes extracellular water) or isotonic (water and sodium losses with no change in concentration). The potential causes of these different types of dehydration are summarized in Table 5.

Table 5. Potential causes of three types of dehydration. Adapted from EFSA 2010; Grandjean et al. 2003; IOM 2004.

On the contrary, excessive consumption of water over a short period of time may lead to hyperhydration and hyponatremia, defined as serum sodium levels less than 135 mmol/L. This condition has been observed in psychiatric patients with polydipsia, but also in athletes during or after intense and prolonged exercise (e. g., ultra-marathon, military training). While potentially serious, symptomatic hyponatremia is rare, and is associated with fluid consumption that far exceeds water losses, as well as slow running pace and extended exercise duration (Hew et al. 2003).  However, in healthy people with normal dietary habits, it is well-recognized that hyponatremia is very difficult to achieve (EFSA 2010; IOM 2004). Indeed, it would mean, in healthy individuals, exceeding the kidney’s maximal excretion rate, i.e. 0.7 – 1.0 L/hour (EFSA 2010).

The diagnosis and proper treatment of hyponatremia is complicated by the fact that symptoms are closely related to those of dehydration, including headache, fatigue, confusion, nausea, vomiting, and cramps. (EFSA 2010; Grandjean et al. 2003; IOM 2004).

Take home messages

Body water balance is tightly regulated, to ensure body homeostasis and to respond to changes in consumption and losses.
The main sources of water losses from the body are urine and sweat, but water is also lost through stools and insensibly through skin and breathing.
The adjustment of urine volume is critical for the body to regulate the body water balance.
The kidneys are able to concentrate or dilute urine within a wide range, from 50 mOsmol/L to 1200 mOsmol/L. Urine concentration within those ranges depends on the metabolic wastes to be excreted and on the quantity of water to be excreted for body water regulation.
Observational studies suggest that high urine volumes, and therefore high fluid intakes, could slow the decline of kidney function which occurs with aging, and protect against chronic kidney disease.
Dietary fluid intake should compensate for most of the body water losses. Drinking water and beverages represent 70 to 80% of total fluid intake, while water coming from food represents about 20-30% of the total intake.
Body water is controlled on one hand by fluid intake that is stimulated by thirst, and on the other hand by renal excretion of water.

The Importance of Water

Water is very important to the human body. Every one of your cells, organs and tissues use water to help with temperature regulation, keeping hydrated and maintaining bodily functions. In addition, water acts as a lubricant and cushions your joints. Drinking water is great for your overall health. According to the CDC everyone should drink water daily.

Water and Your Heart Health: Drinking water is very good for your heart. Your heart is working continually to pump 2,000 gallons of blood throughout your body a day. By drinking water and keeping hydrated, you are helping your heart do its job. Your heart Is able to pump blood more easily when hydrated (consuming more water than you are losing) and allows the rest of the muscles in your body to work much better.


Water and Weight Loss: Water naturally has zero calories, therefore, substituting water for soda or juice can reduce your caloric intake. Switching out one 20 oz. sugary beverage for water reduces your caloric intake by 240 calories.

There are no recommended standards for how much plain water one should drink daily because intake varies based on age, sex, weight, and many other factors. It is recommended for an adult male over the age of 19 to consume 3.7 liters of water per day. An adult non-lactating female over the age of 19 is recommended to consume 2.7 liters of water per day. Females that are pregnant or lactating are recommended to consume 3-3.8 liters of water per day. These values include the water you get from food and other (non-water) beverages throughout your day.

Hydration: Drinking water keeps you from becoming dehydrated; a condition that can cause confusion, mood change, overheating, constipation, and other symptoms. The CDC (Center for Disease Control) recommends, to decrease your risk of becoming dehydrated, that you have a drink with every meal, and drink whenever you are thirsty. An easy way to determine if you have had enough water is to check your urine. If it’s a darker yellow, you need more water. If it’s a pale yellow or clear you’re doing great.

Don’t like water? You can improve the taste of your water by adding a wedge of lemon or lime. This will help you drink more if taste has been an issue.

To learn more click on the links below!


Center for Disease Control: Water & Nutrition

Center for Disease Control: Dietary Reference Intakes

Everyday Health: The Health Benefits of Water

UPMC Heart Beat: Importance of Hydration for Your Heart

#water #health #hearthealth

What Is the Purpose of Water & the Function It Provides for the Body? | Healthy Eating

By Ellen Swanson Topness Updated December 07, 2018

Water is vital for life and is an essential nutrient. Nutrients are substances in food and drink that are utilized by your body in metabolic and/or sustaining functions. Essential nutrients are those that must be consumed regularly, as your body does not produce the amount needed without utilizing external sources in the form of dietary intake. Deprivation of water will kill an individual faster than being deprived of any other nutrient. This important liquid is a vital component of most major body processes.


A primary function of water is to serve as a lubricant. For example, it is found in saliva and is a substantial component in the fluid surrounding joints. Water is also in and surrounding body structures such as the brain, spinal cord and eyes. The water layer helps protect and cushion these vulnerable areas from shock and trauma that could otherwise cause significant damage.

Body Temperature Regulation

Water is an important agent in body temperature regulation. The human body cannot function unless this is maintained within a certain range. Water helps achieve this in two ways. Since water is slow to change temperature and is efficient at storing heat, the amount of water in the body composition, 60 to 75 percent, is a natural temperature regulator. Another way this nutrient is used by the body for this purpose is through the process of perspiration. As water evaporates from the skin, the body is cooled.

Important for Chemical Reaction

Protein and carbohydrates are two nutrients necessary for healthy body functioning. They provide energy and are vital for growth and development. However, these two substances are useless to the body without water. Water enables a chemical reaction to occur which results in protein and carbohydrates becoming absorbable and usable by the body.


Water is essential in the body’s transportation system. Nutrients and other necessary elements must be sent to all parts of the body in order to ensure functioning of every single body process, from respiration to muscle movement to digestion and waste removal. Without water as the movement medium, the body would not function.

How to Stay Hydrated

Because water is vitally necessary for your body to function properly, it’s important to stay well-hydrated. The average person should drink around eight 8-ounce glasses of water per day, although this can vary. You may need to drink more fluids if you exercise, are pregnant or are experiencing very warm weather. As a rule of thumb, drink a glass of water or another beverage during meals and between meals. Also, drink water before, during and after a workout.

Note that all beverages and foods contain some water and will help keep you hydrated. Foods like watermelon, spinach and celery are especially high in water content, providing needed fluids to keep you hydrated. If you aren’t thirsty, though, and have pale urine, don’t over-hydrate yourself. Drinking too much water can actually be life-threatening.

What Critical Role Does Water Play in Homeostasis?

Water is the most abundant substance both on Earth and in the human body. If you weigh 150 pounds, you’re carrying around roughly 90 pounds of water. This water serves a wide range of functions: it’s a nutrient, a building material, a regulator of body temperature, a participant in carbohydrate and protein metabolism, a lubricant and a shock absorber. Water balance, or homeostasis, with respect to the internal environment is essential for survival.

Sources of Water Gain and Loss

Some of the ways in which you take in and lose water are obvious. Drinking fluids and eating food are the usual ways to add water to your system, while urinating, sweating, and exhaling water vapor are the most common sources of water loss; you also lose water in your gastrointestinal tract during bowel movements. How much fluid turnover you experience in a given day depends on your physical environment, your diet, your exercise level and certain medications you may be taking, but most people with intact cognition respond to inner signals of thirst appropriately enough to keep water input and water output remarkably well-matched as long as they have access to adequate fluids.

Disruptions to Homeostasis from Fluid Gain

Having too much water in your body can be problematic just as having too little can be dangerous, even if you don’t hear about it as much. If you consume a lot of fluid that contains solutes such as the electrolytes sodium and potassium, as many sports drinks do. the result is hypervolemia, or “too much volume,” and here the concentration of solutes in your body fluids doesn’t change much, if at all. If instead you consume an excess of plain water, this is called overhydration, and the concentration of solutes in your body fluids is lower than it should be.

Disruptions to Homeostasis from Fluid Loss

Few adults have never fallen prey to a shortage of body water. This most often occurs during exertion in warm, humid conditions, when you tend to lose more fluid than you consume through sweating even when you’re diligent about drinking liquids. You can lose up to 5 liters of sweat per day, which amounts to over 10 pounds of water. You lose some solutes in sweat but a far greater proportion of water, so this condition is called dehydration. On the other hand, when you lose both water and solutes at the same time, as in blood loss after an injury or severe and prolonged diarrhea, this is called hypovolemia, which can lead to stroke and even death owing to an unmanageable loss in blood pressure and subsequent cardiac arrest.

Mechanisms of Water Homeostasis

The chief way in which you regulate how much water your body loses or retains is through filtration in the kidneys. At the “downstream” end of your kidneys, water and solute filtered “upstream” are reabsorbed in amounts that vary in accordance with your body’s needs and under the influence of hormones. Antidiuretic hormone is released when your body water drops and solute concentration increases, signaling the kidneys to reabsorb more water but not solute. The hormone aldosterone, on the other hand, is released from the adrenal glands when you become hypovolemic, resulting in greater retention of both water and solutes and a maintenance of blood pressure.

The Importance of Water – The Heart Foundation

Water makes up about 60 percent of your body weight. Every cell, tissue and organ in your body needs water to work properly. Water gets rid of wastes through urination, perspiration and bowel movements, water keeps your temperature normal, and water lubricates and cushions your joints. Water is also critical for your heart health. Your heart is constantly working, pumping about 2,000 gallons of blood a day. By staying hydrated – that is, by drinking more water than you are losing – you are helping your heart do its job.


Dehydration occurs when you lose more fluid through sweating, illness, fever or urination than you consume in food and water. Dehydration can negatively affect your organs and bodily functions, including your heart and cardiovascular system. When you are dehydrated your blood volume, or the amount of blood circulating through your body, decreases. To compensate, your heart beats faster, increasing your heart rate and your blood pressure. Also, when you are dehydrated, your blood retains more sodium, thickening your blood and making it harder for your blood to circulate through your body. Keeping your body hydrated helps your heart pump blood more easily and allows oxygen to reach your muscles, which helps the muscles work efficiently.

Those most at risk for
dehydration are the elderly, people with chronic illnesses, children and
athletes. Dehydration can be a serious condition that can lead to problems
ranging from swollen feet or a headache to life-threatening conditions such as
heart attack or heat stroke.

Signs of mild to moderate
dehydration are thirst, a dry or sticky mouth, not urinating much, dark yellow
urine, headache, or muscle cramps.

Signs of severe dehydration are not urinating, or very dark yellow or amber-colored urine, dry, shriveled skin, sunken eyes, irritability or confusion, dizziness or lightheadedness, rapid heartbeat and breathing, listlessness or unconsciousness, or delirium. Should you or someone you know experience any of these symptoms, contact a health professional immediately.

How much water do you need?

Every day you lose water through your breath, perspiration, urine and bowel movements. For your body to function properly, you must replenish its water supply by consuming beverages and foods that contain water. Thirst isn’t the best indicator that you need more fluids. If you get thirsty, you’re probably already dehydrated. Thirst can also be confused with hunger – drink water if you’re feeling hungry. The color of your urine is often the easiest indicator of hydration. Pale and clear (lemonade-colored) urine means you’re well hydrated. If your urine is dark, drink more fluids. Consult a health professional if your urine remains dark, cloudy or foul smelling even after you have increased your water consumption.

To prevent dehydration and to make sure your body has the fluids it needs, get in the habit of drinking a glass of water first thing in the morning, a glass of water with each meal and a few more glasses of water throughout the day. Also drink proactively, especially before, during and after exercise, on long airplane flights and in hot weather. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has determined that the adequate daily fluid intake for the average, healthy adult living in a temperate climate need is:

  • For women: About 11 cups (2.7 liters or about 91 ounces) total daily fluid intake (includes all beverages and water-containing foods).
  • For men: About 15.5 cups (3.7 liters or about 125 ounces) total daily fluid intake (includes all beverages and water-containing foods).

Water is the best thing to drink to stay hydrated, because it’s calorie-free, inexpensive and readily available. Drinking the commonly recommended eight 8-ounce glasses of water a day is reasonable considering about 25 percent of our daily fluid intake comes from food and the rest from drinks. In addition to water, beverages such as milk, juice and herbal teas are composed mostly of water. The solid foods you eat, especially fruits and vegetables, can also provide a significant amount of water.  Cucumbers are 96% water and watermelons are 92% water. However, many processed foods, such as chips and crackers, are nearly devoid of moisture and contain a lot of salt. The excess salt thickens your blood and makes it harder for your blood to circulate through your body. To get rid of the excess salt, the body requires more liquid.

Caffeinated drinks, such as coffee and soda, can contribute to your daily water intake, but the caffeine acts as a diuretic and can cause you to lose more fluids, and excess sugar can inhibit the body from absorbing water. Alcoholic drinks are also a diuretic. When drinking alcoholic beverages, be sure to drink plenty of water.

Sports drinks tend to be
high in added sugars and calories and should be used only when you’re
exercising intensely for more than an hour. These drinks help replace
electrolytes lost through perspiration and sugar needed for energy during
longer bouts of exercise.

Energy drinks are different from sports drinks. Energy drinks generally aren’t formulated to replace electrolytes. Energy drinks usually contain large amounts of caffeine or other stimulants, sugar, and other additives.

Factors that influence your water needs

Your individual water
needs depend on many factors, including your health, how active you are and
where you live. You might need to increase or modify your total fluid intake
based on several factors:

  • Exercise. If you do any activity that makes you sweat, you need to drink extra water to cover the fluid loss. It’s important to drink water before, during and after a workout. If exercise is intense and lasts more than an hour, a sports drink can replace the electrolytes – the minerals in your blood – lost through sweat. However, it is healthier to drink water while you’re exercising, and when you’re done, eat a healthy snack like orange slices, bananas or a small handful of unsalted nuts.
  • Environment. Hot or humid weather can make you sweat and requires additional fluid intake. Dehydration also can occur at high altitudes. You will also need extra fluids if you are sitting in the sun on a hot or humid day, even if you aren’t exercising. 
  • Overall health. Your body loses fluids when you have a fever, diarrhea or are vomiting. If you have certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or a heart condition, or if you are older than 50, or overweight, you may also have to take extra precautions and increase your fluid intake. Other conditions that might require increased fluid intake include bladder infections and urinary tract stones.
  • Pregnancy or breast-feeding. Women who are pregnant or breast-feeding need additional fluids to stay hydrated.
  • Traveling: If you’re traveling in a different climate, you might sweat differently, or drinkable water might not be readily available and you will need to seek other fluids. Traveling also often disrupts our normal routines – it is important to remember to drink fluids throughout the day.

Water is your body’s principal chemical component. For good heart and overall health it is important to remember to drink plenty of fluids and stay hydrated.


American Heart Association: http://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/fitness/fitness-basics/staying-hydrated-staying-healthy

Mayo Clinic: https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/water/art-20044256

Medline Plus: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000982.htm

UPMC (University of Pittsburgh Medical Center): https://share.upmc.com/2014/09/importance-hydration-heart/

What does the body use water for?

You’ve just finished one heck of a kettlebell workout, and you’re slick with sweat. You’ve already downed all the water in your 32-ounce refillable bottle, so it’s time for a refill. You’re just guessing, but it feels like the liquid went right through you — in the form of perspiration. But what else does water do for your body?

Turns out, most of your body’s major systems depend on water to function. In fact, water is a big part of who you are: It comprises up to 60 percent of an adult’s body weight [source: New Health Guide].

Your body relies on water to act as a courier system. Water transports nutrients to every cell in your body and then carries away waste products from cells. When you digest food, the nutrients become water-soluble and then enter the circulatory system, borne on blood that is 92 percent water. As your body produces cell waste, your body’s water-based fluids move the waste from cells, and lubricate the kidneys to cleanse the body of toxins. Water also keeps bowel movements running smoothly to rid the body of additional waste.

Water’s benefits don’t stop there. Your body uses it for a plethora of other functions, too. It’s a big part of the fluid that surrounds, cushions and lubricates joints. And, water fuels the fluids that create saliva, and moisten the mouth, nose and other mucus membranes [source: New Health Guide].

Water is vital to the brain’s health and functioning, too. A 2013 study of water’s effect on mood and brain performance by researchers at the University of East London and the University of Westminster found that participants who drank more water — about 775 milliliters — had faster cognitive responses. The participants who didn’t drink the additional water also reported faltering moods. They were more likely to be sad, confused and tense [source: Edmonds et al.].

Other studies have shown that even mild dehydration makes it more difficult to pay attention and stay focused and that it can hamper short- and long-term memory functions. Most of the time, we receive our daily water intake from beverages. An additional 20 percent comes from food, and the body produces a negligible amount as it turns food into energy. However, the amount of water your body needs to function can change on a day-to-day basis. Marathon workout? You’re going to need to boost your fluid intake.

One way to gauge whether you’re drinking enough water is to monitor urine output. If your urine is clear and relatively odorless, then you are well hydrated. Dark yellow urine is a sign that you need to drink more water or eat more foods with a high water content, such as grapefruit or watermelon [source: Cilona].

90,000 15 facts about the role of water in human life

Water makes up the bulk of your body and is involved in many important processes, including:

  • removal of harmful substances from the body
  • regulation of body temperature
  • Delivery of nutrients to cells
  • protection of tissues and internal organs
  • improvement of metabolism

You get most of your water from a variety of drinks.It can be tea and coffee, but for the most part, on the contrary, they dehydrate the body. You can also drink juices, but due to their high sugar content, they are very high in calories. So it is best to drink pure mineral water. Food also contains small amounts of water. Below we will discuss how water can help improve your well-being. So, let’s begin…

1. Formation of saliva

Water is the main component of saliva. Saliva also contains small amounts of electrolytes, mucus, and enzymes.This is important for breaking down solid food and keeping your mouth healthy.

2. Water regulates body temperature

Since water has the ability to transfer heat, it plays an important role in maintaining body temperature. During exercise or heat, you sweat, losing water. Sweat keeps your body from overheating, but your body temperature can rise if you don’t replenish the water you are losing. If you sweat more than usual, make sure you drink plenty of water to stay hydrated.

3. Water protects joints

Water is found in large quantities in the joint fluid. This prevents friction between the surfaces of the bones during joint work and distributes the stress on the joints correctly. And also water performs the protective function of a shock absorber in case of minor injuries and falls.

4. Water removes harmful substances from the body through sweat, urination and defecation

Your body uses water to make sweat, urine, and bowel movements.

Sweat regulates body temperature, so you need to drink water to replenish the fluid lost in sweat.

It is also necessary to consume enough water for normal bowel function and prevention of constipation.

Adequate water intake affects the efficiency of the kidneys, which remove waste and toxins from the body.

5. Water improves exercise endurance

It is very important to drink plenty of water while exercising.Athletes can lose up to 6-10 percent of their body weight during physical activity. Your body water content also affects your strength and endurance. You may be more susceptible to the effects of dehydration if you participate in endurance training or high-intensity sports such as basketball.

The negative effects of exercising without enough water can seriously affect health, such as dropping blood pressure and raising fever.

6. Water helps prevent constipation

Fiber isn’t the only way to prevent constipation. Drinking soda water can help relieve symptoms of constipation.

7. Water helps in digestion

Drinking water before, during and after meals helps you digest food better and get the most out of it.

8. Water dissolves and delivers nutrients to cells

Water dissolves vitamins, trace elements and other nutrients that come from food.Then she is involved in the delivery of these substances to the cells of your body.

9. Water improves oxygen circulation in the blood

Water carries beneficial nutrients and oxygen to the entire body. Adequate daily water intake will improve your blood circulation, which means it will have a positive effect on the overall health of your body.

10. Water helps fight diseases

Drinking water can help treat and prevent certain conditions, such as:

  • constipation
  • urinary tract infection
  • intoxication during viral infections and influenza.

Water also helps the body absorb vitamins, minerals and nutrients from food, which boosts immunity and increases your chances of fighting off various infections.

11. Water helps to increase energy

Drinking water can activate your metabolism. Increased metabolism has been linked to positive effects on energy levels.

One study found that drinking 500 milliliters of water increased metabolic rate by 30 percent in both men and women.These effects lasted over an hour.

12. Water affects mental performance

The amount of fluid you drink is a key factor in keeping your brain active. Several studies have shown that not drinking enough water can negatively affect concentration and short-term memory.

13. Water cheers up

Lack of water can also affect your mood.Dehydration can lead to fatigue, anxiety, and confusion.

14. Water keeps skin youthful

Adequate water intake will help keep your skin firm by promoting collagen production. However, water alone will not help protect against age-related changes, you need regular care and protection from the sun.

15. Water prevents general dehydration

Dehydration results from not getting enough water into the body.And since water is essential for so many bodily functions, dehydration can be very dangerous.

Make sure you drink enough water to make up for water lost.

How much water should you drink?

You need to consume 1.5 – 2 liters of liquid daily.

Thus, regular use of high-quality water will give you vigor, improve your mood and increase your efficiency.You will not only feel better, but also look better.

Water is an amazing substance! She participates in all processes in our body. And mineral water will help you restore the balance of trace elements. Mineral water Bracca has a beneficial effect on digestion and metabolism, and tastes good. You can find a wide range of Bracca water and lemonades based on it on the virtual shelves of our online store!

90,000 the role of water in nature and human life

Home / Water – the role of water in nature and human life

Water in nature

Four elements of nature, four elements gave birth to life on Earth – these are fire, air, earth and water.Moreover, water appeared on our planet for several million years than the same soil or air.

It would seem that water has already been studied by man, but scientists still find the most amazing facts about this natural element.

Water stands out in the history of our planet. There is no natural body that could compare with it in its influence on the course of the main, most grandiose, geological processes.

V.I. Vernads

Water is the most abundant inorganic compound on earth.And the first exceptional property of water is that it consists of compounds of hydrogen and oxygen atoms. It would seem that such a compound, according to chemical laws, should be gaseous. And the water is liquid!

So, for example, everyone knows that water exists in nature in three states: solid, liquid and in the form of vapor. But already now, more than 20 states of water are distinguished, of which only 14 are water in a frozen state.

Surprisingly, water is the only substance on Earth whose solid state is less dense than liquid.That is why the ice does not sink, and the reservoirs do not freeze to the very bottom. Is that at extremely cold temperatures.

Another fact: water is a universal solvent. According to the quantity and quality of elements and minerals dissolved in water, scientists distinguish approximately 1330 types of water: mineral and melt, rain and dew, glacial and artesian …

Water in nature

In nature, water plays an essential role. At the same time, it turns out to be involved in a variety of mechanisms and life cycles on earth.Here are just a few facts that clearly demonstrate its importance for our planet:

  • The value of the water cycle in nature is simply enormous. It is this process that allows animals and plants to receive moisture that is so necessary for their life and existence.
  • Seas and oceans, rivers and lakes – all bodies of water play an important role in creating the climate of a particular area. And the high heat capacity of water provides a comfortable temperature regime on our planet.
  • Water plays one of the key roles in the process of photosynthesis. Without water, plants would not be able to convert carbon dioxide into oxygen, which means that the air would be unfit for breathing

Water in human life

The main consumer of water on Earth is man. It is no coincidence that all world civilizations were formed and developed exclusively near water bodies. The importance of water in human life is simply enormous.

  • The human body also consists of water.In the body of a newborn – up to 75% of water, in the body of an elderly person – more than 50%. At the same time, it is known that a person cannot survive without water. So, when at least 2% of water from the body disappears from us, an agonizing thirst begins. With a loss of more than 12% of water, a person will not recover without the help of doctors. And having lost 20% of water from the body, a person dies.
  • Water is an extremely important source of nutrition for humans. According to statistics, a person normally consumes 60 liters of water per month (2 liters per day).
  • It is water that delivers oxygen and nutrients to every cell of our body.
  • Thanks to the presence of water, our body can regulate body temperature.
  • Water also allows you to convert food into energy, helps cells to absorb nutrients. And also water removes toxins and waste from our body.
  • Man uses water everywhere for his needs: for food, in agriculture, for various industries, for generating electricity.It is not surprising that the struggle for water resources is serious. Here are just a few facts:

More than 70% of our planet is covered with water. But at the same time, only 3% of all water can be attributed to drinking. And access to this resource is becoming more difficult every year. So, according to RIA-Novosti, over the past 50 years, more than 500 conflicts have occurred on our planet related to the struggle for water resources. Of these, more than 20 conflicts escalated into armed clashes. This is just one of the numbers that clearly demonstrate how important the role of water in human life is.

90,000 Why and in what quantities do you need to drink water, and what will happen if you do not comply with the norm?

Water is a liquid that is present in any living organism. Everyone knows that a person can do without it for no more than 6 days. It is necessary for the normal functioning of almost all organs.

Why and in what quantities should you drink water, and what will happen if you do not comply with the norm?

Why you need to drink water

There are many answers to the question, why drink water. Fluid is essential for most physiological processes. It is required to remove toxins and other harmful substances from the body. Prevents premature aging of the skin and the appearance of wrinkles. When consumed in the recommended amounts, it reduces the risk of heart problems and heart attacks. Is one of the most important sources of energy.

In addition, water

  • contributes to normal digestion;
  • prevents constipation;
  • participates in the process of “building” muscles;
  • is a natural temperature controller.

Attention! Water has a beneficial effect on reproductive function in men, as it forms the basis of seminal fluid.

What happens if a person does not drink enough water

There are many people who do not control the amount of water they drink and consume less of it than is necessary. Among the most common consequences of such irresponsibility are:

  • deterioration of health;
  • headaches;
  • constipation;
  • problems with food digestion;
  • problems with the absorption of nutrients in the intestines.

How the body uses fluid

The kidneys of a healthy person pass through themselves from 150 to 170 liters of blood per day. They “produce” 1.5 liters of urine to remove filtered toxins and waste materials. The liquid leaves our body not only with urine: it is excreted in sweat, during breathing and along with feces.

Attention! To maintain the water balance in the norm, a person must drink at least 2 liters of water.

Since especially intense sweating is observed in hot weather, the amount of fluid consumed in the summer should be increased to .The same advice can be given to people forced to work in industrial premises where the air temperature is high.

How much water should athletes drink

Human muscles are 70–80% water. This fact alone is enough to understand that athletes need to monitor the amount of fluid they consume. Its deficiency will not only lead to a decrease in the results of training, but also cause drowsiness, lethargy, and decreased motivation.If the situation becomes chronic, then over time, convulsions and dizziness may appear. In addition, 90,019 lack of water negatively affects the elasticity of the joints, and this is a direct path to injury.

It is believed that athletes should drink:

  • About 500 ml of water a couple of hours before training;
  • 200 ml each every 10 minutes during classes in the hall;
  • 250 ml after workout.

Attention! In order not to forget to drink the right amount of liquid, you should carry water in a bottle with you everywhere and periodically drink it in small sips.

Why excessive water consumption is dangerous

Measure should be observed in everything. This also applies to drinking water. If the daily intake of fluid is exceeded, the salt balance may be disturbed, and as a result, the functioning of the kidneys. If the situation does not change, it will negatively affect brain activity.

Overhydration is fraught with sleep disturbance due to the neutralization of the hormone that slows down the kidneys at night and the rapid filling of the bladder. In addition, it causes excessive sweating. Observe the water consumption standards!
90,000 The value of water in human life

Water is life. And this statement is not unfounded. It is one of the most important components of human existence, and of all living organisms on Earth. The human body, for example, contains about 80% liquid.And if you look at our planet from the outside, then we will see the superiority in the quantitative ratio of water over land area.

Beauty, health and water are inextricably linked

To maintain the full functioning of the whole organism, it is necessary to consume about 2.5 liters of pure water per day (the values ​​may differ individually for each organism). The main factor is that the water must be clean, containing the optimal amount of minerals.Only in this form will it be able to nourish the cells of the body with useful substances and remove harmful and unnecessary waste from them.

Water also plays an important role in the digestion process. In order for the food consumed during the day to be assimilated in the body correctly and without undesirable consequences, it is imperative to bring it into a water-soluble form. In this case, without the use of pure water, this will be impossible to achieve. Food particles simply cannot be digested in the digestive system, broken down into elements so that useful substances remain in the human body, and everything else is excreted naturally.

It’s incredible, but water has a beneficial effect on the state of the human nervous system. No wonder, during exciting and stressful situations, they offer to drink a glass of water. It thins the blood, which in turn is beneficial for the cardiovascular system.

Water – a helper in time of illness

When a viral infection enters the human body and the temperature rises, almost all medical workers say that it is necessary to increase fluid intake in such a painful condition.Much of the emphasis is on drinking warm, clean water. Thanks to its properties, the thermoregulation necessary for a person is maintained. Water is an excellent heat carrier. With its help, excess heat is absorbed and excreted through the human skin. Thus, the patient’s normal temperature and his general condition of the body are stabilized.

In the hot season, the use of fluids becomes a savior in case of overheating of the body. It is recommended to drink not carbonated sugary drinks, but chilled water or brought to room temperature.In case of poisoning (food or alcoholic), water is simply irreplaceable.

Lose weight correctly

The basic rule for people who want to lose weight without harming the body is to drink about 2-3 liters of pure water, enriched with useful substances, a day. It helps to flush out toxins from the body, excess amount of salt deposits, which directly contributes to the acceleration of metabolism (metabolism), burning of subcutaneous fat.

When playing sports (in the gym or on your own), you must definitely drink water, since the liquid necessary for the body comes out with sweat.And this can lead to dehydration and other undesirable consequences. In addition, the liquid helps to maintain the health of joints, human bone tissue.

During the process of losing weight, it is very important to maintain the health of the skin so that it retains its youthfulness, attractive appearance, elasticity and smoothness for a long time. If you drink water in the right proportions, then this can be achieved without much difficulty.

So, water in human life is very important for:

  • normal thermoregulation and heat transfer.
  • maintaining healthy skin and joints.
  • removal of toxins and other harmful substances from the human body.
  • correct process of digestion and elimination of waste products, etc.

Drink water and be healthy!

All about water | IDS Borjomi Russia

… “Water! You have no taste, no color, no smell, you cannot be described, you are enjoyed without knowing what you are.This is not to say that you are necessary for life, you are life itself! ” Antoine de Saint-Exupery

Water is the source of life, beauty and health

Water is the most important component not only of the world around us, but also of the human body.Without water, life on our planet would be impossible. We often forget about this seemingly simple and obvious fact. But as soon as we feel the slightest signs of thirst, the whole importance and necessity of water becomes clear.

Water is the second, after oxygen, the most important element of human life on Earth. All life around is more than half of water. Water is also one of the main constituents of the human body. The numbers speak volumes about the extreme importance of water: On average, 60% of the body weight of an adult is water.Our brain is 73% water, lungs 83%, skin 64%. Water is even found in bones (about 31%).

With insufficient fluid intake, its percentage in our body falls, causing a deterioration in well-being and disrupting the work of internal organs. In addition, water is simply necessary for us to preserve for many years not only the beauty and radiance of the skin, but also clarity of thought, sharpness of mind, muscle elasticity.

According to Dr. Luis Sierra Mayem, head of the Spanish Academy of Nutrition and Nutritional Sciences, reducing the level of water in the body by only 2% can lead to a decrease in mental and physical abilities by almost 20%.In this case, a person loses the ability to think clearly and the ability to process information, performance decreases. Greater water loss (3% to 8% of body weight) can lead to dizziness, kidney failure, increased heart rate, and difficulty breathing *.

The role of water in the human body

Water plays a key role in a number of important functions in the human body:

  • Aids digestion by facilitating the absorption of food.
  • Dissolves nutrients: carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, promoting their absorption into the bloodstream and accelerating their transport to cells.
  • Promotes the elimination of toxins and excess nutrients from the body.
  • Maintains the elasticity and softness of the skin, and also helps to normalize the skin color.
  • Regulates temperature by dissipating heat inside the body and protects the body from overheating or hypothermia.
  • Plays a significant role for the normal functioning of the heart and kidneys, normalization of blood pressure.
  • Helps reduce stress on joints and promotes proper muscle function.

To always, in any weather and at any age, feel great and look young and fresh, you need to drink enough natural water, because it plays a key role in maintaining the body’s water balance.

Luis Sierra Mayem, Ph.D., developed the so-called “drink pyramid”, which reflects a person’s need for fluids throughout the day and week.It is interesting that the basis of the foundations of this pyramid is natural mineral water, which must be drunk daily in sufficient quantities. It is she who should form the basis of the water diet of any person.

Experts from all over the world recommend just natural mineral water, which is born in the bowels of the earth and is filtered only by layers of soil. Such water contains the optimal amount of minerals and trace elements for the normal functioning of all body systems.

To paraphrase the “father of medicine” Hippocrates, we can say with confidence: “We are what we drink.” According to this statement, it is certainly very important to monitor not only the quantity, but especially the quality of the consumed water, make a conscious choice, paying attention to the place of extraction and bottling of water, its natural origin, mineral composition and other important parameters, giving preference to large, well-known manufacturers who control the quality of their products at all stages of production.

* Based on the study “The Importance of Water Consumption for Adult Health in European Countries”, 2013.
Posted by Luis Sierra Mayem, Ph.D. physician specializing in preventive medicine and public health nutrition.

2. Water and its role in the vital activity of the cell

Water (h3O) is the most important inorganic substance of the cell. In a cell, in quantitative terms, water ranks first among other chemical compounds.Water performs various functions: maintaining the volume, elasticity of the cell, participating in all chemical reactions. All biochemical reactions take place in aqueous solutions. The higher the metabolic rate in a particular cell, the more water it contains.

Pay attention!

Water in the cell is in two forms: free and bound.

Free water is in the intercellular spaces, vessels, vacuoles, organ cavities. It serves to transfer substances from the environment to the cell and vice versa.
Bound water is a part of some cellular structures, located between protein molecules, membranes, fibers, and is connected with some proteins.
Water has a number of properties that are of exceptional importance for living organisms.

The structure of the water molecule

The unique properties of water are determined by the structure of its molecule.

Hydrogen bonds are formed between individual water molecules, which determine the physical and chemical properties of water.
The characteristic arrangement of electrons in a water molecule gives it electrical asymmetry.The more electronegative oxygen atom attracts the electrons of the hydrogen atoms more strongly, as a result the water molecule is dipole (has polarity). Each of the two hydrogen atoms has a partially positive charge, and the oxygen atom carries a partially negative charge.

The partially negative oxygen atom of one water molecule is attracted by the partially positive hydrogen atoms of other molecules. Thus, each water molecule tends to bind by hydrogen bond with four neighboring water molecules.

Properties of water

Since water molecules are polar, water has the property of dissolving polar molecules of other substances.
Substances soluble in water are called hydrophilic (salts, sugars, simple alcohols, amino acids, inorganic acids). When a substance goes into solution, its molecules or ions can move more freely and, therefore, the reactivity of the substance increases.

Substances insoluble in water are called hydrophobic (fats, nucleic acids, some proteins).Such substances can form interfaces with water, on which many chemical reactions take place. Therefore, the fact that water does not dissolve some substances is also very important for living organisms.

Water has a high specific heat , that is, the ability to absorb thermal energy with a minimum increase in its own temperature. To break the numerous hydrogen bonds that exist between water molecules, it takes a lot of energy to be absorbed.This property of water ensures the maintenance of heat balance in the body. The high heat capacity of water protects body tissues from rapid and strong temperature rise.
Quite a lot of energy is needed to evaporate water. The use of a significant amount of energy to break hydrogen bonds during evaporation contributes to its cooling. This property of water protects the body from overheating.


examples of this are transpiration in plants and perspiration in animals.

Water also has a high thermal conductivity, providing an even distribution of heat throughout the body.

Pay attention!

High specific heat and high thermal conductivity makes water an ideal liquid for maintaining thermal equilibrium between the cell and the body.

Water practically does not compress , creating turgor pressure, determining the volume and elasticity of cells and tissues.


The hydrostatic skeleton maintains its shape in roundworms, jellyfish and other organisms.

Due to the adhesion forces of molecules on the surface of the water, a film is created that has such a characteristic as surface tension.


due to the force of surface tension, capillary blood flow, ascending and descending currents of solutions in plants occur.

Among the physiologically important properties of water is its ability to dissolve gases (O2, CO2, etc.).

Water is also a source of oxygen and hydrogen released during photolysis during the light phase of photosynthesis.

Biological functions of water

  • Water provides the movement of substances in the cell and the body, absorption of substances and excretion of metabolic products. In nature, water carries waste products to the soil and to water bodies.
  • Water is an active participant in metabolic reactions.
  • Water participates in the formation of lubricating fluids and mucus, secretions and juices in the body (these fluids are found in the joints of vertebrates, in the pleural cavity, in the pericardium).
  • Water is a part of mucus, which facilitate the movement of substances through the intestines, create a moist environment on the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract. The secrets secreted by some glands and organs are also water-based: saliva, tears, bile, sperm, etc.



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The benefits of quality water for the body

Health benefits of water

“The health benefits of water” – the title of the article is not the most successful, it is not about the benefits. The name “The role of water in the body” is more correct.

Water is necessary for existence, for the vital activity of the body, lack of water is harmful to health, as well as the use of low-quality water.

Pure water is transparent, colorless, odorless, almost tasteless.

A person can live without food for a long time, about 20 days, but without water a person cannot live more than one week. Water is a part of all body tissues, the body is 70-80% water.

Man is much more of a liquid body than a solid. And the functions of water in the body are very diverse.

Water in the body is irreplaceable, performs many functions, participates in all processes.

Being a part of blood and lymph, it dissolves minerals and supplies them to all cells and tissues of the body.

Carries blood cells, oxygen and carbon dioxide. Water is essential for the body.

Metabolism, all important biological processes take place with the participation of water.

The body temperature is regulated with the help of water, the body maintains the water-salt balance with the help of water.

Carbohydrates, fats and proteins, substances that give the body energy, are also carried by water.

Tooth enamel consists of 2-3% water, while the rest of the organs contain much more of it.

Remove the water – the person will crumble. The benefits of water for the body are great.

We often perceive the signal from the body about the need to replenish the water supply as an urge to eat.

We do not forget to eat, but we forget to drink enough water, we replace water with tea, coffee, carbonated drinks.

An adult needs to consume about two liters of water a day in order to prevent slagging and dehydration of the body. Since the water content in the body is very high.

Be attentive to your body

Drink clean water in small portions, do not allow the appearance of thirst.

Make a water intake schedule for yourself – drinking ration.

If you need to gain weight, drink water after meals, but if you want to lose weight, try to drink one glass of water before meals.

These simple rules will help ward off most diseases.

If you have a constant desire to drink, it makes sense to donate blood for sugar.

Hypertensive patients suffering from heart failure and hypertension, it is desirable to reduce water intake and reduce the amount of salt.

To preserve health for many years, for well-being and maintain a high level of performance, remember the benefits of clean drinking water and keep such water at hand.

No other drinking liquids can solve the problems successfully solved by water! Therefore, do not forget about the benefits of water for the body.

Do you dislike the water after the flow filters?

Install a reverse osmosis system complete with a mineralizer.

Too Expensive? Buy a water jug ​​or faucet attachment.

Forbid yourself not to pay attention to the quality of the water you use!

Be sure to use a filter.

Water makes your skin look younger by preventing the appearance of wrinkles from the inside.

Water removes toxins, normalizes kidney activity, removing toxins from the gastrointestinal tract.

Water reduces the risk of heart attack by up to seventy percent, but remember that with hypertension, do not overdo it.

Water is needed to maintain high physical performance.

Water restores energy, prevents irritation, reduces stress levels.

Water is essential for healthy, normal digestion.

Dehydration depresses the immune system, and we carry infectious diseases harder – water strengthens the immune system.

Water intelligently regulates body temperature, providing the working muscles and organs with an optimal temperature regime.