Scorpion sting picture: Scorpion Sting Treatment, Symptoms, Pictures & First Aid
Scorpion Stings on Dogs | Great Pet Care
If there’s something moving in the grass or on the carpet, dogs feel the need to investigate. If that thing is a scorpion (yikes!), your dog could get stung for his curiosity.
Scorpions are arachnids, with wide, flat bodies, large pincers, and a segmented, curled tail with a venomous stinger.
Most people associate scorpions with the desert. And while most species are desert dwelling, scorpions can be found in 29 of the 50 US states including the southern unstriped scorpion which makes its home in the humid Southeast (1). Thankfully the most deadly scorpion, the deathstalker, is not found on the American continents, preferring the dry climate of North Africa and the Middle East.
So whether you live in a state with scorpions or are planning on visiting one with your dog, here’s what you need to know about scorpion stings and how to keep your canine companion safe.
Scorpion Stings and Dogs: Should You Worry?
The short answer is, it depends. There are several factors that determine your dog’s risk of encountering a scorpion.
The first thing that determines whether your dog is at risk of a sting is your geographic location and where you live. Since scorpions are most common in the desert, dogs in states like Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and California are more likely to meet a scorpion. There isn’t good data on the number of dogs who are stung by scorpions each year. But if we take human exposure as our starting point, we can probably estimate a dog’s general risk as being highest in those states (2).
Your dog’s habits also contribute to his risk. Dogs who dig and those who tend to be too curious for their own good may put their nose or paw within striking distance of a scorpion’s stinger. While scorpions can and do get into the house, most remain outside, so dogs who have outdoor access when it’s dark are at higher risk. Camping may also bring your dog closer to scorpions than you’d like.
The good news is that scorpion stings on dogs are rare. But, unless you see the scorpion sting your dog, you are unlikely to know that it was a scorpion and not a wasp or other insect.
Scorpions that are Dangerous to Dogs
Though all scorpions produce venom, most do not pose a threat to bigger dogs. This is because the venom is mild or released in too small of a quantity to cause serious consequences.
Small dogs and puppies are at greater risk due to their small size. In general, a dog is more likely to get sick from an allergic reaction to the venom than the venom itself.
The exception is the Arizona bark scorpion which has a venom powerful enough to be deadly.
The Arizona bark scorpion (Centruroides sculpturatus) can be found from southeastern California, throughout Arizona, to western New Mexico as well as south of the border. They are light brown and about 3 inches in length. Though the venom from this scorpion’s sting can kill a dog, there are very few reported cases of fatality when dogs have emergency access to veterinary care.
Scorpion Sting Symptoms on Dogs
The most common symptom of a scorpion sting in a dog is localized pain. This might be a dog licking or chewing at an injured area.
Most of the time, however, you will not know why your dog is favoring one leg or pawing at his face. The limbs and paws are the most common sites for stings but they can occur anywhere. If you find a small swollen area, it could be from a scorpion sting or a bee sting or even an ant bite and may need closer examination.
Symptoms from most common to most serious include:
- Licking or chewing at face or paw
- Localized swelling
- Dilated pupils
- Muscle tremors
- Uncontrolled urination or defecation
- Difficulty breathing
Allergic reactions to the scorpion venom are more common in dogs than severe reactions to the venom itself. Signs of an allergic (anaphylactic) reaction are:
- Swelling of the injury
- Swelling of the face and throat
What to Do if Your Dog is Stung by a Scorpion
If you live in an area with the Arizona bark scorpion or if your dog has allergies to other kinds of insect stings and bites, get your dog to the veterinarian right away if you suspect a scorpion sting.
While in the car, call the animal hospital to tell them you are on your way and provide information about the situation.
If symptoms progress to swelling of the face or head, difficulty breathing, muscle tremors or impaired consciousness, it should be considered an emergency and your dog should be seen as soon as possible.
Scorpion Sting Treatment for Dogs
If there is a stinger in the skin, remove it very carefully. Most dogs will feel better with an antihistamine. Call your veterinarian for advice and dosing.
You can apply a cold compress to the injury and encourage your dog to rest in a cool area. There is no specific at-home treatment for scorpion stings and instead you are treating the signs of swelling and pain.
If, despite first aid, your dog worsens or does not improve, it is time to go to the veterinary clinic. There your dog will receive antihistamines or steroids, pain medication, wound care, and other supportive care as needed.
How to Prevent Scorpion Stings in Dogs
It may not be possible to fully prevent your dog from being stung by a scorpion, but there are several steps you can take to reduce his risk.
Scorpions can get into the house through very tiny cracks or gaps. Plug all holes with caulking or metal screens. Trim branches that overhang the house so that scorpions can’t get in from the roof and keep all piles of tools, materials, and supplies away from the house. It is especially important to keep firewood and potted plants away from the house because those are perfect scorpion habitats.
Scorpions have a fluorescent glow in UV light so checking the perimeter of your home with a blacklight can give you some comfort. When it is dark, supervise your dog’s potty breaks so he can’t get too interested in anything he might find. Shake out bedding every evening before your dog goes to bed.
Pesticides are often ineffective against scorpions and may pose a threat to pets. Cedar oil diluted and sprayed around windows and doors may repel scorpions. However, as essential oils can be dangerous to your pets, it is best to only spray them on the exterior of the home.
If you have a severe infestation with scorpions, consult a professional pest-control company.
Lateral medullary syndrome after a scorpion sting
J Family Med Prim Care. 2017 Jan-Mar; 6(1): 155–157.
Vineeth Varghese Thomas
1Department of Medicine, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
1Department of Medicine, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
Ajay Kumar Mishra
1Department of Medicine, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
2Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
1Department of Medicine, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
1Department of Medicine, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
2Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
Address for correspondence: Dr. Vineeth Varghese Thomas, Department of Medicine, Christian Medical College, Vellore – 632 004, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: [email protected] : © 2017 Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Scorpion bites are a common problem in Southern parts of India. The sting of Mesobuthus tamulus belonging to the Buthidae family is known for being fatal. The toxidrome of scorpion sting is known for its effect on the cardiovascular system, and there have been rare reports of cerebrovascular accidents as well. We describe a case of lateral medullary syndrome secondary to scorpion sting. As per the knowledge of the authors, this is the first case report of the same.
Keywords: Scorpion sting, stroke, toxin-induced thrombosis
India is known to harbor 86 species of scorpion. Of these, the Mesobuthus tamulus and Palamneus swammerdami are of clinical importance. The annual sting rate world over as reported by Chippaux et al. was 1.23 million. These scorpions reside in dry and arid regions in India. Areas endemic for scorpion sting are Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka. The case fatality due to scorpion stings has dramatically reduced due to drugs such as prazosin and antiscorpion venom. However, in rural areas of India, it continues to be a major medical problem.
A 45-year-old manual laborer, from the Kadapa region of Andhra Pradesh, presented with a history of a scorpion sting on his left foot. Immediately following the sting, he had excruciating pain over the sting site. He was then taken to a primary health facility where he was found to have high blood pressures and was treated with prazosin and was kept under observation. He did not have any breathing difficulty, bleeding, or fever on the 1st day. On the 2nd day of admission, he was noted to have drooling of saliva with inability to swallow saliva and had an inability to get up from the bed. He was not a smoker, diabetic, hypertensive, or dyslipidemic, and he did not have any other risk factors for young hypertension or stroke.
At this point of time, he complained of ptosis of his right eye, decrease sensation over the right side of face along with instability, and swaying to the right side. In view of new onset focal neurological deficit, in spite of having a normal blood pressure, he was referred to a higher center. On examination, at the time of presentation, he was conscious and oriented, and his vitals were stable. He had a complete Horner’s syndrome on the right side of his face, with decreased pain and temperature sensation over the right side of his face. He had a deviation of the uvula to the left and had dysdiadokokinesia and past-pointing involving his right upper and lower limb. His other system examinations were normal. His complete blood counts, renal function, and electrocardiogram were normal.
A clinical diagnosis of a lateral medullary syndrome was made and a magnetic resonance imaging with magnetic resonance angiogram of the brain was done. It revealed features of the right lateral medullary infarct with the right vertebral artery thrombosis [Figures –]. Evaluation for prothrombotic states including antinuclear antibody, antiphospholipid antibodies, anticardiolipin antibody, and homocysteine levels was normal. His bleeding parameters and peripheral smears ruled out disseminated intravascular coagulation. His echocardiogram was normal as well. In view of the lack of other causes for a thrombotic event and the temporal relation and progression of events, he was diagnosed to have a scorpion sting-induced thrombosis of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery causing a lateral medullary syndrome. He was started on antiplatelet medications and showed a gradual improvement with physiotherapy.
Diffusion-weighted imaging image
Magnetic resonance angiogram image of patent posterior inferior cerebellar artery
Diffusion-weighted imaging image of infarct region
Fluid attenuation inversion recovery images of infarcted region
Fluid attenuation inversion recovery image without arrow
Original magnetic resonance angiogram image
Scorpion sting envenomation has been deemed to be more poisonous than certain snake bites. However, just like snake bites, certain scorpion stings can be dry. They are known to be fatal in 2%–4% cases in India today. This small proportion of fatalities is due to the discovery of drugs such as prazosin, antiscorpion venom, and better intensive care facilities.
Scorpion stings have been known to cause excitatory responses in the autonomic nervous system, leading to the sudden alterations in blood pressure and heart rate. Scorpion venom consists of sodium and potassium channel-directed toxins that lead to prolonged depolarization and hence excitation of autonomic nerves and the release of neurotransmitters. Hence, the toxidrome is aptly called an “autonomic storm.” The other systemic manifestations are predominantly mediated through this autonomic excitation and directly by the toxin. Patients can present with bradycardia and excessive salivation secondary to parasympathetic stimulation. This can be followed by more prolonged sympathetic stimulation which can cause tachycardia, hypertension, and pulmonary edema.
Central nervous system involvement secondary to scorpion sting has been described in 2%–8% of patients with complications. Anoxia due to cardiovascular complications can cause central nervous system manifestations such as coma, seizures, and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.[3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10]
Case series from India have shown that only 7%–8% of patients with scorpion stings present with cerebrovascular accidents. Of these, only 2%–4% present with thrombotic strokes.[4,5] The various mechanisms proposed have been:
Alterations in coagulation of blood leading to disseminated intravascular coagulation
High level of catecholamines induced, vasospasm causing hypoperfusion, and ischemia in previously compromised areas of the brain[3,6,7]
High blood pressure during autonomic storm resulting in rupture of vessels, causing hemorrhagic stroke[8,9,10]
The presence of myocarditis, thromboembolic phenomenon, or shock leading to cerebral infarction.[6,9,10]
The direct effect of toxin either leading to endothelial damage and vasculitis or resulting in prothrombotic state is yet to be established.
The mean duration to develop such complications, especially thrombotic events, is considered 2–3 days after the scorpion sting. These infarcts are seen as low-flow infarcts in imaging as early as 36 h. The most common territory reported to be involved in patients with infarcts is middle cerebral artery and basal ganglia in case of hemorrhagic strokes. Prompt diagnosis and early administration of alpha receptor blockers may prevent such events. However, in those with thrombotic complications, little is known about management and prevention of such complications. Thus, the physician must be aware regarding these rare central nervous system manifestations of scorpion sting while evaluating patients.
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Conflicts of interest
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1. Devarbhavi PK, Vasudeva Murthy CR. Scorpion sting envenomation and overview. Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences. 2013;5:6. [Google Scholar]3. Bawaskar HS, Bawaskar PH. Scorpion sting: Update. J Assoc Physicians India. 2012;60:46–55. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]4. Sarkar S, Bhattacharya P, Paswan A. Cerebrovascular manifestations and alteration of coagulation profile in scorpion sting: A case series. Indian J Crit Care Med. 2008;12:15–7. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]5. Udayakumar N, Rajendiran C, Srinivasan AV. Cerebrovascular manifestations in scorpion sting: A case series. Indian J Med Sci. 2006;60:241–4. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]6. Thacker AK, Lal R, Misra M. Scorpion bite and multiple cerebral infarcts. Neurol India. 2002;50:100–2. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]7. Gadwalkar SR, Bushan S, Pramod K, Gouda C, Kumar PM. Bilateral cerebellar infarction: A rare complication of scorpion sting. J Assoc Physicians India. 2006;54:581–3. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]8. Sigirci A, Öztürk M, Yakinci C. Cerebral atrophy and subdural haemorrhage after cerebellar and cerebral infarcts in an 8-month-old child after having been stung by a scorpion. BMJ Case Rep 2014. 2014 pii: Bcr2014205091. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]9. Kumar TP, Reddy VU, Narayan PD, Agrawal A. Symmetrical thalamic and cerebellar hemorrhages following scorpion envenomation. Int J Stud Res. 2014;4:15–7. [Google Scholar]10. Del Brutto OH, Del Brutto VJ. Scorpion stings: Focus on cerebrovascular complications of envenoming. Int J Stroke. 2013;8:E8. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Scorpions in Iraq.
Iraq harbours a lot of scorpion species, mainly from the family Buthidae. Of obvious reasons, the scorpion
At least two species in Iraq have medical sigificance, Androctonus australis (Buthidae) and Hemiscorpius lepturus (Liochelidae).
The following presentation is just meant to be an introductions to the scorpions of Iraq for non-esperts, and some of the information is
Scorpions reported from Iraq:
It is important to note that this is not an exhaustive list! This list is based on whats available in the literature, and it is likely that
I’m very interested in getting more information about scorpions in Iraq, and the potential medical
FOR BEE, SCORPION STINGS: ONIONS
Question: : You recently wrote about rubbing a cut onion on a bee sting to ease the pain. Swiss farmers have practiced this for centuries. In 1949, when I was stung by a bee right near the kneecap and was hurting badly, my farmer grandmother gave me a freshly cut onion and told me to rub it on the sting site for five minutes. After that, I could not even feel the sting or any pain anymore. I have used this remedy many times since.
Answer: : Thanks for this historical perspective. Onion contains compounds that can break down the proteins in bee venom.
We also heard from someone who experienced a different kind of sting: “Several years ago, I was stung on the leg by a scorpion. It was horribly painful. My leg turned red and started swelling above and below the site of the sting. At my mom’s suggestion, I tried fresh-cut onion on the sting, and it worked great. In about 20 minutes, the redness had completely disappeared, the swelling stopped and the pain was almost completely gone.”
Some scorpion stings can be dangerous. If they cause numbness or tingling, blurry vision or muscle twitches, emergency treatment is advisable.
Question: : I have suffered from charley horse leg cramps as well as cramps in my feet, hands, rib cage or arms for years. At one time, I took quinine capsules, but they have been banned and are no longer available.
After reading about putting a bar of soap under the bottom sheet, I’ve recently tried this with a bar of Ivory for several weeks. I have not received the kind of relief that I was hoping to get.
Is there anything else I can do? There are days when the pain after a cramp is so bad that my legs and thighs are still tender in the morning and it hurts to walk.
Answer: : Although many people have found soap helpful against nighttime cramps, it does not work for everyone. We have also heard that a swig of pickle juice or a spoonful of yellow mustard might work to banish muscle cramps.
Question:: My daughter had so many warts on her hands that there was nothing the doctor could do. He said freezing or burning them off was out of the question.
He suggested Tagamet. That sounded weird, but she tried it. In two months, she had fewer warts. By the third month, her hands were as smooth as a baby’s bottom, and she went to her prom with her head held high!
Answer:: Treating warts with heartburn medicine sounds a bit bizarre, but doctors have been doing it for years. Controlled trials of Tagamet (cimetidine) for warts have been inconclusive, but we’ve heard of other successes:
“I am a 23-year-old healthy male. I have had plantar warts on both my feet and warts under my fingernails for almost four years. I’ve tried several costly and unsuccessful treatments to cure them (acid, cryotherapy, duct tape).
“Then I read online about Tagamet. I figured it was a long shot, but I didn’t have much to lose. I began taking OTC cimetidine, one tablet at breakfast and the other at dinner.
“It took nearly two months before I noticed something: a small patch of healthy skin in the middle of the mosaic patch of warts near my big toe. A few weeks later, even more of the plantar warts disappeared, along with a big wart on my right thumbnail. It is now about two months since I started this treatment, and most of my warts are gone. I am convinced that Tagamet really works.”
Question:: I’m worried about my mother. She’s 65 and has type-2 diabetes and mild depression.
In the past few months, her behavior has changed dramatically. She is extremely lethargic and has no energy to do housework. She is sleeping a lot and often falls when she gets up. She says she feels dizzy.
She’s normally very industrious, loves the outdoors and keeps a very clean home. She says her blood sugars are very good now during the day, but they go extremely low at night.
Her doctor told her to take Dramamine and cold medicine for the vertigo. She also takes Abilify, Actos, atenolol, Benicar, furosemide, gabapentin, glimepiride, insulin, Lipitor, paroxetine, potassium chloride, Sular and sometimes Acetaminophen PM. What do you think?
Answer:: This is a lot of medicine! Your mother needs a specialist in geriatric medicine who can review everything very carefully for side effects and interactions. She should not stop any medication on her own, but the doctor needs to see if she really needs each of the medications in this complex regimen.
Abilify is of particular concern because it can complicate the treatment of diabetes and can be dangerous in older patients. It also might contribute to dizziness on arising.
Question:: I use Travatan, similar to Lumigan, for glaucoma. My eyes have turned from brown to almost black. Blue-eyed people should be warned about this.
Answer:: A change in the color of the iris is a well-known reaction to this class of glaucoma drops. Your doctor should have warned you.
In their column, Joe and Teresa Graedon answer letters from readers. Write to them in care of this newspaper or e-mail them via their Web site at PeoplesPharmacy.com
The Truth About a Scorpion Sting
On a former guided desert walk in Namibia, we enjoyed a very informative talk with Boesman, a local guide whose name translates to ‘bushman’ in Afrikaans. During the walk, he told us a series of interesting facts about scorpions.
He covered a variety of topics, including a breakdown of the infamous scorpion sting, how to recognize the most venomous scorpion types, how to catch them, and so on.
If you ever travel to the Sossusvlei or Deadvlei areas in Namibia, don’t miss out on Boesman’s guided walks. You can find them by searching for “Sossus-on-foot“, or get hold of them using the contact details in the image below.
Do Scorpions Bite?
Nope! The first and most important thing you need to know before we get started is that a scorpion does not bite; it stings! 😉
Many people refer to ‘scorpion bites’ when speaking about scorpion stings, which can lead to some confusion. So, with that out of the way and cleared up, let’s get cracking!
9 Interesting Scorpion Facts
Boesman was an incredibly knowledgeable guide, and conveyed the information in a really captivating way. Check out this video of him, in the desert during the walk, offering up a platter of fascinating, scorpion-based knowledge.
Here’s a detailed breakdown of the interesting scorpion facts and information that Boesman discussed during the walk.
1. Scorpions are shy
Scorpion stings are almost always accidental. As it turns out, they’re incredibly shy creatures and are very sensitive to vibrations. They even shy away from the vibrations caused by human footsteps.
Boesman proclaimed this confidently as he stood in the middle of prime scorpion territory entirely barefoot. Scorpions aren’t interested in stinging humans, it’s simply their natural reaction if you come into contact with them in the wrong way at the wrong time.
2. Not all scorpions are venomous
It’s a common misconception that all scorpions are highly venomous and their stings dangerous. In truth, many scorpions aren’t venomous, and fatal encounters are highly unlikely. Out of the 1,500 species of scorpion on Earth, an estimated 30 of them produce venom that is potent enough to be fatal.
In most cases, scorpion stings will heal without treatment.
3. One should pick up stones with caution
In areas that are home to scorpions, one needs to be cautious when picking up or moving a stone. Scorpions in Namibia and around the world spend a lot of their time hiding underneath them.
Namibians know to roll a stone toward them, allowing the snake or scorpion beneath it to scurry away in the other direction. Tourists often don’t know this and can find themselves in a bit of trouble.
4. Scorpions are most active when it’s windy
If you venture out into the Namib Desert or the Kalahari on a windy day, you’re a lot more likely to run into scorpions than on a windless day. In the absence of wind, insects (aka scorpion food) fly around rather than spending time on the ground.
When the wind is blowing, the insects cannot fly, finding themselves grounded. So the scorpions take the opportunity to come out and catch them.
5. It’s best to stay calm in the presence of a scorpion
If you find yourself in the presence of a scorpion, don’t make any abrupt movements. Moving suddenly will put you at a higher risk of them stinging you.
Boesman illustrated the point by suggesting that if a scorpion, in Namibia or elsewhere, runs over your foot, you’ll be best off not moving. Allow it to scurry on its way and it will leave you without a sting. If you move suddenly, you might not be so lucky.
6. Scorpion holes are long and elongated
If you come across a circular hole in one of Namibia’s deserts, don’t panic. It’s far more likely to belong to a mouse than a scorpion. Scorpions dig with their pincers, so they form an elongated hole when they burrow, rather than a circular one.
7. A scorpion can’t sting things that are below it
Surprisingly, you can safely hold a scorpion in your hand. The animals are unable to sting things that are below them, due to the upward curving nature of their tails. If you point your finger at it, however, the animal is likely to go for the strike.
Some of you may be wondering how to catch a scorpion in the first place. For those adventurous readers, the curved tail presents a catching technique that can avoid any nasty stings. If you dig from underneath the scorpion’s hole or hiding place, it won’t be able to sting you.
8. The potency of scorpion stings depends on many factors
There are a variety of factors that contribute to how venomous a scorpion is.
Adults have stronger venom than younger scorpions.
Male scorpions are more venomous than females.
Sexually active males have a more potent sting than those that aren’t.
And scorpions that haven’t eaten for long are most venomous. So a scorpion that has just had a meal has weaker venom than its hungry cousins.
You’d best hope you don’t come across an adult, male, sexually active scorpion who’s skipped a few meals! But all jokes aside, this is a highly unlikely encounter. 🙂
9. A big tail is a sign of strong venom
Physical scorpion characteristics can also be an indicator of their venom potency.
Generally speaking, you can tell how venomous a scorpion is by the size of its tail versus the size of its pincers. Namibian scorpions with small pincers and a big tail have very potent venom. As Boesman put it, ‘the power is in the tail’.
Conversely, scorpions with big pincers and a thin tail have relatively weaker venom – the power is in the pincers.
So if a scorpion with a small tail and large pincers stings you, chances are you’ll be just fine. If a large-tailed scorpion stings you, it’s best to get to a doctor sooner rather than later. But if you’re in doubt, don’t take any risks. Visiting a doctor is always the safest move.
Facts About Scorpions in Namibia – Wrapping Up
Scorpions are misunderstood, weird and wonderful creatures. They mean no harm to humans, preferring instead to keep to themselves. And on the occasions when they do sting humans, the sting is unlikely to be fatal.
That isn’t to undermine the seriousness of a severe scorpion sting. But with a bit of insider knowledge and a few precautions, it’s totally possible for humans and scorpions to co-exist in perfect, peaceful harmony. Just ask Namibians like Boesman, they’ve got it down to a fine art!
Hopefully this scorpion information guide has helped shed a bit of light on these little animals.
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What to Do if a Scorpion Stings Your Dog | Raintree Pet Resort & Medical Center
Have you ever worried about your dog being stung by a scorpion? The good news is that out of the 1752 known types of scorpions, only 25 of them have enough venom to deliver a fatal sting. The bad news is that some of the poisonous ones do live here in Arizona, including the deadly bark scorpion. While scorpion stings are hardly an everyday occurrence in the area, they aren’t uncommon, either. In this article, your Scottsdale veterinarian offers advice on what to do if a scorpion stings your canine pal.
If Fido is stung by a non-venomous scorpion, he may limp or hold up the limb that was stung. While these types of stings are very painful, they generally are not life-threatening, and can be considered comparable to a bee sting. Stings from venomous scorpions, on the other hand, are very dangerous, and can be fatal. Drooling, watery eyes, dilated pupils, trembling, difficulty breathing, and even collapse are all symptomatic of scorpion stings. You may or may not see swelling at the site of the sting.
What to Do
Always treat a scorpion sting as an emergency. If you know or suspect your dog was stung, get him to an emergency clinic immediately. We recommend calling ahead, so that the staff can be prepared for your arrival. Before transporting Fido, put an ice pack on the site to reduce swelling. Restrict his movements, as activity will only make the venom spread faster. If you have a cone, go ahead and put it on him, so he doesn’t lick the wound. If you have an antihistamine, such as Benadryl, that may help, but be sure to get your vet’s advice.
Precaution is, as they say, worth far more than a cure. Scorpions are nocturnal, but that doesn’t always mean the daytime is safe. A dog that disturbs a sleeping scorpion is definitely at risk of being stung. If you’re camping, check for scorpions before bedtime, and remember to shake your shoes in the morning. Be sure that Fido knows the five basic commands, which are Sit, Stay, Heel, Lay Down, and Come. If your dog is properly trained, you may able to keep him away from danger.
Please contact us, your local Scottsdale vet clinic, for all of your dog’s veterinary care needs.
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Scorpion Toxicity Article
Continuing Education Activity
Scorpions are a common arthropod found on every continent except Antarctica. Scorpions may use their long, flexible tails to sting potential predators. Often, individuals unknowingly come into contact with scorpions and are stung, causing painful sensations associated with envenomation. This activity describes the presentation, pathophysiology, and treatment of scorpion stings and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in improving care for affected patients.
- Describe the types of scorpion envenomation and associated toxicity of each species.
- Review the signs and symptoms of scorpion envenomation.
- Summarize the treatment of scorpion envenomation.
Scorpions are a common arthropod on every continent except Antarctica. If threatened, a scorpion may use its long, flexible tail to sting a potential predator. Frequently, people unknowingly come into contact with these species and experience the painful sensation of envenomation. While the vast majority of scorpion stings do not result in life-threatening situations, scorpion stings can produce life-threatening situations. When a victim of a scorpion sting presents to the emergency department, there are a few things to keep in mind to guide care for the patient safely.
While there are roughly 1750 species of scorpions in the world, only 25 are considered to be lethal to humans. In most cases, the sting of a scorpion causes pain but is relatively harmless to a healthy adult. Species found in Asia, Africa, and South America may need medical attention due to the potentially toxic effects of their venom. Rather than just causing a local skin reaction, these species are capable of producing systemic symptoms, including hemolysis, hemorrhage, and neuromuscular dysfunction. Scorpions may sting many times, but their venom becomes depleted with each sting.
The effect of the scorpion sting is highly dependent on the species. While species like Centruroides and Parabuthus cause neuromuscular issues, Buthus, Mesobuthus, and Androctonus exhibit life-threatening cardiovascular effects. These worrisome effects are mostly seen in the elderly and even more so in infants and young children. In the United States, Centruroides exilicauda is the most common culprit of envenomation, while Centruroides vittatus is the second most common. There are no reported deaths from scorpion envenomation in Arizona since 1968. Supportive care usually prevents mortality.
In Mexico and the United States, many scorpion stings occur each year; however, only a few cause systemic effects. When severe symptoms do occur, they are usually due to the Centruroides species. Gradings of the severity of envenomation were created for incidents involving the Centruroides or Parabuthus scorpions.
Grade 1 involves local pain and paresthesias at the sting site. The puncture wound may not be noticeable in this grade. The “tap test” may confirm a provider’s suspicion of a sting by exilicauda by distracting the patient and tapping on the area of the sting, causing increased pain. This reaction does not occur with other species. Care is limited to analgesia. Historical and epidemiologic clues may also help in confirming a scorpion sting.
Grade 2 involves local pain and paresthesias existing at the sting site as well as proximal to the sting site. Recommended care includes analgesia with optional anxiolytics if needed. More distant symptoms can radiate up to the same extremity or even to the contralateral limbs.
Grade 3 includes grade 2 classification factors with added cranial nerve (increased oral secretions, blurry vision, rapid tongue movement, nystagmus), or skeletal neuromuscular dysfunction (flailing of the extremities and tetanus-like arching of the back) and can also be accompanied by autonomic dysfunction. Grade 3 envenomations can sometimes affect airways. Patients with Grade 3 stings require analgesia and anxiolytics as well as antivenom. Centruroides do sometimes produce autonomic dysfunction, and most commonly, symptoms include salivation, vomiting, bronchoconstriction, diaphoresis, and tachycardia. Parabuthus stings can also produce autonomic dysfunction, but uniquely, it can lead to urinary retention.
Unlike grade 3 envenomations where the patient will experience either cranial nerve or skeletal muscle dysfunction, grade 4 envenomations include both. This can cause hyperthermia, up to 104 degrees F, rhabdomyolysis, pulmonary edema, and multiple organ failures. Again, antivenom is critical in this situation. Adults do become envenomed more often than children; however, children do exhibit more severe illness as a consequence more often than adults.
Although less than 10% of scorpion stings cause systemic symptoms, those that do can be serious. Neurotoxins are the mainstay of symptomatology in envenomations. The venom of some species can cause prolonged depolarization by causing incomplete inactivation of sodium channels resulting in a slow influx of sodium. This influx then leads to membrane hyperexcitability and unregulated axon firing by inhibiting the inactivation of an action potential. The neurotoxins also cause the excessive release of acetylcholine from parasympathetic ganglia as well as the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from sympathetic ganglia and the adrenal glands. In turn, envenomations can produce cholinergic as well as sympathetic stimulation. Typical cholinergic symptoms include diaphoresis, priapism, lacrimation, vomiting, diarrhea, and bradycardia. Typical sympathetic symptoms include hypertension, tachycardia, and restlessness.
History and Physical
Most scorpion stings cause a local inflammatory reaction and pain. When the venom affects the sodium channels, this may manifest as seizure-like activity in the patient and obscure the clinical picture, especially when the child or infant is unable to relay an accurate history. Intubation may be required in these patients, as motor hyperactivity of the pharyngeal muscles and uncontrolled diaphragmatic and intercostal neuromuscular activity may occur. These symptoms may progress quickly, causing impending airway collapse. In the select species causing cardiopulmonary effects, tachycardia, pulmonary edema, and more importantly, cardiogenic shock may be present. While uncommon, there are documented cases of local tissue necrosis days to weeks after the initial sting.
History and physical most commonly diagnose scorpion stings. Usually, the patient can visualize the scorpion, and the practitioner will observe an erythematous area on the skin with local inflammation. Numbness and weakness at the site may also occur. If concern for systemic organ involvement, basic laboratory studies are recommended, including a complete blood count, a comprehensive metabolic panel, PT/INR, PTT, and lipase. Laboratory studies are usually reserved for patients with severe (grade 3 to 4) envenomations. Scorpion stings are known to be an uncommon but real cause of pancreatitis.
Treatment / Management
Most stings only require supportive therapy, including ibuprofen, cleaning of the sting area, and tetanus prophylaxis. Patients should remain under observation for at least 4 hours, but the onset of life-threatening symptoms occurs much quicker in children, with an average of 14 minutes. In patients displaying severe symptoms such as hypersalivation, clonus, rapid eye movements, or restlessness, immediate intervention is critical. These patients may need endotracheal intubation due to the possibility of a rapid onset of severe pulmonary edema. As cardiogenic shock can complicate this, the administration of dobutamine has demonstrated to be helpful. Intravenous benzodiazepines may be an option if the patient displays muscle spasticity. Antivenom is reserved for patients showing skeletal muscle, or cranial nerve dysfunction who are stung by either Centruroides or Parabuthus It is available in the United States, which is intravenous scorpion-specific F(ab’)2 equine antivenom. It is intravenously dosed at three vials in 20 to 50 mL of normal saline and infused over 30 minutes. It can reduce the duration of clinical symptoms if given within 4 hours of the sting. The recommended dose is three vials, followed by an additional two if symptoms continue.
Complications are low and comprise mostly serum sickness (0.5%). Newer versions of antivenom are considered much safer than the previous antivenom, which was marketed in 1965 and taken off shelves in 2001 due to its high rates of anaphylaxis (3.4%). There are no reported cases of anaphylaxis in patients administered the newer formulation. Although effective, the more recent version can be quite expensive, with some hospitals charging upward of $40,000 per vial. IV fluids, epinephrine, and intubation equipment should be made available before the administration of the antivenom in case of anaphylactic shock. If a patient is observed for 4 hours and is determined to have a mild sting, is tolerating oral intake, and has adequate pain control, the patient may be safely discharged home with return precautions. The efficacy of the Anascorp was determined to reduce the duration of clinical signs and symptoms in patients with Grade III or IV envenomations. In one trial involving 15 children, the eight who received the antivenom had complete resolution of symptoms within 4 hours; versus only one of the seven who received a placebo. Although the antivenom can be quite expensive, the cost of the prolonged hospitalization does seem to provide advantages to providing patients with the antivenom in those that have a Grade III or IV envenomation.
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Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes
Scorpion stings are best managed through an interprofessional approach that includes first responders, ER providers, and a poison control center. Most patients only require supportive treatment with pain control. In rare cases, the patient may need longer observation in the ICU. When a grade 3 or 4 envenomation is suspected, the provider should always contact the closest poison control center for assistance and further recommendations. Although most scorpion stings are mild and not life-threatening, scorpion stings can cause significant harm to the patient, especially in very young or elderly patients. In these patients, securing the airway is critical if they are unresponsive to antivenom and other medical interventions, as mentioned above.
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Scorpion Toxicity/Androctonus Australis, Adult Female
Contributed by Wikimedia Commons (Public Domain)
Wrath – Scorpion Sting
Anger – the sting of a scorpion An instructive tale for children
A long time ago, in the depths of a dense forest, there was a magical town. He was hidden from prying eyes. Amazing miracles took place in him. His beauty was extraordinary. On one side, a fast river flowed around the city, which gave life-giving moisture. Washing with water from the river, residents always remained young. A crystal bridge towered over the river, passing through which any citizen of the city could sing like a real angel.The streets were made of patterned glass so that the reflections of sunlight reflected in them illuminated the dense forest. But the main miracle of the town was the good that came from the people. Residents did not know how to swear and did not know what quarrels, crying and resentment were. They always helped each other, smiled and rejoiced. They had everything in common. People always spoke kind words and immediately these words turned into beautiful butterflies.
But one day an old man named Wrath appeared in the city. Lost in the woods, he saw the reflections of light emanating from the streets of the town, and came across him.The kind inhabitants warmly welcomed and gave shelter to the wanderer. After a while, having settled down in a crystal house, Wrath coveted the beauty and wealth of this land. And the old man saw that there was no king in this city, and wanted to become a king and possess the wealth and power of the magic city. But no matter how much he tried to wash in the river, he did not get any younger. No matter how he walked on the crystal bridge, angelic singing did not work. And his words did not turn into butterflies. Then the old man got angry and with all the strength he screamed angrily.And evil came out. Anger’s words turned into scorpions and began to sting the good people. The bites of these insects made good people evil. So gradually the sting of scorpions eradicated the power of good in the magical town. The butterflies disappeared, and the angelic singing became inaudible. Now everyone wanted to be kings, quarreled and fought among themselves. The inhabitants of the evil town no longer noticed the old man Wrath, because they became like him.
Therefore, you should never be friends with angry and hot-tempered people, similar to Anger, so as not to learn their evil and not incur trouble.
Read online “Scorpion’s Sting” by William Kozlov – RuLit
There is hardly another articulated animal, about which so many fables have been written for a long time, as about a scorpion. His appearance can undoubtedly serve as the personification of cunning and malice, and it is not for nothing that ancient Greek mythology put him next to the evil god Typhon.According to some Greek philosophers, scorpions come from rotting crocodiles; Pliny thinks that they will be born from sea crayfish buried in the ground, at the exact time when the sun passes through the sign of Cancer; according to the teachings of Paracelsus, they are reborn from rotting scorpions, because these latter kill themselves … These and similar views and the fact that the scorpion was placed among the signs of the Zodiac prove the great interest that he always aroused in people …
A.Bram. “Animal Life”
SCORPIO: The nature of extremes and contradictions. The most powerful in the series of constellations of the Zodiac. Ruthless and passionate. You can love and hate her. There are no obstacles for Scorpios. They are analysts and along with this they have subtle intuition. They are energetic, almost always striving for success. They are sarcastic and have a deep, almost mystical understanding of life. They often achieve outstanding results. Scorpio is a presidential sign: many US presidents, including Roosevelt, were born under this sign.Born under this sign: Lomonosov, Voltaire, Paganini, Marie-Antoinette, Dostoevsky, Claude Monet, M. Curie, Rodin, Khlebnikov, Turgenev, Vivien Leigh, Picasso, R. Kennedy.
Stars and Fate
Glancing angrily at the radiotelephone, he opened the door of the Oka refrigerator, fished out a can of Bavaria beer from the lower compartment, took a triangular piece of hard Russian cheese resembling an ax blade.He drank alcoholic drinks and beer only with a snack. In general, he was not fond of this even in the current difficult time for him. He broke off the tongue with a loop with his fingernail, was about to bring the can, hissing like a homemade grenade, to his mouth, but he remembered that in American action films all the movie heroes did exactly that. He took out a narrow glass from an antique wooden sideboard, on which a dividing strip was engraved: a pig below, a donkey above. He brought a glass from Czechoslovakia in the eighties. At home he preferred to drink only from it.Even beer. By the way, I noticed that three hundred thirty grams of canned beer, and only three hundred and thirty grams in a rigid container, if you drink from this glass, is quite enough for one time. The second container is no longer overpowering. It turns out that the issue is not in the amount of amber liquid with white foam, but in how many times you pour into this little glass with a pig and a donkey.
There were still half a kilogram of sausages in the refrigerator, half a stick of hard-smoked sausage, a pressure cooker with soup made from canned salmon and potatoes, a can of condensed milk that he started – he drank instant coffee only with milk – a small piece of pinkish loin – that is, perhaps, all of his reserves.Yes, half-gutted chicken and a pack of dumplings are still in the freezer. Half round black and ribbed loaf in a wooden bread basket.
For the third day, Arthur Konstantinovich Knyazev is sitting in his one-room apartment on the Fontanka embankment. The windows overlook the Fontanka, you can see the Anichkov bridge with the Klodt horses, motor boats and small boats stuck to the berths. Nearby river trams dock to the stone bank. The view is beautiful, you can’t say anything, but today, on a bright sunny day of the hot summer of 1995, Arthur is not happy about anything.He waits for a phone call, but the device is stony silent. The call should to some extent change his usual life, but the only question is: in which direction? For better or worse? But it would seem that it cannot be worse than now. Sits aground: no job, no money, no joys in life. At thirty-three years of age, Jesus Christ – people like him, Knyazev, do not think about the “black day”, for the sake of which old people put the saved money in Sberbank on a deposit with a monthly payment of dividends. He doesn’t even have a book with a score.He believed that as long as he was healthy and safe, he was always able to make money, and he never was engaged in hoarding. What he earned was enough for a comfortable life, clothes, shoes. Drinking did not bother him, he could, of course, have a drink in the company at a birthday party or on a big holiday. When he began to seriously engage in what determined his life, fate, then drinking was done once and for all. And to admit, neither the process itself, nor the feast, nor empty conversations with friends, who, like himself, were stupid before our eyes after a good dose, did not attract Arthur.And a hangover, even after a little drunkenness, turned his soul inside out: he was engaged in self-criticism, he punished himself for having sat down at the table at all. The depression lasted at least two to three days. Was the game worth the candle? And despite the fact that he must be in good shape all the time, drinking is generally not only stupid, but also dangerous.
90,000 STEP is … What is STEP?
sting – zhalon … Russian word stress
tip – See … Dictionary of synonyms
STEP – STING, sting, cf.1. The organ of defense and attack in female bees, wasps, ants, hornets, bumblebees and other hymenoptera, in the form of pointed plates, from which a poisonous liquid is usually poured out during an injection. || A long, forked tongue at the end … … Ushakov’s Explanatory Dictionary
STING – the piercing part of the organ of attack and defense in females of some Hymenoptera. The sting of scorpions (arachnids) is a needle (with a channel) at the end of the abdomen, at the base of which there is a poisonous gland.Sometimes the sting is called the proboscis of a mosquito, and also … … Big Encyclopedic Dictionary
tip – STING, a, p. Face; mouth, cheeks. the sting to fill to eat. Drive with a sting to turn your head, look around; express dissatisfaction, be capricious, disdain than l … Dictionary of Russian Argo
The thorn is in the flesh, as Paul speaks of in 2 Corinthians 12: 7, based on Galatians 4:14 et seq. tried to interpret it as an eye disease (see Acts 23: 5; Galatians 6:11: in what big letters I wrote to you), but such an interpretation is unfounded.More likely … … Brockhaus Bible Encyclopedia
COMPLAINT – COMPLAINT, a, cf. The piercing part of the organ of defense and attack in bees, wasps, scorpions, as well as the common name for a forked long tongue in poisonous snakes. Bee wives. Serpentine wives. J. satire (trans.). | adj. pitiful, oh, oh. Ozhegov’s Explanatory Dictionary … Ozhegov’s Explanatory Dictionary
STING – STING, a stabbing organ connected to glands that secrete poison; serves as a tool for piercing the skin and for introducing poison.In the proper sense of the word Zh. Is found in scorpions and in hymenoptera. J. scorpion is placed on the back … Great Medical Encyclopedia
Sting – This term has other meanings, see Sting (disambiguation). Sting is the common name for a pointed organ or part of the body of various animals and plants used to inject a poisonous or burning substance under the victim’s skin … … Wikipedia
STING – Pull out the sting to someone.Zharg. pier Punish, beat smb. Elistratov 1994, 132. Soak (pour) the sting. Spread. Shuttle. Drink alcohol. Baldaev 1, 146; TSUZH, 64; Maximov, 128. Serpentine sting. Sib. Nettle. FSS, 70. Sting sting. Zharg. pier Shuttle. Drink … … Big Dictionary of Russian Sayings
90,000 Scorpion bite symptoms, first aid, consequences and treatment.
Scorpio – an exotic arachnid, similar to a river crayfish, belonging to the type of arthropod insects, which for many centuries has made all living things fearful.His bite is of great danger to a person, up to partial paralysis and death.
Description of the scorpion The scorpion has impressive dimensions (sometimes up to 18 cm), looks like a crayfish: a body divided into segments, 2 claws, 6 limbs. You can recognize a dangerous creature by a thickened upward curved tail with a sharp sting. The insect spends most of its life, the duration of which is about 5 years, in places inaccessible to the human eye (small gorges, spaces under stones, holes in a sand hole 15-25 cm deep).Shows aggressiveness mainly at night. A person can be attacked only because of fear or in the process of defense. The venom of some representatives of the species is very dangerous, therefore, a timely recognized scorpion bite can save human life. It is believed that individuals with large claws are less poisonous.
Scorpion bite : Symptoms with a scorpion bite, which resembles a rather painful injection, the following symptoms are observed: acute, burning pain, proportional in its power to the degree of poisonousness of the scorpion. The painful sensation resembles a severe burn and can last for several hours, sometimes increasing, then subsiding. Redness at the site of the lesion with a dark puncture point in the middle. The onset of edema rapidly spreading with a potent poison, severe itching, a feeling of numbness at the site of the lesion, the formation of bubbles filled with clear liquid, attacks of nausea, periodic vomiting, pain in the abdomen, dizziness, headache, sometimes a sore throat, inflammation of the lymph nodes, active salivation, confirming intoxication of the body, swelling of the tongue, discharge from the eyes of a purulent consistency – with severe lesions, tachycardia and loss of consciousness in especially difficult cases, unstable body temperature, general anxiety – the result of overexcitation of the nervous system.
Scorpion Bite: First Aid and Treatment:
It is very important to react in a timely manner to the bite of a malicious insect, because passivity in such cases can cause serious consequences.
What to do with a scorpion bite?
In the first minutes, actions should be taken to prevent and slow down the penetration of poison into the body.Try to squeeze out the poison or make a small incision at the site of the bite and suck out the poisonous substance. The liquid must be spit out periodically. After completing the procedure, rinse your mouth thoroughly with water. It is very important that there is no wound in the mouth. The method is effective in the first 10 minutes from the moment of injury. Treat the lesion with an alcohol solution and apply an antiseptic bandage. This will prevent germs from getting inside, which the scorpion could carry on its sting. Apply cold or a tight bandage to relieve swelling and reduce pain.This slows down the spread of the toxic substance throughout the body. Place the victim horizontally, ensuring complete immobility of the bitten limb. Inject adrenaline or novocaine into the bite site, which temporarily blocks the absorption of the poison.