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Nausea and Vomiting – Common Causes and How To Treat It

Nausea is an uneasiness of the stomach that often comes before vomiting. Vomiting is the forcible voluntary or involuntary emptying (“throwing up”) of stomach contents through the mouth.

What Causes Nausea or Vomiting?

Nausea and vomiting are not diseases, but they are symptoms of many conditions such as:

The causes of vomiting differ according to age. For children, it is common for vomiting to occur from a viral infection, food poisoning, milk allergy, motion sickness, overeating or feeding, coughing, or blocked intestines and illnesses in which the child has a high fever.

The timing of the nausea or vomiting can indicate the cause. When appearing shortly after a meal, nausea or vomiting may be caused by food poisoning, gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), an ulcer, or bulimia. Nausea or vomiting one to eight hours after a meal may also indicate food poisoning. However, certain food- borne bacteria, such as salmonella, can take longer to produce symptoms.

Is Vomiting Harmful?

Usually, vomiting is harmless, but it can be a sign of a more serious illness. Some examples of serious conditions that may result in nausea or vomiting include concussions, meningitis (infection of the membrane linings of the brain), intestinal blockage, appendicitis, and brain tumors.

Another concern is dehydration. Adults have a lower risk of becoming dehydrated, because they can usually detect the symptoms of dehydration (such as increased thirst and dry lips or mouth). But young children have a greater risk of becoming dehydrated, especially if they also have diarrhea, because they often are unable to communicate symptoms of dehydration. Adults caring for sick children need to be aware of these visible signs of dehydration: dry lips and mouth, sunken eyes, and rapid breathing or pulse. In infants, also watch for decreased urination and a sunken fontanelle (soft spot on top of the baby’s head).

Recurrent vomiting in pregnancy can lead to a serious condition called hyperemesis gravidarum in which the mother may develop fluid and mineral imbalances that can endanger their life or that of their unborn child.

Rarely, excessive vomiting can tear the lining of the esophagus, also known as a Mallory-Weiss tear. If the esophagus is ruptured, this is called Boerhaave’s syndrome, and is a medical emergency.

When to Call the Doctor About Nausea and Vomiting

Call a doctor about nausea and vomiting:

  • If the nausea lasts for more than a few days or if there is a possibility of being pregnant
  • If home treatment is not working, dehydration is present, or a known injury has occurred (such as head injury or infection) that may be causing the vomiting
  • Adults should consult a doctor if vomiting occurs for more than one day, diarrhea and vomiting last more than 24 hours, or there are signs of dehydration.
  • Take an infant or child under six years to the doctor if vomiting lasts more than a few hours, diarrhea is present, signs of dehydration occur, there is a fever, or if the child hasn’t urinated for 4-6 hours.
  • Take a child over age six years to the doctor if vomiting lasts one day, diarrhea combined with vomiting lasts for more than 24 hours, there are any signs of dehydration, there is a fever higher than 101 degrees, or the child hasn’t urinated for six hours.

You should seek immediate medical care if any of the following situations occur with vomiting:

  • There is blood in the vomit (bright red or “coffee grounds” in appearance)
  • Severe headache or stiff neck
  • Lethargy, confusion, or a decreased alertness
  • Severe abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Rapid breathing or pulse

How Is Vomiting Treated?

Treatment for vomiting (regardless of age or cause) includes:

  • Drinking gradually larger amounts of clear liquids
  • Avoiding solid food until the vomiting episode has passed
  • If vomiting and diarrhea last more than 24 hours, an oral rehydrating solution such as Pedialyte should be used to prevent and treat dehydration.
  • Pregnant women experiencing morning sickness can eat some crackers before getting out of bed or eat a high protein snack before going to bed (lean meat or cheese).
  • Vomiting associated with cancer treatments can often be treated with another type of drug therapy. There are also prescription and nonprescription drugs that can be used to control vomiting associated with pregnancy, motion sickness, and some forms of dizziness. However, consult with a doctor before using any of these treatments.

How Can I Prevent Nausea?

There are several ways to try and prevent nausea from developing:

  • Eat small meals throughout the day instead of three large meals.
  • Eat slowly.
  • Avoid hard-to-digest foods.
  • Consume foods that are cold or room temperature if you are nauseated by the smell of hot or warm foods.
  • Rest after eating with your head elevated about 12 inches above your feet.
  • Drink liquids between meals rather than during meals.
  • Try to eat when you feel less nauseated.

How Do I Prevent Vomiting Once I Feel Nauseated?

When you begin to feel nauseated, you may be able to prevent vomiting by:

  • Drinking small amounts of clear, sweetened liquids such as soda or fruit juices (except orange and grapefruit juices, because these are too acidic)
  • Resting either in a sitting position or in a propped lying position; activity may worsen nausea and may lead to vomiting.

To prevent nausea and vomiting in children:

  • To treat motion sickness in a car, seat your child so they face the front windshield (watching fast movement out the side windows can make the nausea worse). Also, reading or playing video games in the car could cause motion sickness.
  • Don’t let kids eat and play at the same time.

Gastroparesis Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

What Is Gastroparesis?

Gastroparesis is a condition in which food stays in your stomach for longer than it should. You might hear your doctor call it delayed gastric emptying.

Gastroparesis Symptoms

You may have:

Gastroparesis Causes and Risk Factors

For most people, doctors can’t determine what brought on gastroparesis. It tends to affect women more than men.

Diabetes is the most common known cause of gastroparesis. It can damage nerves — including the vagus nerve, which regulates your digestive system — and certain cells in your stomach.

Other causes of gastroparesis include:

Gastroparesis Complications

Problems might happen:

  • When you can’t keep fluids down, and you can become dehydrated
  • If your body can’t get the nutrients it needs, you may become malnourished.
  • If food stays in your stomach too long and ferments, which can lead to the growth of bacteria
  • When food hardens into a solid lump called a bezoar. This can block food from passing into your small intestine.
  • If you have diabetes. Your blood sugar levels may rise when food finally leaves your stomach and enters your small intestine. Gastroparesis makes it harder to control your blood sugar.

Gastroparesis Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. They’ll also do a physical exam. They may order tests including:

  • Blood tests. These can spot dehydration, malnutrition, infection, or blood sugar problems.
  • Barium X-ray. You’ll drink a liquid (barium), which coats your esophagus, stomach, and small intestine and shows up on an X-ray. This is also known as an upper GI (gastrointestinal) series or a barium swallow.
  • Radioisotope gastric-emptying scan (gastric scintigraphy). Your doctor will give you food that contains a very small amount of something radioactive. Then, you lie under a scanning machine. If more than 10% of food is still in your stomach 4 hours after eating, you have gastroparesis.
  • Gastric emptying breath tests (13C-GEBTs). This is a non-radioactive test that measures how fast your stomach empties after you eat a meal that has a chemical element called the 13C isotope added to it.
  • Gastric manometry. Your doctor passes a thin tube through your mouth and into your stomach to check electrical and muscular activity, and to figure out how fast you’re digesting.
  • Electrogastrography. This measures electrical activity in your stomach using electrodes on your skin.
  • The smart pill. You swallow a tiny electronic device that sends information about how fast it’s traveling as it moves through your digestive system.
  • Ultrasound. This imaging test uses sound waves to create pictures of your organs. Your doctor may use it to rule out other diseases.
  • Upper endoscopy. Your doctor passes a thin tube called an endoscope down your esophagus to look at the lining of your stomach.

Gastroparesis Treatment

Depending on the cause, gastroparesis can be chronic, which means it lasts a long time. You can take steps to manage and control it.

Changes to diet for gastroparesis

Changing your eating habits is one of the best ways to control gastroparesis symptoms. You might try eating six small meals each day rather than three larger ones. This way, you have less food in your stomach and don’t feel as full.

Have more liquids and low-residue foods, such as applesauce instead of whole apples. Drink plenty of water and fluids like low-fat broths, soups, juices, and sports drinks. Avoid high-fat foods, which can slow digestion, and high-fiber foods, which are harder to digest.

Make sure you’re getting enough of the right nutrition. Your doctor might send you to a dietitian who can help you find foods you like that are easy to digest.

Don’t lie down for 2 hours after you eat. Gravity can help your digestion and keep food or acid from traveling into your throat. Gentle exercise like walking can help you feel better.

Medications for gastroparesis

Your doctor might give you medicines including:

  • Metoclopramide (Reglan): You take this drug before eating. It causes your stomach muscles to contract and move food along. It also helps with upset stomach and vomiting. Side effects include diarrhea, drowsiness, anxiety, and, rarely, a serious neurological disorder.
  • Erythromycin: This antibiotic also causes stomach contractions and helps move food out. Side effects include diarrhea and the growth of resistant bacteria if you take it for a long time.
  • Antiemetics: These drugs help control nausea.

Other treatments for gastroparesis

If you have diabetes, controlling your blood sugar levels will keep you from having serious problems.

Your doctor might need to give you a feeding tube or jejunostomy tube. They put it in through your belly and into your small intestine. To feed yourself, you’ll put nutrients into the tube, and they’ll go directly into your small intestine. This way, they skip your stomach and get into your bloodstream faster.

Your doctor can also inject botulinum toxin (such as Botox) into your pylorus, the valve from your stomach to your small intestine. This relaxes the valve, keeping it open for longer so your stomach can empty.

Electrical stimulation uses electrodes attached to your stomach wall to trigger stomach contractions.

In a procedure called per-oral pyloromyotomy (POP), your doctor uses an endoscope to cut your pylorus valve so it’s easier for your stomach to empty.

Although surgery can sometimes cause gastroparesis, patients who have obesity and diabetes might have gastric bypass surgery. Your doctor creates a small pouch from the top part of your stomach and attaches it to the lower end of your small intestine. This limits how much food you can eat.

If your case is severe, you might also need intravenous nutrition or parenteral nutrition, in which nutrients go straight into your bloodstream through a catheter in a vein in your chest. Doctors tend to use this for only a short time.

What Causes Vomiting? 7 Reasons Why and How to Ease It

Whether you call it vomit, throw up, barf, yak, puke, hurl, or heave, one thing’s for sure: there’s nothing fun about vomiting. And as if the sensation of vomiting isn’t bad enough, it can be difficult to figure out why your body is reacting this way.

Vomiting is a symptom that’s related to a whole host of different diseases, disorders, and illnesses. Online, you will find dozens and dozens of hypothetical explanations for why this bodily mechanism was triggered.

In this article, we’ll take an in-depth look at some of the most common causes of vomiting.

Name or Reason Description Treatment
Gastroenteritis Also known as “stomach flu” although it’s not actually a flu virus. Technically caused by noroviruses which are spread by eating undercooked/raw fruits, vegetables and shellfish, or contact with an infected person. Typically clears on its own after 3-5 days. Drink plenty of water to fight dehydration.
Food Poisoning A bacterial infection transmitted through spoiled or rotten food. Common types of bacteria include E. coli, Listeria, and Salmonella. Typically resolves between 1-3 days. Get plenty of rest and stay hydrated.
Motion Sickness A conflict within the balance-system senses. A common occurrence is when out to sea, your inner ear detects movement but your eyes don’t see the waves. There are many over-the-counter medications available to reduce symptoms. Carbonated beverages and fresh air might also provide relief.
Ear Infection A bacterial infection that causes swollen Eustachian tubes in your ear. This can lead to an imbalance of your system-senses causing nausea and vomiting. Prescribed antibiotics.
Pregnancy Nausea and vomiting are common symptom of pregnancy, likely because of the changes the body undergoes to support a child. Staying hydrated helps reduce nausea while pregnant.
Acid Reflux Improper functioning of the lower esophageal sphincter, allowing stomach acid travels to travel upwards to the esophagus. Over-the-counter medication like antacids, undergoing surgeries, and making lifestyle changes.
Stress Intense emotions can sometimes cause nausea and vomiting. Social anxiety, performance anxiety, stressors, fear, over-excitement may trigger nausea. Not a serious problem, but practicing deep breathing exercises and calming techniques may help.

When to Seek Medical Help for Nausea and Vomiting

People vomit for all sorts of reasons, but it’s the severity of the situation that should determine whether or not to seek medical help. Something like food poison is typically not anything to worry about – just let it run its course. This goes the same for bouts of motion sickness and stress vomiting.

However, there are several instances in which attending an urgent care or emergency room is undeniably necessary. So, if you’re experiencing nausea and vomiting, why would you choose an urgent care center over an emergency room visit or vice versa?

Typically, if you’re experiencing any symptoms that may be considered “life-threatening,” you should immediately proceed to the ER. Anything short of life-threatening can generally be handled at an urgent care. Examples of symptoms that indicate an emergency situation are:

  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Head trauma
  • Stroke
  • Severe bleeding
  • Loss of vision
  • Vomiting blood

Although vomiting and nausea is never comfortable, there’s a sizeable difference between a life-threatening symptom and the overall discomfort of retching. Unless your vomit shows traces of blood, you can likely seek medical care at your local urgent care rather than the ER.

What Happens When We Vomit?

Humans are actually one of the few mammals that vomit in nature. Depending on the condition or cause, the brain sends a signal to the diaphragm and the stomach which propels the food up the esophagus and out the mouth.

As defined by VIVO Pathophysiology, vomiting is:

“the forceful expulsion of contents of the stomach and, often, the proximal small intestine.

Most researchers agree that vomiting is experienced in a sequence of three events:

Nausea

The uncomfortable sensation that makes a person feel as if they will vomit. Scientists are not agreed upon the exact way the sensation is processed by the brain, but almost all people have experience nausea for one reason or another. Note: nausea does not always lead to vomiting.

Retching

When the stomach contracts repeatedly in what many people describe as “dry heaving.” Physiologically, it’s spasmodic respiratory movements with a closed glottis. Unfamiliar with the glottis? It’s the space between vocal cords located in the larynx.

Vomiting

First, a deep breath is taken, the glottis closes, and the larynx opens the upper esophageal sphincter. Second, the diaphragm contracts to create negative pressure, opening the esophagus. Then, abdominal muscles are contracted and pressure within the gastric system becomes intensified. This clears the passage for the stomach’s contents to be launched up through the opened esophagus and out the mouth.

Can You Stop Yourself from Vomiting?

It really depends on the situation. Sometimes, vomiting is a necessary bodily function that ultimately protects you in the long run. For example, consuming enough alcohol to achieve a toxic level in your bloodstream will result in vomiting. In this circumstance, throwing up is your body’s attempt to return to a non-toxic level.

Another example is when the body vomits to rid itself of a bacterial infection like E. coli.

That said, if you’re experiencing nausea due to something like motion sickness or stress, it is possible to prevent the vomiting stage.

Try some of these handy tips:

  • Sit down or lie propped up
  • Avoid physical activity
  • Drink something sugary like ginger ale or Gatorade
  • Avoid alcohol, caffeine, and acidic drinks like orange juice
  • Suck ice chips or have a cold drink
  • Avoid oily and spicy foods
  • Practice deep breathing exercises

Gastroenteritis

Fun fact: the stomach flu doesn’t actually exist. When people talk about the stomach flu or a stomach bug, they are actually talking about a virus like the norovirus. With over 19M cases a year, the norovirus is incredibly common and very uncomfortable. Oftentimes, a stomach bug leads to nausea and vomiting.

It’s a virus transmitted by touching your nose, mouth, or eyes after coming into contact with someone who carries the infection. It can also be caused by eating food contaminated with the virus.

Typically, the norovirus causes 1-3 days of discomfort until the body destroys it. It’s a common cause of vomiting, but there isn’t anything you can do other than letting the virus run its course. Make sure to stay hydrated, follow the B.R.A.T. diet, and avoid caffeine and alcohol.

If life-threatening symptoms are experienced, make sure to visit the ER as soon as possible.

Food Poisoning

Everyone has been there before. Maybe you ate some food left out overnight, or you fearlessly downed questionable sushi. Either way, food poisoning is another common cause of vomiting.

Food poisoning is a general term for one of many non-specific illnesses transmitted through food. Typically, when talking about food poisoning, we’re talking about a bacterium like E. coli, listeria, or salmonella.

The body can usually clear itself of the bacteria within 48 hours. Vomiting is usually the path to ridding itself of the bacteria, and oftentimes throwing up is paired with nausea. In some cases, you may need antibiotics which can be acquired after a visit to urgent care.

Motion Sickness

For some, reading in the car or being in choppy water can trigger motion sickness. It’s a sensation that’s triggered when there’s a difference between motion sensed by your inner ear and the motion you see with your eyes.

This discrepancy between how your sensory system perceives the world around can lead to nausea, which can then trigger vomiting.

Pregnancy

Although we all know morning sickness and nausea during pregnancy is common, researchers are not entirely sure what causes it. The most common theory is the number of physical changes happening in the body. Between hormonal changes to stress, there are any number of causes.

Many call it “morning sickness,” but the truth is, nausea can strike at any time during pregnancy. For some, the nausea begins as early as 4 weeks of pregnancy. It’s been stated that approximately half of women who experience nausea during pregnancy feel relief around 14 weeks.

Unfortunately, nausea and vomiting are considered normal parts of pregnancy. Other than lying down and staying hydrated, you just need to let the process run its course.

Acid Reflux

Acid reflux is a condition where the body’s digestive system functions improperly. The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) allows stomach acid and undigested food to travel up your esophagus instead of closing shut. The sour taste from stomach acid can trigger nausea and even vomiting.

Oftentimes, correcting acid reflux requires lifestyle changes. Fried foods, citrus, spicy foods, caffeine, sodas, and alcohol can sometimes weaken the LES. Other lifestyle changes that can decrease acid reflux episodes include quitting smoking, elevating your head when sleeping, and not lying down after eating. Antacids can also provide immediate acid reflux relief.

Stress

Have you ever been next in line at some sort of public speaking engagement and felt queasy? Or maybe had butterflies in your stomach right before confessing your feelings to a crush? Real-world events can cause major anxiety, and that may trigger a physical reaction.

Besides social or performance anxiety, fear can cause the same reaction. And on the other end of the spectrum, extreme cases of excitement! Sometimes intense emotions can cause instant nausea and possibly vomiting. All you can do to remedy stress nausea is practice deep breathing exercises and drink something cold and bubbly.

Unfortunately, stress is just a part of life everyone must deal with!

Wrapping Up: Reasons to Vomit

There are so many different reasons people vomit. Typically, some sort of bodily issue leads to nausea, and nausea can lead to vomit. Sometimes vomiting is the body fighting infection, and sometimes vomiting is the result of psychological stress.

Throwing up feels terrible, and it can make you think a situation is worse that it actually is. Even the sensation of nausea before vomiting feels awful, but nausea does not always mean you will, in fact, vomit.

When in doubt, if you’re feeling nauseous or have recently vomited, try following the BRAT diet:

  • B – Bananas
  • R – Rice
  • A – Apples
  • T – Toast

And more than anything else, stay hydrated and get plenty of rest! If your vomiting and nausea last more than 24-hours, be sure to check-in at your nearest GoHealth Urgent Care center using the widget below!

See our prices on co-pays and same-day visits, with and without insurance.

GoHealth Urgent Care partners with these regional healthcare providers:

Nausea and vomiting in adults

Nausea (feeling sick) and vomiting (being sick) in adults isn’t usually a sign of anything serious. In most cases, you won’t need any specific treatment and can take care of yourself at home until you feel better.

About vomiting

One of the most common causes of vomiting in adults is a gut infection (gastroenteritis), which usually only lasts one or two days.

Vomiting can occasionally be a sign of a more serious problem and may require emergency help.

See section below on more of the most common causes of nausea and vomiting in adults.

When to get medical advice

Try to avoid going to your GP because if your vomiting is caused by an infection it can spread to others very easily.

If you’re feeling very unwell or are worried about your vomiting, call your GP or GP out of hours service.

You should also get medical advice if:

  • you’ve been vomiting repeatedly for more than 48 hours and it’s not improving
  • you’re unable to keep down any fluids
  • you have signs of severe dehydration – such as dizziness and passing little or no urine
  • your vomit is green or greenish yellow (this could mean you’re bringing up bile, which is usually because your stomach is empty with nothing else left to vomit, however, sometimes it can suggest that you may have a blockage in your bowel, and need to get checked to make sure that you do not have a blockage)
  • you’ve lost a lot of weight since you became ill
  • you experience episodes of vomiting regularly

When to get emergency help

Call 999 for an ambulance, or go to your nearest emergency department if you also have:

You should also get emergency help if you think you’ve swallowed something poisonous.

Looking after yourself at home

The most important thing you can do is to keep taking small sips of water so you don’t become dehydrated.

A sweet drink such as fruit juice can be useful for replacing lost sugar, although you should avoid sweet drinks if they make you feel sick. Salty snacks, such as crisps, can help replace lost salt.

You may also find ginger helps to relieve your nausea and vomiting.

This is available as supplements, or can be found in ginger biscuits and ginger tea. Check with your pharmacist or GP before using ginger supplements.

Common causes of vomiting in adults

The most common causes of nausea and vomiting in adults include:

  • gastroenteritis – this is most likely to be the cause if you also have diarrhoea; read about treating gastroenteritis
  • pregnancy – pregnant women often have nausea and vomiting during the early stages of pregnancy; read about morning sickness, including things you can do to help reduce your symptoms
  • migraines – intense, throbbing headaches that last for a few hours to days at a time, read about treating migraines
  • labyrinthitis – which also causes dizziness and a feeling of spinning (vertigo)
  • motion sickness – nausea and vomiting associated with travelling

Vomiting in adults can also be caused by a number of other things, including:

More useful links

The information on this page has been adapted from original content from the NHS website.

For further information see terms and conditions.

11. Nausea, Vomiting and Appetite Loss | CATIE

11. Nausea, Vomiting and Appetite Loss

Figuring out the cause

Nausea, or feeling sick to your stomach, is something everyone feels sometimes. It can also lead to vomiting, or throwing up. Sometimes it passes after a few hours or within a day. When nausea causes repeated vomiting over time, it can result in serious malnutrition, dehydration and imbalances in some of the normal chemical compounds, called electrolytes, in the blood.

Appetite loss, or not feeling the urge to eat, can accompany nausea, but it can also occur on its own. It may be harder to notice, but it can be even more serious when it leads you to not consume enough nutrients to maintain your health.

Keeping notes that detail your problems can help your doctor know how to successfully address them. Keep track of:

  • How often you feel nauseated each day, how long the nausea lasts, and whether you vomit on any of these occasions. If the feeling persists through much of the day, note this. Also keep track of how many days of the week the nausea occurs.
  • Any pattern you notice about when nausea occurs. Does it occur when you first wake up, after you take your medications, when you smell food, when you begin eating, after meals, or in response to anything else you can identify?
  • Any ways that nausea changes how or when you take your HIV medications. Do you end up skipping doses of your antiretroviral drugs or other medications because you feel too nauseated to take them? Do you have difficulties keeping down your medications because of vomiting? If so, how often does this occur?
  • Everything you eat and drink over the course of a few days. This can help you and your doctor assess whether your total intake of calories and nutrients is sufficient for optimal health.

While medications can cause nausea, vomiting or appetite loss, there are other things that can also cause these symptoms. Your doctor should run blood tests and carry out an overall medical workup to see if liver problems, infections, hormone deficiencies or other medical conditions are contributing to your nausea or appetite loss. There are many possible causes for these symptoms; often, more than one factor will be contributing to them.

Not all doctors approach the problems of nausea, vomiting and appetite loss aggressively. If you feel your symptoms are not being effectively managed, tell your doctor they are seriously affecting your life and your ability to eat a healthy diet. Emphasize that the search for a cause or causes of your symptoms must continue.

Infections

Appetite loss and nausea can be caused by infections. Almost any infection can result in decreased appetite, along with fever, fatigue and generally feeling lousy. Nausea can be caused by certain infections, including many common bacterial and viral ones. The organisms that cause food poisoning will often cause sudden and sometimes severe nausea, so food poisoning should always be considered.

Some infections and cancers that can also cause nausea in people with HIV include H pylori gastritis, secondary syphilis, cryptococcal meningitis, cryptosporidiosis and other parasitic infections, viral hepatitis, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), severe toxoplasmosis and lymphoma. Some of these are uncommon in people whose HIV is well treated, but it is always important to consider the possibility that an infection is contributing to nausea and appetite loss, and take all necessary steps to diagnose and properly treat it.

Antiretroviral drugs, other medications and supplements

Nausea is a common side effect of antiretroviral drugs, pain medications, cancer chemotherapies, radiation and many other therapies. Virtually all the currently available antiretroviral drugs can cause nausea, though some (for example, protease inhibitors) are more likely to cause this problem than others. It is also one of the symptoms of the rare abacavir hypersensitivity reaction. See the section in Less Common Side Effects for more information.

Drugs used to treat many infections can cause nausea. One nausea-causing drug that people with low CD4 counts can be taking is the antibiotic Bactrim/Septra, used to prevent Pneumocystis pneumonia and some other germs. Most people tolerate this drug well, but some people develop significant nausea and may need to switch to a different preventative drug.

Pain medications cause nausea in a large percentage of people. If these drugs are possibly contributing to your nausea or appetite loss, discuss possible alternatives with your doctor. Cancer chemotherapies and radiation can also cause very severe nausea and it is very important to address this in order to continue to treat the cancer.

Some people experience nausea from certain supplements, such as fish oil. This can be more common if the supplement is taken on an empty stomach. Pharmacists advise people to watch for side effects when they start a supplement and not to begin taking a new supplement when they are changing any other medication.

Liver problems, pancreatitis, testosterone deficiency, depression

Testing to assess the possibility of liver problems is important in determining the cause of nausea and appetite loss. If tests show the possibility of liver damage, therapies to support the liver and reverse damage or prevent its worsening are important to counter nausea and appetite loss.

People with HIV are at an increased risk of developing pancreatitis, and this risk may be higher when people take certain medications or drink a lot of alcohol. If severe abdominal pain starts suddenly and accompanies nausea and vomiting that lasts several hours, especially after eating or an alcohol drinking binge, pancreatitis is a possibility. These cases need immediate medical care. For more information on this serious condition see the section Less Common Side Effects.

Testosterone deficiency is common in both men and women with HIV and can lead to decreased appetite. It is important to have your testosterone level tested for many reasons. If testing shows your levels to be low, testosterone replacement may improve your appetite. For a full discussion, see the section on hormone changes in the Emotional Wellness section.

Depression occurs in some people with HIV and, when present, frequently causes appetite loss. If depression is a problem for you, it is very important to get the treatment you need. For a full discussion, see the section on Emotional Wellness.

Changing your medications or your medication schedule

If the nausea or appetite loss you are experiencing appeared just after you began taking a new medication, your drug is a possible cause of your symptoms. If the problem doesn’t improve over the next few weeks, talk to your doctor about it. In many cases, these side effects diminish or disappear after a short time on the medication, so it may be worthwhile to stick it out rather than immediately stopping or switching drugs. Remedies that can help with short-term nausea or appetite loss, including anti-nausea drugs, are listed later in this section.

Another factor to consider is the timing of your medication. Consult your doctor or pharmacist to determine whether taking your drug at a different time of day could help. Some drugs cause less nausea when taken with a full meal; others should be taken on an empty stomach.

Changing your eating habits

To cope with ongoing nausea or appetite loss, try changing your eating habits. Eat on a schedule and substitute smaller meals and frequent small snacks for three big meals. Allowing your stomach to remain empty for too long tends to increase nausea. This approach will also help prevent low blood sugar, which can worsen nausea. Even if you don’t feel hunger pangs by the next scheduled meal or snack, do the best you can to eat at that time. Anything that perks up your appetite and doesn’t make you feel nauseated should be tried. For example:

  • Try different seasonings or sauces to find one that improves the taste of food without creating nausea.
  • Ginger can be very useful for helping to control nausea. Powered ginger in capsules, ginger ale (made from real ginger), ginger tea or candied ginger can all be helpful.
  • Lemon can suppress nausea, so before a meal slice a fresh lemon and sniff it for a minute or two. Or drink water with lemon in it before eating.
  • If you have more appetite or less nausea at certain times of day, try to eat then, and put the focus on nourishing foods so that every bite counts.
  • Smells can sometimes trigger nausea and cold foods generally have less smell, so try making a meal out of cold foods.
  • Sip liquids through a straw in order to limit their smells.
  • If cooking smells trigger nausea, try to stay away from the kitchen when food is been cooked; open windows and turn on fans to blow cooking odours away.
  • Keep tasty snacks around so that any moment of appetite can be used to your advantage.
  • Use dry and/or salty foods like crackers, bread or toast, to calm the stomach.
  • Protein foods can improve nausea and sweet foods can sometimes worsen it, so avoid sweet foods at breakfast. Instead, start your day with a small amount of protein such as a hard-boiled egg or leftover chicken.
  • Sip cool beverages such as juice, or carbonated beverages such as fruit juice spritzers. Some people find carbonation can worsen nausea and can prefer flat or non-carbonated drinks; try both to see what works for you.
  • Chew food thoroughly so the stomach can handle it more easily.
  • Avoid spicy foods, fried foods, high-fat meats, sauces or gravies, sour cream, caffeine-containing beverages and alcohol.
  • Eat bland foods like broth, miso soup, mashed potatoes, rice, oatmeal, toast, naan or plain yogurt.
  • Eat sitting up and try to remain in an upright position for at least two hours after eating. This can help reduce the tendency to vomit.

If you experience recurrent vomiting, it is very important to rebalance your electrolytes. See the suggestions in the section Diarrhea, Gas and Bloating.

Countering nutrient deficiencies

Ongoing nausea or appetite loss can lead to a vicious cycle where reduced food intake results in inadequate levels of nutrients. That lack of nutrients creates malnutrition-induced appetite loss, which results in continuing reduced nutrient intake. When this cycle occurs, it is necessary to restore your body’s nutrient levels to normal. The solution usually involves a combination of appetite boosters, high-nutrient foods and supplementation.

A multivitamin mineral supplement can help make up for not getting enough micronutrients. If nausea makes taking pills difficult, liquid multivitamins are an option. The micronutrient deficiency most known for causing appetite loss is zinc. Although zinc is contained in most multivitamins, you can restore levels more quickly by adding it as a separate supplement (75 mg daily, taken with any meal). People often add a copper supplement (5 mg daily, taken at a different meal) to reduce the risk of heart problems. However, too high levels of copper can lead to liver damage, so talk to your doctor before starting a copper supplement.

Drinking a liquid meal may seem a lot easier than eating one. Try a home-made blended soup or a nutrient-rich, high-calorie smoothie. Experiment by blending together the following ingredients:

  • Regular milk or rice or coconut milk plus non-acidic fresh fruits like banana, apple, peaches or blueberries
  • Coconut oil or nut butter, if you need more calories
  • Vanilla or other natural flavorings for variety
  • Frozen fruit (instead of fresh) or ice, if you like an icy smoothie
  • High-quality protein powder, if you need more protein

Among the best of the available protein powders are the whey protein products. Just don’t overdo protein powders. Remember that too much protein can actually strain the kidneys and cause diarrhea.

If you don’t want to create your own supplement, look for supplemental drinks that are low in sugar, use predominantly medium chain triglycerides (MCTs), are moderately high in good-quality protein and high in calories overall.

Anti-nausea and appetite-stimulating drugs

When all of the above suggestions fail to resolve your problems with nausea or appetite loss, it is very important to discuss with your doctor or pharmacist the use of medications to counter them.

The most commonly used drug in Canada for nausea, even in hospital emergency rooms, is dimenhydrinate (Gravol and its generic equivalents). You may find you can get effective relief from mild to moderate nausea with a children’s dose of Gravol rather than the adult dose. The children’s dose also helps to avoid drowsiness. If you are taking an adult dose of Gravol and not getting relief from nausea, you should see your doctor or pharmacist as soon as possible.

There are a large number of prescription medications used in the treatment of severe nausea and appetite loss. If one does not work, another one might; or a combination of medications may do the trick. The best results are sometimes seen using drugs that act in different ways. For example, some drugs work by emptying your stomach more quickly, while others block the signals to and from the brain that otherwise result in nausea.

Talk to your doctor or pharmacist before switching drugs. Drugs can interact with one another to cause side effects or other problems. Always ask your pharmacist to check for drug interactions with your current antiretrovirals and other medications before trying any of these agents.

Some of these anti-nausea medications can be given in different forms. For people with severe nausea that makes keeping pills down difficult or impossible, quick-dissolve tablets, suppositories, patches, injections or intravenous infusions are important options.

One warning on medication choices: megestrol acetate (Megace) was prescribed in the past for appetite stimulation but it can suppress production of testosterone, which is already low in many people with HIV. Testosterone deficiency can contribute to appetite loss and can also cause breast enlargement in males. Talk to your doctor about alternative medications that may be right for you.

Other anti-nausea agents

Studies have shown ginger to be an effective anti-nausea agent, even in chemotherapy-induced nausea. Because the anti-nausea effect of ginger requires it to be physically present in the stomach, consume it a few minutes prior to eating, drinking or taking medications. It can be taken in capsule form or as a ginger syrup that is added to water to make a beverage you can drink throughout the day.

Or make ginger tea by chopping or grating 30 to 45 ml (two or three tablespoons) of fresh ginger root and adding it to 250 ml (a cup) of boiling water. Simmer for five to 10 minutes and drink throughout the day. Chopped ginger root can also be added to many dishes where it will add flavour, as well as help counter nausea.

Medicinal marijuana is effective as an appetite stimulant and anti-nausea agent, so it can be a good choice for people who need both. Preparing a healthy meal prior to using marijuana can help ensure its appetite-stimulating effects are used to the best nutritional benefit. The cannabinoid drug nabilone (Cesamet) is sometimes used for severe nausea and vomiting. Smoking marijuana can be hard on your lungs, so some people prefer it baked into brownies or cookies. All cannabinoid agents can leave people feeling “stoned.” There is controversy over the link between marijuana use and the medical condition called psychosis. People with a predisposition to psychosis should talk to their doctor before using marijuana.

Acupuncture and acupressure

Both acupuncture, which uses needles at energy points in the body, and acupressure, which uses physical pressure on energy points, can be helpful for nausea. Acupressure bands, most commonly sold as remedies for motion sickness, are one simple way to get help with nausea. These bands are available at many pharmacies, health food stores and from some health practitioners.

Choose Your Words : Vocabulary.com


If you’re nauseated you’re about to throw up, if you’re nauseous, you’re a toxic funk and you’re going to make someone else puke. These words are used interchangeably so often that it makes word nerds feel nauseated!

Nauseated is how you feel after eating funnel cake and riding the tilt-a-whirl, when you’re two months pregnant, or any other time you need a vomit bag. Here are some examples from the New York Times,


He was constantly nauseated, so much so that he lost 50 pounds.

In the place of public transport, fleets of private vans career from stop to stop with their hapless, nauseated passengers.

Nauseous, on the other hand, should be reserved to mean causing that feeling, not having it. But it’s used so often now to mean “feeling sick,” that dictionaries define it that way. Here’s how to use the word if you want to tuck in your shirt and be proper:

It does not contain iodine, but is said to possess all the therapeutic qualities of cod-liver oil without its nauseous taste. (Encyclopedia Britannica)

But more examples look like this:

She was too nauseous to keep down her food. (BBC)

In his Modern American Usage, Garner labels this usage as “ubiquitous” but held on to by “die-hard snoots.” The Oxford English Dictionary calls this usage of nauseous common. Another distinction is that nauseated can be used to describe “sick in the stomach” and nauseous for “sickening to think about.”


Sticklers will keep the distinction. If you feel nauseated after thinking about this nauseous distinction, then you’re on the right track.

Nausea and Vomiting, Age 11 and Younger

Is your child nauseated or vomiting?

Nauseated means you feel sick to your stomach, like you are going to vomit.

How old are you?

Less than 3 months

Less than 3 months

3 to 5 months

3 to 5 months

6 to 11 months

6 to 11 months

12 months to 3 years

12 months to 3 years

4 to 11 years

4 to 11 years

12 years or older

12 years or older

Are you male or female?

Why do we ask this question?

The medical assessment of symptoms is based on the body parts you have.

  • If you are transgender or non-binary, choose the sex that matches the body parts (such as ovaries, testes, prostate, breasts, penis, or vagina) you now have in the area where you are having symptoms.
  • If your symptoms aren’t related to those organs, you can choose the gender you identify with.
  • If you have some organs of both sexes, you may need to go through this triage tool twice (once as “male” and once as “female”). This will make sure that the tool asks the right questions for you.

Does your child have moderate to severe belly pain?

Has your child had a head injury in the past 24 hours?

Yes

Head injury in past 24 hours

No

Head injury in past 24 hours

Has your child swallowed or inhaled something that might be poisonous?

Yes

Ingested known or suspected poison

No

Ingested known or suspected poison

Does your baby seem sick?

A sick baby probably will not be acting normally. For example, the baby may be much fussier than usual or not want to eat.

How sick do you think your baby is?

Extremely sick

Baby is very sick (limp and not responsive)

Sick

Baby is sick (sleepier than usual, not eating or drinking like usual)

Is your child having trouble drinking enough to replace the fluids he or she has lost?

Little sips of fluid usually are not enough. The child needs to be able to take in and keep down plenty of fluids.

Yes

Unable to drink enough fluids

No

Able to drink enough fluids

Do you think your baby has a fever?

Did you take your child’s temperature?

This is the only way to be sure that a baby this age does not have a fever. If you don’t know the temperature, it’s safest to assume the baby has a fever and needs to be seen by a doctor. Any problem that causes a fever at this age could be serious. Rectal temperatures are the most accurate. Taking an axillary (armpit) temperature is also an option.

Is it 38°C (100.4°F) or higher, taken rectally?

This would be an axillary temperature of 37.5°C (99.5°F) or higher.

Yes

Temperature at least 38°C (100.4°F) taken rectally

No

Temperature at least 38°C (100.4°F) taken rectally

Within the past week, has your child had an injury to the abdomen, like a blow to the belly or a hard fall?

Yes

Abdominal injury within past week

No

Abdominal injury within past week

Do you think the nausea or vomiting may be caused by an injury or by abuse?

Yes

Nausea or vomiting may be caused by injury or abuse

No

Nausea or vomiting may be caused by injury or abuse

Do you think your child has a fever?

Did you take your child’s temperature?

How high is the fever? The answer may depend on how you took the temperature.

High: 40°C (104°F) or higher, oral

High fever: 40°C (104°F) or higher, oral

Moderate: 38°C (100.4°F) to 39.9°C (103.9°F), oral

Moderate fever: 38°C (100. 4°F) to 39.9°C (103.9°F), oral

Mild: 37.9°C (100.3°F) or lower, oral

Mild fever: 37.9°C (100.3°F) or lower, oral

How high do you think the fever is?

Moderate

Feels fever is moderate

Mild or low

Feels fever is mild

How long has your child had a fever?

Less than 2 days (48 hours)

Fever for less than 2 days

From 2 days to less than 1 week

Fever for more than 2 days and less than 1 week

1 week or longer

Fever for 1 week or more

Does your child have a health problem or take medicine that weakens his or her immune system?

Yes

Disease or medicine that causes immune system problems

No

Disease or medicine that causes immune system problems

Does your child have shaking chills or very heavy sweating?

Shaking chills are a severe, intense form of shivering. Heavy sweating means that sweat is pouring off the child or soaking through his or her clothes.

Yes

Shaking chills or heavy sweating

No

Shaking chills or heavy sweating

Has there been any blood, yellow or green liquid (bile), or what looks like coffee grounds in the vomit?

Sometimes a food (like yellow squash or green peas) can be the reason for the vomit’s colour. But unless food is the obvious cause, vomit that is yellow, green, or bloody may be a sign of a serious medical problem.

Yes

Blood or yellow or green liquid (bile) in vomit

No

Blood or yellow or green liquid (bile) in vomit

Has your baby vomited after 2 feedings in a row?

.

Yes

Vomited after 2 feedings in a row

No

Vomited after 2 feedings in a row

Has there been any blood, yellow or green liquid (bile), or what looks like coffee grounds in the vomit?

Sometimes a food (like yellow squash or green peas) can be the reason for the vomit’s colour. But unless food is the obvious cause, vomit that is yellow, green, or bloody may be a sign of a serious medical problem.

Yes

Blood or yellow or green liquid (bile) in vomit

No

Blood or yellow or green liquid (bile) in vomit

How much blood or bile has your child vomited?

Vomit is mostly blood or bile, or contains what looks like coffee grounds

Vomit is mostly blood or bile, or contains material that looks like coffee grounds

Streaks of blood or a small amount of bile

Streaks of blood or small amount of bile in vomit

Is your child vomiting all the time, again and again, or is your child vomiting just now and then?

How often the child vomits is important. Repeated vomiting is more serious than vomiting that occurs now and then.

All the time

Repeated vomiting

Now and then

Occasional vomiting

Has your child been vomiting for more than 4 hours?

Yes

Vomiting for more than 4 hours

No

Vomiting for more than 4 hours

Has your child been vomiting for more than 8 hours?

Yes

Vomiting for more than 8 hours

No

Vomiting for more than 8 hours

Has the vomiting gone on for more than 3 days?

Yes

Vomiting for more than 3 days

No

Vomiting for more than 3 days

Has the vomiting gone on for more than 1 week?

Yes

Vomiting for more than 1 week

No

Vomiting for more than 1 week

Is your child starting to vomit more often, or is the vomiting getting more severe?

Yes

Occasional vomiting is becoming more frequent or severe

No

Occasional vomiting is becoming more frequent or severe

Does your child have diabetes?

Is your child’s diabetes getting out of control because your child is sick?

Yes

Diabetes is affected by illness

No

Diabetes is affected by illness

Is the plan helping get your child’s blood sugar under control?

Yes

Diabetes illness plan working

No

Diabetes illness plan not working

How fast is it getting out of control?

Quickly (over several hours)

Blood sugar quickly worsening

Slowly (over days)

Blood sugar slowly worsening

Has your baby been vomiting for more than 2 days?

Yes

Vomiting for more than 2 days

No

Vomiting for more than 2 days

Has your child vomited after 2 or more feedings or meals in a row?

Yes

Vomited after 2 or more feedings/meals in a row

No

Vomited after 2 or more feedings/meals in a row

Does your child spit up often?

Spitting up is not the same as vomiting. It usually occurs right after eating, happens easily without any effort by the child, and is not forceful or painful like vomiting can be.

Has your child been spitting up more than usual?

This can mean more often than usual or larger amounts than usual.

Yes

Spitting up is increased in amount or more frequent

No

Spitting up is increased in amount or more frequent

Does spitting up occur with other symptoms, such as diarrhea, constipation, or fussiness?

Yes

Spitting up occurs with other symptoms

No

Spitting up occurs with other symptoms

Has your child been spitting up for more than 1 month?

Yes

Spitting up for more than 1 month

No

Spitting up for more than 1 month

Do you think that a medicine could be causing the nausea or vomiting?

Think about whether the nausea or vomiting started after you began using a new medicine or a higher dose of a medicine.

Yes

Medicine may be causing nausea or vomiting

No

Medicine may be causing nausea or vomiting

Many things can affect how your body responds to a symptom and what kind of care you may need. These include:

  • Your age. Babies and older adults tend to get sicker quicker.
  • Your overall health. If you have a condition such as diabetes, HIV, cancer, or heart disease, you may need to pay closer attention to certain symptoms and seek care sooner.
  • Medicines you take. Certain medicines and natural health products can cause symptoms or make them worse.
  • Recent health events, such as surgery or injury. These kinds of events can cause symptoms afterwards or make them more serious.
  • Your health habits and lifestyle, such as eating and exercise habits, smoking, alcohol or drug use, sexual history, and travel.

Try Home Treatment

You have answered all the questions. Based on your answers, you may be able to take care of this problem at home.

  • Try home treatment to relieve the symptoms.
  • Call your doctor if symptoms get worse or you have any concerns (for example, if symptoms are not getting better as you would expect). You may need care sooner.

Repeated vomiting: The child vomits nearly every time he or she tries to drink something. This type of vomiting makes it impossible to keep down any fluids or solid food, which greatly increases the chance of becoming dehydrated. The child has an even greater chance of dehydration if he or she also has diarrhea.

Occasional vomiting: Some young children vomit every once in a while for no clear reason. This usually does not increase the risk of dehydration or other problems as long as the child can keep down fluids between vomiting. The more time that passes between episodes of vomiting, the less serious it probably is. But if the vomiting continues, it may be important to find the cause.

Colic is an extreme type of crying in a baby between 3 weeks and 3 months of age. All babies cry, but a colicky baby will cry for hours at a time, no matter what you do.

During a crying episode, a colicky baby may cry loudly and continuously and be hard to comfort. The baby may get red in the face, clench the fists, and arch his or her back or pull the legs up to the belly.

Certain health conditions and medicines weaken the immune system’s ability to fight off infection and illness. Some examples in children are:

  • Diseases such as diabetes, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease, and congenital heart disease.
  • Steroid medicines, which are used to treat a variety of conditions.
  • Medicines taken after organ transplant.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer.
  • Not having a spleen.

If you’re not sure if a child’s fever is high, moderate, or mild, think about these issues:

With a high fever:

  • The child feels very hot.
  • It is likely one of the highest fevers the child has ever had.

With a moderate fever:

  • The child feels warm or hot.
  • You are sure the child has a fever.

With a mild fever:

  • The child may feel a little warm.
  • You think the child might have a fever, but you’re not sure.

Babies can quickly get dehydrated when they lose fluids because of problems like vomiting or fever.

Symptoms of dehydration can range from mild to severe. For example:

  • The baby may be fussy or cranky (mild dehydration), or the baby may be very sleepy and hard to wake up (severe dehydration).
  • The baby may have a little less urine than usual (mild dehydration), or the baby may not be urinating at all (severe dehydration).

You can get dehydrated when you lose a lot of fluids because of problems like vomiting or fever.

Symptoms of dehydration can range from mild to severe. For example:

  • You may feel tired and edgy (mild dehydration), or you may feel weak, not alert, and not able to think clearly (severe dehydration).
  • You may pass less urine than usual (mild dehydration), or you may not be passing urine at all (severe dehydration).

Severe dehydration means:

  • The baby may be very sleepy and hard to wake up.
  • The baby may have a very dry mouth and very dry eyes (no tears).
  • The baby may have no wet diapers in 12 or more hours.

Moderate dehydration means:

  • The baby may have no wet diapers in 6 hours.
  • The baby may have a dry mouth and dry eyes (fewer tears than usual).

Mild dehydration means:

  • The baby may pass a little less urine than usual.

Severe dehydration means:

  • The child’s mouth and eyes may be extremely dry.
  • The child may pass little or no urine for 12 or more hours.
  • The child may not seem alert or able to think clearly.
  • The child may be too weak or dizzy to stand.
  • The child may pass out.

Moderate dehydration means:

  • The child may be a lot more thirsty than usual.
  • The child’s mouth and eyes may be drier than usual.
  • The child may pass little or no urine for 8 or more hours.
  • The child may feel dizzy when he or she stands or sits up.

Mild dehydration means:

  • The child may be more thirsty than usual.
  • The child may pass less urine than usual.

It is easy for your diabetes to become out of control when you are sick. Because of an illness:

  • Your blood sugar may be too high or too low.
  • You may not be able take your diabetes medicine (if you are vomiting or having trouble keeping food or fluids down).
  • You may not know how to adjust the timing or dose of your diabetes medicine.
  • You may not be eating enough or drinking enough fluids.

An illness plan for people with diabetes usually covers things like:

  • How often to test blood sugar and what the target range is.
  • Whether and how to adjust the dose and timing of insulin or other diabetes medicines.
  • What to do if you have trouble keeping food or fluids down.
  • When to call your doctor.

The plan is designed to help keep your diabetes in control even though you are sick. When you have diabetes, even a minor illness can cause problems.

Symptoms of serious illness in a baby may include the following:

  • The baby is limp and floppy like a rag doll.
  • The baby doesn’t respond at all to being held, touched, or talked to.
  • The baby is hard to wake up.

Symptoms of serious illness may include:

  • A severe headache.
  • A stiff neck.
  • Mental changes, such as feeling confused or much less alert.
  • Extreme fatigue (to the point where it’s hard for you to function).
  • Shaking chills.

Temperature varies a little depending on how you measure it. For children up to 11 years old, here are the ranges for high, moderate, and mild according to how you took the temperature.

Oral (by mouth) temperature

  • High: 40° C (104° F) and higher
  • Moderate: 38° C (100.4° F) to 39.9° C (103.9° F)
  • Mild: 37.9° C (100.3° F) and lower

A forehead (temporal) scanner is usually 0. 3° C (0.5° F) to 0.6° C (1° F) lower than an oral temperature.

Ear or rectal temperature

  • High: 40.5° C (104.9° F) and higher
  • Moderate: 38.5° C (101.3° F) to 40.4° C (104.7° F)
  • Mild: 38.4° C (101.1° F) and lower

Armpit (axillary) temperature

  • High: 39.8° C (103.6° F) and higher
  • Moderate: 37.8° C (100° F) to 39.7° C (103.5° F)
  • Mild: 37.7° C (99.9° F) and lower

Note: For children under 5 years old, rectal temperatures are the most accurate.

A baby that is extremely sick:

  • May be limp and floppy like a rag doll.
  • May not respond at all to being held, touched, or talked to.
  • May be hard to wake up.

A baby that is sick (but not extremely sick):

  • May be sleepier than usual.
  • May not eat or drink as much as usual.

Many non-prescription and prescription medicines can cause nausea or vomiting. A few examples are:

  • Antibiotics.
  • Antidepressants.
  • Aspirin, ibuprofen (such as Advil or Motrin), and naproxen (such as Aleve).
  • Medicines used to treat cancer (chemotherapy).
  • Opioid pain medicines.
  • Vitamins and mineral supplements, such as iron.

Starting a new medicine or increasing the dose can cause nausea and vomiting. Nausea and vomiting also may mean that there is too much medicine in your body, even if you took it properly.

Seek Care Now

Based on your answers, you may need care right away. The problem is likely to get worse without medical care.

  • Call your doctor now to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
  • If you cannot reach your doctor or you don’t have one, seek care in the next hour.
  • You do not need to call an ambulance unless:
    • You cannot travel safely either by driving yourself or by having someone else drive you.
    • You are in an area where heavy traffic or other problems may slow you down.

Make an Appointment

Based on your answers, the problem may not improve without medical care.

  • Make an appointment to see your doctor in the next 1 to 2 weeks.
  • If appropriate, try home treatment while you are waiting for the appointment.
  • If symptoms get worse or you have any concerns, call your doctor. You may need care sooner.

Seek Care Today

Based on your answers, you may need care soon. The problem probably will not get better without medical care.

  • Call your doctor today to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
  • If you cannot reach your doctor or you don’t have one, seek care today.
  • If it is evening, watch the symptoms and seek care in the morning.
  • If the symptoms get worse, seek care sooner.

Call 911 Now

Based on your answers, you need emergency care.

Call 911 or other emergency services now.

Sometimes people don’t want to call 911. They may think that their symptoms aren’t serious or that they can just get someone else to drive them. But based on your answers, the safest and quickest way for you to get the care you need is to call 911 for medical transport to the hospital.

Nausea and Vomiting, Age 12 and Older

Head Injury, Age 4 and Older

Abdominal Pain, Age 11 and Younger

Poisoning

Head Injury, Age 3 and Younger

90,000 What to do if you feel sick, but does not vomit: nausea – how to get rid of without pills, after alcohol, during pregnancy – February 28, 2021

What to do if you feel sick – from time to time everyone asks this question. Nausea is the most unpleasant sensation that all people go through. It occurs with a hangover, pregnancy, flu, intestinal diseases and can be caused by a virus, nervous strain, poisoning, indigestion, or an unpleasant odor.

We have already shared recommendations on how to prepare for a party to avoid hangover consequences.Now we will tell you how to get rid of nausea at home and using safe methods for health.

To prevent vomiting and to neutralize the feeling of nausea, it is not necessary to use drugs right away. Enough exposure to physical factors or the use of folk remedies.

What to do if vomiting but not vomiting

Position yourself

If you lie down while nausea, stomach acid can enter your esophagus and make you feel sick.Bending and bending over tightens the stomach area and makes nausea worse.
Try sitting or lying down with your upper body lifted. Rest, move as little as possible.

Provide yourself with fresh air

In the car – open the window, at home – ventilate the apartment, turn down the temperature of the air conditioner or stand in front of the fan. Fresh cool air relieves symptoms of nausea and neutralizes nauseous odors.

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Breathe deeply

Breathing calms the mind, relieves anxiety and relieves nausea.Inhale slowly through your nose, hold your breath for three to five seconds, and exhale slowly. Repeat until the nausea is gone.

Drink water

Drink more water at room temperature, but do not drink large amounts of liquid at a time. Drink in small portions throughout the day. Add lemon to the water: its acid contains a compound that helps digestion and soothes the stomach.

Also try a weak herbal tea.

Drink broths

For mild nausea, you can drink chicken or vegetable broths, which will add energy to the body.

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Switch your attention

Watch a movie, call a friend, do anything that does not require increased concentration. Fatigue, overwork and physical exertion only increase the feeling of nausea.

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Eat a soft food

Try some banana, rice, applesauce, baked potatoes or mashed potatoes, hard boiled eggs. Do not take risks with fast food, fried foods, dairy products, cheeses.

Cool down

Cool the forehead, back of the head and neck, apply a cool compress to the back of the body. The coolness will help lower your high body temperature and improve your well-being.

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Acupressure

Use acupressure, or acupressure, a method from Chinese medicine. Pressing your fingers at specific points reduces pain signals that the brain sends to the nerve endings.

Fold your middle and index fingers in a semicircle to form a “C”. Press firmly and firmly against the area between the two large tendons on the inner side of the wrist, near the palm.
Press for no more than a minute. Remove your fingers from your wrist: the feeling of nausea will recede or noticeably decrease.

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Peppermint drink for nausea

Peppermint oil is considered a safe and effective way to combat nausea. Buy mint tea at the pharmacy in advance or make your own. Pour a cup of boiling water over a heaped teaspoon of fresh peppermint leaves. Insist for five to seven minutes, strain.

Additionally, you can put peppermint candy or menthol chewing gum in your mouth.

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Chamomile tea for nausea

Popular folk remedy: Chamomile’s sedative effect helps you fall asleep when you feel sick. Buy a ready-made drink at the pharmacy or pour a glass of boiling water over a tablespoon of dried or fresh chamomile flowers. Insist for five minutes, strain.You can also brew chamomile tea bags.

It is not recommended to consume the drink during pregnancy and the use of blood thinners.

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Aromatherapy for nausea

First, make sure that there is no allergy: apply a small amount to your wrist and watch the body’s reaction.

If no allergy appears within 3-5 minutes, apply more peppermint, lavender or lemon oil to your wrist and add to the whiskey.Breathe in the scent deeply.

If nausea persists, see a doctor

If the following symptoms persist for several hours, call an ambulance immediately:

  • acute abdominal pain or cramps;
  • chest pain;
  • Blurred vision;
  • high temperature;
  • confusion of consciousness;
  • severe headache;
  • persistent vomiting.

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Feeling of a coma in the stomach

IMPORTANT!

The information in this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-medication.In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, diagnostic tests should be prescribed only by the attending physician. For a diagnosis and correct treatment prescription, you should contact your doctor.

Feeling of a coma in the stomach: the reasons for the appearance, in what diseases it occurs, the diagnosis and methods of treatment.

The feeling of a coma in the stomach is spoken of when they experience a feeling of heaviness, discomfort and fullness of the stomach even with its insignificant filling. Sometimes patients find it difficult to determine the exact location of the coma and indicate the lower third of the sternum or solar plexus.In some cases, a coma and stomach cramps may occur on an empty stomach.

Varieties of feeling of coma in the stomach

Feeling of heaviness or coma in the stomach can be an independent symptom, but it can be accompanied by other unpleasant sensations. Sometimes it is heartburn, sour belching, bloating, constipation.

In some cases, the sensation of a coma appears when swallowing , making it difficult for the chewed food to pass.

In addition, patients may complain that food did not enter the stomach, but stopped in the esophagus.In such patients, vomiting of unchanged food is possible.

When describing symptoms, you should pay attention to the time of onset of discomfort – to or after eating .

The patient may feel heaviness in the stomach with cramps or heartburn, on an empty stomach or after eating, and night pains also occur.

Sometimes a feeling of a coma in the stomach occurs regardless of food intake . In such cases, they complain of stomach cramps , sometimes accompanied by a sensation of a lump in the throat.

For what diseases there is a feeling of coma in the stomach

Eating food in excess of the usual portion is accompanied by a feeling of fullness and heaviness in the stomach. This condition is not a manifestation of the disease and goes away on its own after a while.

It should be noted that stomach capacity varies with eating habits.

People who are small or who have undergone a resection of the stomach can eat a small portion in terms of volume, otherwise they will not only experience a feeling of heaviness or fullness of the stomach, but also vomit.

The sensation of coma can appear when eating foods that cause excessive gas formation , as well as heavy for digesting food (salads with mayonnaise, fatty, fried and smoked dishes) and strongly carbonated drinks . When eating dry food and hastily , an unpleasant sensation in the epigastric region is caused by poor processing of the food lump with saliva and insufficient secretion of gastric juice.

However, a feeling of coma or discomfort in the stomach or, more precisely, in the epigastric region, can appear after eating even a small amount of food .

This condition can be caused both by diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, and by other reasons.

First of all, they suggest a digestive disorder, or functional dyspepsia. Symptoms most often include pain and discomfort right after a meal, a feeling of heaviness and fullness in the stomach, heartburn, belching, nausea, sometimes vomiting, backlash of stomach contents into the esophagus, bloating, and stool disturbance.

Dyspepsia can be a symptom of both functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and organic diseases.

Functional causes of dyspepsia are often due to inaccuracies in diet and medication.

Iron ions have an irritating effect on the gastric mucosa, which is most pronounced when taking medications based on ferrous iron. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which are systematically taken for rheumatic and non-rheumatic diseases of the musculoskeletal system, also cause undesirable effects: heaviness and discomfort in the stomach, nausea, vomiting, dyspeptic disorders.

Neurological disorders (neuroses, depression), psychological trauma almost always affect the state of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to impaired motility.

Functional dyspepsia is not accompanied by erosive or ulcerative lesions of the stomach, its symptoms disappear with the normalization of the general state of health.

One of the common causes of stomach discomfort immediately after eating is gastritis .It is accompanied by functional and inflammatory processes that have a negative effect on the gastric mucosa. Symptoms of gastritis include heaviness and pain in the stomach, indigestion, nausea, heartburn, sour belching, and bloating from any food. The inflammatory process leads to atrophy of the mucous membrane and disruption of the glands that secrete gastric juice.

An insufficient amount of gastric juice and poor peristalsis of the stomach and intestines make it difficult to digest food.

Gastritis is often accompanied by dyspepsia. In addition to the feeling of heaviness and aching pain in the epigastric region after eating, poor appetite, weakness, fatigue, irritability are noted. When pressing on the abdomen, a dull pain appears in the projection of the stomach.

Violation of motor-evacuation functions of the upper digestive tract is always accompanied by a feeling of coma or a feeling of heaviness in the stomach. Violation of esophageal motility is caused, as a rule, by discoordination of the work of the esophageal sphincters.Inconsistent work of the muscles of the esophagus can lead to a delay in the food lump on the way to the stomach, the throwing of food particles into the respiratory tract, reflux (the return of the contents of the stomach into the esophagus). Impaired gastric motility leads to delayed gastric emptying, which is accompanied by a feeling of heaviness and fullness even with a small amount of food consumed, pain in the epigastric region, heartburn, nausea and vomiting.

Motility disorders of the esophagus and stomach can be associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastritis, tumors and stenoses (narrowings), metabolic disorders (hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia), postoperative complications of gastric resection, taking certain medications (opiates, antidepressants, alcohol, hormones) …

Peristalsis worsens with a sedentary lifestyle and with age.

Stomach cancer can also cause symptoms such as a feeling of heaviness or a coma in the stomach. Moreover, depending on the localization of the tumor, its manifestations differ. If the tumor is located closer to the esophagus, there are problems with swallowing food. This is accompanied by increased salivation, nausea, vomiting, pain in the epigastric region. When the tumor is localized in the lower parts of the stomach, closer to the duodenum, there is a prolonged feeling of heaviness after eating, bloating. When belching, a putrid smell may be felt.

Which doctor should you contact if you feel a coma in the stomach

If you have a constant feeling of a coma in your stomach or a feeling of heaviness, you should contact
therapist or
a gastroenterologist for a preliminary diagnosis. A gastroenterologist may also refer a patient to an oncologist. Consultation may also be required
neurologist.

Diagnostics and examination with a feeling of coma in the stomach

First of all, clinical tests of blood and feces are required for differential diagnosis.

Bulimia | Tervisliku toitumise informatsioon

The nature of the disease and its manifestations

Bulimia (bulimia nervosa) begins with dietary restrictions, which may be preceded by anorexia. Bulimic patients’ thoughts revolve around food.

Food restrictions are followed by a loss of control over the amount eaten and impulsive overeating, after which, in turn, there is a strong sense of guilt and fear associated with an increase in body weight.

During a binge attack lasting several hours, the patient can consume up to 6000 kcal.With low physical activity, the recommended amount of energy consumed by a 19-30-year-old woman is 2000-2100 kcal. A person makes attempts to eliminate the effects of overeating by inducing vomiting or taking laxatives. It is often difficult to distinguish bulimia from anorexia, because both conditions can cause vomiting and food restrictions.

Such eating behavior often remains unnoticed for a long time, because it is hidden from others, and only the patient himself knows about the other side of the disease.However, loved ones can recognize bulimia by the fact that a person eats a lot but does not gain weight, prefers to eat alone when others are already asleep, if large quantities of food mysteriously disappear from the refrigerator, if a person goes to the toilet after eating. Overeating attacks usually cause negative emotions such as fatigue, anxiety, exhaustion, and depression. Bulimia can be accompanied by attempted suicide, self-harm, or substance use.

Bulimia is a very common eating disorder and is 2-3 times more common than anorexia. Bulimia usually begins between the ages of 15-24. About 90% of those with bulimia are women. The risk group includes dancers, gymnasts, models, runners – they often have bulimia. Family members have a significant impact: a child whose parents constantly criticize his appearance is more likely to become a victim of bulimia or other eating disorder.

In terms of physical health, people with bulimia have erosion of tooth enamel due to acidity of vomiting, a swollen face due to enlarged salivary glands, and abrasions on the hands that result from vomiting and fluid loss. Frequent vomiting or taking medications that lead to nutritional deficiencies can also cause physiological changes in the body – for example, electrolyte imbalance, seizures, heart rhythm disturbances, etc.

Symptoms of bulimia:
  • uncontrolled absorption of food – until you feel worse
  • eating large portions in a short time
  • following strict diets, which alternates with overeating
  • eating in secret
  • people start to create fast food supplies at home
  • forced vomiting
  • using laxatives and diuretics for weight control
  • excessive exercise
  • obsession with body weight
  • negative body image and low self-esteem
  • persistent mood swings and depression
  • distance from family and friends, more and more isolation and immersion in oneself

Both anorexia and bulimia can be accompanied by compulsive over-training, when a person trains to the point that it starts ra have a devastating effect on his health. Through sports, the patient tries to get rid of the energy received from food or even exercises in order to allow himself to eat.

Major health disorders accompanying bulimia:
  • Loss of teeth
  • Diseases of the gums, mouth ulcers
  • Lack of minerals
  • Mental disorders
  • Susceptibility to diseases
  • Disorders
  • Disorders
  • Menopause
  • Liver and kidney damage.
Treatment

In some cases, when positive, self-esteem changes occur in life, bulimia may go away without treatment, but usually treatment is required. Since bulimia is caused by social and psychological factors in addition to low self-esteem, its treatment requires psychotherapy.

At the first stage, the patient is taught to eat normally and constantly monitor it, avoiding situations that lead to overeating; teach to deal with stress by other methods, not food.In the second stage, the bulimic sufferer is made aware that he has other values ​​besides his own body. Group therapy has also shown a positive effect. Treatment of bulimia is a long process, on average 80% of patients are cured, but most of them remain focused on weight and food for life.

When compiling the text, the following material was used: Õpilase kehakaal, selle psühholoogilised aspektid ning toitumis- ja liikumisnõustamine. 2007 Maser, M., Akkermann, K., Fessai, N., Kirss, M., Sapatšuk, I., Villa, I

What to do in case of nausea in the morning

After a hectic party, almost everyone experienced a strong feeling of nausea. It usually leads to profuse vomiting. This is due to the increased concentration of ethanol, with which the liver simply cannot cope. This reaction of the body is normal. It is impossible to restrain the urge to vomit, since all toxins will remain in the body.

When the nausea is mild, there is no reason for panic.If the urge is very persistent and yellow-greenish clots are visible in the contents, it is worth to immediately take action . Vomiting bile after alcohol is a serious signal. Prolonged nausea indicates severe poisoning. The appearance of bile clots indicates serious problems with the gallbladder. You can get rid of these unpleasant manifestations of intoxication in different ways, but it is better to drink alcohol in moderation.

Causes of vomiting of bile

Bile appears in vomit not always due to alcohol.But if there was an abuse of alcoholic beverages, you can get such an unpleasant “surprise”. In this case, even after emptying the stomach, the urge, as a rule, continues. Why vomits bile after alcohol? Severe poisoning of provokes a disruption of in the work of the gastrointestinal tract.

Issue affects other organs of , in particular the biliary tract. Bile freely enters the stomach and then into the intestines. There it mixes with food debris and needs to go outside.A large accumulation of bile leads to severe nausea and vomiting.

In severe cases, bile enters the esophagus or mouth directly. All this is accompanied by the rather unpleasant bitter taste of . Also, mucus begins to be actively produced in the pharynx, there is a burning sensation in the esophagus. The “discarded” masses themselves have a characteristic yellowish or greenish tint.

Why is vomiting after alcohol dangerous?

First of all, it leads to severe dehydration of the body.A drunk person does not control himself and does not understand what is happening to him. cannot take adequate measures without assistance from . Poisoning leads to a critical indicator of dehydration. This has a detrimental effect on the work of all organs and systems, but the brain suffers the most. Without help, a person may even die.

The intensity of the urge and vomiting depends on the dose of alcohol. For people with liver and stomach problems, a couple of glasses of wine is enough. Even with such a relatively small dose of alcohol, large doses of toxic substances accumulate in the body. The situation is becoming paradoxical.

The more a person drinks, the worse his stomach and liver work. This means that strong vomiting in the future will accompany all libations. In the presence of chronic diseases, alcohol provokes their exacerbation . The first to suffer are the stomach, heart and blood vessels. In advanced cases, the process becomes irreversible.

Emergency help

If a person says: “I’m ditching bile after alcohol,” you should immediately call the doctors.Only a specialist can stop a serious condition.

Before the arrival of doctors, it is necessary to carry out a series of measures :

  1. If the person is conscious, try to sit him comfortably. Often, when a person vomits bile after alcohol, he also has vertigo . Powerful intoxication leads to loss of consciousness. Under no circumstances should a person be allowed to lie on their back. So he can choke on vomit and die. It must be turned on its side and put a hand under the head.Now you need to continue to monitor the outflow of vomit.
  2. Another procedure required is gastric lavage. Pure boiled or non-carbonated mineral water (volume from 1.5 to 2 liters) is suitable. When the person drinks it, vomiting will resume. This is a normal reaction. If it is not there, you need to drink the same amount of water, with a teaspoon of salt dissolved in it. A mild baking soda solution will help remove all bile. Drink it, and then press on the root of the tongue. A provoked new attack of vomiting will excrete bile.Gradually, the vomit will clear.

Note

If a person vomits bile after alcohol, many do not know what to do in this case. Often they try to eliminate such a manifestation with pharmacological drugs. But in such a situation is not recommended to give the patient any medication. Even conventional sorbents will lubricate the clinical picture and make medical care less effective.

Traditional methods of treating vomiting of bile

They are used after poisoning.First, doctors should provide assistance using special medications. Folk remedies will help the body to quickly cope with stress and recover. The feeling of nausea will persist for another 2-3 days. Vomiting may occur intermittently . During this period, intoxication will still remind of itself. Harmful substances are not removed as quickly as it seems.

Residual effects can be dealt with with:

  1. Chamomile decoction . A glass of boiling water goes for 1 hour.l. dry flowers. They are insisted for 15 minutes, and then they are drunk in small sips.
  2. Peppermint . Dissolve a few drops in warm water. Drinking this will help relieve the urge to vomit.
  3. Rowan infusion . For its preparation, both fresh and dry berries are suitable (1 tbsp. L / glass of boiling water). They drink this infusion every 6-8 hours, 200-250 ml. Rowan will help get rid of harmful substances, relieve swelling, have an antiseptic and tonic effect.
  4. Green tea . You can also add lemon balm and mint to it.

These decoctions should be used with caution. It is better to consult a doctor first. After alcohol poisoning, problems with the heart, nervous system, and stomach ulcers may worsen.

Elimination of other hangover symptoms

After the cessation of vomiting, the state of health improves only partially . A set of simple measures will help to completely get rid of poisoning.To quickly remove toxins from the body, it is recommended to drink kvass without sugar, kefir, fermented baked milk, ayran, green tea, as well as alkaline mineral water without gas. These drinks are rich in essential vitamins and minerals.

It is also worth asking your doctor what anti-hangover drugs he would recommend. The contrast shower will help to invigorate the body . In any case, regardless of whether vomiting of bile appears after alcohol in the morning or at any other time, it is worth contacting a specialist who will prescribe an appropriate examination.

Vomiting cannot be suppressed. It serves as a cleansing mechanism for the body

Preventive measures

In order not to have to fight attacks of vomiting with bile, it is better to prevent them. The surest way is to give up alcohol. At least for a while, so that the body returns to normal. It is important to find a middle ground. It will be the optimal dose of alcohol, which does not cause serious harm to health. This will require willpower. With the first signs of intoxication, the person continues to drink.This happens unconsciously, it just can not stop . It no longer adds fun and euphoria, but only leads to serious problems.

To prevent vomiting of bile after alcohol from making itself felt, before the start of the feast, you can drink the usual activated carbon . The dose is calculated on the basis of the person’s weight. Usually, no more than 1 tablet is taken for every 10 kg. You will need more white coal – 2 to 3 tablets.

You must not drink alcohol on an empty stomach.There must be light food on the table. It will slow down the process of intoxication. Fatty and fried foods will only put more strain on the liver.

What foods can help relieve nausea?

During an acute hangover, it is better to eat nothing at all. The body needs rest and plenty of fluids.

If an empty stomach requires food, but the nausea has not completely disappeared, use only light foods:

  1. Yogurt. It is rich in vitamin B which helps get rid of hangovers .You need to choose a product rich in probiotics that will help restore microflora.
  2. Ginger. If condition permits, it can be eaten raw. Otherwise, just add it to your tea. It effectively fights nausea effectively with .
  3. Citruses. They contain a lot of citric acid. It speeds up the metabolism of and the elimination of toxins. Sour fruits can help relieve nausea. They can be consumed only if the condition of the stomach allows.Another option is to squeeze out some lemon juice (tsp) and combine it with the same amount of honey. This mixture should be eaten slowly, dissolving it.
  4. Cranberry juice. It’s best to make it yourself, without artificial sweeteners or colors. He is very nutritious and healthy.
  5. Bananas. Well saturates the body with and is a source of potassium.

Can I get sick from a little alcohol?

Even one glass of wine can cause unpleasant consequences.This is how individual alcohol intolerance manifests itself. Just a little enzyme is produced (alcohol dehydrogenase) or there is a deficiency of zinc in the body. In such cases, it is better to give up drinking alcohol so as not to injure your body and not get into uncomfortable situations.

Alcohol poisoning is a serious stress for the whole organism. It affects almost all organs and systems. The presence of bile in vomit should alert you. If you feel sick with bile after alcohol for a long time, you should contact for help from doctors .The hospital will prescribe the necessary medications and prescribe special droppers. Severe poisoning can result in a coma. If you do not provide help in time, a fun feast can turn into trouble. The best advice is to control yourself and control your alcohol intake. Having stopped in time, a person will preserve his health, and possibly life.

Vomiting – causes, symptoms, types, diseases

February 26, 2003

Vomiting is a forced uncontrolled expulsion of the contents of the stomach or intestines through the mouth with the participation of the abdominal muscles and diaphragm.Vomiting is also accompanied by weakness, drooling, watery eyes, and dizziness. Both the feeling of nausea and vomiting are triggered by a special nerve center located in the brain stem. In the center of “nausea and vomiting” signals come from sensitive receptors in the digestive tract, so irritation of these receptors triggers the gag reflex. Irritation of sensitive receptors of the gag reflex occurs, for example, when the walls of the stomach are strongly stretched, when eating foods with an irritating effect, when, inflammation of the walls of the stomach and intestines (gastritis, gastroenteritis).

Direct irritation of the “vomiting center” can also cause vomiting, even if there is no irritation from the digestive tract. This phenomenon is observed in various diseases of the nervous system.

Causes of nausea and vomiting

Vomiting does not always indicate a disease of the digestive tract, but nevertheless, most often the cause of vomiting and nausea is found in the digestive system.

  • Gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the stomach and intestines, due to the ingestion of poor-quality food, contaminated water, leading to the development of food poisoning.
  • Long-term (chronic) diseases of the stomach (chronic gastritis, stomach ulcer, gastroparesis – complete lack of mobility and contractions of the stomach), stomach spasm (persistent tension of the muscles of the stomach, with the inability to pass food further), duodenal ulcer, duodenitis.
  • Diseases of the gallbladder and liver, cholelithiasis, gallbladder dyskinesia, cholecystitis, blockage of the bile ducts, hepatitis.
  • Emergency conditions: acute appendicitis, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, intestinal obstruction, perforation of a stomach or duodenal ulcer, gastric bleeding, etc.
  • Anomalies in the development of the digestive system: diverticulum (blind process) of the esophagus, intestines usually lead to recurrent nausea and vomiting.
  • Stenosis (narrowing of the lumen) of the esophagus or pylorus.
  • Tumors of the stomach and intestines.

Suddenly developing nausea and vomiting, accompanied by rumbling in the abdomen, diarrhea, mild fever, weakness are most often a sign of food poisoning .If you suspect food poisoning, you need to flush the stomach with plenty of liquid. You can also drink activated charcoal.

Nausea and vomiting against the background of severe diarrhea (possibly mixed with blood), a significant increase, the temperature of severe weakness may be a sign of an intestinal infection. Severe nausea and vomiting, accompanied by discoloration of feces, dark urine, and jaundice, is a clear sign of viral hepatitis. If you suspect hepatitis or an acute intestinal infection, you need to urgently show the patient to a doctor.

Nausea and vomiting, occurring intermittently (often) accompanied by symptoms such as abdominal pain, stomach pain, sour belching, bitter taste in the mouth, discoloration of feces, chronic diarrhea, constipation, usually a symptom of gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, cholecystitis, chronic hepatitis, chronic pancreatitis. In these cases , treatment of nausea and vomiting is possible only after elimination of the underlying disease.

Since the start and the process of vomiting is controlled by the “vomiting center” of the brain, some diseases of the nervous system can cause vomiting and nausea.

Increased intracranial pressure is characterized by a persistent increase in cerebrospinal fluid pressure and compression of the brain. A slow increase in intracranial pressure is observed, for example, with brain tumors. In such cases, nausea and vomiting occur either in the morning, or mild nausea is observed throughout the day. Along with nausea, the patient may complain of headache, balance disorder, blurred vision, gait or sensitivity disorders, weakness in any part of the body.

A sharp increase in intracranial pressure (cerebral edema, traumatic brain injury, concussion, contusion) is accompanied by severe vomiting, impaired consciousness.

Attention! Persistent headaches accompanied by nausea or occasional “unreasonable” vomiting may be a sign of brain tumors or other diseases characterized by a slow increase in intracranial pressure! If you find this symptom, you should immediately consult a doctor.

Infectious diseases of the nervous system (meningitis, borelliosis), lesions of the nervous system in syphilis or AIDS are also accompanied by vomiting. Of the conditions described, meningitis is most often observed. Nausea and vomiting can be some of the first symptoms of meningitis.

Attention! In addition to nausea and vomiting, meningitis has a high fever, severe headache, and severe tension in the occipital muscles. If you find these signs, you should immediately call a doctor!

Lesions of the vestibular apparatus (vertigo, motion sickness, motion sickness) are often accompanied by nausea and vomiting, combined with severe dizziness, loss of balance.In benign vertigo, nausea and dizziness occur suddenly at the moment when the patient abruptly changes the position of the body and head (for example, turns on the other side in bed). With seasickness or motion sickness, nausea and vomiting occurs when traveling by sea or land. If you find such symptoms, you should contact a neurologist, otoneurologist!

Migraine is a special type of headache that affects 15-20% of the population. With migraine, nausea and vomiting occur against a background of severe (sometimes throbbing) headache.In addition to nausea and vomiting, during a migraine attack, photophobia is observed (the patient does not tolerate bright light), noise intolerance. Migraine attacks recur periodically and can be triggered by foods such as wine, chocolate, cheese, and strong odors. If you suspect a migraine, you should consult a neurologist!

Other causes of vomiting

  • Myocardial infarction, arterial hypertension. With increased pressure, vomiting is combined with a severe headache.With a heart attack, vomiting occurs at the same time as severe chest pain.
  • Diabetes mellitus with non-adherence to treatment and diet regimens. In this case, vomiting is combined with severe thirst, frequent urination. Severe vomiting in diabetes can be a sign of impending ketoacidosis.
  • Diseases of the kidneys in the last stages (renal failure).
  • Some medications can have the side effect of vomiting. If vomiting occurs during treatment with any drug, you should consult with the doctor who prescribed this drug.
  • Mental factors: stress, fear, anorexia excitement, severe pain, individual unpleasant associations with any food, smell, taste, situation can also provoke nausea and vomiting. Recurrent vomiting can be a symptom of hysteria.

Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy

Nausea and vomiting are possible signs of pregnancy. In pregnant women, nausea usually occurs in the morning and is accompanied by mild dizziness, weakness, and drowsiness.Nausea and vomiting in pregnant women are symptoms of early preeclampsia (toxicosis) The occurrence of nausea and vomiting in a pregnant woman can be a sign of exacerbated pancreatitis, gastritis, gastric ulcer, treatment with iron preparations, therefore, in all cases of nausea and vomiting in pregnant women, this problem should be discussed with a doctor.

Vomiting in children

Vomiting in children occurs more often than in adults, as their structures of the stomach and brain, which prevent the expulsion of food through the mouth, are not fully developed.In a child, any infections, including ENT organs, fever, rotavirus infection, food poisoning can cause nausea and vomiting. In addition, children are more emotionally susceptible, so often a child’s vomiting can be associated with a dislike for a particular food, which is associated with unpleasant memories.
In newborn babies, vomiting should not be confused with regurgitation. A healthy child normally regurgitates 5-10 ml of stomach contents several times a day, regurgitation is associated with food intake and can be a sign of overeating, as well as occur as a result of rapid feeding and swallowing air.However, if the child regurgitates too often and is accompanied by the expulsion of a large amount of stomach contents (vomiting), the baby does not gain weight well – the child should be shown to the doctor, as this can serve as a symptom of esophageal or pyloric stenosis. In older children, vomiting may result from acute appendicitis or gastroenteritis, in which case the child will vomit and diarrhea with fever and severe abdominal pain. Vomiting, restlessness, a crying baby, no stool, or jelly-like, raspberry-colored stools may indicate an intussusception (intestinal obstruction), which is a medical emergency.Worms can be a common cause of recurrent nausea and vomiting in children. In all cases of episodic nausea and vomiting in a child, a stool test for parasite eggs should be taken and, if necessary, treated. Migraine headaches in children can cause recurrent bouts of vomiting. It is important to note that, unlike adults, migraine in children does not always manifest itself as a headache and for a long time can only manifest itself as episodes of vomiting or dizziness. Nausea and vomiting can occur in girls during the onset of menstruation.

Attention! Call a doctor if:

  • Nausea or vomiting occurs several times and you are not sure what is causing these symptoms.
  • If you suspect food poisoning may be causing the nausea, try to give your child a gastric lavage before the doctor arrives.
  • If a child has nausea and vomiting after a fall or injury (especially head and abdominal trauma).
  • Nausea and vomiting in a child is accompanied by one or more of the following symptoms: headache, drowsiness, agitation, diarrhea, loss of consciousness, progressive deterioration of the child’s condition.
  • Nausea and vomiting recur periodically in a child for no apparent reason.

What does the nature of vomiting indicate?

In all cases of vomiting, attention should be paid to the nature of the vomit:

  • Vomiting of blood may indicate bleeding from a stomach or duodenal ulcer and is an indication for urgent treatment. Sometimes a person may not know that he has a peptic ulcer and bleeding will be the first symptom.In addition, vomiting of blood occurs with bleeding from the dilated veins of the esophagus in people with cirrhosis.
  • Vomiting of blood mixed with foam indicates most often pulmonary hemorrhage.
  • Vomit yellow or green with a bitter taste suggests that it is bile. Vomiting of bile indicates diseases of the liver, gallbladder and often occurs after eating fatty foods.

Attention! In all cases of vomiting with blood (fresh or dark), the patient should be immediately taken to a doctor!

Therapy of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing gastroenterological surgery

Relevance

Postoperative nausea and vomiting are the most common complications after surgery and occur in more than 30% of patients.

A high risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting is observed in persons undergoing laparoscopic surgery and after prolonged surgery, according to the results of meta-analyzes. Many studies indicate a high risk of nausea and vomiting after undergoing urological and biliary interventions. One recent study reported a 35% incidence of nausea and vomiting after bowel resection.

In patients with postoperative nausea and vomiting, there is a decrease in appetite in the postoperative period, which can lead to a longer hospital stay.

Study objective was to determine whether preoperative dexamethasone administration reduces the risk of nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing bowel surgery.

Study design

Conducted a randomized study with two parallel comparison groups in 45 medical centers in the UK.

The analysis included 1350 patients aged 18 years and older who underwent elective open or laparoscopic bowel surgery for benign or malignant pathology.

Patients were injected intravenously with 8 mg of dexamethasone before starting anesthetics or undergoing standard therapy.

The development of vomiting within 24 hours after surgery was chosen as the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints were selected: vomiting within 72 and 120 hours, reported by the patient or physician, incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting within 24, 72 and 120 hours, fatigue and quality of life after 120 hours and after 30 days, time to return to food intake, length of hospital stay and frequency of adverse events.

Results

Of 1350 patients, 674 were included in the dexamethasone group and 676 in the standard therapy group.

  • Vomiting within 24 hours after surgery occurred in 172 participants treated with dexamethasone (25.5%) compared with 223 in the control group (33.0%), P = 0.003. The number of patients to be treated to prevent vomiting in one patient (NNT) was 13.
  • Anthymetic drugs were prescribed on demand to 285 individuals in the dexamethasone group (39.3%) and 351 patients from the control group (51.9%). The NNT score was 8 (95% CI, 5-11; P <0.001). The reduced need for prescribing drugs persisted within 72 hours. There was no increase in complication rates.

Conclusion

The addition of a single intravenous dose of dexamethasone at a dose of 8 mg at the beginning of anesthetic therapy is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting within 24 hours and a decrease in the need for administration of antimemetic drugs within 72 hours in patients undergoing bowel surgery.

Source: DREAMS Trial Collaborators and West Midlands Research Collaborative. BMJ 2017; 357: j1455.

Why is it often bad in the morning, and what to do about it

Morning sickness can have many causes
Photo: pixabay.com

Nausea and stomach problems in the morning may be associated with poor lifestyle choices or illness.

In most cases, the causes of morning sickness lie in the lifestyle and can be quickly eliminated.

Here are some of the most common causes of morning sickness:

  • You are pregnant: Morning sickness is a common symptom in pregnant women. If you are unsure, do a test to rule out this cause.

  • Didn’t get enough sleep: A restless night, nightmares and related lack of sleep can cause nausea, headaches and bad mood the next day.Aim for 7-8 hours of sleep.

  • You have hypoglycemia: If you have not eaten for a long time before bedtime, your blood sugar may have dropped. A bite of sweet or a banana can help relieve nausea.

  • Eating fatty foods: If you ate fast food the night before, it can lead to heartburn, and in the morning to nausea. Avoid fatty foods later than two hours before bed.

  • Drank a lot of alcohol: Excessive alcohol consumption leads to nausea and headaches in the morning.Try to limit your drinking and always eat enough before drinking.

  • Emotional problems: If you carry psychological problems for a long time, the tension on your stomach can increase dramatically. In this case, a psychologist will help.

If your morning sickness doesn’t go away with the tips above, it may be a sign of more serious problems.

  • Gastrointestinal infection: Even if you do not have vomiting or diarrhea, it could be an infection, as some people have minor symptoms.

  • Pancreas is inflamed: If nausea persists in the morning, pancreas may be inflamed.

  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome: If you frequently suffer from bloating, gas, abdominal pain and nausea, you may have irritable bowel syndrome. This can be the cause of morning sickness.

Earlier, “Kubanskie Novosti” told how to understand that the body lacks protein.

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