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Reversible Short-Term Birth Control Methods

This list is by no means comprehensive, but it is intended to provide information on some of the most common forms of birth control. There are many different options available for effective birth control. You should discuss these with your provider to determine which choice is right for you.

For general information regarding birth control, you can go to: http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/birth-control-methods.cfm

Abstinence

Though not always mentioned in discussions about birth control, this is the only sure way to prevent pregnancy and STDs! Becoming sexually active is a very personal choice and decision—one not to be entered into lightly. Just remember that no other method of birth control is fool-proof in preventing STDs or pregnancy.

Barrier Methods

Condoms provide a barrier so that sperm cannot reach the egg. They can be made of several different materials including latex, polyurethane, or lambskin. Lambskin, or natural condoms, are not reliable to protect against STDs.

Important things to know about condoms:

  • Condoms CAN help prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections. They should be used with every act of intercourse including oral, anal, or vaginal, to prevent the spread of STDs such as gonorrhea, Chlamydia, or HIV.
  • Condoms have a higher risk of failure than other forms of birth control. The risk of pregnancy in one year is 11-16 per 100 women.
  • Condoms work best when used with a spermicide, a chemical that kills the sperm.
  • Condoms will REDUCE the risk of transmission of HPV, the virus responsible for cervical cancer, but do not completely eliminate the risk of transmission.
  • Lubricants that are water-based like K-Y jelly are safe to use. However, oil-based lubricants such as Vaseline, massage oils, or baby oil can increase the likelihood that the condom will tear or break.
  • Condoms that are kept in hot places are not safe to use. In other words, do not use a condom that has been stored in a wallet or car.

Progesterone-only Oral Contraceptives, or “The Mini-Pill”

Progesterone-only pills are commonly recommended for women who are breast-feeding, as a combination pill may reduce the milk supply. This is a progesterone-only pill that should prevent ovulation.

The Mini-pill is less effective than a combination pill and is more dependent on consistent use- taking the pill at the same time every day and not missing any pills. We recommend that once a woman stops breast-feeding, she contact the office for a further discussion regarding birth control methods.

Combination Oral Contraceptives, or “The Pill”

The birth control pill is one of the most common forms of birth control—and for good reason. There are many very positive side effects that make it a good option for many women. Sometimes your provider will prescribe the pill to treat some of these side effects—even if you do not need it for pregnancy prevention. These side effects include:

  • Decreased duration of periods for women who have prolonged periods
  • Lighter menstrual flow for women who have heavy periods
  • Regularity of periods for women who have unpredictable cycles
  • Decreased cramping in women with painful cycles
  • Decreased likelihood of forming ovarian cysts

How does the pill work?

The pill works in several different ways. It is made of a combination of estrogen and progestin, hormones normally produced in a woman’s body. The pill does the following things:

  1. Mainly, it prevents ovulation, or the release of an egg from the ovary
  2. Thickens the mucous of the cervix to block sperm from entering the cervix and the uterus
  3. Thins the lining of the uterus, making it less likely that a fertilized egg can attach

How effective is the pill?

If taken correctly, the pill is very effective. In fact, if the pill is taken at the same time every day and no pills are missed, your risk of pregnancy is less than 1 in 100 in 1 year. However, the effectiveness of the pill declines in women who skip pills or take the pill at different times of day.

When can I start my pills? Do I need backup birth control?

There are several different ways of starting. We typically recommend starting your pill pack on the Sunday following the first day of your next period. This is for convenience only, as most pill packs are divided by week and day. While all of the following options are available, discuss these with your provider before starting your pill pack.

  • The first day of your period. This does not require a backup method of birth control.
  • The Sunday after your period starts. Use backup birth control for the first full week (7 days) of your pack.
  • The day you get your pill pack, no matter where you are in the cycle. You will need a pregnancy test before doing this and a backup method for the entire pill pack. You may notice slightly more spotting with this method depending on where you are in your cycle.

What are side effects from taking the pill?

  • Nausea—take your pills at night before you go to bed to diminish this
  • Breast tenderness
  • Breakthrough bleeding—one of the most common side effects. Again, this will improve with time!
  • Headaches—some women, particularly women with migraines, may notice a worsening of this. Sometimes the fix is simple and may require a change in the way you take the pill.

Most side effects from the pill diminish with time and typically resolve completely. Sometimes it may take 3-6 months for these symptoms to completely go away. Be patient and give it time. If these symptoms are intolerable, though, the solution can be as simple as changing to a different kind of pill. Call the office if you are considering stopping your pills—we can often help you with this in ways that do not require stopping the pill completely!

What do I do if I miss a pill?

If you miss one pill, take it as soon as you remember. The next day’s pill should be taken at the regular time. This may mean that you take more than one pill in a day. This is okay. If you forget two or more pills, call the office. If you miss two pills, you should use a backup method of birth control for the remainder of the pill pack. If you have any concerns at all, you can always use a backup method even if you only miss one pill.

Who should not take the pill?

  • Women who smoke and are over the age of 35
  • Women with a history of blood clots in the lungs or deep veins (DVT)
  • Women over the age of 35 with other health conditions including (but not limited to) diabetes, high cholesterol, or high blood pressure

What else should I know about the pill?

The pill may increase your risk of forming a serious blood clot in the deep veins of the legs or lungs. This risk is small, but it exists for any type of pill we prescribe that contains a combination of estrogen and progestin. Also, the pill does not protect against sexually transmitted infections. You must also use a condom for prevention of STDs.

NuvaRing

NuvaRing is a small, flexible ring that is inserted in the vagina at the beginning of the cycle. It remains in the vagina for three weeks and is removed at the start of the fourth week to allow your period to begin. The NuvaRing stays in place during any activity including exercise, intercourse, and bathing, and is held in place by the muscles of the body. It is typically not even noticeable during any of these activities. The side effects are similar to those of the birth control pill. NuvaRing does not protect against sexually transmitted infections. You must also use a condom for prevention of STDs.

What do I do if my NuvaRing slips out?

  • If less than 3 hours—rinse the NuvaRing with warm water and reinsert.
  • If out for more than 3 hours within the first 2 weeks of putting in your NuvaRing—rinse with warm water, reinsert as soon as possible, and use a backup method of birth control.
  • If out for more than 3 hours in the third week of putting in your NuvaRing—throw the ring away and either:
    • Insert a new ring immediately and use the new ring for the next three weeks
    • Leave the NuvaRing out, have a period, and insert a new ring no later than 7 days from the time the ring was removed. This method will only work if your previous ring was in for at least 7 days before it fell out.

Do I need to use a backup method when I start the NuvaRing?

Yes, in the following situations:
  • The very first week you ever start NuvaRing (until you have used it for 7 days in a row)
  • If your ring comes out in the first two weeks of placement and is reinserted after being out for more than 3 hours

For more information, you can go to: www.nuvaring.com

Birth Control Pills: All Guides

Key Facts

  • Besides birth control, there are many medical benefits of birth control pills (BCP) (also called oral contraceptives (OCP), the Pill, or hormonal pills).
  • Before starting birth control pills, talk to your health care provider about side effects, risks and benefits of the Pill.
  • Birth control pills can help irregular periods, PCOS, endometriosis, acne, menstrual cramps, and low estrogen conditions.

Adolescent girls and young women are often prescribed birth control pills for irregular or absent menstrual periods, menstrual cramps, acne, PMS, endometriosis, Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI) and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Girls who are diagnosed with PCOS are often prescribed oral contraceptives to lower their hormone levels and regulate their menstrual periods.

Birth control pills (sometimes called “the Pill,” oral contraceptive pills, or hormonal pills) contain one or two types of synthetic (man-made) female hormones, estrogen and/or progestin. Similar hormones are normally made by the ovaries. There are many different types of oral contraceptive pills.

What kinds of medical conditions can be helped with birth control pills?

Birth control pills are used to treat many different conditions including:

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): is a hormonal imbalance which causes irregular menstrual periods, acne, and excess hair growth. For girls whose menstrual periods are irregular (too few or not at all), birth control pills work by lowering certain hormone levels to regulate menstrual periods. When hormones are at normal levels, acne and hair growth often improve.

Endometriosis: Most girls with endometriosis have cramps or pelvic pain during their menstrual cycle. Birth control pills are often prescribed continuously to treat endometriosis and work by temporarily preventing periods. Since periods can cause pain for young women with endometriosis, stopping periods will usually improve cramps and pelvic pain.

Lack of periods (“amenorrhea”) from low weight, stress, or excessive exercise: Birth control pills may be prescribed to replace estrogen, which helps to regulate the menstrual cycle. Normal estrogen levels and healthy weight are important for healthy bones. If lack of periods is caused by low weight or an eating disorder, the best treatment is weight gain to a normal healthy weight and counseling to address body image and health.

Painful Periods (“Dysmenorrhea”): When over-the-counter medications don’t help with severe cramps, birth control pills may be the solution because they prevent ovulation and lighten periods.

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): Symptoms of PMS such as mood swings, breast soreness, weight gain and bloating, along with acne can occur up to 2 weeks before a young women’s period. Birth control pills may be prescribed to stop ovulation and keep hormone levels balanced. Symptoms may improve, particularly when oral contraceptive pills are prescribed continuously.

Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI): Birth control pills are often prescribed to girls who have ovaries that don’t make enough estrogen because of radiation and/or chemotherapy, a genetic condition such as Turner Syndrome, or other conditions. The goal of this treatment is to regulate the menstrual cycle and help keep bones healthy.

Heavy Menstrual PeriodsBirth control pills can reduce the amount and length of menstrual bleeding.

Acne: For moderate to severe acne, which over-the-counter and prescription medications haven’t cured, birth control pills may be prescribed. The hormones in the Pill can help stop acne from forming. Be patient though, since it can take take several months before you see an improvement with your skin.

Other Medical Benefits

Because there is less menstrual bleeding when taking birth control pills, you are less likely to get a medical condition called anemia (low number of red blood cells, which carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues). Birth control pills also lower your chance of getting endometrial (lining of the uterus) cancer, ovarian cancer, and ovarian cysts.

What are the side effects of birth control pills?

Most women have no side effects when taking birth control pills, but some women do have irregular periods, nausea, headaches, or bloating. Each type of pill can affect each woman differently.

Spotting or Irregular Periods: Very light bleeding (you just need a panty liner or light day pad) may occur during the first 3 weeks of taking the Pill and may continue for several cycles, but this is not serious. Irregular bleeding is common if you are late taking your pills or you miss a pill. If the bleeding is new and you are sexually active, get checked for Chlamydia infection. If the bleeding becomes heavier (more than just a very light flow or lasts more than a few days), call your health care provider.

Nausea: Sometimes a young woman can feel nauseated (feeling like you need to throw up), but the feeling usually goes away if the pill is taken with food or with a bedtime snack. Sometimes a pill with less estrogen is prescribed if the nausea doesn’t go away.

Headaches: Sometimes, young women may complain of headaches when they start taking birth control pills. Most often headaches happen because of stress or other reasons such as skipping meals, not enough sleep, sinus infections, or migraines. If your health care provider thinks your headaches are related to the Pill, he/she may prescribe a different pill with a lower amount of estrogen or may take you off of it completely and watch to see if headaches get better.

Mood changes: Feeling up and down emotionally can happen to anyone and is unlikely to be caused by the Pill. Exercise and a healthy diet may help, but if they don’t, you should talk with your health care provider and try a different kind of oral contraceptive pill.

Breakouts: Usually the pill helps cure acne, but a few women feel they get acne from certain kinds of birth control pill.

Sore or enlarged breasts: Your breasts may become tender or may get larger. Usually the symptoms go away in a couple of months; if not, talk to your primary care provider about a lower dose pill.

Weight: Some teens gain weight and some teens lose weight while taking birth control pills, but most teens stay exactly the same weight. Many times a young woman thinks she has gained 5-10 pounds, but when her weight is actually checked, there is no change. If you think you may have gained weight while taking the Pill, talk to your health care provider. Try to remember to watch your portion sizes and eat 5-7 servings of fruits and veggies each day and don’t forget to exercise. Your appetite may increase or stay the same.

Side effects usually go away in the first three to four cycles (months). If you do have side effects, you should talk to your health care provider. If the side effects are very uncomfortable or if they don’t go away after three cycles, your health care provider may switch you to a different pill.

Are there any risks with birth control pills?

Most young women who take birth control pills have few or no problems. However, birth control pills with estrogen may cause a slight increase in the risk of developing blood clots in the legs, eyes, and lungs. If you develop any of the following problems, go to the closest emergency room:

Remember: ACHES

  • Abdominal or stomach pain (severe)
  • Chest pain (severe), cough, shortness of breath
  • Headache (severe), dizziness, weakness, or numbness
  • Eye problems (vision loss or blurring), speech problems
  • Severe leg pain (calf or thigh)

What if I forget to take one or more birth control pills?

  • If you miss 1 active Pill:
  • Take the pill as soon as you remember and then continue taking your pills at the usual time each day.
  • You may take 2 pills on the same day (one at the moment you remember and the other at the regular time) or even 2 at the same time.
  • If you miss 2 or more active pills in a row:
  • Take the most recently missed Pill as soon as possible.
  • Throw away the other missed pills.
  • Continue taking the rest of your pills at the usual time each day.
  • You may take 2 pills on the same day (one at the moment you remember and the other at the scheduled time).
  • If you missed the active pills in the third week or row (days 15-21 for the 28 day pill pack), throw the inactive pills away and finish taking the active hormone pills.
  • Then start a new pack right away.
  • If you are sexually active and missed 2 pills, don’t have sex or if you do have sex use condoms every time until you’ve taken active (hormone) pills for 7 days in a row.
  • Talk to your health care provider about whether you should use emergency contraception (EC), especially if you missed pills the first week of your pill pack, or had unprotected sex the past 5 days.

What if my period is very light while I’m taking birth control pills?

Your period may be so light when you are taking birth control pills that you may have only a brown smudge on a tampon, pad, panty shield or underwear. The hormone doses in birth control pills are very low. This means that the lining of your uterus doesn’t become very thick so very little blood needs to come out each month.

What if I am also using birth control pills to prevent pregnancy?

If you take birth control pills for a medical reason, you’re also protected from getting pregnant. The Pill, however, does not protect you against sexually transmitted infections. ALWAYS use protection against STI’s such a condoms or dental dams when having sexual intercourse..

Heavy Periods & Birth Control

Heavy periods & birth control at a glance

  • Many women experience heavy periods, and hormone-based birth control pills, patches, implants, injections, and vaginal rings are frequently prescribed to help treat this condition.
  • Such birth control methods can reduce the menstrual flow by as much as 60 percent and lessen the duration of the flow.
  • The estrogen in hormone-based birth control increases the clotting factors in blood, which slows the flow.
  • Hormone-based birth control methods are not appropriate for all women experiencing heavy periods.

Using hormone-based birth control to treat heavy periods

Approximately one in three women experiences a heavy period, also known as menorrhagia. Women experiencing heavy periods should consult their physician to determine the underlying cause and to get the appropriate treatment.

Menorrhagia can be caused by:

  • Bleeding disorders
  • Structural issues, such as fibroids or infections in the uterus
  • Changes in hormone levels that may occur when an adolescent first begins her period, when ovulation is missed or erratic, or when a woman enters menopause
  • Use of intrauterine devices
  • Certain medications
  • Serious conditions such as liver disease, cancer and diseases of the reproductive system

Birth control pills are often the first line of treatment for women with a normal uterus who have heavy periods. The estrogen in birth control pills acts to promote thickening of the blood and clotting. This can result in decreased menstrual flow, a shorter duration of the flow, and relief from pain sometimes associated with heavy periods. Approximately 80 percent of women with a healthy uterus and heavy bleeding respond to birth control pills.

However, not all women experiencing heavy periods respond to birth control pills. They can be ineffective in reducing the menstrual flow, and they can also cause side effects in some women that outweigh the benefit of treating the heavy period. It may be appropriate to use a birth control patch or a vaginal ring to deliver the hormones instead of taking birth control pills.

Birth control pills are also used to treat the heavy period symptoms of the following bleeding disorders:

  • An inherited bleeding disorder called von Willebrand disease that results in insufficient blood clotting
  • Dysfunctional uterine bleeding involving abnormal bleeding from the vagina due to hormonal changes, often occurring when the ovaries do not release an egg

Can I use birth control pills if I have heavy periods?

Generally, yes. Birth control pills should not have an adverse effect on heavy periods and can help, as described above. However, when you initially have a heavy period, you should consult with your doctor to determine the cause. Your physician may advise you to alter the kind of birth control pill you are taking to help address the heavy period.

Can birth control pills cause heavy periods?

No. However, other birth control methods such as the copper IUD or the Depo-Provera shots can cause prolonged menstrual flow, and rarely heavier flow.

View birth control options

Which Birth Control Pills Are Best to Use for Skipping Periods?

Women who want to adjust the way they have their periods on birth control have a number of options. Women can decrease the frequency of their periods, reduce the length of their periods, or occasionally avoid their periods entirely by taking certain kinds of birth control pills or taking them in a certain way. 

That said, not every birth control pill is designed to be used to skip periods. The formulas to use for this are monophasic combination pills, meaning those that contain both estrogen and progestin in the same amounts in every pill. Most packs of combination birth control pills contain 21 days of hormone-containing pills followed by 7 days worth of placebo pills — it’s while taking the placebo pills that people have their periods. 

What Birth Control Should I Take For Less Frequent Periods?

To have a period once a season instead of once a month, the easiest option is to choose a pill designed for this purpose. Continuous birth control pills generally include 84 days, or 12 weeks, of hormone-containing pills followed by 7 days of pills that contain either no estrogen or very low doses. Continuous birth control pills are combination pills, but their relatively low amounts of estrogen mean that even when you do have your period it will generally be light.

Some of the most common brands of continuous birth control include: 

  • Seasonale 
  • Seasonique 
  • Jolessa
  • Amethia
  • LoSeasonique
  • Quartette
  • Rivelsa

What Birth Control Should I Take For Shorter Periods?

Some pills stick to the traditional 28-day cycle while reducing the number of placebo pills contained in each pack. This causes women who take these pills to experience shorter periods. Pills with 24 days worth of hormone-containing pills and 4 days of placebo pills include:

Another option is Lo Loestrin Fe, which contains 26 active combination pills, 2 estrogen-only pills, and 2 placebo pills. This particular sequence leads to periods that are generally lighter and shorter than they would be otherwise. 

What Birth Control Should I Take If I Want to Skip My Period Entirely?

It is possible to avoid your period simply by taking your existing birth control and skipping the 7 days of placebo pills, going straight from one 21 day run of hormone-containing pills to another. By taking the active pills continuously, you’re keeping your body’s hormones at a constant level and preventing the hormonal shifts that generally accompany menstruation. Birth control pills not intended for this kind of continuous use may cause higher incidences of breakthrough bleeding or spotting, so the Nurx medical team generally recommends taking a week off to have a period every 3 to 4 months.  

Some pills, however, are designed to be taken continuously without any need for “off” weeks. Amethia, for example, is a birth control pill brand designed to be taken continuously for 84 days followed by 7 days of estrogen-only pills. 

For women who want a method other than the pill, the birth control ring can be taken in a way that prevents menstruation from occurring — instead of removing your ring after three weeks and taking a ring-free week to have a period, simply leave the ring in for four weeks then remove it and immediately replace it with a new ring

What Are The Benefits of Skipping Periods?

The benefits to skipping your period may seem obvious, but there are even more than you might realize. In addition to sidestepping the cramps and mood swings that often accompany menstruation, the benefits of skipping periods can be particularly pronounced for women who have particularly severe period-related symptoms such as heavy bleeding or menstrual migraines. Using birth control to skip periods can also help prevent ovarian cysts, and reduce endometriosis symptoms. 

The only real risk incurred by skipping periods with birth control is some additional breakthrough bleeding, but this can usually be solved by taking a break to have a period every 3-4 months.

If you’re interested in getting birth control that allows you to skip your periods, Nurx can help you find the brand or method that’s right for you. Get in touch with a member of our team of experts today to see what we have to offer. 

How can I delay my period?

There’s no guaranteed way to delay your period, but it may be possible if you take the combined contraceptive pill.

Taking 2 packets of the combined pill back-to-back

If you take a combined contraceptive pill, you can delay your period by taking 2 packets back-to-back.

How you do this will depend on which pill you take.

Examples are:

  • monophasic 21-day pills, such as Microgynon and Cilest – you take a combined pill for 21 days, followed by 7 days without pills, when you have a bleed (period). To delay your period, start a new packet of pills straight after you finish the last pill and miss out the 7-day break.
  • everyday (ED) pills, such as Microgynon ED and Lorynon ED  – you take a combined pill every day. The first 21 pills are active pills and the next 7 pills are inactive or dummy pills, when you have your period. To delay your period, miss out and throw away the dummy pills, and start the active pills in a new packet straight away. 
  • phasic 21-day pills, such as Binovium, Qlaira and Logynon – the mix of hormones in each pill is different, depending on which phase you’re in. You need to take these pills in the correct order to have effective contraception. Ask your pharmacist, community contraception clinic or GP for more information.

Taking your contraceptive pills in the ways described above will not affect how they work as contraceptives.

If you’re not sure which pill you’re on or which pills in the packet to miss out, speak to your pharmacist, community contraception clinic or GP.

Avoid taking more than 2 packs without a break, unless your GP says you can.

There’s a risk you could experience side effects, such as:

  • feeling sick
  • being sick
  • diarrhoea
  • unexpected vaginal bleeding

Progestogen-only contraceptive pill

If you’re taking a progestogen-only contraceptive pill, you cannot delay your period by taking 2 packets back-to-back.

But you may be able to switch to the combined contraceptive pill or take another medication to delay your period.

If you’re not sure which type of pill you’re taking, speak to your pharmacist, community contraception clinic or GP for advice.

If you do not take a contraceptive pill

See your GP for advice if you want to delay your period and you’re not taking the combined contraceptive pill.

They might be able to prescribe medication called norethisterone to delay your period.

Your GP will advise you when to take norethisterone and for how long.

You’ll usually be prescribed 3 norethisterone tablets a day, starting 3 to 4 days before you expect your period to begin.

Your period should arrive 2 to 3 days after you stop taking the medication.

But norethisterone does not act as a contraceptive when used in this way, so you could still get pregnant.

You’ll need to use another type of contraceptive, such as a condom.

And norethisterone may not be suitable if you have a history of blood clots.

How well it works in delaying periods also varies between women.

Some women taking norethisterone have reported side effects, such as:

  • breast tenderness
  • nausea
  • headache
  • disturbances in mood and sex drive

Switching to, or starting, the combined contraceptive pill

If you currently use another type of contraception, switching to the combined contraceptive pill will allow you to delay your period.

You may also be able to start taking the combined pill if you do not already use contraception.

But you may need to start taking this pill several weeks before the time when you want to delay your period, and it’s not suitable for everyone.

If you’re switching to or starting the combined contraceptive pill, you might need to use additional contraception during the first few days of taking it.

Ask your pharmacist, community contraception clinic or GP for more information and advice.

Further information

Page last reviewed: 7 January 2019
Next review due: 7 January 2022

For the Teen Who No Longer Wants a Period …

My very active 12.5-year-old daughter hates getting her period, which she began having two years ago. When can young women begin to use hormonal birth control methods that reduce the number of periods they have each year? Are there reasons young women should wait until they are older?

— Jessica Jimenez, Texas

[Have a question about women’s health? Ask Dr. Gunter yourself.]

Short Take

There are many reasons, regardless of age, that someone may dislike having a menstrual cycle. However, an unpredictable menstrual cycle, which is commonplace in the first few years after one’s first period, can make them especially challenging for adolescents. Hormonal contraception can help many teens and pre-teens manage these issues.

Tell Me More

Many teenagers — not just those who are active in organized sports — find their periods bothersome. For some, getting a regular period can be a reassuring sign that your body is functioning in a healthy way and that you are not pregnant. However, in one study, approximately 70 percent of adolescents between the ages of 15 and 19 indicated that they would prefer to have their periods less frequently than once a month.

The hassles of managing a monthly period are many: Pads cannot be used for swimming and they can chafe or be uncomfortable. Tampons and menstrual cups are an option, but not everyone is comfortable using internal menstrual products. Leakage of blood onto underwear and clothing can happen regardless of the menstrual product.

Making menstruation more stressful is the fact that menstrual periods are often irregular for the first few years. Worrying if your period is going to start whether you are at a sporting event, in class, or just hanging out with friends can be stressful. Period cramps (dysmenorrhea), premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and diarrhea can also make menstruation unpleasant or challenging regardless of age.

Tips to Help Menstrual Management

Taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen, before the start of each period can reduce the amount of blood by 30 to 40 percent and may also help with cramps and diarrhea.

Period underwear, absorbent underwear designed specifically for menstrual blood, is a useful way to be prepared for an irregular cycle or to provide back-up for tampons or menstrual cups. Some may find the price limiting and period underwear may not be convenient if it needs to be changed outside of the home.

The combination oral contraceptive pill — the birth control pill with estrogen commonly referred to as “the pill” — is a common way to manage menstruation-related concerns. Periods will be predictable, generally are lighter, and cramps and diarrhea often improve.

The pill can also be taken continuously, meaning a person can skip the placebo week of pills in that package so periods are less frequent — for example every 8 or 12 weeks. When the pill is taken this way every month, by one year, 72 percent of women will have no periods. Unpredictable spotting is a common side effect, especially in the first few months.

The birth control pill without estrogen (the progestin-only pill) is an option for teens who cannot take estrogen for medical reasons, although typically it is less effective at menstrual period manipulation.

One consideration with all oral contraceptives is the ability to take a pill every day as missed pills may lead to irregular bleeding. In addition, if a teen is taking the pill to manipulate her period and decides to be sexually active, there may be false reassurance about contraception for inconsistent pill takers.

Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), a contraceptive injection, has a high rate of stopping periods by the fourth injection. It is associated with a reduction in bone density, but in general there is recovery when it is stopped.

The hormonal intrauterine device (IUD) can result in lighter periods or stop periods altogether, but this may take several months of irregular bleeding. Insertion of IUDs for adolescents ages 13 to 17 is successful 95 percent of the time.

The contraceptive implant is typically not recommended for menstrual manipulation as almost one-quarter of users have frequent or prolonged bleeding. Only 20 percent of women who use the implant will have no period.

Risks of Taking the Pill

The biggest medical risk that comes with taking the pill is an increased risk of blood clots — but that risk is low. If we follow 10,000 women for one year then one will have a clot; on the pill, that risk rises to 3 to 4.

There can be an impact on height when a person is exposed to estrogen too early. By two years after the first period, most teens have stopped growing, however, the younger a girl starts her period, the longer she may continue to grow. Most of the data suggests the birth control pill with estrogen has no impact on stature, but for adolescents who start their period early, a discussion about height with a pediatrician or pediatric and adolescent gynecologist may be in order.

Many people of all ages prefer not to have a period for a variety of reasons, even Ob/Gyns. The risks associated with the medications used to regulate or stop periods are generally very low, but only an individual can decide if the benefit to risk ratio is worth it. Your daughter’s doctor should discuss the impact her period is having on her life and review all the options to help her weigh the pros and cons.

Dr. Jen Gunter, Twitter’s resident gynecologist, is teaming up with our editors to answer your questions about all things women’s health. From what’s normal for your anatomy, to healthy sex, to clearing up the truth behind strange wellness claims, Dr. Gunter, who also writes a column called, The Cycle, promises to handle your questions with respect, forthrightness and honesty.

Why is long-lasting birth control struggling to catch on?

The oral contraceptive pill is one of the most popular forms of birth control but, like many other methods, it has one important flaw: it only works if people take it as directed. The pill can be more than 99% effective at preventing pregnancy, but with typical use this falls below 95%.

User error is not a problem for long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), however. These include intra-uterine devices (IUDs) that release either hormones or copper into the womb, as well as hormone-releasing implants that are inserted under the skin. Such devices are more than 99% effective without requiring the person using them to do anything at all once they are in place. “They are set-and-forget contraception,” says Danielle Mazza, a women’s-health specialist who heads the Department of General Practice at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia.

As well as being the most effective reversible method of reducing unwanted pregnancies and subsequent abortions, LARCs can also reduce or even eliminate monthly periods, manage the symptoms of endometriosis, and can even be used as a form of emergency contraception.

But despite all their benefits, LARCs are less popular than other forms of contraception — something that many women’s-health organizations around the world are trying to change. Cost, availability and lack of awareness are all barriers to the uptake of LARCs that must be overcome, as is their dark history as a tool for reproductive coercion.

The idea of a long-term, reversible method of inhibiting pregnancy was first explored in the early 1900s. Devices made from silk, glass buttons, silver rings, gelatine capsules and plastic that were placed and remained in the cervix and uterus were trialled with varying degrees of success. Eventually, a winning configuration emerged, and today the most-common form of IUD consists of a T-shaped, flexible plastic frame wound with copper wire that sits inside the uterus. Strangely for a device that is now so widely used, the precise mechanisms by which these intra-uterine devices prevent pregnancy are not well understood.

Disruptive devices

The general principle of IUDs is that they trigger inflammation or the production of mucus in the cervix, at the entrance to the uterus, and that the thick mucus prevents sperm from travelling into the uterus and fallopian tubes. Inside the uterus, copper can also create chemical changes that make the environment less hospitable for both sperm and fertilized eggs. The IUD works both to prevent pregnancy in the first place and also, if it is inserted within five days of unprotected sex, as a form of emergency contraception.

In the 1970s, a high-profile IUD called the Dalkon Shield was released. But the hype soon turned to horror as the number of women reporting pelvic infections, sepsis and even infertility from using the device soared. That failure cast a long shadow over IUDs and it took several decades for sales of the devices to recover from the mistrust and suspicion created by the Dalkon Shield saga.

A 2015–17 survey by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that 19% of women of reproductive age had used an IUD, and 8% were using one at the time of the interview. In Australia, 6% of women surveyed in 2012–13 were using IUDs, and in the United Kingdom, 10% of women of reproductive age were using IUDs in 2018. But IUDs are most popular in China, where around one-third of married women use them, representing 70% of all global users.

Newer models, such as Mirena, Kyleena and, most recently, Liletta, have replaced the copper with slow-release, low-dose hormones that thicken the mucus that lines the cervix. This mucus prevents sperm from reaching the uterus, stops fertilized eggs from implanting in the lining of the uterus, and suppresses ovulation. The addition of the hormone to the IUD brings a range of other benefits, such as reducing heavy bleeding.

“For women who struggle with heavy periods that put them out of action for a couple of days each month, for women who suffer from endometriosis and have very painful periods, and for women who don’t like having periods and are very happy not to bleed every month, the Mirena is fantastic because it thins down the lining of the uterus,” says Mazza.

Liletta is the longest-lasting hormonal IUD, with a six-year lifespan. But not everyone can use hormonal IUDs — some women react adversely to the hormones and they cannot be used in those who have a history of breast cancer. To address this problem, a copper-based, non-hormonal IUD with a flexible nickel and titanium frame is being developed that uses a smaller amount of copper. But because the T-shape is associated with cramping in women who have a small uterus, a frameless IUD consisting of plastic thread with copper beads is being developed. Other studies are exploring safer ways of inserting the IUD to reduce the rare but potentially serious complication of perforating the uterus. But the IUDs currently on the market are largely safe and effective, so the focus is on expanding the use and availability of existing options.

Although IUDs were once considered only for women who had already had children, there is now increasing emphasis on their use by adolescent and young women, says sexual-health physician Sarah Borg, senior adviser at Marie Stopes International, a London-based organization that provides family-planning services.

Borg says that IUDs should be considered as a first-line option for adolescents, because young people are more likely to make mistakes when using other contraceptives. “They’re not that likely to want to start a family soon so it’s great to give them this method that lasts for a long time, to tide them over to when they are ready to start a family.”

But not everyone is comfortable with the idea of a device sitting inside their uterus for years at a time. So, although IUDs have long dominated the LARC market, the use of hormone-releasing implants embedded in the arm is starting to rise, particularly among young women aged 15–19 years, says Megan Kavanaugh, principal research scientist at the Guttmacher Institute, a research and policy organization in New York City that focuses on sexual and reproductive health.

Implants such as Nexplanon, Jadelle and Sino-implant (II) consist of a flexible plastic rod that is inserted just under the skin of the upper arm, where it can stay for several years. There has been long-standing interest in developing biodegradable implants, which would avoid the need for removal. But using these could complicate the reversibility of implants, and there are no such products on the market.

The proportion of contraceptive users in the United States who rely on subcutaneous implants rose from just 0.5% of women in 2008 to 4.3% in 2016. This higher uptake of implants accounted for much of the increase in the use of LARCs during that period, which coincided with a decline in the use of relatively short-term contraceptives, such as the oral contraceptive pill. One possible reason for this switch is that doctors are offering LARCs more often and to a broader range of users.

Implants in the arm are also a less-daunting prospect than having an IUD inserted. “If you have never put your feet in the stirrups at a gynaecologist’s office, that’s a larger hurdle to get over to get to the IUD,” Kavanaugh says.

Paying for protection

In the six weeks after Donald Trump’s election as US president in November 2016, the daily rate of LARC insertions among privately insured women in the United States increased by more than 20%. Sarah Christopherson, policy advocacy director for the National Women’s Health Network in Washington DC, speculates that this rush was driven by concern that Trump would repeal the Affordable Care Act, which had significantly reduced the cost of LARC insertion. “There was this feeling for some people of ‘this might be my last chance to get an IUD’,” she says.

Cost is a significant barrier to the widespread use of LARCs. Whereas the cost of oral contraceptives is spread over time, almost the full cost of LARCs must be paid up-front when it is inserted, and it can run to thousands of dollars. The issue of cost is so important that when the New Zealand government introduced a subsidy for the subcutaneous implant in 2010, there was not only a significant rise in the use of implants, but also an acceleration in a longer-term trend of falling abortion rates.

LARCs have “very low failure rates” compared with short-acting contraceptives, says public-health researcher Catherine Whitley, from the University of Otago in Wellington, New Zealand. It therefore makes sense, she says, that greater use of LARCs would result in fewer unintended pregnancies.

Another barrier to the widespread use of LARCs is mistrust. The unethical practice of forced sterilizations inflicted around the world — particularly on women of colour, the poor, immigrant women, and women with disabilities — is also playing out in a less overt way with LARCs. These devices require a clinician to both insert and remove them, which imposes a barrier on women having a LARC removed if she wishes to get pregnant. Christopherson says that some US states have had Medicaid policies that paid for the insertion but not the removal of a LARC — and some have required medical justification for removal.

“It could be that you’ve come across a provider who has a particular bias, thinks you’re too young, thinks Black women are irresponsible,” Christopherson says. “It could be that your provider is working in a reimbursement environment where they’re paid really well for insertions and they don’t get paid at all for removal if it comes too early.”

Reproductive-health specialists want to see greater uptake of LARCs because of their effectiveness and safety. But they are also keenly aware of the need to make sure that women are able to make an informed choice about their contraceptive method, free from pressure or influence. “We want to be moving towards policies that support the broad range of methods being available,” Kavanaugh says, “so that individuals can choose the best method that’s right for them in their life circumstances.

90,000 Extra third: why China should have softened its birth control for a long time

The policy of planned childbearing, introduced in the early 1970s, has long seemed an anachronism to many in China. Nevertheless, it is not canceled, but only consistently corrected. Officially, this is presented as the party’s ability to adapt to changing conditions. However, it is no secret that these conditions themselves were largely created by previous administrative measures. There are especially many complaints about the tough course “one family – one child”, which was proclaimed in 1980.Since 1982, planned childbearing has become a constitutional norm, it is mentioned four times in the Basic Law, with birth planning in the first place among the responsibilities of both spouses.

Passage of the relevant law is ahead, but the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China has already approved changes in birth control policy.

Unnecessary rigidity

Today, the authorities are trying to achieve balanced economic growth and overcome the progressive decline in the working population. However, critically low population growth, gender and age imbalances, and even such social problems as selfishness and infantilism of the generation of “little emperors” – the only children in families – are largely associated with the “one family – one child” policy.

Proponents of this course claim that as a result, 400 million new citizens were not born in China, but in fact, the decline in fertility was 75% due to natural social factors: urbanization, increased employment and education of women, the growth of the middle class, which is not so bound by the traditional ideals of a large multigenerational family.These trends are so strong that even allowing all couples to have two children since 2016 has not helped to cope with demographic gaps.

For 10 girls 12 guys: how birth control in China led to a shortage of women

The decision on strict birth control was not the only option, and no “demographic catastrophe” likely threatened China. Since the late 1960s, the birth rate in the PRC has already begun to decline. According to Chinese demographers, if, with the beginning of Deng Xiaoping’s reforms, the former soft course “later – less often – less” (later to marry, to take at least a four-year break between childbirth, to have two or three children in families) continued to achieve harmony between the growing number of Chinese people and the needs of economic development.However, this would not have to concentrate enormous state power and impose exorbitant fines on the families of violators, interfere in the personal lives of millions of people and, most importantly, create a very costly bureaucratic apparatus. Probably, the Chinese leaders and some of their advisers were strongly impressed by the predictions of the Club of Rome about the danger of uncontrolled population growth, projecting the conclusions of futurists onto a weak and poor China.

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This is a vivid example of how the consequences of a political decision are multiplied by bureaucratic inertia. Even from fragmentary data, it is clear that around the “planned procreation” not only a self-sufficient control apparatus has been formed, but also serious financial interests have arisen. Chinese statistics do not take into account the corruption side of demographic policy, but according to expert estimates, only from 1980 to 2011, up to 2 trillion yuan of fines were officially collected from citizens for “extra” children (about $ 312.7 billion at the current exchange rate). The budgets of the less developed provinces of the PRC were heavily dependent on revenues from this item.Now that Chinese families have almost been allowed to have a third child, the story of the famous filmmaker Zhang Yimou, who in 2014 had to pay a fine of $ 1.2 million for three “illegal” children, looks like a bitter irony.

Burden of demography

It is possible that the government will soon on the contrary, citizens will have to pay extra for the birth of children. The decision of the Politburo took place less than a month after summing up the results of the seventh general population census in the history of the PRC. The results were more alarming than expected.First, the planned baby boom did not take place. Immediately after the permission for two children in the family, some scientists predicted a sharp rise in the birth rate, but it turned out that after a short-term surge, it fell again. If in 2000 (that is, at the height of the “one child” policy) the number of births in China was 17.71 million, then in 2020 only 12 million children were born. Secondly, the census showed that China is confidently becoming a “country of gray hair” and can grow old faster than it gets rich.

The combination of these two factors has an extremely adverse effect on the country’s development prospects.If, in the interests of stability, the authorities will try to maintain an increase in the standard of living (and the population is already accustomed to well-being and does not expect the situation to worsen), then by 2050 the state’s expenditures on the social sphere may amount to about a third of GDP. We will probably have to raise the retirement age (now it is 50-55 years for women and 60 years for men). The decline in the working-age population leads to higher wages, which reduces the competitiveness of Chinese exports. The “demographic dividend” is no longer relevant for China, and it is becoming more and more difficult to hope for an increase in the birth rate.

Demographic scenarios: what awaits Russia in 2050

Barriers are the rising cost of housing and the cost of quality education. So the decision on the “three-child policy” cannot be called populist. The government agency Xinhua had to stop and remove from social media a poll about the party’s new appeal. Less than 5% of the respondents said that they are ready to have a third child even now, and 92% do not consider such a prospect at all.

It is possible that the government will have to turn to business to encourage fertility: the pioneers of this approach have already appeared. Some companies have announced large bonuses for employees who decide to have a third child. The whole question is how many employees of private companies will take this step, because the business owners are unlikely to support the child until adulthood.

A declining birth rate and an aging society are visible manifestations of changes in the value orientations of the Chinese, which are less and less following the old traditions.It is unlikely that anything can be changed with the calls here; in order to eliminate the imbalances, the state will have to strengthen its social role and start investing more actively in human capital, confirming that citizens are more than just the denominator in the formula for calculating GDP per capita.

The opinion of the author may not coincide with the point of view of the editors

Chinese Lessons: How China Became a Unicorn Sanctuary

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90,000 Third wave of pandemic

Sergei Medvedev: It’s been a year and a half now that we have been living in the coming future called “covid”: COVID-19, coronavirus.Now, according to epidemiologists, the third wave is coming, especially after the May holidays in Russia, both morbidity and mortality are growing.

Russians neglect safety rules, and vaccination campaign slows down

Meanwhile, Russians neglect safety rules, the vaccination campaign slows down, only 10% of the Russian population is vaccinated, which, against the background of 50 or more percent in other countries, is, of course, a very miserable indicator. Is the third wave really awaiting us? What are the general prospects for the postform world? Will covid end in the foreseeable future? We will discuss these issues with the demographer Alexei Raksha .

Video version of the program

Correspondent: In April, the Russian authorities announced that the situation with the pandemic was stable. However, experts, referring to unofficial data, are confident that the third wave has begun in the country. The Bloomberg agency reports about this with reference to its sources. The authorities’ statement that the situation in the country is under control and optimistic forecasts have influenced the number of people who do not seek to get vaccinated and, in principle, have ceased to be afraid of the coronavirus, including abandoning personal protective equipment.

One dose of the vaccine has so far been received by about 12 million Russians, and for herd immunity, 70 million are required to be vaccinated. According to the Levada Center (this organization is forcibly included in the list of “foreign agents”), two-thirds of Russians are not going to get vaccinated. In the regions, there are already signs of a third wave, the number of people in intensive care has increased, and new temporary hospitals are opening. In Moscow, restrictions are again introduced in connection with the coronavirus.

Signs of the third wave are already being observed in the regions, the number of people in intensive care has increased

Sergei Medvedev: Alexey, will the third wave be the same as the first and second waves, will the losses be as great, or is there already some adaptation going on?

Alexey Raksha: I don’t think that the third wave will be as terrible as the second. And in Moscow and St. Petersburg it will not be as scary as the first one. The second was the strongest in the whole country. It seems that the third wave will be the smoothest and most gentle. According to my estimates, in Russia, about 35% have been ill, vaccinated with at least one dose of more than 10%. Even if we subtract both from there and from there a small percentage, that is, crossover, who had both been ill and vaccinated, or those who lost their immunity, then it will still be at least 40 percent. Against this background, even new strains spread more slowly than they would spread if we had a virgin population from a covid point of view.

In Moscow and St. Petersburg this percentage is even higher. Together with the vaccinated, about half of the inhabitants of these cities have immunity. And in the Caucasus, Dagestan, Ingushetia, apparently two-thirds of the population fell ill in May last year, and in Chechnya, too, by the end of the year, judging by the excess mortality. I don’t expect anything like this in the fall. We even see that the statistics of hospitalization (at least, as we are given it) in Moscow has been declining for more than a week, and in St. Petersburg it has also stopped growing. Now we still have a stable situation in Russia.

Sergei Medvedev: In a sense, the very relaxed attitude of Russians to the problem correlates with the objective situation.

Alexey Raksha: Yes, of course. People do not see that they are dying around them, that there is a queue of ambulances around them: there is no autumn disaster. In Yakutia there was a deterioration, but then everything began to decline. The statistics of queries on the Internet on the sense of smell now need to be multiplied by one and a half times, because according to various studies, for example, the British strain is 40% less likely to cause loss of smell.But even taking this into account, excess mortality has decreased by April, probably by 4. 5 times, and in May, most likely, it will be even less. Any holidays and weekends will improve the situation.

Sergei Medvedev: Overall, what is your adjusted total of accumulated excess mortality to date in Russia?

Alexey Raksha: By the most sophisticated methods, we crossed half a million during April, and now it is, perhaps, somewhere around 520-530 thousand.

Sergei Medvedev: What does this add to the total death rate in Russia in relative terms?

Alexey Raksha: We have a baseline background mortality of about 1,800,000 per year, and this number has been gradually decreasing in recent years, Russia has indeed shown success in increasing life expectancy, in reducing mortality from a shamefully low base. The Rosstat forecast, which I made on the website, shows that 1,789,000 should have died last year, and 1,788,000 this year.We now have quite large generations entering the age of great mortality: 70 years – but even taking this into account, the number of deaths should not have increased for a single year over the course of five years.

Russia has been hit hard by the coronavirus

It turns out that over the calendar year we lost almost 20%, and the cumulative total, since last April, is about 29%, that is, the number of deaths increased by 29% compared to what it should have been if there were no covid …If we compare this with the world, then at the end of April there were 10.3 million deaths in the world. I think the death toll is now approaching 12 million, given the 59 million baseline deaths in the world. By the way, it is growing every year, because the population is aging, and the cumulative result is about 16-17%.

Sergei Medvedev: That is, the world average is 16-17%, and in Russia it is 29%.

Alexey Raksha

Alexey Raksha: Russia has suffered a lot.In Europe, apart from the dwarf states, we are most likely in 3-4th place in percentage after Albania, Belarus and North Macedonia. Unfortunately, no other country of more or less normal size has lost more people in relation to the trend. And this is slightly worse than in the USA, worse than in Spain (but not by much). And in front of us are only not very developed countries, such as Peru, Mexico, Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia, Brazil.

Sergei Medvedev: In fact, is the excess mortality curve going to decline everywhere now?

Alexey Raksha: We see from official statistics that the peak season in the northern hemisphere was winter, respectively, there are some other peaks from this peak in both directions: the peak of last spring is mainly in Europe and the USA and Indian and Brazilian peak – now, in spring.I hope this is very similar to the “Spanish” when there were also three peaks: the middle one was the highest, and the early and late ones were smaller. In Russia, apparently, the third peak is still quite small.

Sergei Medvedev: How were the greatest losses distributed?

Alexey Raksha: In percentage terms, this is, of course, Chechnya – it has the first place by a large margin, Dagestan and Ingushetia are nearby. This region (DICH) is not at all like the rest of Russia, there is a completely different culture and religion.In terms of demography, it is closer to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, maybe to Azerbaijan, Turkey. In Chechnya, about one and a half times more people died than should have died, in Ingushetia more than a third. This is only for the past year, and this year the tail of excess mortality was still going on.

Although the Caucasus, of course, burned out so badly last year that this year it has been the most prosperous territory for many months. In June-July, Dagestan became almost the most prosperous region in terms of covid and still, apparently, remains so.Tatarstan did a very bad job, in general, the Volga region suffered greatly. Naturally, Moscow and St. Petersburg suffered as big cities with traffic, with close communication between people.

The more they lied about statistics in the republic, the more excess mortality was then there

If we talk about our European territory, then this is the Lipetsk region, Mordovia, the Tambov region: it is not entirely clear why: maybe the Lipetsk region – because of the Novolipetsk metallurgical plant, Tatarstan – because of KamAZ. The infection was stolen from Moscow by top managers, workers who went on vacation. It all started in Moscow. And Dagestan, and Ingushetia, and Tatarstan: the first in these republics to suffer were single-industry towns or cities located near large industrial enterprises. By the way, there is a pattern: the stronger the lie in the republic about statistics, the more there was then excess mortality.

Sergei Medvedev: A word to the epidemiologist, Doctor of Biological Sciences Mikhail Favorov .

Mikhail Favorov: For many months I have been talking about the fact that the virus is seasonal. All respiratory viruses have their own specific time of seasonal rise: usually in the autumn-winter period, that is, we do not seem to have to expect any big rise until October. But on the other hand, during the autumn-winter season, we even had two waves, which was mainly due to the emergence of new mutations of this virus, which had a greater ability to infecting effect, that is, the infection required a lower dose and it proceeded more easily. Thus, the virus adapts to us, to humanity, as to a new host.

Nevertheless, we can well imagine that the decline will continue until October, or all this will stabilize at some low level. One strange phenomenon is taking place – now there is an upsurge in Moscow and St. Petersburg. We discussed two weeks ago that this is a delayed recovery from the European recovery. Whether this will turn into a serious upswing, similar to the one that was two months ago, it is difficult to say now. I hope this does not happen due to the change of seasons.There is still a certain risk of another upswing, especially in megacities, but, in my opinion, it is relatively small.

Alexey Raksha: As for Russia, I completely agree with Mikhail. And about hot countries: if you look at last year’s statistics, then there were very large outbreaks in the midst of the July heat in countries such as Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, Kazakhstan and other “countries”. Therefore, covid is a seasonal disease in the sense that when the weather is bad outside, not the season, and it is not necessarily frost, but also heat, people sit under air conditioning or indoors and infect each other there.

Sergei Medvedev: That is, the more people on the street, the less risk. Based on the experience of the “Spanish woman”, if now the world has suffered a blow to demographics, is this an 18% excess death rate in the world?

Alexey Raksha: At the moment, about one and a half billion people in the world out of eight have been ill.

Sergei Medvedev: How many have had the “Spanish flu”?

At the moment, about one and a half billion people in the world out of eight

have been ill

Alexey Raksha: Nobody knows.I looked at the statistics of those few countries in which by that time there was already statistics, and in neighboring countries, a completely different situation developed. In the same Italy or Spain, the jump in mortality was one and a half times or even more – this is much more serious than now. There was no jump in Denmark. By the way, Denmark got off very easily in this pandemic. The situation is very ambiguous.

Sergei Medvedev: How does the population react to such attacks? When the “Spanish flu” left, the “roaring 20s” came, a time of growth – was it also a time of demographic growth?

Alexey Raksha: The growth was very short-term, on the horizon of one or two years.In most developed countries, for which there are statistics, before the First World War, the birth rate began to decline, and with an acceleration, even in Russia. The First World War is a much more severe disaster than the Spanish flu. It is difficult to separate the reaction that was in the last year of the war and immediately after from the “Spanish flu”. The decline in the birth rate, then its rise for one year, and the rise is not much higher than the previous trend, and then the resumption of the rapid decline in the birth rate in developed countries. And in Russia at that time there was a Civil War, typhus, famine, and against this background, no one thought about the “Spanish flu” at all.

Sergei Medvedev: How will covid change Russian demography in the long term?

If people think that their children will have a worse life than theirs, they will not give birth

Alexey Raksha: By and large, will not change in any way. On the demographic pyramid, only birth waves are visible, and death waves are not visible, because people are born at the age of zero, and then they age, they are one, two, five, ten.You can very confidently analyze even the Stalinist hunger for the age pyramid in different regions of Ukraine. And people do not die at the same age, but at different ages, albeit mainly in the elderly. The pyramid shrinks a little to a completely imperceptible size, by 1–2%, you hardly even see it by eye. These people died, they are no more, let’s move on. Therefore, this does not affect long-term trends, in any long-term period.

Our birth rate, by the way, has even grown a little for the first time in several years, since last summer.Perhaps the transfer of uterine capital to the first child affected. I just predicted that this would cause growth in the range of three percent, and we see this growth of a little over two percent. Therefore, even here on the pyramid, we are unlikely to see anything yet. It is not known what will happen next with the birth rate, there are no data for May yet, but this will hardly affect long-term trends.

Sergei Medvedev: What is your overall forecast for Russian demography?

Alexey Raksha: Everything depends on the economy, on the feeling of the future.If people think that their children will have a worse life than theirs, then they will not give birth or will, but much less. Accordingly, if we want to understand what we have with demography (and here migration is still very important), we must look at economic prospects, but we have none.

Sergei Medvedev: Zero growth over ten years, no significant targets.

Alexey Raksha: Perhaps, nominally, there will be a growth in GDP, but incomes of citizens have already fallen by 10-13% since 2013.For a long time I have identified a pattern: the birth rate of second and third children is very strongly related to income, as they were a year ago. Especially when maternal capital was introduced, fertility began to respond to income, and, as a rule, in a positive sense. Incomes fell by 10% – the same happened with the birth rate of second and third children. Now 450 thousand for mortgages for those who have a third child have worked well, the mother capital has worked a little, but these are small advances, this does not radically change the situation.Unfortunately, there is no general perspective.

Sergei Medvedev: That is, the covid will inflict an economic blow on demography and family planning, at the request of people to give birth to a second and third child.

Alexey Raksha: I hope not. Russia economically went through the covid easier than most developed countries. There is rather uncertainty.

Covid will deal an economic blow to both demographics and family planning

Sergei Medvedev: Because of the strong dependence of Russians on the public sector, there was no developed private business sector that would take the hit, as happened in the West?

Alexey Raksha: First, in Russia, the sectors that are most affected by covid (i.e. tourism, transportation, transport) are less developed.Secondly, we had no lockdowns at all in the fall. These are two scales of the scale – mortality and the economy: you choose for your GDP to fall more, or you choose that fewer people die in your country. The Russian government has clearly chosen the economy. This, of course, is not pronounced aloud, the opposite is pronounced, but in fact it is.

The economic decline in Russia compared to other countries is small, at least in terms of GDP, but the incomes of citizens have sagged, the prospects are even worse. I would say that this will probably have an impact in the long term.But let’s see what we will have with the birth rate literally at the end of summer, when the reaction to the second terrible autumn wave should come. On the one hand, the economy practically did not suffer in any way, it was not closed in autumn, on the other hand, there was a very high mortality rate.

Sergei Medvedev: In any case, you need to develop collective immunity. Regardless of how you feel about the third wave, in my opinion, vaccination is one of the imperatives of existence at this time.

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Meaning, Definition, Suggestions. What is fertility

I know that you are in charge of the fertility crisis.
The Fertility Committee announced today that the newly rehabilitated Arctic regions are now habitable.
Are you claiming that the United States government is behind the global fertility crisis?
Somalia used to have the highest birth rate in the world.
This leaves less money for bat birth control.
Tibetan women are often forced to have abortions if they cannot pay fines for violating birth control policies.
Assuming fertility rates in African countries decline as fast as projected, they will soon enter a demographic window of opportunity.
In turn, countries with low fertility rates should assess the developmental implications of declining labor force growth.
The birth rate in the country was significantly higher than that of any other country in Europe.
In urban areas, the birth rate is lower than in rural areas.
In Egypt, the government’s birth control measures will begin to show results in the first quarter of the next century.
Therefore, governments should refrain from policies that increase fertility, even where it is very low.
As the birth rate and the prevalence of fatal infectious diseases decrease, the average age of the population increases.
Unfortunately, these surgeries are recorded as general surgeries and are not reflected in birth control statistics.
You know, Ashley, given your family history, I think birth control is a good solution.
Since 1997, when the fertility rate reached its lowest level since 1964 at 7.7 percent, it has been growing and has approached 9 percent in the last ten years.
Fifty years ago, Dr. Evelyn and John Billings developed the Billings Ovulation Method as a natural method of birth control.
As a result of declining fertility and increasing life expectancy, the rate of aging is accelerating around the world.
The representative of Japan highlighted the efforts made by his country to support parents who are raising children to increase the declining birth rate.
Sage juice, made up in two parts juices and milk or water, a period medicine to increase fertility.
Meanwhile, the Armenian prime minister recently tried to downplay the talk of a mass exodus and said the government is doing a good job of keeping the birth rate up.
If it were instinctive, we wouldn’t have to come up with social incentives to support and increase fertility.
As one human rights activist writes, the lack of men is beginning to be felt in Armenian society and is beginning to affect the birth rate.
One thing is certain: the “total” fertility rate does not account for some of the key factors affecting fertility – in particular, the age structure of the population.The Russian population is aging.
However, this is more of an illusion – just like other figures indicating that Muslim immigrants have a higher fertility rate than in their homeland.
Since the long-term engine of the demography of any society is the birth rate, it is worth looking at other countries in the region and comparing their indicators with those in Russia.
Accordingly, the birth rate in these regions can give an idea of ​​what the “Russian” birth rate really is.
The award was presented by the President and is one of many initiatives to boost the country’s fertility.
And I was struck by how quickly the birth rates in Russia and the United States are converging.
The fact is that this country is now undergoing a serious demographic shift caused by a catastrophic decline in the birth rate among its Slavic population.
1. Among adherents of Islam, the birth rate is higher than among adherents of another religion.They will take over the world with their numbers.
Fortunately or unfortunately – depending on how you feel about the low birth rate – Russia in this area does not really stand out against the world background.
It is worth remembering, however, that no one foresaw the spikes in the birth rate in the 1950s and 1960s, or the sharp decline in the birth rate in the 1970s.
The US Ambassador complains, “The Vatican will continue to oppose birth control as a way to fight hunger and global warming.”
This is all the more important as a new fertility boom is taking place – not in the United States and Europe, but in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia.
As far as I know, the Russian statistical agency Rosstat does not publish birth and death statistics for individual nationalities.
I think this really raises a dilemma of when to choose between low fertility or high mortality.
For most of 2017, the birth rate declined by 10-15%.
In a country with a population of more than 143 million people, significant fluctuations in the absolute level of fertility and mortality are quite expected.
Anyone who is not too lazy to look at the statistics will certainly see that there is a significant increase in the total fertility rate (by about 40%) and life expectancy (by 7.5%) in Russia compared to 1999.
In some of them, such as Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, the problem is low fertility, which is causing the demographic situation to worsen.
Using simple mathematical calculations, it can be determined that with a decrease in the birth rate and a decrease in the influx of immigrants, population growth in Russia will no longer be as dynamic as it used to be.
These phrases are part of a rap that uses local sayings like Let’s put a bao (bun) in the stove to laugh at Singapore’s birth rate.
Fertility rates in Russia and the United States are rapidly converging
Last year, the total fertility rate in South Korea fell to 1.17 (one of the lowest in the world) and continues to decline.
Along with immigration, the factors of population growth include the birth rate and life expectancy.
Recently, there have been signs that the birth rate in Russia is rising and the death rate is falling, but the long-term outlook is not optimistic.
There are fewer children in families because parents were not able to provide for them, which led to a “decline in the birth rate” and a sharp decline in the population during almost the entire period of the 1990s.
Did the declining birth rate in the Soviet Union lead to a more aggressive, belligerent and irrational foreign policy?
However, both in the long term and in the short term, the birth rate in Russia has remained and remains significantly higher than in Italy.
And, conversely, in some regions with a predominantly Russian population – for example, in the Central and Northwestern districts – an annual increase in the birth rate is recorded.
All of this clearly tells me that there is no meaningful relationship between the rate of “innovation” and the rate of fertility.
“Therefore, the birth rate in Armenia is now too low to keep the population at a stable level.”
By regional standards, Russian fertility is not unusual.
In addition, there are 10-15 more countries (by the way, China is among them!), The birth rate in which is close to that of Russia to the point of indistinguishability.
Little, if any, is being done to tackle the demographic crisis, and it cannot be addressed by increasing fertility alone (although this is no doubt an important factor).
Their opponents, mainly in rich countries, are concerned about low fertility rates, which will soon have insufficient children to care for aging parents.
Putin’s government talks about the success of its policy to encourage fertility, and its level has indeed been growing over the past two years.
Yes, America benefits greatly from immigration, but the birth rate there over the past 20 years has been lower than necessary for population reproduction.
After that, I calculated the weighted average birth rate in these territories.
For the first time in the post-Soviet era in Russia last year the birth rate exceeded the death rate. “
Russia’s lag behind America in terms of fertility has been decreasing over the past 15 years and is likely to continue to decline in the coming years.
– From the telegram we learn that the US is criticizing the Vatican for refusing to support birth control methods.
In other words, since 1983, the Russian fertility rate has not actually differed from the European average.
“If it weren’t for the momentum provided by rising births and immigrants, the United States economy today would most likely resemble the rather sluggish economies of Europe and Japan.

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