# Should diabetics eat grapes: The request could not be satisfied

Содержание

## Glycemic Index, List of Healthy Fruits

You might have heard that you can’t eat fruit if you have diabetes. Fruit has carbohydrates and a form of natural sugar called fructose, which can raise your blood sugar levels. But it can still be part of your meal plan. It’s full of vitamins, minerals, and powerful plant compounds called phytochemicals.

Thanks to phytochemicals, eating fruit may lower your risk of heart disease, cancer, and stroke and boost your overall health. That’s important because diabetes is linked to a higher risk of heart disease and other problems.

Many fruits are high in fiber, too. Fiber slows digestion, helping to prevent blood sugar spikes. It also makes you feel fuller, which can help you keep a healthy weight.

### How Does Fruit Affect Blood Sugar?

Because they have carbohydrates, fruits will raise your blood sugar. So it’s important to count the carbs you eat and balance them with medicine, diet, and lifestyle choices. If you’re having trouble keeping your blood sugar under control, let your doctor know right away.

One serving of fruit has 15 grams of carbs. But the serving size can be very different depending on the type of fruit. For example, you get 15 grams of carbs from:

• 1/2 medium apple or banana
• 1 cup blackberries or raspberries
• 3/4 cup blueberries
• 1 1/4 cup whole strawberries
• 1 cup cubed honeydew melon
• 1/8 cup raisins

Carbs aren’t the only number to keep in mind. The glycemic index (GI) measures how a food affects your blood sugar. Foods that are low on the scale raise it slowly. Those high on the scale raise it quickly.

Eating mostly low-GI foods can help you keep control of your blood sugar. But they may not always be good for you. A candy bar and a cup of brown rice can have the same GI value. Be sure to keep nutrition in mind when choosing what to eat.

A large serving of a low-GI food will usually raise your blood sugar as much as a small amount of a high-GI food. So experts also use glycemic load (GL), a measurement that involves portion size as well as the GI number, to give more details about these effects. For example, an orange has a GI of 52 but a glycemic load of 4.4, which is low. A candy bar with a GI of 55 may have a GL of 22.1, which is high.

### Healthy Ways to Eat Fruit

Small steps can make a big difference in your blood sugar levels. Be sure to:

• Watch your portion sizes, especially with dried fruit. Two tablespoons of raisins have the same amount of carbs as a small apple.
• Choose fresh or frozen fruit when you can. Processed fruits like applesauce and canned fruit in syrup or juice often have more carbs and can raise your blood sugar higher than fresh fruits.
• When you eat dried or processed fruit, check the label. Many have added sugar, and serving sizes can be very small.
• Go easy on the fruit juice. It’s high in carbs: Eight ounces of apple juice has 29 grams of carbs. And it doesn’t have fiber to slow digestion and prevent blood sugar spikes like whole fruit does. Research even links drinking lots of fruit juice with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes.
• Spread your fruit out over the day. Instead of two servings for breakfast, have one at breakfast and another at lunch or as a snack.

### Healthiest Fruits for People With Diabetes

All fruits have vitamins, phytochemicals, and other things that make them good for you. But some are more likely to lower your chances of chronic disease:

• Blackberries. One cup of raw berries has 62 calories, 14 grams of carbohydrates, and 7.6 grams of fiber.
• Strawberries. One cup of whole strawberries has 46 calories, 11 grams of carbohydrates, and 3 grams of fiber.
• Tomatoes. One cup of sliced or chopped tomatoes has 32 calories, 7 grams of carbohydrates, and 2 grams of fiber.
• OrangesOne medium orange has 69 calories, 17 grams of carbohydrates, and 3 grams of fiber.

### Low-GI Fruits

The fiber in fresh fruit helps keep most of them low on the GI scale (55 or under). Examples include:

• Apples
• Oranges
• Bananas
• Mangoes
• Dates
• Pears

### High-GI Fruits

A few fruits are on the higher end of the GI scale (70 or higher). These include:

## Can I Eat Red Grapes As a Diabetic?

A close-up of red grapes on the vine.

In the past, diabetics were advised to avoid fruit due to the sugar content, but modern diabetes diets allow fruit as a part of an overall healthy and balanced meal plan. Diabetics need to maintain strict control over blood sugar levels and try not to consume unhealthy foods that can lead to diabetes complications.

### Diabetes Diet

A diabetes diet should focus on controlling diabetes symptoms as well as preventing complications common to the disease. For most diabetics, this means eating a high-fiber diet that is low in fat, especially saturated fat. Saturated fat can contribute to arterial plaques, a common complication for diabetics. Diabetics need to limit carbohydrates, especially sweet foods that raise blood sugar. Eating carbohydrates in moderation and along with something containing protein is a good way to keep blood sugar under control. In general, two to three handfuls of fruit a day should be fine for most diabetics and grapes can be included in this fruit allotment.

### Red Grapes and Carbohydrates

For a diabetic, eating foods with a lot of carbohydrates can send blood sugar soaring. Fortunately, fiber, protein and fat can mitigate this response. In one method of diabetic dieting, the diabetic limits carbohydrates at each meal to a specific amount based on his own typical blood sugar responses and any medication and insulin he might be taking. According to the American Diabetes Association, most diabetics can start off with around 45 to 60 g of carbohydrates per meal and adjust as necessary. In 10 grapes, there are about 8.8 g of carbohydrates. About 0.4 g is fiber and 7.6 g is made up of sugars.

### Glycemic Index and Grapes

Some diabetics use the glycemic index to decide what they should eat. The glycemic index indicates how fast and high blood sugar rises in response to a particular carbohydrate-containing food. The glycemic load takes into account how many carbohydrates are in a serving of each food as well as the glycemic index of that food. Grapes fall in the middle of the glycemic index chart and have a low glycemic load. This is because the water and fiber in a single serving of grapes modulate the blood glucose response.

### Considerations

A component in red grapes might actually help fight diabetes. Resveratrol, a phytochemical found in red grape skins, modulates the blood glucose response by affecting how the body secretes and uses insulin in animal models of diabetes, according to a June 2010 review in the “European Journal of Pharmacology.” Resveratrol might also have an impact on weight, reducing obesity that can raise the risk of diabetic complications.While further research in humans is needed, the potential benefits of grapes and their overall healthy nutritional profile makes them a good choice for part of your daily carbohydrate allotment.

## Fruits For Diabetics That Improve Your Health

Adding fresh fruit to any diet is a good move. But for diabetics, it can be a little tricky. They’re loaded with vitamins, minerals, and fiber, just like vegetables, but fruits contain carbohydrates. Carbs affect your blood glucose the most because they’re digested quickly and easily into glucose — another word for sugar — and your body’s main source of energy. So you can have too much of a good thing when you’re managing diabetes.

According to the American Diabetes Association, the best fruits for diabetics are fresh, frozen or canned without added sugars. You should look for canned fruits that are in juice or light syrup. Dried fruits are also a good choice, but your portion sizes will be smaller. Adding fresh fruit to your diabetes diet is also great for weight loss because high fiber fruits will keep you feeling fuller longer.

But it’s important to pay attention to glycemic load. This number estimates how much each of the foods you eat will raise your blood glucose level. One unit of glycemic load approximates the effect of eating one gram of glucose.

• Low: 10 or less
• Medium: 11 – 19
• High: 20 or more

It’s considered to be the best way to compare blood glucose values of different types and amounts of foods, which is helpful to people with diabetes. So let’s take a look at some of the best fruits for diabetics based on sugar content and the effect it could have on your blood sugar levels.

### Blueberries

The estimated glycemic load for one cup of blueberries is 6. In addition to having a low glycemic load, blueberries are low in sugar (about 10 grams per 100 grams of fruit) and they’re very low in saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium.

Blueberries are also a good source of dietary fiber, vitamin C, vitamin K and manganese, and one study found blueberry eaters decreased their risk for developing diabetes by 25 percent.

### Apples

The glycemic load for a single apple is 5, which is low, and its sugar content is similar to blueberries. Like blueberries, apples also have protective properties. In fact, studies find eating apples on a regular basis reduces the risk of stroke, which is a risk factor for people with type 2 diabetes.

The skin of your apple is very high in fiber, which helps you feel fuller longer.

### Strawberries

Strawberries are a great choice for diabetics because their estimated glycemic load is only 3. They pack about 140 grams of water per serving, so they’ll help keep you hydrated. Strawberries are high in folate (your cells will thank you) and vitamin C.

Researchers say the magnesium and calcium found in strawberries may protect against the properties of type 2 diabetes.

Another study found both strawberries and cranberries may improve insulin sensitivity for diabetics.

### Tangerines

One small tangerine contains 40 calories and 9 grams of carbohydrates. Its glycemic load is 6.

A recent study tied eating fresh fruit such as tangerines and other types of citrus to a significantly lower risk of diabetes and, among diabetic individuals, lower risks of death and development of major vascular complications.

Citrus fruits also contain vitamin C and potassium, which can reduce blood pressure.

### Grapes

Grapes are great. One cup of grapes contains 27 grams of carbs, 1 gram of fiber and gets a glycemic load of 5.

A study in the British Medical Journal followed nearly 190,000 people and found that eating grapes, blueberries, and apples reduce your risk for type 2 diabetes. Researchers think it may because of the polyphenols they contain — especially grapes.

Fruit is a healthy source of carbohydrates and a good thing to add to a diabetes diet. The best fruits for diabetics contain large amounts of fiber and have a lower glycemic load. Remember to monitor your servings of fruit and to count your carbs. Guidelines published in January 2014 in the journal Diabetes Care can help.

You can also take a look at our guide: “Know Your Numbers: Blood Sugar.” In it, you’ll find out other ways to keep your blood sugar in check and six questions to ask your doctor about prediabetes and diabetes.

## The Best Fruits for Type 2 Diabetes and Which Fruits to Have in Moderation

Have you recently been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes? You’re probably wondering how to navigate diet changes, and we know how hard that can be. You might have asked yourself if you can still eat fruit since it’s high in sugar, and the answer is yes! Fruit is full of good things, like vitamins, minerals, and fiber. While fruit is still good for you, you do need to eat it in moderation since it can be high in sugar and carbohydrates. We’ve got a list of the best fruits for type 2 diabetes, fruits to avoid, and how to incorporate them into your diet.

### Best Fruits for Type 2 Diabetes

Fruit contains carbohydrates, which are what diabetics need to moderate and keep track of in their diet. While figuring out the amount of carbs in fruit is important, you should also consider the benefits of each type of fruit when choosing what to eat. Fruit contains antioxidants, which reduce the damage of cells. Whole fruit also contains fiber. Fiber fills you up without raising your blood sugar, which is important for type 2 diabetics. Here’s a list of the best fruits for type 2 diabetes:

• Berries – Strawberries, blueberries, blackberries, and raspberries – Full of antioxidants, fiber, and vitamins plus low on the glycemic index
• Apples – Full of antioxidants, fiber, and vitamin C
• Citrus – Oranges, lemons, limes, and grapefruit – Contain folate, potassium, and vitamin C plus low on the glycemic index
• Apricots – Contain vitamin A and fiber
• Cantaloupe – Contain vitamin C and antioxidants
• Peaches – Contain vitamins A and C, potassium, and fiber
• Pears – Contain fiber and vitamin K
• Kiwis – fiber, potassium, and vitamin C

### Fruits that Should be Eaten in Moderation

While fruit is definitely beneficial in a type 2 diabetes diet, you need to consider portion size with everything. Typically, the serving size for fruit is 15 grams of carbs. The list below is fruit that type 2 diabetics can have but should eat in moderation:

• Cherries – Roughly 1 cherry has 1 gram of carbs. Portion size is 15 cherries.
• Grapes – Similar to cherries. 1 grape virtually has 1 gram of carbs. Portion size is 15 grapes.
• Pineapples – High on the glycemic index. Portion size is 0.5 cup.
• Bananas – Contains same amount of carbs in 1 whole banana that is in 2 portions of fruit. Portion size is half a banana.
• Mangos – Can be high on the glycemic index. Portion size is 0.5 cup.
• Watermelon – High on the glycemic index. Portion size is 1.25 cups.

Diabetics should also avoid dried fruit. They contain a large amount of carbs for a much smaller portion size, which won’t fill you up as much as fresh fruit. Fruit juice should also be avoided since it contains high amounts of sugar and carbs, due to the fact that it takes multiple fruits to make 8 ounces of fruit juice.

Since everyone is different, you should work with your healthcare provider on a plan designed just for you. Just keep in mind that you can have fruit as long as you count the carbs and watch your sugar intake!

## Can You Eat Grapes With Diabetes? – NatureWord

Can diabetics eat grapes? Yes, diabetics can eat grapes, but only in moderate amounts as part of an overall healthy, balanced and varied diet suited to their individual nutritional requirements and the dietary restrictions of their condition. As a fruit, grapes are an important source of natural sugars, especially glucose and can raise blood sugar levels quickly if eaten in excess, too often. But what allows a diabetic person to eat grapes is the fact that they also contain dietary fiber in the skin and seeds which tempers the absorption of the sugar in the bloodstream, stabilizing the rise in blood sugar levels. Even so, it’s always best to talk to your doctor. Find out if your healthcare professional advises for or against the consumption of grapes and what is the best intake for you specifically, given your history with diabetes.

Grapes and diabetes: overview. For some time now, experts have agreed on the fact that diabetics can eat fruit, provided intake is modest and respectful of the dietary restrictions of the condition. Plenty of fruit are allowed, including grapes. Overall, you can eat grapes or other fruit with diabetes if you limit intake and number of servings so that you don’t exceed your recommended daily intake of sugars and total carbohydrates. You also have to integrate the fruit you eat into your diet wisely, for example eat a serving of grapes after a meal that provided lean protein, but little carbohydrates and sugars. This helps to both limit sugar and carbohydrate intake and prevent blood sugar spikes.

It should be noted that grapes are an important source of carbohydrates and sugar, but have a good content of dietary fiber which makes them a fruit with a low glycemic index. Actually, eating grapes is better than eating watermelon and pineapple if you have diabetes. Other biologically active elements in grapes, such as polyphenols with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are believed to provide potential benefits for diabetes, such as help with weight management, reduce fasting blood glucose levels, improve insulin resistance and offer cardio-protective effects.

Grapes sugar content

Different varieties contain different amounts of sugar. If you are unsure and simply want to choose a less sugary grape, the best way to find out is to taste different varieties and observe the difference in sweetness. Also remember that the riper the grape, the higher the sugar content. The less ripe the grape, the lower the sugar content. And carbohydrates are also broken down in sugar, so look at carbohydrate content when looking to choose any fruit to eat with diabetes.

European grape varieties:
100 g of grapes has 18.1 g of carbohydrates, of which 15.48 g are sugars.
One cup (estimated at 151 g) contains 27.33 g of carbohydrates, of which 23.37 g are sugars.
10 grapes (approximate weight of 49 g) provide 8.87 g of carbohydrates, of which 7.59 g of sugar.

American grape varieties (slip skin):
100 g of grapes provides 17.15 g of carbohydrates, of which 16.25 are sugars.
One cup (estimated at 92 g) provides 15.78 g of carbohydrates, of which 14.95 are sugars.
10 grapes (approximate weight of 24 g) provides 4.1 g of carbohydrates, of which 3.9 g are sugars.

Muscadine grape varieties (not a sweet grape):
100 g of muscadine grapes gets you 13.93 g of carbohydrates
10 muscadine grapes (approximate weight of 60 g) gets you 8.4 g of carbohydrates

Grapes glycemic index: low (below 55)

The glycemic index (GI) is a number that determines how fast a certain food raises blood sugar levels. Less than 55 is low GI, between 55 and 69 is moderate GI and between 70 and 100 is high GI. Most grape varieties have a low glycemic index (less than 55, usually between 45-53), meaning they raise blood sugar levels more slowly and steadily compared to other fruits or foods. Compared to fruits like watermelon (high GI 70-75) and pineapple (moderate GI 59), grapes are a better food option for diabetes (but only when eaten in limited amounts). It helps that they contain some dietary fiber, especially in the skin, which is why it’s best to eat grapes whole, pulp and skin.

Grape juice on the other hand has a moderately high to high glycemic index (depending on the variety, whether or not it has added sugars or sweeteners, how much etc.) and is usually not good for diabetics. Actually, all fruit juices are kind of bad for diabetics and should be avoided altogether.

Do grapes raise blood sugar levels?

Despite being a fruit that is allowed in a diabetic diet within reasonable amounts, grapes do raise blood sugar levels. This is why it’s important to consume them in limited amounts and more rarely. After all, as little as 10 grapes can provide between 3.9 and 7.9 g of sugar, which is quite a lot. So yes, the sugar in grapes is bad for you if you eat too much too often. Also read Can You Eat Honey With Diabetes?

What you can do to make grapes good for diabetes (or safer to eat)

1) Eat small amounts. Calculate how much grapes you can eat with diabetes based on the recommendations for carbohydrate and sugar intake given to you by your doctor (basically count how much carbs and sugar you are allowed a day and determine how much grapes you can eat to not exceed that amount).
2) Choose less sweet varieties. Taste them in order to tell.
3) Eat the grapes whole, pulp and skin, to get some fiber, a necessary nutrient in a healthy diet.
Regular grapes provide 0.9 g of dietary fiber/100 g, while muscadine grapes 3.9 g of fiber/100 g.
4) Never eat grapes on an empty stomach.
5) Don’t eat more than one small serving of grapes a day.
6) Avoid eating grapes with other fruits (sugar adds up from all sources).
7) Ideally, eat a small serving of grapes after a lean protein meal. The protein and little fat it provides help temper the absorption of the sugar in grapes.
Also read Can You Eat Cherries With Diabetes?

Also, remember that grapes don’t treat, cure or manage diabetes – they are merely allowed in a diabetic diet in very limited amounts. Because they are a significant source of sugar, not everyone with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes will have a positive reaction to eating grapes. Some sufferers might feel it’s better for them to avoid this particular fruit altogether. Which brings us to another important aspect: if you feel a certain fruit is not good for you, you experience side effects of any kind, then discontinue consumption.

As for the proposed benefits of grapes for diabetes, there isn’t really any benefit that you can get from eating grapes that you can’t get from other fruits or foods. Yes, studies show grape extract, juice and various preparations help regulate appetite, promote weight loss or at least prevent further weight gain, improve insulin sensitivity and blood glucose levels, exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects with benefits for cardiovascular disease and diabetes management and prevention.

But eating grapes alone (especially in the limited amounts allowed in a diabetic diet) is not enough to produce any visible health effects or turn around the condition. One food does not undo years of bad eating, which is often the primary cause of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is a disease of the metabolism and a complex medical condition. Its management and treatment requires an overall healthy, balanced diet (not one food), good lifestyle habits (clean eating, no drinking, no smoking), adequate levels of physical activity and long-term or lifelong treatment for more serious type 2 diabetes and type 1 diabetes.

Conclusion

Grapes are not good for diabetes in the sense that they provide benefits specifically for this condition. They don’t actually do anything for diabetes. What they are is a fruit that provides overall good nutrition which benefits health in general. But because they are a source of natural sugar, both fructose and glucose, they are best consumed in limited amounts if you have diabetes. This is because the sugar in grapes can raise blood sugar levels. As a diabetic, you are limited to a certain amount of sugars and carbohydrates a day (this determination is based on other factors as well, including weight, level of physical activity, individual nutritional requirements). So when looking to include grapes into your diet, you have to make sure the amount you eat does not exceed those recommended amounts of sugars and carbohydrates.

This post was updated on Tuesday / August 4th, 2020 at 8:03 PM

## Type 2 Diabetes and Glycemic Response to Grapes or Grape Products | The Journal of Nutrition

### Abstract

Type 2 diabetes affects ∼7% of the population in the United States and is characterized by decreased disposal of glucose in peripheral tissues due to insulin resistance and overproduction of glucose by the liver, defects in pancreatic β-cell function, and decreased β-cell mass. Obesity, decreased physical exercise, and consumption of foods with a high glycemic index (GI) and load are major predisposing factors in the development of type 2 diabetes. The GI is used to evaluate the rise in blood glucose levels in response to food. The GI provides an indication of the quality of carbohydrate in a food. The glycemic load (GL) is used to provide information about the quantity of carbohydrates in a food and the insulin demand. Individuals with diabetes are advised to maintain a diet of low-GL foods, because low-GL diets improve diabetes symptoms. Grapes have a mean GI and GL in the low range. Little research has been performed with grapes and/or grape products to determine the glycemic response either alone or with a meal. Grapes and other fruits contain numerous polyphenols, including the stilbene resveratrol, the flavanol quercetin, catechins, and anthocyanins that have shown potential for reducing hyperglycemia, improving β-cell function, and protecting against β-cell loss. Therefore, with a low mean GI and GL, grapes or grape products may provide health benefits to type 2 diabetics.

### Introduction

The American Diabetes Association estimates that ∼7% of the population in the United States have type 2 diabetes (1). Type 2 diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia, peripheral resistance to the action of insulin, and eventual destruction of insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreas (2). Diabetic patients are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, blindness, nerve and kidney damage, and limb amputations. Diabetics are also at greater risk for developing different cancers due to the immunological disturbances induced by aberrant metabolism. Obesity is a major predisposing factor in the development of diabetes. In obese populations, inflammatory molecules produced by adipose tissue and increased circulation of FFA play an important role in producing peripheral insulin resistance as well as increasing damage to the insulin-producing β-cells. The main treatments for type 2 diabetes include diet, exercise, and medications.

Besides obesity, a number of other risk factors increase the likelihood of developing diabetes. The CDC describes the risk factors for developing diabetes, which include physical inactivity, an immediate relative with diabetes, abnormal cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and high blood pressure (3). As with most diseases, genetics plays an important role in determining development of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is found more commonly in African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders, or individuals of Hispanic American/Latino heritage. The rate for Native Americans is noteworthy, because 20–50% of this population has type 2 diabetes (4).

#### Regulation of blood glucose by insulin

Under normal physiological conditions, blood glucose levels are tightly regulated by the secretion of insulin and glucagon by specialized cells in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas (5). High blood glucose promotes insulin release from the β-cells of the islets. Insulin stimulates the uptake of glucose from the blood by different tissues such as muscle, kidney, and adipose, promotes the storage of glucose in the liver as glycogen, and inhibits lipolysis in adipose tissue. Resulting depletion of blood glucose by the action of insulin in turn promotes the secretion of glucagon from the α-cells in the pancreatic islets, which stimulates glycolysis in the liver and release of glucose back into the blood.

Skeletal muscle is a major site of glucose uptake stimulated by insulin. The mechanisms of glucose uptake are similar in skeletal and adipose tissue. Insulin-stimulated uptake of glucose is mediated by the action of glucose transporters on the cell surface (6,7). Glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4)3 is expressed by muscle, adipose, and kidney cells. Under basal conditions, GLUT4 is sequestered in insulin-responsive storage compartments within the cell. Insulin upregulates the expression of GLUT4 on the cell surface of these cells by stimulating the exocytosis of the stored GLUT4.

Insulin acts to increase glucose uptake by binding to the insulin receptor (IR). The IR is a membrane-bound tyrosine kinase containing 2 extracellular α subunits and 2 intacellular β subunits [reviewed in (6)]. Binding of insulin to the extracellular α subunits results in a change in protein conformation, which then activates the tyrosine kinase domain of the intracellular β subunits. The β subunits undergo a series of autophosphorylation steps at different tyrosine residues involved in recognizing IR substrates (IRS). Once the IR is stimulated, phosphorylation of IRS proteins generates docking sites for phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) at the cell membrane (8). Activation of PI3K at the IR stimulates the accumulation of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate, which acts as a second messenger in mediating insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4. Studies have shown that activation of PI3K and subsequent accumulation of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate are essential for insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation (9–11). Downstream targets of the PI3K signal transduction pathway involved in GLUT4 translocation include protein kinase B, atypical protein kinase C, and 3′-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (6). Although PI3K activation is necessary for insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, a second pathway for stimulating GLUT4 translocation has been proposed. The tyrosine kinase activity of the IR is enhanced by association with caveolae, the caveolin-rich invaginations of the cell membrane that represent a subset of lipid rafts (12). Upon stimulation of the IR by insulin, the proto-oncogene cellular-Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl) is recruited to the caveolae and phosphorylated. Phosphorylated c-Cbl recruits adaptor proteins that are responsible for activating TC10, a Ras homolog-family GTPase, and TC10 has been shown to modulate the exocytosis of GLUT4 (13,14). Both of these signaling pathways lead to insulin-dependent arrangements in the actin cytoskeleton of the cell resulting in exocytosis and docking of stored GLUT4 at the cell membrane (15,16).

One of the major characteristics of type 2 diabetes is the development of insulin resistance (5). Insulin normally prevents lipolysis in the adipose tissue and stimulates storage of glucose in the liver. Type 2 diabetics with insulin resistance often have increased levels of circulating fatty acids and persist ant gluconeogenesis in the liver due to the inability of insulin to prevent lipolysis and promote storage of glucose. Increased release of fatty acids from adipose tissue, increased glucose production by the liver, and reduced stimulation of glucose uptake in turn promote the insulin-resistant state. Insulin resistance can be caused by desensitization of the IR. There are currently 2 basic mechanisms known to occur for attenuating IR signaling (6). Serine phosphorylation of the IR and/or IRS and dephosphorylation of the activating tyrosine residues of the IR or its substrates contribute to decreased IR function. Several candidate molecules have been investigated for their role in inducing insulin resistance. Enzymes implicated in serine phosphorylation of the IR include PI3K, protein kinase B, glycogen synthase kinase-3, extracellular signal-related kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and inhibitor of κB kinase β (6). Inhibitor of κB kinase β is notable for its role in mediating downstream signaling by inflammatory cytokines, because chronic inflammation can also promote insulin resistance as well as β-cell dysfunction. Alterations in the IR itself or an IRS can decrease insulin sensitivity. Targeted disruption of the IRS-2 gene in mice produced progressive development of diabetes with peripheral insulin resistance, increased blood insulin, and hyperglycemia (17). Kido et al. (18) developed mice with heterozygous null mutations in the ir, irs-1, and irs-2 genes and these mice exhibited varying degrees of insulin resistance. Taken together, these data indicate that both upstream and downstream effectors in the IR signaling pathway affect insulin sensitivity.

Both reduction in β-cell mass and β-cell dysfunction contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes [reviewed in (19)]. β-Cell mass is normally maintained by proliferation of preexisting β-cells and neogenesis from pancreatic ductal progenitors (20,21). Glucose is a major regulator of β-cell mass and function as determined by animal studies. β-Cells proliferate in response to increased insulin demand brought about by increased blood glucose levels. Studies have shown that infusion of glucose into rats and mice increased β-cell mass in the islets (22–24). However, a 25–50% decrease in β-cell mass has been observed in patients at the time of diagnosis of type 2 diabetes (25,26). High levels of circulating glucose and FFA found in type 2 diabetic patients are toxic to β-cells. Prolonged hyperglycemia in individuals with diabetes causes not only β-cell dysfunction but also decreased β-cell mass due to induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, the increased presence of circulating fatty acids in combination with hyperglycemia has also been implicated in the induction of β-cell apoptosis, resulting in decreased β-cell mass and function. El-Assaad et al. (27) showed that infusion of lipids in diabetic patients caused impaired insulin secretion. In vitro studies used to define the mechanism of β-cell dysfunction showed that exposure of islets or β-cells to fatty acids inhibited insulin gene expression and induced β-cell apoptosis (19). Examination of pancreatic autopsy tissue from overweight and lean diabetic patients showed a 63 and 41% reduction in β-cell volume, respectively, compared with nondiabetic control samples (28). In these tissues, a 3- to 10-fold increase in β-cell apoptosis was observed in tissue from type 2 diabetic patients compared with control tissue, further suggesting that reduction in β-cell mass in diabetic patients is due to increased apoptotic β-cell death.

#### Glycemic index and glycemic load

Dietary changes are often necessary to control type 2 diabetes, whether insulin is required or not. The glycemic index (GI) was developed by Jenkins et al. (29) to measure the rise in blood glucose after eating a particular food. The GI was formulated in an attempt to aid diabetic populations in their food selection with the recommendation that diabetics select foods with a low GI (30). The GI of a test food is typically determined by measuring the blood glucose levels in at least 6 individuals over a 2- to 3-h period after consumption of a food containing 50 g of available carbohydrate [reviewed in (31)]. The blood glucose response to 50 g of ingested glucose (reference) is measured in the same individual on a different day at the identical time points postingestion. The subsequent area under the curve (AUC) for the blood glucose responses to both the test food and the reference (set at 100) are used to generate the GI using the following equation (32): (AUC of test food ÷ AUC of glucose) × 100. The use of white bread as the reference food instead of glucose for determining GI has been proposed due to concerns of delayed gastric emptying by glucose and because white bread stimulates more insulin than glucose when related to the blood glucose response (30,33). Using glucose as the reference, foods are classified as having low (<55), medium (55–69), or high (>70) GI (31). The overall glycemic response can be altered by fat, protein, and fiber in a meal, as well as processing. For example, Henry et al. (34) showed that the GI of bread alone was 71, whereas the GI of bread combined with different types of fats (butter, olive oil, grape seed oil) ranged between 50 and 58.

Whereas the GI provides an indication of the quality of carbohydrate in a food, glycemic load (GL) is used to provide information about the quantity of carbohydrates in a food and the insulin demand. The GL can be determined by direct or indirect methods. The indirect method for assessing the GL of a food uses the following equation (32):

$\mathrm{GL}{=}(\mathrm{GI{\,}value}{\div}100){\times}\mathrm{g{\,}of{\,}available{\,}carbohydrate}{\times}\mathrm{weight{\,}of{\,}food}.$

The direct method uses a 3rd concept of glycemic equivalence or glycemic glucose equivalence. For each participant, a standard curve is constructed by measuring the blood glucose response to increasing amounts of glucose (31). The same participant is then given the test food and the blood glucose response to the test food is compared with the standard curve for glucose. The GL classification of a food is low (≤10), medium (>10 to 31).

Dietary GL has been used to predict the risk for developing type 2 diabetes, as well as cardiovascular disease. High-GL diets increase the risk of diabetes by chronically increasing insulin demand, which in turn may lead to β-cell exhaustion, dysfunction, and apoptosis (35). Combining a high-GL diet with a genetic predisposition toward diabetes, physical inactivity, or obesity increases the risk of developing insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, resulting in hyperglycemia and high blood levels of fatty acids. Research has suggested that low-GI and -GL diets improve glycemic control in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes by lowering fasting blood glucose and glycated proteins and improving insulin sensitivity (36).

#### Regulation of diabetes by grapes and grape components

Most fruits and vegetables have a low GI and GL. The GI and GL of some commonly consumed fruits are shown in Figure 1.

FIGURE 1

GI and GL for commonly consumed fruits. The numbers in parentheses represent the GL for each fruit. The means of more than one study for GI and GL values are presented, unless indicated by an asterisk (one study presented). The serving size for each fruit was 120 g. The values for GI are based on glucose as the reference. Adapted with permission from (37).

FIGURE 1

GI and GL for commonly consumed fruits. The numbers in parentheses represent the GL for each fruit. The means of more than one study for GI and GL values are presented, unless indicated by an asterisk (one study presented). The serving size for each fruit was 120 g. The values for GI are based on glucose as the reference. Adapted with permission from (37).

The values in Figure 1 represent the means of different studies taken from a comprehensive GI and GL listing compiled by Foster-Powell et al. (37). The mean values for grapes place this fruit in the low-GI and -GL range.

Little research has been performed to identify the benefits of grape intake for type 2 diabetics. Because both the GI and GL fall within the low range, this fruit is appropriate for inclusion in a diet targeting low glycemic foods, such as a diet for a diabetic individual. Grapes contain an abundance of phytochemicals with antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. A small number of studies have been conducted that suggest grapes or constituents of grapes may have some protective effects against the metabolic disturbances observed in type 2 diabetics. Furthermore, antiinflammatory activities of certain grape components may have positive benefits in reducing inflammation-related complications of type 2 diabetes, such as cardiovascular disease. Banini et al. (38) recently showed that continued consumption of dealcoholized muscadine grape wine altered blood insulin levels in type 2 diabetic subjects. Nondiabetic control and type 2 diabetic participants were instructed to drink 150 mL of juice, wine, or dealcoholized wine prepared from muscadine grapes once per day after dinner for 28 d. Subjects receiving the dealcoholized wine had reduced fasting blood insulin levels and the fasting blood glucose:insulin ratio increased from 8.5 to 13.1 during the 28-d intervention. A low glucose:insulin ratio of <7 is predictive of insulin resistance. The muscadine grape juice and wine did not differ in fasting blood glucose, insulin, or glycated hemoglobin before or after the intervention. This study points toward the possibility that consumption of grapes or grape preparations may be beneficial to individuals with aberrant insulin responses to glucose. Further studies using human participants need to be performed to investigate the potential health benefits of grapes for this disease.

Other studies have been performed to test the health benefits of grapes or grape components using animal models for diabetes, many of which utilized chemically induced models for analyses of metabolic disturbances. Induction of diabetes with the chemicals alloxan or streptozotocin results in loss of β-cell mass often accompanied by infiltration of the islets by activated immune cells (39). Although these models do not completely represent type 2 diabetes and have often been used as models for type 1 diabetes due to the immune cell infiltration, they have been used to analyze metabolic disturbances, β-cell loss, and generation of reactive oxygen species associated with diabetes. There is limited information available that describes the effects of grapes or grape products on peripheral insulin resistance that characterizes type 2 diabetes. Therefore, studies using chemically induced models of diabetes have been included below to provide some information on the potentially protective role grapes and their constituents may play in managing type 2 diabetic complications.

Phytochemicals found in grapes or grape plant-derived products have shown inhibitory effects in the chemically induced diabetic models. Polyphenol extracts from red wine with or without ethanol were given orally to streptozotocin-treated rats each day for 6 wk (40). Both control and diabetic rats that received the red wine extract without ethanol showed decreased body growth, food intake, and blood glucose levels. Diabetic rats that received ethanol alone or red wine extract with ethanol had partially restored body growth and both groups had reduced hyperglycemia and increased plasma insulin compared with untreated groups. In a separate study, a rat model for insulin resistance was used to study the health benefits of red wine polyphenol extracts, ethanol, and extracts plus ethanol (41). Rats fed red wine polyphenols had reduced hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and production of reactive oxygen species in cardiac tissue. In both of these studies, the authors used pharmacological doses of the red wine polyphenols. Grapevine leaves were also assessed for antidiabetic properties by Orhan et al. (42). Subfractions of aqueous extracts from the leaves of Vitis vinifera L. were injected intraperitoneally into streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Treatment with the polyphenol-enriched fraction reduced blood glucose in the diabetic rats compared with control animals.

Procyanidins extracted from grape seed were shown to reduce hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (43). A single oral dose of the extract at a concentration of 250 mg/kg body weight significantly decreased blood glucose concentrations that were elevated from the streptozotocin treatment. Furthermore, the procyanidin extract combined with low dose insulin was significantly more effective than the low dose insulin alone in reducing hyperglycemia in these rats. Using differentiated L6E9 myotube and 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell lines, the authors further showed that the procyanidin extract increased uptake of glucose in these cells, suggesting procyanidins may have an insulin mimetic effect. In another study, El-Alfy et al. (44) found that pretreatment with orally administered proanthocyanidins from red grape seeds significantly inhibited the rise in blood glucose levels after alloxan injection compared with control rats. Repeated daily administration of the proanthocyanidin preparation for 72 h increased insulin levels in the blood back to control levels. The proanthocyanidins decreased lipid peroxidation and increased pancreatic glutathione levels. These data indicate that the grape seed proanthocyanidins protected β-cell function and suggest a protective effect against generation of damaging reactive oxygen species.

Resveratrol is a stilbene that is produced in the skins of grapes and acts as an antifungal agent in the plant. Resveratrol is also found in other types of berry fruits such as blueberries and cranberries. Antihyperglycemia and antilipidemic roles for resveratrol in diabetes have been recently shown. In middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet, the addition of resveratrol to the diet increased insulin sensitivity, prevented development of fatty liver, increased the number of mitochondria in the liver, and increased life span compared with mice receiving a high-fat diet alone (45). In another study, Lagouge et al. (46) found that dietary resveratrol prevented diet-induced obesity, reduced insulin resistance, and improved mitochondrial function in muscle tissue in young mice. The protective activity of resveratrol was attributed to its ability to activate sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD+-dependent deacetylase that has been linked to increased life span (46,47). Chi et al. (48) investigated the effects of oral resveratrol on blood glucose in rat models for insulin-dependent diabetes, non-insulin–dependent diabetes, and insulin resistance. They found that resveratrol administration lowered plasma glucose by both insulin-dependent and -independent mechanisms in normal and diabetic animals. However, in these studies, resveratrol was found to stimulate the secretion of insulin from the pancreas of those animals that still had β-cell mass. Further analysis revealed that oral resveratrol increased the expression of GLUT4 in the muscle tissue by activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway. In streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats, resveratrol administered orally for 14 d significantly decreased blood glucose and insulin levels compared with diabetic control animals (49). Furthermore, plasma triglyceride concentrations dropped significantly over the 14-d treatment period compared with control rats. These data suggest an intriguing role for resveratrol in controlling the hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia that characterize type 2 diabetes and cause many of the metabolic complications in this population.

Generation of reactive oxygen species in the pancreatic islets has been observed in experimental animal models of diabetes and oxidative stress may be involved in reducing the β-cell mass by inducing apoptosis (39). Quercetin is a flavonoid antioxidant found in many fruits and vegetables, including grapes. Using streptozotocin to induce diabetes in rats, Coskun et al. (50) found quercetin effective in preventing total loss of the β-cell mass. Quercetin was injected intraperitoneally at a concentration of 15 mg/kg body weight 3 d before and then daily for ∼4 wk after the streptozotocin treatment. Using immunohistochemical analysis of pancreatic tissue, the authors showed that quercetin treatment maintained β-cell mass. Several different parameters of oxidative stress were analyzed in the pancreatic tissue of these animals, including malondialdehyde, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. Diabetic animals had elevated levels of tissue malondialdehyde and all 3 of the antioxidant enzymes showed increased activities indicative of oxidative stress in the diabetic state. However, the quercetin treatment significantly reduced the level of malondialdehyde and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in pancreatic tissue, in some cases back to normal levels. Although the quercetin was injected into the rats rather than fed orally, these studies indicate an interesting and potentially important role for quercetin and possibly other flavonoids for reducing the oxidative stress in the pancreas during diabetes and aiding in the preservation of the β-cell mass.

#### Regulation of diabetes by other fruits

Certain other fruits have been tested for antidiabetic activities. Dietary tart cherries were examined in the Dahl salt-sensitive rat, which develops hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance (51). Rats were fed a diet supplemented with 1% freeze-dried cherries for 90 d. In these studies, total blood cholesterol, total blood triglycerides, blood glucose, and insulin were significantly reduced in rats that received the cherry diet compared with control rats. Ginseng berry extract was used in both the ob/ob and db/db mouse models for type 2 diabetes to determine whether this fruit had antidiabetic activities (52,53). The ob gene encodes the hormone leptin, which signals satiety in healthy individuals, and the db gene encodes the leptin receptor (54). The ob/ob mouse has a mutation in the ob gene that causes a deficiency in leptin, whereas the db/db mouse does not have a functional leptin receptor. Both of these mouse strains develop a severely obese phenotype and hyperglycemia. Although the extract was injected intraperitoneally rather than administered orally, the ginseng berry extract significantly reduced body weight and blood glucose levels in both mouse models. In another study, proanthocyanidins were extracted from persimmon peel and administered orally to C57BL/Ksj-db/db mice by a stomach tube (55). Mice were orally administered the proanthocyanidin preparation daily for 6 wk. Serum glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol concentrations and oxidative stress in the liver were measured. Oral administration of the persimmon peel proanthocyanidins decreased hyperglycemia and blood triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations, and improved the oxidative status of the liver of these mice.

Several exotic fruits have been examined for potential antidiabetic activities. Acerola fruit (Malpighia emarginata DC) is found in Central and South America. Diabetic mice were given polyphenol-rich extracts from Acerola fruit in their drinking water or plain water for 8 wk (56). Blood glucose concentrations in fed mice were tested and hyperglycemia was reduced at 5 wk compared with the control diabetic mice. However, this reduction was not maintained through the course of the 8-wk experiment. Synsepalum dulcificum is a berry fruit from West Africa known as miracle fruit. Insulin-resistant rats were orally administered lyophilized and redissolved miracle fruit (57). Miracle fruit decreased plasma glucose and insulin compared with control animals receiving vehicle only. The fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera is found in tropical areas of Africa. Using streptozotocin-treated rats, extracts from this fruit were administered orally and blood glucoses were measured over an 8-h period (58). Diabetic rats receiving the fruit extract had a ∼50% reduction in blood glucose concentrations over 8 h compared with diabetic control rats.

#### Future directions

There is a paucity of information regarding the health benefits of grapes and grape constituents for management, treatment, or prevention of type 2 diabetes. The published literature thus far suggests a potential regulatory role for grape products in the management of type 2 diabetes and these data are summarized in Table 1.

TABLE 1

Summary of antidiabetic activities of grapes and grape components

Compound
Model
Activity
References
Muscadine grapes  Human, diabetic  Oral  ↓ Fasting blood insulin, ↑ blood insulin:glucose ratio  (38)
Red wine polyphenols  Diabetic rat  Oral  ↓ Hyperglycemia, ↑ plasma insulin  (40)
Red wine polyphenols  Insulin resistant rat  Oral  ↓ Hypertension, ↓ reactive oxygen species (cardiac tissue)  (41)
Grape leaf extract  Diabetic rat  i.p.  ↓ Hyperglycemia  (42)
Grape seed procyanidins  Diabetic rat  Oral  ↓ Hyperglycemia, ↑ blood insulin, ↓ oxidative stress (pancreas)  (43, 44)
Resveratrol  Obese mouse  Oral  ↑ Insulin sensitivity  45, 46
Diabetic rat  Oral  ↓ Blood glucose, ↓↑ blood insulin, ↓ blood triglycerides  48, 49
Quercetin  Diabetic rat  i.p.  ↓ Oxidation (pancreas)  50
↑ Antioxidant enzymes (pancreas)
Compound
Model
Activity
References
Muscadine grapes  Human, diabetic  Oral  ↓ Fasting blood insulin, ↑ blood insulin:glucose ratio  (38)
Red wine polyphenols  Diabetic rat  Oral  ↓ Hyperglycemia, ↑ plasma insulin  (40)
Red wine polyphenols  Insulin resistant rat  Oral  ↓ Hypertension, ↓ reactive oxygen species (cardiac tissue)  (41)
Grape leaf extract  Diabetic rat  i.p.  ↓ Hyperglycemia  (42)
Grape seed procyanidins  Diabetic rat  Oral  ↓ Hyperglycemia, ↑ blood insulin, ↓ oxidative stress (pancreas)  (43, 44)
Resveratrol  Obese mouse  Oral  ↑ Insulin sensitivity  45, 46
Diabetic rat  Oral  ↓ Blood glucose, ↓↑ blood insulin, ↓ blood triglycerides  48, 49
Quercetin  Diabetic rat  i.p.  ↓ Oxidation (pancreas)  50
↑ Antioxidant enzymes (pancreas)

TABLE 1

Summary of antidiabetic activities of grapes and grape components

Compound
Model
Activity
References
Muscadine grapes  Human, diabetic  Oral  ↓ Fasting blood insulin, ↑ blood insulin:glucose ratio  (38)
Red wine polyphenols  Diabetic rat  Oral  ↓ Hyperglycemia, ↑ plasma insulin  (40)
Red wine polyphenols  Insulin resistant rat  Oral  ↓ Hypertension, ↓ reactive oxygen species (cardiac tissue)  (41)
Grape leaf extract  Diabetic rat  i.p.  ↓ Hyperglycemia  (42)
Grape seed procyanidins  Diabetic rat  Oral  ↓ Hyperglycemia, ↑ blood insulin, ↓ oxidative stress (pancreas)  (43, 44)
Resveratrol  Obese mouse  Oral  ↑ Insulin sensitivity  45, 46
Diabetic rat  Oral  ↓ Blood glucose, ↓↑ blood insulin, ↓ blood triglycerides  48, 49
Quercetin  Diabetic rat  i.p.  ↓ Oxidation (pancreas)  50
↑ Antioxidant enzymes (pancreas)
Compound
Model
Activity
References
Muscadine grapes  Human, diabetic  Oral  ↓ Fasting blood insulin, ↑ blood insulin:glucose ratio  (38)
Red wine polyphenols  Diabetic rat  Oral  ↓ Hyperglycemia, ↑ plasma insulin  (40)
Red wine polyphenols  Insulin resistant rat  Oral  ↓ Hypertension, ↓ reactive oxygen species (cardiac tissue)  (41)
Grape leaf extract  Diabetic rat  i.p.  ↓ Hyperglycemia  (42)
Grape seed procyanidins  Diabetic rat  Oral  ↓ Hyperglycemia, ↑ blood insulin, ↓ oxidative stress (pancreas)  (43, 44)
Resveratrol  Obese mouse  Oral  ↑ Insulin sensitivity  45, 46
Diabetic rat  Oral  ↓ Blood glucose, ↓↑ blood insulin, ↓ blood triglycerides  48, 49
Quercetin  Diabetic rat  i.p.  ↓ Oxidation (pancreas)  50
↑ Antioxidant enzymes (pancreas)

Experiments with other fruits have also shown positive health benefits for reducing some of the metabolic disturbances in type 2 diabetes, such as hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. It is noteworthy that many of the grape studies described in this review have used pharmacological concentrations of extracts and individual polyphenols. Further research is needed to determine whether beneficial effects in the management of type 2 diabetes can be achieved by diets rich in whole grapes, grape products, or individual grape-derived polyphenols. The low range of GI and GL make grapes an acceptable and desirable part of the diet of diabetic individuals. Grapes, especially darkly colored fruits, have an abundance of antioxidant molecules that have the ability to regulate insulin and glucose metabolism and oxidative stress induced in this disease. Extensive human studies are needed to gain insight into the role grapes and grape products can play in regulating hyperglycemia, insulin sensitivity, and relieving oxidative damage to maintain β-cell mass. A standardized grape product would be beneficial for initial analyses of the health benefits of grapes by different investigators. Studies using different grape cultivars would be ideal to determine which cultivars show maximum health benefits. Research with humans should involve long-term study designs to determine whether the consistent addition of grapes or grape products to the diet will have long-term benefits for reducing disease progression. For studies involving healthy subjects and type 2 diabetics, the insulin response will be an important parameter to investigate, because insulin resistance is indeed a major problem exacerbating the hyperglycemic state observed in this population. Plasma triglycerides, cholesterol levels, and inflammatory molecules will also be important parameters to examine in human studies, because type 2 diabetics are at high risk for developing cardiovascular complications.

Other articles in this supplement include (59–65).

### Literature Cited

2.

Guillausseau

P-J

,

Meas

T

,

Virally

M

,

Laloi-Michelin

M

,

Médeau

V

,

Kevorkian

J-P

.

Abnormalities in insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes mellitus

.

Diabetes Metab.

2008

;

34

:

S43

8

.4.

Posthauer

ME

.

Examining the benefit of glycemic control and diet

.

2008

;

21

:

67

9

.5.

Khan

AH

,

Pessin

JE

.

Insulin regulation of glucose uptake: a complex interplay of intracellular signaling pathways

.

Diabetologia.

2002

;

45

:

1475

83

.6.

Watson

RT

,

Kanzaki

M

,

Pessin

JE

.

Regulated membrane trafficking of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter 4 in adipocytes

.

Endocr Rev.

2004

;

25

:

177

204

.7.

Zaid

H

,

Antonescu

CN

,

Randhawa

VK

,

Klip

A

.

Insulin action on glucose transporters through molecular switches, tracks, and tethers

.

Biochem J.

2008

;

413

:

201

15

.8.

White

MF

.

IRS proteins and the common path to diabetes

.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab.

2002

;

283

:

E413

22

.9.

T

,

Kawano

Y

,

Sakakibara

T

,

Hazeki

O

,

Ui

M

.

Essential role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in insulin-induced glucose transport and antilipolysis in rat adipocytes. Studies with a selective inhibitor wortmannin

.

J Biol Chem.

1994

;

269

:

3568

73

.10.

Cheatham

B

,

Vlahos

CJ

,

Cheatham

L

,

Wang

L

,

Blenis

J

,

Kahn

CR

.

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation is required for insulin stimulation of pp70 S6 kinase, DNA synthesis, and glucose transporter translocation

.

Mol Cell Biol.

1994

;

14

:

4902

11

.11.

Sharma

PM

,

Egawa

K

,

Huang

Y

,

Martin

JL

,

Huvar

I

,

Boss

GR

,

Olefsky

JM

.

Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer and its effect on insulin action

.

J Biol Chem.

1998

;

273

:

18528

37

.12.

Yamamoto

M

,

Toya

Y

,

Schwencke

C

,

Lisanti

MP

,

Myers

MG

Jr,

Ishikawa

Y

.

Caveolin is an activator of insulin receptor signaling

.

J Biol Chem.

1998

;

273

:

26962

8

.13.

Chiang

SH

,

Baumann

CA

,

Kanzaki

M

,

Thurmond

DC

,

Watson

RT

,

Neudauer

CL

,

Macara

IG

,

Pessin

JE

,

Saltiel

AR

.

Insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation requires the CAP-dependent activation of TC10

.

Nature.

2001

;

410

:

944

8

.14.

Watson

RT

,

Shigematsu

S

,

Chiang

SH

,

Mora

S

,

Kanzaki

M

,

Macara

IG

,

Saltiel

AR

,

Pessin

JE

.

Lipid raft microdomain compartmentalization of TC10 is required for insulin signaling and GLUT4 translocation

.

J Cell Biol.

2001

;

154

:

829

40

.15.

Martin

SS

,

Haruta

T

,

Morris

AJ

,

Klippel

A

,

Williams

LT

,

Olefsky

JM

.

Activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is sufficient to mediate actin rearrangement and GLUT4 translocation in 3T3–L1 adipocytes

.

J Biol Chem.

1996

;

271

:

17605

8

.16.

Kanzaki

M

,

Watson

RT

,

Hou

JC

,

Stamnes

M

,

Saltiel

AR

,

Pessin

JE

.

Small GTP-binding protein TC10 differentially regulates two distinct populations of filamentous actin in 3T3L1 adipocytes

.

Mol Biol Cell.

2002

;

13

:

2334

46

.17.

Withers

DJ

,

Gutierrez

JS

,

Towery

H

,

Burks

DJ

,

Ren

J-M

,

Previs

S

,

Zhang

Y

,

Bernal

D

,

Pons

S

, et al.

Disruption of IRS-2 causes type 2 diabetes in mice

.

Nature.

1998

;

391

:

900

4

.18.

Kido

Y

,

Burks

DJ

,

Withers

D

,

Bruning

JC

,

Kahn

CR

,

White

MF

,

Accili

D

.

Tissue-specific insulin resistance in mice with mutations in the insulin receptor, IRS-1, and IRS-2

.

J Clin Invest.

2000

;

105

:

199

205

.19.

Chang-Chen

KJ

,

Mullur

R

,

Bernal-Mizrachi

E

.

β-Cell failure as a complication of diabetes

.

Rev Endocr Metab Disord.

2008

;

9

:

329

43

.20.

Dor

Y

,

Brown

J

,

Martinez

OI

,

Melton

DA

.

Adult pancreatic beta-cells are formed by self-duplication rather than stem-cell differentiation

.

Nature.

2004

;

429

:

41

6

.21.

Bonner-Weir

S

,

A

,

Yatoh

S

,

Li

WC

,

Aye

T

,

Toschi

E

,

Sharma

A

.

Transdifferentiation of pancreatic ductal cells to endocrine beta-cells

.

Biochem Soc Trans.

2008

;

36

:

353

6

.22.

Bernard

C

,

Berthault

MF

,

Saulnier

C

,

Ktorza

A

.

Neogenesis vs apoptosis as main components of pancreatic beta cell mass changes in glucose-infused normal and mildly diabetic rats

.

FASEB J.

1999

;

13

:

1195

205

.23.

Paris

M

,

Bernard-Kargar

C

,

Berthault

MF

,

Bouwens

L

,

Ktorza

A

.

Specific and combined effects of insulin and glucose on functional pancreatic beta-cell mass in vivo in adult rats

.

Endocrinology.

2003

;

144

:

2717

27

.24.

Alonso

LC

,

Yokoe

T

,

Zhang

P

,

Scott

DK

,

Kim

SK

,

O’Donnell

CP

,

Garcia-Ocaña

A

.

Glucose infusion in mice: a new model to induce beta-cell replication

.

Diabetes.

2007

;

56

:

1792

801

.25.

Kloppel

G

,

Lohr

M

,

Habich

K

,

Oberholzer

M

,

Heitz

PU

.

Islet pathology and the pathogenesis of type 1 and type 2 diabetes revisited

.

Surv Synth Pathol Res.

1985

;

4

:

110

25

.26.

Clark

A

,

Wells

CA

,

Buley

ID

,

Cruickshank

JK

,

Vanhegan

RI

,

Matthews

DR

,

Cooper

GJ

,

Holman

RR

,

Turner

RC

.

Islet amyloid, increased A-cells, reduced B-cells and exocrine fibrosis: quantitative changes in the pancreas in type 2 diabetes

.

Diabetes Res.

1988

;

9

:

151

9

.27.

W

,

Buteau

J

,

Peyot

ML

,

Nolan

C

,

Roduit

R

,

Hardy

S

,

Joly

E

,

Dbaibo

G

,

Rosenberg

L

, et al.

Saturated fatty acids synergize with elevated glucose to cause pancreatic beta-cell death

.

Endocrinology.

2003

;

144

:

4154

63

.28.

Butler

AE

,

Janson

J

,

Bonner-Weir

S

,

Ritzel

R

,

Rizza

RA

,

Butler

PC

.

β-Cell deficit and increased β-cell apoptosis in human with type 2 diabetes

.

Diabetes.

2003

;

52

:

102

10

.29.

Jenkins

DJ

,

Wolever

TM

,

Taylor

RH

,

Barker

H

,

Fielden

H

,

Baldwin

JM

,

Bowling

AC

,

Newman

HC

,

Jenkins

AL

, et al.

Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange

.

Am J Clin Nutr.

1981

;

34

:

362

6

.30.

Jenkins

DJ

,

Wolever

TM

,

Jenkins

AL

,

Thorne

MJ

,

Lee

R

,

Kalmusky

J

,

Reichert

R

,

Wong

GS

.

The glycaemic index of foods tested in diabetic patients: a new basis for carbohydrate exchange favouring the use of legumes

.

Diabetologia.

1983

;

24

:

257

64

.31.

Venn

BJ

,

Green

TJ

.

Glycemic index and glycemic load: measurement issues and their effect on diet-disease relationships

.

Eur J Clin Nutr.

2007

;

61

:

S122

31

.32.

Monro

JA

,

Shaw

M

.

Glycemic impact, glycemic glucose equivalents, glycemic index, and glycemic load: definitions, distinctions, and implications

.

Am J Clin Nutr.

2008

;

87

:

S237

43

.33.

Wolever

TM

,

Jenkins

DJ

,

Jenkins

AL

,

Josse

TG

.

The glycemic index: methodology and clinical implications

.

Am J Clin Nutr.

1991

;

54

:

846

54

.34.

Henry

CJK

,

Lightowler

HJ

,

Newens

KJ

,

Pata

N

.

The influence of adding fats of varying saturation on the glycaemic response of white bread

.

Int J Food Sci Nutr.

2008

;

59

:

61

9

.35.

Willett

W

,

Manson

J

,

Liu

S

.

Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of type 2 diabetes

.

Am J Clin Nutr.

2002

;

76

:

S274

80

.36.

Howlett

J

,

Ashwell

M

.

Glycemic response and health: summary of a workshop

.

Am J Clin Nutr.

2008

;

87

:

S212

6

.37.

Foster-Powell

K

,

Holt

SHA

,

Brand-Miller

JC

.

International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002

.

Am J Clin Nutr.

2002

;

76

:

5

56

.38.

Banini

AE

,

Boyd

LC

,

Allen

JC

,

Allen

HG

,

Sauls

DL

.

Muscadine grape products intake, diet and blood constituents of non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects

.

Nutrition.

2006

;

22

:

1137

45

.39.

Oberley

LW

.

.

1988

;

5

:

13

24

.40.

N

,

Azay

J

,

Poucheret

P

,

Cassanas

G

,

Krosniak

M

,

Auger

C

,

Gasc

F

,

Rouanet

J-M

,

Cros

G

, et al.

Antidiabetic activity of red wine polyphenolic extract, ethanol, or both in streptozotocin-treated rats

.

J Agric Food Chem.

2004

;

52

:

1008

16

.41.

NA

,

Bornet

A

,

Azay

J

,

Araiz

C

,

Delbosc

S

,

Cristol

J-P

,

Linck

N

,

Cros

G

,

Teissedre

P-L

.

Red wine polyphenols alone or in association with ethanol prevent hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and production of reactive oxygen species in the insulin-resistant fructose-fed rat

.

J Agric Food Chem.

2004

;

52

:

5593

7

.42.

Orhan

N

,

Aslan

M

,

Orhan

DD

,

Ergun

F

,

E

.

In-vivo assessment of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera) in diabetic rats

.

J Ethnopharmacol.

2006

;

108

:

280

6

.43.

Pinent

M

,

Blay

M

,

MC

,

MJ

,

Arola

L

,

Ardévol

A

.

Grape seed-derived procyanidins have an antihyperglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and insulinomimetic activity in insulin-sensitive cell lines

.

Endocrinology.

2004

;

145

:

4985

90

.44.

El-Alfy

AT

,

Ahmed

AAE

,

Fatani

AJ

.

Protective effect of red grape seeds proanthocyanidins against induction of diabetes by alloxan in rats

.

Pharmacol Res.

2005

;

52

:

264

70

.45.

Baur

JA

,

Pearson

KJ

,

Price

NL

,

Jamieson

HA

,

Lerin

C

,

Kalra

A

,

Prabhu

VV

,

Allard

JS

,

Lopez-Lluch

G

, et al.

Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet

.

Nature.

2006

;

444

:

337

42

.46.

Lagouge

M

,

Argmann

C

,

Gerhart-Hines

Z

,

Meziane

H

,

Lerin

C

,

Daussin

F

,

N

,

Milne

J

,

Lambert

P

, et al.

Resveratrol improves mitochondrial function and protects against metabolic disease by activating SIRT1 and PGC-1α

.

Cell.

2006

;

127

:

1109

22

.47.

Knutson

MD

,

Leeuwenburgh

C

.

Resveratrol and novel potent activators of SIRT1: effects on aging and age-related diseases

.

Nutr Rev.

2008

;

66

:

591

6

.48.

Chi

T-C

,

Chen

W-P

,

Chi

T-L

,

Kuo

T-F

,

Lee

S-S

,

Cheng

J-T

,

Su

M-J

.

Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase is involved in the antihyperglycemic effect induced by resveratrol in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

.

Life Sci.

2007

;

80

:

1713

20

.49.

Su

H-C

,

Hung

L-M

,

Chen

J-K

.

Resveratrol, a red wine antioxidant, possesses an insulin-like effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab.

2006

;

290

:

E1339

46

.50.

Coskun

O

,

Kanter

M

,

Korkmaz

A

,

Oter

S

.

Quercetin, a flavonoid antioxidant, prevents and protects streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress and β-cell damage in rat pancreas

.

Pharmacol Res.

2005

;

51

:

117

23

.51.

Seymour

EM

,

Singer

AAM

,

Kirakosyan

A

,

Urcuyo-Llanes

DE

,

Kaufman

PB

,

Bolling

SF

.

Altered hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in rats with intake of tart cherry

.

J Med Food.

2008

;

11

:

252

9

.52.

Xie

J-T

,

Aung

HH

,

Wu

JA

,

Attele

AS

,

Yuan

C-S

.

Effects of American ginseng berry extract on blood glucose levels in ob/ob mice

.

Am J Chin Med.

2002

;

30

:

187

94

.53.

Xie

JT

,

Zhou

Y-P

,

Dey

L

,

Attele

AS

,

Wu

JA

,

Gu

M

,

Polonsky

KS

,

Yuan

C-S

.

Ginseng berry reduces blood glucose and body weight in db/db mice

.

Phytomedicine.

2002

;

9

:

254

8

.54.

Fantuzzi

G

,

Faggioni

R

.

Leptin in the regulation of immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis

.

J Leukoc Biol.

2000

;

68

:

437

46

.55.

Lee

YA

,

Cho

EJ

,

Yokozawa

T

.

Effects of proanthocyanidin preparations on hyperlipidemia and other biomarkers in mouse model of type 2 diabetes

.

J Agric Food Chem.

2008

;

56

:

7781

9

.56.

Hanamura

T

,

Mayama

C

,

Aoki

H

,

Hirayama

Y

,

Shimizu

M

.

Antihyperglycemic effect of polyphenols from Acerola (Malphighia emarginata DC.) fruit

.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem.

2006

;

70

:

1813

20

.57.

Chen

C-C

,

Liu

I-M

,

Cheng

J-T

.

Improvement of insulin resistance by miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) in fructose-rich chow-fed rats

.

Phytother Res.

2006

;

20

:

987

92

.58.

Ojewole

JAO

,

CO

.

Anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Taub) [fabaceae] fruit aqueous extract in rats

.

J Ethnopharmacol.

2004

;

95

:

177

82

.59.

Pezzuto

JM

,

Venkatasubramanian

V

,

M

,

Morris

KR

.

Unraveling the relationship between grapes and health

.

J Nutr.

2009

;

139

:

1783

7

.60.

MM

,

Vita

JA

.

Grapes and cardiovascular disease

.

J Nutr.

2009

;

139

:

1788

93

.61.

Percival

SS

.

Grape consumption supports immunity in animals and humans

.

J Nutr.

2009

;

139

:

1801

5

.62.

Kaur

M

,

Agarwal

C

,

Agarwal

R

.

Anticancer and cancer chemopreventive potential of grape seed extract and other grape-based products

.

J Nutr.

2009

;

139

:

1806

12

.63.

Joseph

JA

,

Shukitt-Hale

B

,

Willis

LM

.

Grape juice, berries, and walnuts affect brain aging and behavior

.

J Nutr.

2009

;

139

:

1813

7

.64.

Wu

CD

.

Grape products and oral health

.

J Nutr.

2009

;

139

:

1818

23

.65.

Forester

SC

,

Waterhouse

AL

.

Metabolites are key to understanding health effects of wine polyphenolics

.

J Nutr.

2009

;

139

:

1824

31

.

### Abbreviations

• AUC

•

• c-Cbl

cellular-Casitas B-lineage lymphoma

•

• GI

•

• GL

•

• GLUT4

•

• IR

•

• IRS

insulin receptor substrate

•

• PI3K

phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase

•

• SIRT1

© 2009 The American Institute of Nutrition

## 4 fruits that diabetics can eat

Many people assume fruits are not good foods for diabetes. However, it is all about choosing the right fruits for those with diabetes to ensure overall health.

We’re all aware of the fact that fruits are extremely nutritious and can boost our overall health. However, things are quite different for diabetics. In fact, fruits are not considered as good foods for diabetes. You see, our blood sugar levels are affected by our carbohydrate intake–mainly because our body converts carbs into glucose.

Not only are fruits rich in carbohydrates but they also contain a fair amount of sugar. Does this mean a diabetic person should avoid fruits? The short answer is NO. Diabetes is a chronic but manageable illness. When picking up fruits for someone with diabetes, you have to ensure the portion size is controlled and that the glycemic index (GI) of the fruit is low.

The glycemic index indicates the speed at which the food item will raise one’s blood sugar. Hence, fruits with a lower GI are better for people with diabetes. What’s more? Having fruits within a limit of 15 grams can ensure that someone with diabetes is getting the right amount of nutrients without increasing blood sugar levels.

To help you out a little, here are 4 of them that are healthy for diabetics to consume:

1. Apples
A small to medium apple is fairly low on the GI scale which means it won’t affect your blood sugar levels negatively. What’s more, the high content of fibre in an apple will not only ensure that your digestive system and liver health is in great shape but also help with regulating blood sugar levels. Apples are also rich in vitamins A and C, and also have anti-inflammatory properties–making it a great bet for people with diabetes.

Apples are truly the superfoods you can chomp on! Image Courtesy: Shutterstock

2. Oranges
Oranges are known to have an anti-diabetic effect. They are a great way of including vitamins and minerals in one’s diet without going overboard with carbohydrates. They’re also extremely rich in antioxidants and vitamin C, which is a combination responsible for ensuring that your immune system stays strong.

3. Pears
A low glycemic index ensures that a small to medium-sized pear doesn’t raise your blood sugar level far too quickly. Moreover, pears are rich in nutrients and vitamins that have an anti-inflammatory effect and even help with digestion.

4. Strawberries
Strawberries are a powerhouse of antioxidants and are also low on carbs. Hence, they make for the perfect fruit option for someone who is diabetic. In fact, a study published on PubMed Central notes that eating strawberries after a meal can help regulate one’s insulin levels.

Strawberries are not harmful when taken in moderation. Image courtesy: Shutterstock

Also, read: 9 foods that your diabetic parents must avoid at all costs

However, you have to ensure portion control with all the fruits mentioned above. Monitor how these fruits affect your blood sugar level and regulate the portion accordingly, if needed. Ensure that you’re not picking up canned fruit or fruit juice because these products contain added sugar for taste and preservation.

Make sure you pick up fresh fruit and have it in the right proportion!

## Grapes for diabetes mellitus: it is possible or not (treatment)

The benefits of grapes for the human body are obvious and have long been proven. However, there are many health restrictions for this product. Let’s try to figure out whether grapes can be used for diabetes.

### Grapes and Diabetes Mellitus

For medical reasons, people with diabetes need to reduce the amount of carbohydrates in their daily diet, and they have to give up completely sweets in severe forms.The use of foods that cause a sharp increase in blood sugar levels are excluded. Oddly enough, this also applies to seemingly harmless vegetables and fruits. Grapes are in the first place on this list of prohibited foods. The reason for this is the high sugar content in nutmeg. The glycemic index of the product is more than 48 units, which is very high for a diabetic.

Not so long ago, the use of these delicious berries was taboo for diabetics. Today, this issue is viewed somewhat differently.Scientists have made a discovery that proves that red grapes can fight diseases such as diabetes. Grapes for diabetes can not only be consumed, but also used as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent for diabetes. The direction in medicine dealing with the treatment of nutmeg is called ampelotherapy.

### Use for the prevention and treatment of diabetes

If a doctor recommends using grapes as a treatment for diabetes, it should be borne in mind that, like any drug, it will need to be dosed.

The course of treatment is usually 35-40 days. The course begins with just a few berries a day, then the doses are gradually increased. The maximum allowable rate is 12 berries per day. You need to consume them throughout the day. If you eat the entire daily rate at a time, you can only do harm. In the last 14 days of treatment, the daily dose is reduced to 6 fetuses, that is, 2 times.

If there are no fresh berries, then you can replace it with red grape juice without added sugar and in appropriate proportions.

During the course of treatment, you should completely abandon foods that promote the fermentation of foods in the intestine and provoke increased gas production.

### Features of inclusion in the diet of a diabetic

It should be remembered that grapes in diabetes mellitus are not allowed. It can only be used for treatment under the supervision of a doctor, and only red grapes are suitable for these purposes.

Not all diabetics can be prescribed this product as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent.This is possible in the following cases:

1. The patient feels well, the stage of the disease is not severe and not progressive.
2. The patient keeps a strict record of XE (bread units).

Grapes will help strengthen the immune system of a diabetic, will have a beneficial effect on the work of the nervous system, which undergoes excessive stress during illness. Fiber will help eliminate disturbances in the digestive tract, will have a mild laxative effect. Also, nutmeg will raise the tone and help to cope with chronic fatigue characteristic of the disease.

In no case should you eat grapes with high sugar without a doctor’s prescription. Only a specialist can determine whether this product can be used as an adjunct treatment in your particular case.

Choose fruits of good quality, unripe or overripe specimens are not recommended. The variety and shape of the berries do not matter, the main requirement is that they be red.

## Are grapes and bananas bad for diabetes?

– I have never been sick or abused.Recently, the doctors “made me happy”: I, like many men over the age of 50, have type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recommended: less salty and animal fats. Is this enough to keep you from diving into insulin?

Raphael.

Yuri REDKIN , Associate Professor, Department of Endocrinology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Education, Moscow Regional Research Clinical Institute (MONIKI):

– Not enough. Indeed, type 2 diabetes requires a strict diet aimed at lowering blood sugar and weight.It is necessary to limit foods that increase sugar. These, in addition to smoked meats, salinity, sweets and everything fatty, include: bananas, grapes, dried fruits, pasta, cereals. But that doesn’t mean you have to go hungry.

There are foods that do not increase sugar: lean meats, fish, poultry, vegetables. And one more secret. If you do not want to feel hungry, wash down any meal with water.

It is also important to learn how to monitor your own blood sugar levels using a glucometer.You need to strive for fasting blood sugar levels below 6.5 mmol / liter, two hours after a meal – below 8. For this, in addition to proper nutrition and maximum alcohol restriction, actively engage in physical activity that is feasible for you – at least 30 minutes per day 5 days a week.

Does hair suffer from trendy diets?

– Why does dandruff appear? I have never had it before, and for the last six months I have not been able to get rid of it. What can be wrong?

Oksana.

Elena ILCHENKO , dermatologist-trichologist:

– Sometimes dandruff appears if you “burned” the scalp with a perm, tried a new shampoo that does not suit you, or just ate something greasy. But such a “snowball” will “melt” in a few days.

But a long-standing problem can cause hair loss (seborrheic alopecia). The scales penetrate into the hair follicle, clog it. Hair first begins to grow weaker, thinner, shorter, and then the bulb dies off altogether.Seborrheic alopecia occurs to the same extent in men and women.

It is difficult to completely cure seborrhea, but it is possible. True, shampoos and balms for dandruff give only a cosmetic effect: the scales are removed, but the process of their “production” still continues.

Seborrhea is treated by applying non-hormonal cleansing agents to the scalp. If there are no secondary infections, warming is prescribed. A special cap is put on the head, which stimulates the absorption of the medicine into the skin.

I advise you to consult a trichologist – a specialist in hair and scalp diseases. Often, patients with seborrhea require additional examinations. After all, the appearance of dandruff can be an external manifestation of problems with the gastrointestinal tract, metabolic processes. Quite often “victims” of fashionable diets also get sick with seborrhea. Mono-diets are especially harmful for the condition of the hair, when they completely refuse to eat either from fats or from carbohydrates.

## can diabetics eat or not

### Is it possible to eat grapes with type 2 diabetes

For medical reasons, people with diabetes need to reduce the amount of carbohydrates in their daily diet, and from sweets in severe forms have to be completely abandoned.The use of foods that cause a sharp increase in blood sugar levels are excluded. Oddly enough, this also applies to seemingly harmless vegetables and fruits.

Grapes are in the first place on this list of prohibited foods. The reason for this is the high sugar content in nutmeg. The glycemic index of the product is more than 48 units, which is very high for a diabetic.

Not so long ago, the use of these delicious berries was taboo for diabetics.Today, this issue is viewed somewhat differently. Scientists have made a discovery that proves that red grapes can fight diseases such as diabetes.

Grapes for diabetes can not only be consumed, but also used as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent for diabetes. The direction in medicine dealing with the treatment of nutmeg is called ampelotherapy.

If a doctor recommends the use of grapes for diabetes as a treatment, it should be borne in mind that, like any drug, it will need to be dosed.

Important! The course of treatment is usually 35-40 days. The course begins with just a few berries a day, then the doses are gradually increased. The maximum allowable rate is 12 berries per day. You need to consume them throughout the day. If you eat the entire daily rate at a time, you can only do harm. In the last 14 days of treatment, the daily dose is reduced to 6 fetuses, that is, 2 times.

If there are no fresh berries, then you can replace it with red grape juice without added sugar and in appropriate proportions.During the course of treatment, you should completely abandon foods that promote the fermentation of foods in the intestines and provoke increased gas production.

It should be remembered that grapes with diabetes mellitus are not allowed. It can only be used for treatment under the supervision of a doctor, and only red grapes are suitable for these purposes.

Not all diabetics can be prescribed this product as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent.This is possible in the following cases:

• The patient feels well, the stage of the disease is not severe or progressive.
• The patient keeps a strict record of XE (bread units).

Grapes will help strengthen the immune system of a diabetic, will have a beneficial effect on the functioning of the nervous system, which undergoes excessive stress during illness. Fiber will help eliminate disturbances in the digestive tract, will have a mild laxative effect. Also, nutmeg will raise the tone and help to cope with chronic fatigue characteristic of the disease.

Expert opinion

Guseva Yulia Alexandrova

Specialized endocrinologist

In no case should you eat grapes with high sugar without a doctor’s prescription. Only a specialist can determine whether this product can be used as an adjunct treatment in your particular case.

Choose fruits of good quality, it is not recommended to use unripe or overripe specimens.The variety and shape of the berries do not matter, the main requirement is that they be red.

Girls! Tell me, please, is it possible to eat grapes with diabetes? I found out that I have a high risk of developing diabetes mellitus and I want to exclude all foods that can be potentially dangerous and would increase the risk of developing diabetes.

My grandmother was diagnosed with diabetes late. All attention was directed to the fact that she had pancreatic cancer. I lived so to speak. With cancer of this type, it is impossible to save in the conditions in which we are for sure.

Now. She didn’t really eat anything, but only asked to buy her grapes and grape juice. They did a blood test, because some symptoms appeared (I was little, I don’t really remember which ones anymore). They also discovered diabetes, which did not exist before.

Whether it arose against the background of cancer, or from the consumption of grape juice in large quantities. Do not know. But somehow I’m scared. And I love grapes very much. Can I eat it now or not, if there is a real risk of diabetes?

As far as I know, grapes are possible, but only dark and quite a bit.Obviously not in kilograms or liters, as your grandmother did. In general, if you suspect diabetes, it is better to exclude all sweet fruits and sweet varieties of individual fruits. Here, for example, from grapes raisins and “ladies’ fingers” you definitely cannot. It is a white grape and very sweet.

In general, if you are afraid that you will have diabetes, because your grandmother had it, then stop. You just have a predisposition, but it may not result in anything. Everyone has a risk, if it is groundless, then eat what and in such quantity as and how you ate before.

Julia, if you look at the composition of the grapes, you will understand everything yourself! Grapes are 70 percent water, but everything else, about 30 percent, is sugar and glucose. But despite this, grapes are very healthy! It contains a lot of amino acids, iron, folic acid and much more from the periodic table!

But as for the use of grapes for people with diabetes, then it should not be used! Your fears were not unfounded! BUT! The exception is red grapes! You can eat it, but not more than 12 pieces per day, and then, not at one time!

There are many good reasons for grapes to be considered part of a healthy diet.It is rich in minerals, vitamins and fiber. Berries and fruits contain large amounts of glucose and fructose, but this is not a reason for diabetics to exclude them from their diet. Grapes can upset your blood glucose balance, so it can be eaten in small amounts if recommended by your healthcare professional or dietitian.

Attention! In addition to glucose, red grapes contain a large amount of fiber, which prevents the body from absorbing nutrients too quickly.

Ultimately, blood sugar will not rise sharply if the patient eats grapes.You can consume up to three servings of grapes daily – this is one serving with each meal. The American Diabetes Association recommends the inclusion of red and black grapes in the diet of diabetics.

Red grapes are not a very good helper in this case. It would be ideal to consume some grapes with other fruits that contain less sugar and more carbohydrates. It could be raspberries, for example.

If you are overweight during pregnancy, it is best to avoid grapes altogether.Although no link has been found between grapes and gestational diabetes, the high carbohydrate intake may increase the risk of developing gestational diabetes.

You can eat from 12 to 15 medium grapes per day, doctors do not recommend more. As with type 1 and 2 diabetes, the best way is to mix red, black and green grapes.

#### Type 1 diabetes

For a long time, scientists have been in doubt whether there is an effect of grapes on type 1 diabetics.It has recently been found that eating small amounts of grapes can actually slow the progression of type 1 diabetes. For the experiment, doctors added grape powder to each meal of the patient. In patients in the test group, the signs of diabetes were steadily decreasing. They had a better quality of life, lived longer and stayed healthy.

Grape powder can be found commercially and added to meals as advised by a doctor. For those who regularly consume it, the pancreas becomes healthier.

#### Type 2 diabetes

Numerous studies have shown that grapes can lower blood pressure and control insulin resistance. Hence, these fruits help to cope with type 2 diabetes.

Men and women at risk of developing type 2 diabetes can use grapes to reduce this risk. For those already suffering from this type of diabetes, grapes should be introduced into the diet to reduce insulin resistance and stabilize blood sugar levels.It will also prevent the development of various types of diabetes side effects.

The negative effect of juice, according to the authors, can be explained by the fact that it passes through the digestive tract faster and is more easily absorbed than whole fruits.

Eating blueberries, grapes and apples can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes by more than 20%, while fruit juice, on the contrary, increases this risk, scientists from the United States, whose work is published in the British Medical Journal, have found.

In type 2 diabetes, insulin is produced in normal or even increased amounts, but the mechanism of its interaction with the cells of the body is disrupted. In this case, the patients are prescribed a diet and antihyperglycemic drugs.

According to a press release from the Harvard School of Public Health, the researchers studied data from nearly 187.4 thousand people collected by the three largest long-term surveys of the health of the population in the United States in 1984-2008.Patients with diabetes, cardiovascular or cancer diseases were excluded from the sample. 6.5% of the participants (more than 12 thousand people) developed diabetes during the observation period.

Tip! Scientists evaluated both the consumption of fruits in general, and the preference for specific types: grapes or raisins, plums, peaches or apricots, bananas, melons, apples or pears, oranges, grapefruits, strawberries.

Those participants who ate at least twice a week a serving of fruits, namely blueberries, grapes, apples, had a 23% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those who ate less than one serving a month.

On the other hand, those who drank one or more servings of fruit juice each day increased their risk of type 2 diabetes by 21%. Scientists estimate that simply replacing three glasses of juice with three fruits a week can reduce the risk of diabetes by 7%.

The negative effect of juice, according to the authors, can be explained by the fact that it passes through the digestive tract faster and is absorbed more easily than whole fruits, even if they themselves contain a large amount of carbohydrates that increase blood sugar levels.

### Grapes for diabetes – can they be consumed?

In diabetes, it is necessary to minimize the intake of components that contain high sugar levels.

Grapes are also included in the list of prohibited products, because it is a fairly juicy berry with a pronounced taste and a large amount of sugar. Because of this, it is considered too high in calories, but easily absorbed in the body.

Now doctors do not ban this product, but on the contrary, for some symptoms, they even recommend and prescribe treatment.Therefore, for those who ask the question: “Is it possible to eat grapes with diabetes mellitus”, there is an unequivocal answer – only certain varieties are possible within reasonable limits and for efficiency.

A patient with this ailment should think several times before eating the product. Can grapes be used for diabetes (diabetes mellitus)?

What doses of berries are acceptable? Can you eat grapes for type 2 diabetes? Ready to start, attention, let’s figure it out!

At first glance, grape berries are a completely safe product.Moreover, the product is leading in the amount of antioxidants and minerals. Grapes contain a lot of copper, iron, potassium and magnesium, zinc. It is also rich in vitamins: C; A; H; TO; R; PP; group B.

The fruits are used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, diseases of the respiratory system, kidneys, normalization of the gastrointestinal tract. Eating a healthy product in moderation will undoubtedly only benefit.

Achilles’ heel berry high in carbohydrates.The product falls on the forbidden list for people with impaired metabolism, overweight. The use of grapes and diabetes mellitus can lead to negative consequences.

The fact is that people with diabetes are forced to limit the consumption of foods rich in sugars. They provoke a sharp jump in blood glucose levels, worsen the course of the disease.

Black grapes

One hundred grams of grapes contain about 18 g of carbohydrates, which is 14% of the daily human intake.For diabetics, this is an unacceptable indicator. In addition, grape sugar in diabetes is insidious by its rapid absorption into the bloodstream, which means a rapid increase in the glucose index.

Diabetes and grapes are not combined for another reason. The berry stimulates appetite, which means that it provokes the use of even more excess carbohydrates.

But is it possible not to despair when grapes for diabetes mellitus (or type 2 diabetes) are prohibited by a nutritionist?

Or is it enough just to limit the amount consumed?

Narrow specialists who deal with the treatment of such diseases, conclude that with diabetes of the first and second types, a low-carbohydrate diet is prescribed, taking into account the glycemic index of foods.

It is believed that type 2 diabetes allows for a wider variety of foods and a relaxed diet. Therefore, the question – is it possible to eat grapes with type 2 diabetes mellitus, does not imply a definite answer.

None of the doctors will advise people with high blood sugar to eat grapes. However, the use of the product in moderate doses is acceptable if:

• the patient keeps a strict count of the consumed carbohydrates;
• diabetes is not complicated by concomitant diseases;
• the general condition of the patient is satisfactory.

Before including grapes in your diet, you should definitely consult a doctor. Whether it is possible to eat grapes with diabetes mellitus, the specialist will determine based on the current state of health. It is better to do a glucose test after consuming the product.

Regardless of the type of diabetes, strict restrictions on the use of grapes are imposed in the case of concomitant diseases. In diabetes, cells do not receive the necessary energy, metabolic processes are impaired.Any disease for a diabetic is more complicated. Any wounds, ulcers on the body heal more slowly, infectious diseases last longer.

Is it possible to eat grapes for diabetes, if the patient feels unwell? The answer is no. Limiting berries is also recommended in a pre-diabetic state.

Contraindications to the use of grapes for diabetics:

• Presence of inflammatory processes of the gastrointestinal tract. Ulcers of the stomach or duodenum, gastritis in the active phase are difficult to treat with an elevated glucose level.
• Inflammation of the pancreas. The pancreas is a very aggressive organ. Pancreatic enzymes are capable of corroding the tissues surrounding the organ. Even for a non-diabetic person, relieving symptoms is difficult. What can we say if the metabolism is impaired. Therefore, with pancreatitis at any stage, it is necessary to strictly monitor the sugar level
• Overweight, tendency to be overweight. Most people with diabetes mellitus are overweight people. For them, in addition to taking into account the sugar content in the product, calorie content is also important, and grapes are one of the most satisfying fruits
• Gout.Deposition of uric acid salts in joints can be aggravated by eating grapes. The berry contains a lot of uric acid, an excess of which can exacerbate gouty disease.
• Renal failure. Violation of the outflow of fluid from the body is a very dangerous condition. An additional load in the form of sweet berries is unacceptable.
• Presence of unsolved dental problems. Caries, periodontitis, stomatitis will only be aggravated by grape fruits. The presence of sugar and acids destroys the enamel of healthy teeth.Also, grapes are contraindicated for ulcers and fluxes in the mouth, both in the acute phase and in the chronic one.
• Cancer diseases. A diabetic must put all his strength into the fight against this terrible disease. Is it worth talking about the undesirability of surges in sugar in oncology?
• Viral liver diseases, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis. Any ailments of the main blood purifier are difficult to treat in the presence of diabetes. Liver therapy drugs usually contain glucose. A single dose for diabetics has been halved, which means that treatment is twice as slow.Therefore, you should not complicate the situation with a load of sugar.

The use of grape berries should not be combined with the simultaneous intake of other foods rich in sugar.

If contraindications to the use of grapes have been excluded, then you can eat a small amount of the product.

The portion is individual, in accordance with the nature of the course of the disease. No more than 10-12 small berries per day.

It is better to divide the quantity into 3-4 servings.It is better to eat grapes slowly, chewing the berries thoroughly.

It is better to eat grapes in season, then the probability of acquiring fruits devoid of harmful preservatives is much higher.

Important to know! Sugar problems can lead to a whole bunch of diseases over time, such as vision problems, skin and hair conditions, ulcers, gangrene and even cancerous tumors! People, taught by bitter experience, use …

### Can diabetics have grapes?

• fructose;
• glucose;
• fiber;
• glycosides;
• pectin.

In addition, grapes are extremely useful, they can and should be eaten, and can be considered a real storehouse of vitamins of various groups, as well as acids important for the human body:

• folic acid;
• lemon;
• wine;
• 90,033 apple;

• amber;
• 90,033 phosphoric;

• silicon;
• oxalic.

Grapes are rich in minerals: potassium, cobalt, magnesium, phosphorus.

The peel of berries contains special substances that help to cope with cancerous growths, have an anti-sclerotic effect, as well as an antioxidant effect.

The obvious benefits of this product cannot cause a single drop of doubt, and therefore grapes must be present on the table of every person. What about those who are obliged to monitor their diet and blood glucose levels?

Anyone who knows at least a little bit of medicine is well aware that in diabetes mellitus, it is envisaged to reduce the consumption of those foods that contain an excessive amount of carbohydrates, they are not recommended to eat.

If the disease is extremely severe, then it is better to exclude from your diet altogether those foods that provoke jumps in blood sugar levels.

Such products include everything salty, smoked and sweet (some fruits also belong to this category).

If we consider grapes in diabetes, then it is at the head of the prohibited foods in this disease. It is this delicious delicacy that contains a huge amount of glucose, which makes it incredibly high in calories, and you can safely exclude it in case of diabetes mellitus.

Despite such clear taboos, modern medicine has recently softened the restrictions somewhat, suggesting that it can still be eaten with diabetes mellitus.As a result of numerous scientific studies, it was found that grapes can also have a beneficial effect on the course of diabetes.

Thanks to this incredible discovery, type 2 diabetes patients can afford to eat this berry and even be treated with it, because grapes are able to fight many factors that could serve as a catalyst for the disease. In addition, grapes can be an excellent preventive measure for diabetes mellitus.

If the conditions are met, then grapes can be eaten without harm, and even with benefit to the body:

1. diabetes is not severe, and the patient is doing well;
2. the strictest accounting of grain units (XE) is kept.

Grapes help to strengthen the immune system of a diabetic, and also have the best effect on his nervous system, which undergoes serious stress during an illness. Fiber, which is so rich in the product, will cope with disturbances in the gastrointestinal tract and have a mild, laxative effect.

Very effective grapes for chronic fatigue, which is also typical for those people who suffer from diabetes and can eat grapes to raise their tone.

#### Grape Treatment

There is a whole direction – ampelotherapy (treatment with grapes). However, it should immediately be noted that it is not worthwhile to engage in such therapy on your own, because it is fraught with negative consequences that will damage the health of the diabetic.

If the attending physician has unequivocally approved the method of treatment with this berry, then its course should not be more than 6 weeks in a row.In addition, grapes should be consumed in strict doses and in small portions, gradually increasing the amount.

The glycemic index of grapes is 48, which is quite a lot for a diabetic. In terms of numbers, the average person needs only 12 red (!) Grapes per day. No other varieties are permitted. It is this amount that will be equated to 1 grain unit. It would be just ideal to spread that amount over 3 meals.

If there is no fresh berry, then it can be replaced with red grape juice, but without added sugar.

It is important to emphasize that there are absolutely no restrictions in the variety and form of this product, because the main thing is not to forget that the main selection criterion is red. In addition, it is necessary to pay attention to the degree of ripeness of the grapes. It is not recommended to eat overripe, as well as insufficiently ripe berries.

### Composition and useful properties of grapes

Before talking about the dangers or benefits of grapes, diabetics need to figure out what substances are included in these berries.It is 75% water. It contains various vitamins, which are very rich in the berry. In addition, grapes contain various acids:

• wine:
• apple;
• amber;
• sorrel;
• flint.

The berry contains phosphorus, cobalt, magnesium, potassium, iron.

Therefore, it is not surprising that many people suffering from this ailment think that eating grapes is harmless and even beneficial.Despite all the positive properties of the product, there is an opinion that grapes with diabetes are more likely to harm a person and his health than benefit.

The fruits contain many different nutrients that are necessary for any organism, namely:

• different types of sugar – fructose, sucrose and glucose;
• fiber;
• tanning components;
• vitamins – some of the B, C, P, A and K groups;
• microelements, namely phosphorus, potassium, as well as cobalt, plus magnesium and iron;
• acids – such as tartaric, citric, malic.Plus amber, phosphoric, formic, then oxalic, flint;
• pectin.

All of these nutrients, but not all of them have the same effect on the body of a diabetic.

Grapes are a truly luxurious plant, which not only can perform a decorative function, but also bears fruit, bringing considerable benefits to humans. Natural grape wines are delicious. As for the fruits, here the product occupies the first positions in the rating of juiciness.It consists of 70% water on average, and it would seem that it cannot do any harm. The question of whether grapes are healthy is also not urgent.

It contains:

• pectins;
• glucose and fructose;
• vitamins A, B, C, E, PP, K;
• 90,033 useful enzymes;

90,033 flavonoids;

• essential oils.

The fruits of the plant contain many trace elements that have a beneficial effect on the body, there are tannins.In addition, the wine berry is rich in organic acids such as:

• lemon;
• oxalic;
• amber;
• folic acid;
• phosphoric;
• wine;
• silicon.

Thus, the benefits are beyond doubt. However, grapes with diabetes are still undesirable precisely because they contain fructose and glucose, that is, sugar. Doctors strictly forbid eating grapes for type 2 diabetes mellitus, since in this situation all the beneficial properties of this wine berry outweigh one drawback – the excess amount of sugars in the pulp and juice.

When talking about the nutrients present in grapes, it is highly recommended to pay attention to the different types of sugar (fructose, sucrose and glucose). Also, don’t forget about the presence of fiber, which is very important for diabetics. In addition, you need to remember that:

• tanning components are present;
• contains some vitamin components, namely from group B, C, P, A and K;
• , trace elements should also be taken into account, namely phosphorus, potassium, cobalt.In addition, in no case should you forget about iron and phosphorus;
• acids are also present, for example, citric, malic and tartaric. In a smaller ratio, the composition contains such varieties as amber, phosphoric and others.

### Composition and useful properties of grapes

Since this fruit has such a rich composition, which only has the best effect on human health, it is worth considering what kind of beneficial properties it has:

• stomach and intestines work well;
• the stool becomes normal;
• vitamins and minerals strengthen the immune system;
• tidies up the work of the cardiovascular system and prevents the appearance of problems with the rhythm of the heart;
• shortness of breath and swelling of the extremities disappear;
• decreases blood pressure, so it is useful for hypertensive patients;
• helps to expand blood vessels and eliminate congestion;
• helps to improve mood, reduce the effects of a stressful situation;
• rejuvenates the skin and normalizes its color;
• is a prophylactic agent against tuberculosis, especially in the initial manifestations;
• gives a feeling of vigor and relieves fatigue;
• prevents the appearance of pathologies of the kidneys, joints.

### Ampelotherapy

Ampelotherapy (from ampelo … and Greek therapeia – treatment), grape therapy, the use of fresh grapes and grape juice for the treatment of various diseases, mainly chronic. It is one of the methods of diet therapy and is used as prescribed by a doctor in combination with medication and other types of treatment.

Expert opinion

Guseva Yulia Alexandrova

Specialized endocrinologist

Hippocrates and his disciple Asklepiad, Pliny, some Arab doctors (Celsus, Avrellon, Abu Bakr ar-Ra-zi) wrote about the dietary and therapeutic properties of grapes in ancient times, and in the Middle Ages by Riverius and others.

Grape cure was applied empirically; is currently practiced especially in those countries where Islam, Buddhism (Egypt, Syria, Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, India, etc.), as well as vegetarianism are widespread.

In Russia, the issues of ampelotherapy were first described in the work of VN Dmitriev “Treatment with grapes in Yalta, on the southern coast of Crimea” (1878). The scientific and theoretical foundations of ampelotherapy, confirmed by chemical and physiological studies, were laid later, in the 20s.a group of doctors, led by A. Dyakonov, developed them and introduced them into the practice of sanatorium treatment on the southern coast of Crimea (in Yalta).

Grapes contain glucose, fructose and other simple, easily digestible sugars. Thanks to these carbohydrates, 1 kg of grapes (with a sugar content of 16-18%) provides 700-900 kcal. In addition, berries contain various organic acids (malic, tartaric, silicic, citric, succinic, gallic, formic, oxalic, salicylic, pectinic; see

Important! The effect of grapes on the body is due to the content in it of a whole complex of the above substances, but the main therapeutic effect is provided by glucose, potassium salts (about 250 mg%) and water (on average 70-80%).

During ampelotherapy, metabolic processes are activated, especially water-salt, the excretory ability of the kidneys is enhanced, toxic metabolic products are more quickly excreted from the body, the motor function of the intestines is enhanced, the secretory function of the stomach is normalized, and appetite is improved.

Almost all grape varieties in a state of full maturity can be used as a dietary product with a high nutritional value.Applied grape treatment in the resorts of the southern coast of Crimea and other Black Sea resorts in Ukraine, in the resorts of Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Wed. Asia, Moldova, etc.

Ampelotherapy is recommended for diseases of the heart, bronchi, kidneys, liver. Grapes are prescribed for gastrointestinal diseases, accompanied by atonic and spastic constipation, with anemia, gout, chronic forms of pulmonary tuberculosis, with depletion of the nervous system, as a general tonic after prolonged debilitating diseases.

During ampelotherapy, it is necessary to limit the amount of other fruits, and also avoid the consumption of raw vegetables, milk, fatty and salty foods, kvass, mineral waters, alcoholic beverages, because when consumed together, fermentation increases and intestinal dysfunction may occur.

The amount of grapes or grape juice, as well as the duration of treatment, is prescribed individually. On the use of grapes and grape juice in the health resorts of Moldova in the treatment of these diseases, doctor P.N. Germanov developed guidelines approved by the Academic Council under the Ministry of Health of the MSSR in 1964.

Ampelotherapy is contraindicated in diabetes mellitus, obesity, peptic ulcer disease, colitis accompanied by diarrhea, enteritis and enterocolitis, acute pleurisy, stomatitis, gingivitis, glossitis, acute stage of tuberculosis, etc.

As a concentrated dietary product with a high nutritional value and pleasant taste, dried grapes (raisins, raisins) are used, which contain up to 73% of sugars and a lot of potassium salts.

Leaves, young shoots, seeds and pomace of grapes also have nutritional value in ampelotherapy. The naturose preparation obtained from grapes, which is used intravenously for acute bleeding, collapse, and shock, is of considerable benefit in the treatment process.

Grapes contain:

• water (80.0%),
• nitrogenous substances (0.4-0.8),
• sugar (16-26),
• fiber (0.6-0.8),
• organic acids (0.9-1.5),
• pectin substances (0.2-0.6),
• pentosans (0.6-0.8 mg%).

Juice contains:

• vitamins C, groups B, P and PP,
• folic acid,
• salts of potassium (205 mg%), calcium, magnesium, iron (0.5-0.6 mg%), manganese, cobalt,
• enzymes.

Of the organic acids in grapes, malic and tartaric acids prevail, which determine its taste. The peel of the berries contains tannins and dyes, as well as essential oils. Grapes are characterized by the presence of significant amounts of folic acid.With ampelotherapy of grapes up to a kilogram per day, you can get 2-3 daily norms of folic acid.

There is also vitamin K in berries – from 0.5 to 1.2-2 mg%. In terms of chemical composition, grapes are somewhat similar to human milk. So, grapes contain three vitamins that are directly related to the blood system and hematopoiesis: folic acid, which enhances hematopoiesis, vitamin K, which has a positive effect on the blood coagulation system, and vitamin P, which strengthens the walls of blood vessels and normalizes blood pressure.

Attention! The nature of the coumarins that make up the grape pulp has not yet been deciphered, but among them there are oxycoumarins that normalize blood clotting. An extensive set of trace elements is also closely related to hematopoiesis. Grapes, especially nutmeg varieties, are distinguished by phytoncidal properties (it inhibits E. coli and Vibrio cholerae).

Grapes are a very valuable dietary product. It is very useful in acute inflammation of the respiratory tract. Grapes are also useful in the initial forms of tuberculosis as a dietary and therapeutic agent.

Its berries have a diuretic, mild laxative and diaphoretic effect, they are recommended for anemia, gastritis with increased acidity of gastric juice, bronchial asthma, metabolic disorders, hemorrhoids, liver and kidney diseases, functional heart diseases, hypertension and hypotension, with nervous exhaustion , insomnia, spastic and atonic constipation.

Expert opinion

Guseva Yulia Alexandrova

Specialized endocrinologist

Treatment consists in daily consumption of 1 to 1.5-2 kg of berries without seeds in 3 divided doses one hour before meals for 1-2 months.You can use grape juice one glass at a time, bringing a single dose to 2 glasses. During this period, it is recommended not to consume fatty meat, raw milk, and alcoholic beverages.

The grape preparation naturose was used intravenously for acute blood loss, collapse, shock. It increases blood pressure and reduces the permeability of the vascular membranes. Ampelotherapy is recommended for poisoning with arsenic, cocaine, morphine, strychnine, sodium nitrite.

Glucose contained in juice and fruits has a positive effect on muscle tone and heart contractile activity.Grape juice is recommended for excretion of uric acid from the body, with urolithiasis, with general exhaustion, and hypertension.

Infusions and decoctions of leaves in folk medicine were used for rinsing with angina, for the preparation of compresses and baths for skin diseases; fresh grape leaves – as a wound healing agent. However, this pleasant and seemingly harmless method of treatment can only be carried out as directed and under the supervision of a physician.

Advice! Grapes are not recommended for diabetes mellitus, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, for colitis accompanied by diarrhea, heart failure, accompanied by edema and increased blood pressure, in chronic pharyngitis.Contraindications to treatment with grapes are stomatitis, gingivitis, acute and chronic enterocolitis.

Do not eat a lot of grapes in acute forms of tuberculosis, obesity (promotes weight gain). Before starting ampelotherapy, it is necessary to fill the teeth, if there is a need for this, to do the appropriate tests.

At medical resorts, ampelotherapy is widely used for cardiovascular diseases, especially vascular insufficiency, and congestion in the liver, kidney diseases (acute and chronic nephritis), acute and chronic hepatitis, chronic forms of pulmonary tuberculosis, bronchitis and pulmonary heart failure, disorders of the stomach, which are accompanied by changes in the acidity of gastric juice, colitis, gout and other metabolic diseases.

A daily portion of grapes cannot exceed 2 kg, and a portion of grape juice – 1.2 liters. Of course, in the first three days, 0.5-0.6 kg of grapes are prescribed in three doses (0.2 kg each): the first portion – on an empty stomach 1-2 hours before breakfast, the second – 2 hours before lunch and the third – after 5 o’clock. On the fourth day, up to 1 kg of grapes are consumed, on the seventh – 1.2 kg.

The course of treatment is 3-4 weeks. In case of renal and heart failure, grape treatment is prescribed in the form of unloading for 2-3 days in a row.During the day, the patient is given 1-2 kg of grapes in 5-8 doses.

Especially useful grapes for children as a dietary product that has medicinal properties. Children grow well, become balanced, less irritable. Observations have shown that with a daily consumption of about 1 kg of fresh grapes, the body weight in children per month increases by 1.5-4 kg.

After all, the nutrients contained in 1 kg of grapes (mainly sugar) provide energy that corresponds to 25-33% of a person’s daily need for it.1 kg of grapes for energy value is equal to 227 g of bread, 387 g of meat, 1.1 kg of potatoes, 1.1 liters of milk.

Juice of unripe berries is used as a remedy that makes the skin elastic, attractive and cleanses it from spots. For this purpose, a thin layer of cotton wool or gauze folded in several layers is moistened with fresh juice and applied to the face and neck for 20-25 minutes. After removing such a compress, the faces are washed with warm water, dried with a soft towel and smeared with cream. It is advisable to make a steam bath before the procedure.

### What are the contraindications?

Speaking of diabetes mellitus, they pay attention to certain diagnoses that will be a limitation for the use of grapes. We are talking about inflammatory processes in the liver, an open form of stomach ulcers, a significant degree of obesity. With diabetes, we can also say that grapes should not be consumed and even eaten periodically if there are problems in the work of the gallbladder, a pronounced form of caries.

Do not forget about other contraindications: oncology of the intestine and stomach, tuberculosis at the terminal stage, depletion of the body.The limitation will be a feverish state and constantly worsening problems in the work of the urinary system.

Thus, the use of such delicious berries as grapes can be considered acceptable for diabetes mellitus. However, this process is different for patients with the first and second types of the disease. In this regard, it is very important to first consult with a specialist and discuss all the features of the process.

When treating in a similar way, there are still some contraindications for those who suffer from such diseases:

• inflammatory processes in the liver;
• open form of a stomach ulcer;
• significant degree of obesity;
• there are problems with the gallbladder;
• dental problems – pronounced caries;
• 90,033 cancers of the stomach and intestines;

• tuberculosis at the last stage;
• 90,033 depletion of the body;

• febrile condition – acute form;
• problems with the urinary system.

During pregnancy, you need to carefully take grapes, especially in the third trimester.

In conclusion, it must be said that grapes for diabetes and as a prophylaxis for other diseases can be used, but only after a doctor’s prescription. Self-medication does not need to be dealt with, this can cause serious consequences.

90,000 how many grapes a diabetic can eat

Grapes for diabetes

Eating grapes helps to lower blood pressure and reduce insulin resistance, which reduces the risk of heart disease and diabetes, – said American scientists.

Scientists at the University of Michigan have observed that a diet rich in grapes may protect against metabolic syndrome, which is often a harbinger of heart attacks and type 2 diabetes.

Grapes owe their useful properties to the so-called. phytochemicals, i.e. active substances of plant origin, which have an antioxidant effect.

Scientists conducted an experiment in which they gave a powdery mixture of green, red and blue grapes to obese laboratory rats.In addition to grapes, the rodents received a fatty food that epitomizes the American way of life. The rats were then compared to a control group of rodents that did not receive powdered grapes.

Three months later, it turned out that in the first group, blood pressure and triglyceride levels decreased, as well as improved heart function and glucose tolerance. Read more about the benefits of grapes for diabetes in humans below in the articles I have collected on this topic.

### Can grapes be used in diabetes mellitus

For medical reasons, people with diabetes need to reduce the amount of carbohydrates in their daily diet, and from sweets in severe forms have to be completely abandoned.The use of foods that cause a sharp increase in blood sugar levels are excluded. Oddly enough, this also applies to seemingly harmless vegetables and fruits.

Grapes are in the first place on this list of prohibited foods. The reason for this is the high sugar content in nutmeg. The glycemic index of the product is more than 48 units, which is very high for a diabetic.

Not so long ago, the use of these delicious berries was taboo for diabetics.Today, this issue is viewed somewhat differently. Scientists have made a discovery that proves that red grapes can fight diseases such as diabetes.

Grapes for diabetes can not only be consumed, but also used as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent for diabetes. The direction in medicine dealing with the treatment of nutmeg is called ampelotherapy.

#### Use for the prevention and treatment of diabetes

If a doctor recommends the use of grapes for diabetes as a treatment, it should be borne in mind that, like any drug, it will need to be dosed.

Important!

The course of treatment is usually 35-40 days. The course begins with just a few berries a day, then the doses are gradually increased. The maximum allowable rate is 12 berries per day. You need to consume them throughout the day. If you eat the entire daily rate at a time, you can only do harm. In the last 14 days of treatment, the daily dose is reduced to 6 fetuses, that is, 2 times.

If there are no fresh berries, then you can replace it with red grape juice without added sugar and in appropriate proportions.During the course of treatment, you should completely abandon foods that promote the fermentation of foods in the intestines and provoke increased gas production.

#### Peculiarities of inclusion in the diet of a diabetic

It should be remembered that grapes with diabetes mellitus are not allowed. It can only be used for treatment under the supervision of a doctor, and only red grapes are suitable for these purposes.

Not all diabetics can be prescribed this product as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent. This is possible in the following cases:

• The patient feels well, the stage of the disease is not severe and not progressive.
• The patient keeps a strict record of XE (bread units).

Grapes will help strengthen the immune system of a diabetic, have a beneficial effect on the work of the nervous system, which undergoes excessive stress during illness. Fiber will help eliminate disturbances in the digestive tract, will have a mild laxative effect.Also, nutmeg will raise the tone and help to cope with chronic fatigue characteristic of the disease.

In no case should you eat grapes with high sugar without a doctor’s prescription. Only a specialist can determine whether this product can be used as an adjunct treatment in your particular case.

Choose fruits of good quality, unripe or overripe specimens are not recommended. The variety and shape of the berries do not matter, the main requirement is that they be red.

 Source: https://provinograd.com/svojstva/vinograd-pri-saxarnom-diabete.html

### Can diabetics have grapes?

Girls! Tell me, please, is it possible to eat grapes with diabetes? I found out that I have a high risk of developing diabetes mellitus and I want to exclude all foods that can be potentially dangerous and would increase the risk of developing diabetes.

My grandmother was diagnosed with diabetes late. All attention was directed to the fact that she had pancreatic cancer.I lived so to speak. With cancer of this type, it is impossible to save in the conditions in which we are for sure.

Now. She didn’t really eat anything, but only asked to buy her grapes and grape juice. They did a blood test, because some symptoms appeared (I was little, I don’t really remember which ones anymore). They also discovered diabetes, which did not exist before.

Whether it arose against the background of cancer, or from the consumption of grape juice in large quantities. Do not know. But somehow I’m scared.And I love grapes very much. Can I eat it now or not, if there is a real risk of diabetes?

As far as I know, grapes are possible, but only dark and quite a bit. Obviously not in kilograms or liters, as your grandmother did. In general, if you suspect diabetes, it is better to exclude all sweet fruits and sweet varieties of individual fruits. Here, for example, from grapes raisins and “ladies’ fingers” you definitely cannot. It is a white grape and very sweet.

In general, if you are afraid that you will have diabetes, because your grandmother had it, then stop.You just have a predisposition, but it may not result in anything. Everyone has a risk, if it is groundless, then eat what and in such quantity as and how you ate before.

Julia, if you look at the composition of the grapes, you will understand everything yourself! Grapes are 70 percent water, but everything else, about 30 percent, is sugar and glucose. But despite this, grapes are very healthy! It contains a lot of amino acids, iron, folic acid and much more from the periodic table!

But as for the use of grapes for people with diabetes, then it should not be used! Your fears were not unfounded! BUT! The exception is red grapes! You can eat it, but not more than 12 pieces per day, and then, not at one time!

 Source: http: // www.divomix.com/forum/mozhno-li-vinograd-pri-diabete/

### Grapes and Diabetes

There are many good reasons for grapes to be considered part of a healthy diet. It is rich in minerals, vitamins and fiber. Berries and fruits contain large amounts of glucose and fructose, but this is not a reason for diabetics to exclude them from their diet. Grapes can upset your blood glucose balance, so it can be eaten in small amounts if recommended by your healthcare professional or dietitian.

Attention!

Red grapes, in addition to glucose, contain a large amount of fiber, which prevents the body from absorbing nutrients too quickly.

Ultimately, blood sugar will not rise sharply if the patient eats grapes. You can consume up to three servings of grapes daily – this is one serving with each meal. The American Diabetes Association recommends the inclusion of red and black grapes in the diet of diabetics.

#### Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy

Red grapes are not a very good helper in this case. It would be ideal to consume some grapes with other fruits that contain less sugar and more carbohydrates.It could be raspberries, for example.

If you are overweight during pregnancy, it is best to avoid grapes altogether. Although no link has been found between grapes and gestational diabetes, the high carbohydrate intake may increase the risk of developing gestational diabetes.

A day you can eat from 12 to 15 medium grapes, more doctors do not recommend. As with type 1 and 2 diabetes, the best way is to mix red, black and green grapes.

#### Type 1 diabetes

For a long time, scientists have been in doubt whether there is an effect of grapes on type 1 diabetics. It has recently been found that eating small amounts of grapes can actually slow the progression of type 1 diabetes. For the experiment, doctors added grape powder to each meal of the patient. In patients in the test group, the signs of diabetes were steadily decreasing. They had a better quality of life, lived longer and stayed healthy.

Grape powder can be found commercially and added to meals as advised by a doctor. For those who regularly consume it, the pancreas becomes healthier.

#### Type 2 diabetes

Numerous studies have shown that grapes can lower blood pressure and control insulin resistance. Hence, these fruits help to cope with type 2 diabetes.

Men and women at risk of developing type 2 diabetes can use grapes to reduce this risk.For those already suffering from this type of diabetes, grapes should be introduced into the diet to reduce insulin resistance and stabilize blood sugar levels. It will also prevent the development of various types of diabetes side effects.

 Source: https://vegetarian.ru/articles/vinograd-i-diabet.html

### Blueberries, grapes and apples reduce the risk of diabetes, and juice increases

The negative effect of juice, according to the authors, can be explained by the fact that it passes through the digestive tract faster and is more easily absorbed than whole fruits.

Eating blueberries, grapes and apples can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes by more than 20%, while fruit juice, on the contrary, increases this risk, scientists from the United States, whose work is published in the British Medical Journal, found.

In type 2 diabetes, insulin is produced in normal or even increased amounts, but the mechanism of its interaction with the cells of the body is disrupted. In this case, the patients are prescribed a diet and antihyperglycemic drugs.

According to a press release from the Harvard School of Public Health, the researchers studied data from nearly 187.4 thousand people collected by the three largest long-term surveys of the health of the population in the United States in 1984-2008.Patients with diabetes, cardiovascular or cancer diseases were excluded from the sample. 6.5% of the participants (more than 12 thousand people) developed diabetes during the observation period.

Those participants who ate at least twice a week a serving of fruits, namely blueberries, grapes, apples, had a 23% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those who ate less than one serving a month.

On the other hand, those who drank one or more servings of fruit juice each day increased their risk of type 2 diabetes by 21%.Scientists estimate that simply replacing three glasses of juice with three fruits a week can reduce the risk of diabetes by 7%.

The negative effect of juice, according to the authors, can be explained by the fact that it passes through the digestive tract faster and is absorbed more easily than whole fruits, even if they themselves contain a large amount of carbohydrates that increase blood sugar levels.

According to the authors, more research is needed to determine which substances in apples, blueberries and grapes reduce the risk of diabetes.

 Source: https://ria.ru/science/20130830/959562868.html

### Ampelotherapy

Ampelotherapy (from ampelo … and Greek therapeia – treatment), grape therapy, the use of fresh grapes and grape juice for the treatment of various diseases, mainly chronic. It is one of the methods of diet therapy and is used as prescribed by a doctor in combination with medication and other types of treatment.

Hippocrates and his disciple Asklepiad, Pliny, some Arab doctors (Celsus, Avrellon, Abu Bakr ar-Ra-zi) wrote about the dietary and therapeutic properties of grapes in ancient times, and in the Middle Ages by Riverius and others.

Grape cure was applied empirically; is currently practiced especially in those countries where Islam, Buddhism (Egypt, Syria, Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, India, etc.), as well as vegetarianism are widespread.

In Russia, the issues of ampelotherapy were first described in the work of VN Dmitriev “Treatment with grapes in Yalta, on the southern coast of Crimea” (1878). The scientific and theoretical foundations of ampelotherapy, confirmed by chemical and physiological studies, were laid later, in the 20s.a group of doctors, led by A. Dyakonov, developed them and introduced them into the practice of sanatorium treatment on the southern coast of Crimea (in Yalta).

Grapes contain glucose, fructose and other simple, easily digestible sugars. Thanks to these carbohydrates, 1 kg of grapes (with a sugar content of 16-18%) provides 700-900 kcal. In addition, the berries contain various organic acids (malic, tartaric, silicic, citric, succinic, gallic, formic, oxalic, salicylic, pectin; see Pectin), mineral and tannins, trace elements, vitamin C (Ascorbic acid), B vitamins, provitamin A (carotene), bioflavonoids, some enzymes (invertase, protease, pectinase, etc.)), phytoncides. The peel of berries contains dyes, wax (pruin), etc.

Important!

The effect of grapes on the body is due to the content in it of a whole complex of the above substances, but the main therapeutic effect is provided by glucose, potassium salts (about 250 mg%) and water (on average 70-80%).

During ampelotherapy, metabolic processes are activated, especially water-salt, the excretory ability of the kidneys is enhanced, toxic metabolic products are more quickly excreted from the body, the motor function of the intestines is enhanced, the secretory function of the stomach is normalized, and appetite is improved.

Almost all fully ripe grape varieties can be used as a dietary product with high nutritional value. Applied grape treatment in the resorts of the southern coast of Crimea and other Black Sea resorts in Ukraine, in the resorts of Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Wed. Asia, Moldova, etc.

Ampelotherapy is recommended for diseases of the heart, bronchi, kidneys, liver. Grapes are prescribed for gastrointestinal diseases, accompanied by atonic and spastic constipation, with anemia, gout, chronic forms of pulmonary tuberculosis, with depletion of the nervous system, as a general tonic after prolonged debilitating diseases.

During ampelotherapy it is necessary to limit the amount of other fruits, as well as to avoid the consumption of raw vegetables, milk, fatty and salty foods, kvass, mineral waters, alcoholic beverages, because when consumed together, fermentation increases and intestinal dysfunction may occur.

The amount of grapes or grape juice, as well as the duration of treatment, is prescribed individually. On the use of grapes and grape juice in the health resorts of Moldova in the treatment of these diseases, doctor P.N. Germanov developed guidelines approved by the Academic Council under the Ministry of Health of the MSSR in 1964.

Ampelotherapy is contraindicated in diabetes mellitus, obesity, peptic ulcer disease, colitis accompanied by diarrhea, enteritis and enterocolitis, acute pleurisy, stomatitis, gingivitis, glossitis, acute stage of tuberculosis, etc.

As a concentrated dietary product with a high nutritional value and pleasant taste, dried grapes (raisins, raisins) are used, which contain up to 73% of sugars and a lot of potassium salts.

Leaves, young shoots, seeds and pomace of grapes are also of nutritional value in ampelotherapy. The naturose preparation obtained from grapes, which is used intravenously for acute bleeding, collapse, and shock, is of considerable benefit in the treatment process.

Grapes contain:

• water (80.0%),
• nitrogenous substances (0.4-0.8),
• sugar (16-26),
• fiber (0.6-0.8),
• organic acids (0.9-1.5),
• pectin substances (0.2-0.6),
• pentosans (0.6-0.8 mg%).

The juice contains:

• vitamins C, groups B, P and PP,
• folic acid,
• salts of potassium (205 mg%), calcium, magnesium, iron (0.5-0.6 mg%), manganese, cobalt,
• enzymes.

Of the organic acids in grapes, malic and tartaric acids prevail, which determine its taste. The peel of the berries contains tannins and dyes, as well as essential oils. Grapes are characterized by the presence of significant amounts of folic acid.With ampelotherapy of grapes up to a kilogram per day, you can get 2-3 daily norms of folic acid.

The berries also contain vitamin K – from 0.5 to 1.2-2 mg%. In terms of chemical composition, grapes are somewhat similar to human milk. So, grapes contain three vitamins that are directly related to the blood system and hematopoiesis: folic acid, which enhances hematopoiesis, vitamin K, which has a positive effect on the blood coagulation system, and vitamin P, which strengthens the walls of blood vessels and normalizes blood pressure.

Attention!

The nature of the coumarins that make up the grape pulp has not yet been deciphered, but among them there are oxycoumarins that normalize blood clotting. An extensive set of trace elements is also closely related to hematopoiesis. Grapes, especially nutmeg varieties, are distinguished by phytoncidal properties (it inhibits E. coli and Vibrio cholerae).

Grapes are a very valuable dietary product. It is very useful in acute inflammation of the respiratory tract.Grapes are also useful in the initial forms of tuberculosis as a dietary and therapeutic agent.

Its berries have a diuretic, mild laxative and diaphoretic effect, they are recommended for anemia, gastritis with increased acidity of gastric juice, bronchial asthma, metabolic disorders, hemorrhoids, liver and kidney diseases, functional heart diseases, hypertension and hypotension, with nervous exhaustion, insomnia, spastic and atonic constipation.

Treatment consists in daily consumption of 1 to 1.5-2 kg of berries without seeds in 3 divided doses one hour before meals for 1-2 months.You can use grape juice one glass at a time, bringing a single dose to 2 glasses. During this period, it is recommended not to consume fatty meat, raw milk, and alcoholic beverages.

The grape preparation naturose was used intravenously for acute blood loss, collapse, shock. It increases blood pressure and reduces the permeability of the vascular membranes. Ampelotherapy is recommended for poisoning with arsenic, cocaine, morphine, strychnine, sodium nitrite.

Glucose contained in juice and fruits has a positive effect on muscle tone and heart contractile activity.Grape juice is recommended for excretion of uric acid from the body, with urolithiasis, with general exhaustion, and hypertension.

Infusions and decoctions of leaves in folk medicine were used for rinsing with angina, for the preparation of compresses and baths for skin diseases; fresh grape leaves – as a wound healing agent. However, this pleasant and seemingly harmless method of treatment can only be carried out as directed and under the supervision of a physician.

Tip!

Grapes are not recommended for diabetes mellitus, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, for colitis accompanied by diarrhea, heart failure, accompanied by edema and increased blood pressure, in chronic pharyngitis.Contraindications to treatment with grapes are stomatitis, gingivitis, acute and chronic enterocolitis.

Do not eat a lot of grapes in acute forms of tuberculosis, obesity (promotes weight gain). Before starting ampelotherapy, it is necessary to fill the teeth, if there is a need for this, to do the appropriate tests.

At medical resorts, ampelotherapy is widely used for cardiovascular diseases, especially vascular insufficiency, and congestion in the liver, kidney diseases (acute and chronic nephritis), acute and chronic hepatitis, chronic forms of pulmonary tuberculosis, bronchitis and pulmonary heart failure, disorders of the stomach, which are accompanied by changes in the acidity of gastric juice, colitis, gout and other metabolic diseases.

A daily portion of grapes cannot exceed 2 kg, and a portion of grape juice – 1.2 liters. Of course, in the first three days, 0.5-0.6 kg of grapes are prescribed in three doses (0.2 kg each): the first portion – on an empty stomach 1-2 hours before breakfast, the second – 2 hours before lunch and the third – after 5 o’clock. On the fourth day, up to 1 kg of grapes are consumed, on the seventh – 1.2 kg.

The course of treatment is 3-4 weeks. In case of renal and heart failure, grape treatment is prescribed in the form of unloading for 2-3 days in a row.During the day, the patient is given 1-2 kg of grapes in 5-8 doses.

Especially useful grapes for children as a dietary product that has medicinal properties. Children grow well, become balanced, less irritable. Observations have shown that with a daily consumption of about 1 kg of fresh grapes, the body weight in children per month increases by 1.5-4 kg.

After all, the nutrients contained in 1 kg of grapes (mainly sugar) provide energy that corresponds to 25-33% of a person’s daily need for it.1 kg of grapes for energy value is equal to 227 g of bread, 387 g of meat, 1.1 kg of potatoes, 1.1 liters of milk.

Juice of unripe berries is used as a remedy that makes the skin elastic, attractive and cleanses it from spots. For this purpose, a thin layer of cotton wool or gauze folded in several layers is moistened with fresh juice and applied to the face and neck for 20-25 minutes. After removing such a compress, the faces are washed with warm water, dried with a soft towel and smeared with cream. It is advisable to make a steam bath before the procedure.

 Source: http://vinograd.info/spravka/slovar/ampeloterapiya.html

90,000 15 fruits for those who cannot eat sweets • INMYROOM FOOD

Everyone loves sweets, and usually they are in every home. However, some are forced to abandon them: someone follows a diet, and someone suffers from diabetes.

We suggest that you familiarize yourself with the list of fruits allowed for diabetics.

Grapes

Grapes are rich in sugar, but they fall into the category of foods allowed for diabetics.It is recommended to eat 5-10 berries per day.

Grapes contain tartaric and malic acids, which improve the intestinal microflora and neutralize toxins. Thanks to this, food is absorbed better, the composition of gastric juice returns to normal.

Guava

Guava is not high in calories, but very useful and nutritious. 100 grams of fruit contains about 70 kcal, while it is rich in fiber, protein, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins C, A, K, B vitamins, calcium, phosphorus, iron, selenium, and so on.There is more vitamin C in guava than citrus fruits.

Guava is considered an ideal fruit for diabetics – it has a very low glycemic index.

Plums

The plum contains dietary fiber and trace elements: iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, sodium and iodine. Of the vitamins, it contains ascorbic acid, retinol, B1, 2, 6, PP and E.

It is permissible to consume 150 grams of plums per day. Plum helps to fight colds, boosts immunity, speeds up the recovery process, improves blood circulation and strengthens blood vessels.All this helps to fight the negative consequences of diabetes.

Oranges

Oranges are very rich in vitamin C. And their low glycemic index helps in balancing blood sugar levels. It even lowers cholesterol levels.

However, do not overuse oranges: you can eat one small fruit at a time that fits in your hand.

Grapefruit

Grapefruit is considered the healthiest dietary fruit.It has a very low glycemic index and high fiber content. A high level of vitamin C helps to maintain the elasticity of blood vessels and protects against infectious diseases.

It also increases the body’s sensitivity to insulin. This helps to constantly track weight, which is important for diabetic patients and those who simply follow the figure.

Pears

This fruit is not only very useful for diabetics, but also available all year round, even in winter.Pears are very rich in vitamins and minerals that help regulate blood sugar, lower cholesterol, and even boost immunity.

One pear a day replaces a few candies and is much more beneficial.

Cherry

One of the most useful berries for diabetics is cherry. It is rich in iron. The use of this berry prevents blood clots.

Cherries contain sugar, which does not lead to an increase in blood glucose.Cherries also have anti-inflammatory and anti-aging properties.

Peaches

Peaches taste very sweet, but this does not mean that diabetics should not eat them. Surprisingly, they also have a low glycemic index and are considered one of the best antioxidants.

The main thing is to eat only fresh peaches – no canned and syrupy ones!

Apples

Apples contain a large amount of potassium, iron, vitamin C and fiber, therefore they are recommended for use by patients with diabetes mellitus.

Potassium has a beneficial effect on the activity of the heart, it promotes the elimination of fluid from the body and thereby reduces edema. But the most beneficial in apples is pectin, which helps cleanse the blood.

Strawberries

Scientists say that strawberries are generally able to prevent the development of diabetes. Eating strawberries can be a simple and natural way to improve your cardiovascular health.

The berry, which contains a huge amount of vitamins, nutrients, dietary fiber and antioxidants, has a healing effect on the body of a diabetic.The high level of dietary fiber in strawberries delays the absorption of glucose in the gastrointestinal tract and prevents it from rapidly entering the bloodstream, thereby not increasing sugar.

Pomegranates

Pomegranate has been known since ancient times – they protected the body from colds and infections. This fruit is able to cleanse the walls of blood vessels from sclerotic plaques and lower cholesterol levels.

Its grains contain substances that promote the formation of hemoglobin and strengthen the capillaries.These are all very important in diabetes management.

Kiwi

Kiwi are rich in enzymes, tannins, carbohydrates and mineral salts. It is believed that this fruit is most preferable for diabetes and for dietary purposes. Kiwi fruit regulates blood sugar levels and generally improves blood composition and purifies it: fruits are high in fiber and low in sugars, and enzymes help the body burn fat. Kiwi must be consumed by overweight diabetics.

Cranberry

Cranberry helps to lower blood sugar levels in type 2 diabetes.This effect is explained by the fact that the berry stimulates the pancreas. It also lowers blood cholesterol and is low in calories.

Cranberry juice is no less useful. Consuming it regularly can significantly improve the quality of life for people with diabetes.

Red currant

Currant is a real storehouse of nutrients, minerals and vitamins. Its fruits contain carotene, vitamins C, E, B and P, pectin, natural sugars, phosphoric acid, essential oils and various tannins.

It is believed that red currants are the leader in the content of vitamin C. In order to fully satisfy the entire daily need of the human body for this vitamin, it is enough to eat only 20 berries. For diabetics, currants can be eaten in any form: fresh, dry and frozen berries.

Gooseberries

The least amount of sugar is found in gooseberries, especially unripe ones. It is high in fiber and vitamin C, which makes it possible to include gooseberries in the diet of diabetics.

## 10 categories of foods not to eat with diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world. According to various sources, about 300 million people around the world are fighting with him. In Russia, the number of people with diabetes exceeds five million people and this figure is constantly growing.

The concept of diabetes mellitus includes a whole group of endocrine diseases, which are associated with a violation of the process of assimilation of glucose in the body.This violation leads to a lack of insulin and, as a result, to the development of hyperglycemia syndrome – a persistent increase in blood glucose.

Diabetes mellitus has several types and forms. The most common is type 2 diabetes, which is diagnosed in 90% of all cases. With diabetes of this type, insulin therapy is not required, but constant monitoring of sugar levels and a strict diet are required. Moreover, diabetics should not eat many products at all. Here are 10 categories of foods you shouldn’t eat for diabetes.

### Sugar, honey, sugar-sweetened desserts

All foods containing sugar should be excluded from the diet for people with type 2 diabetes. Those with a sweet tooth will have a hard time, because this group includes chocolate, sweets, marmalade, ice cream and jams. However, do not despair: modern cooking offers people on a diet, many options for the “right” desserts.Finding them in the store is not always easy, but it is quite possible to cook them yourself.

### Corn

Most diabetics are familiar with the term “glycemic index”. They indicate the degree of influence of carbohydrates of a certain product on the level of glucose in the patient’s blood. For corn, beloved by many, this index is 70.2. For comparison, in sweet curd mass this figure is 80. That is why corn is strictly prohibited for patients with type 2 diabetes, including in the form of flakes, muesli and popcorn.

### Watermelon and other fruits with a high content of fast carbohydrates

The list is fortunately small: bananas, pineapples, watermelon, melon, mango, dates, figs and raisins. Diabetic patients should stay as far away from these fruits (and dried fruits) as possible.

### Potatoes and beets

Diabetics should also be careful with vegetables, because some of them sharply raise blood glucose levels.Potatoes, beets, pumpkin – you should refrain from eating these vegetables.

### Rice, millet and semolina

These three cereals also have a high glycemic index, which means they are contraindicated for diabetics.

### Lamb

Most of the types of meat and fish are included in the diet of diabetics due to their low carbohydrate content.It is worth refraining only from mutton, the high fat content of which can cause the development of various pathologies in patients with diabetes mellitus.

It is worth remembering that in the case of meat and fish, the method of preparation is of fundamental importance. Smoked, salted and fried foods should not be consumed, because with such processing, even dietary meat and fish turn into real enemies for diabetics.

### Yoghurts and fat sour cream

When choosing dairy products, people with the second type of diabetes need to focus on their fat content.Sweet yoghurts, curd masses, fatty sour cream and cheese are not the best choices. The rest of dairy and fermented milk products are allowed and even recommended.

The high content of fast carbohydrates makes wheat flour a dangerous product for diabetics. Sweet muffins should be discarded, but bread made from rye flour, wholemeal flour and bran can be eaten.

### Fast food

With this type of food everything is crystal clear and there are no exceptions – fast food for diabetics is strictly prohibited. Actually, like everyone else who values ​​their health and does not want to get problems with digestion and excess weight.

### Packaged juices and alcohol

If the label says that the juice has a low sugar content, then it should be understood as follows: “the juice has a relatively acceptable sugar content for a healthy person.”But for diabetics, store juices are completely prohibited. It’s the same story with alcohol: even if the drink is not sweet at all, the sugar content in it often goes off scale.

Despite the impressive list, people with the second type of diabetes should not despair, because the dietary diet is very diverse. Meat and fish, low-fat dairy products, most vegetables and fruits, small portions of dark chocolate with a high content of cocoa beans, desserts made using natural sweeteners – the list of permitted products is quite large.

However, the main thing that a person with diabetes should do before starting a diet is to see a doctor. After all, the diet depends on many factors, such as the severity of the ongoing disease, the activity of the lifestyle, the presence of other diseases. In addition (and this is good news), depending on the patient’s condition, some products from the “forbidden” list are very rare and in small quantities the doctor may well allow. And do not forget that only a doctor can prescribe a correct and complete diet based on your needs.

Photo: archive A42.RU

## Raisins with diabetes – World of grapes

Diabetes mellitus is a rather serious disease that occurs as a result of metabolic disorders. Its main manifestation is an increased content of sugar in the blood due to insufficient interaction of the hormone insulin with the cells of the tissues of the body. Moreover, if in type 2 diabetes insulin is produced by the pancreas, but becomes inactive due to endocrine disorders, then in type 1 diabetes it is absent or it is present in scanty amounts.

Currently, this disease is not yet amenable to treatment, however, it is not fatal. A huge number of people live for many years taking insulin or regulating their carbohydrate metabolism with diets and pills. In any case, a diet based on a uniform (low-intensity) intake of carbohydrates in the body is extremely important.

Some foods, unfortunately, can lead to a deterioration in the body’s condition, provoking hyperglycemia – an increase in blood sugar.

### Can you eat dried fruits for diabetes?

There is a lot of controversy about whether certain foods (including raisins) can be used for diabetes. Some experts recommend that patients completely abandon any dried fruits due to the increased concentration of carbohydrates in them. Others are sure that a small amount will not harm anyone, and still others consider raisins even useful for this disease. There are many doubts, and to date, scientists have not come to an unambiguous conclusion that dried grapes are more beneficial or harmful to the sick.Such doubts are based on a difficult choice between the unconditional benefit of any dried fruit for the human body due to the rich content of nutrients on the one hand and the presence of a large amount of easily digestible carbohydrates on the other hand.

### What happens when a diabetic eats raisins?

Raisins are included in the group of products with a high glycemic index (not to be confused with calories). This means that the carbohydrates that make up this dried fruit are broken down very quickly during digestion.If we compare with the standard (the rate of glucose breakdown), which is equal to 100 units, then the glycemic index of dried grapes is 65. What happens after eating it?

As you know, raisins contain a lot of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates, entering the digestive tract, are converted into glucose, supplying the body with energy. The hormone insulin regulates the process of transporting and processing this fuel by cells. Unprocessed glucose is stored in the form of glycogen.If there is not enough insulin, then there is an accumulation of glucose (or sugar) in the blood – glycemia. To quickly process all the glucose of the dried grapes, which is rapidly absorbed in the body, a considerable amount of insulin is needed in a fairly short period of time. And this is a big problem in diabetes. In other words, one has only to eat a couple of handfuls of a sweet treat, the blood glucose level will immediately rise. Such sudden jumps and fluctuations are categorically contraindicated for diabetics.From all this, we can conclude that people with this disease need to use almost all types of dried fruits with great care.

### How to reduce harm

Not all lovers of dried fruits can refuse to eat them. According to many doctors, this is not necessary. Only people with severe forms of this disease should completely exclude them from their diet. Moreover, raisins are very useful for a weakened body.

In order not to harm yourself, it is necessary to properly use this necessary dried fruit in food.

When eaten fresh, it is recommended to pre-soak the berries in hot water until they become soft. It is advisable to change the water several times.

To prepare a compote with a lower carbohydrate content, it is necessary to hold the dried fruit in water for several hours, and then boil it over low heat 2 times, changing the water. At the same time, a significant part of the sugar will go into the water, and most of the nutrients will remain.

The recommended dose of dried grapes for diabetes is about one spoonful (maximum) per intake, but preferably not every day.