Side effects of high diastolic blood pressure: Why Is My Bottom Blood Pressure Number High?
High blood pressure (hypertension) – Symptoms and causes
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a common condition in which the long-term force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease.
Blood pressure is determined both by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries. The more blood your heart pumps and the narrower your arteries, the higher your blood pressure. A blood pressure reading is given in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). It has two numbers.
- Top number (systolic pressure). The first, or upper, number measures the pressure in your arteries when your heart beats.
- Bottom number (diastolic pressure). The second, or lower, number measures the pressure in your arteries between beats.
You can have high blood pressure for years without any symptoms. Uncontrolled high blood pressure increases your risk of serious health problems, including heart attack and stroke. Fortunately, high blood pressure can be easily detected. And once you know you have high blood pressure, you can work with your doctor to control it.
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Most people with high blood pressure have no signs or symptoms, even if blood pressure readings reach dangerously high levels.
A few people with high blood pressure may have headaches, shortness of breath or nosebleeds, but these signs and symptoms aren’t specific and usually don’t occur until high blood pressure has reached a severe or life-threatening stage.
When to see a doctor
You’ll likely have your blood pressure taken as part of a routine doctor’s appointment.
Ask your doctor for a blood pressure reading at least every two years starting at age 18. If you’re age 40 or older, or you’re 18 to 39 with a high risk of high blood pressure, ask your doctor for a blood pressure reading every year.
Blood pressure generally should be checked in both arms to determine if there’s a difference. It’s important to use an appropriate-sized arm cuff.
Your doctor will likely recommend more-frequent readings if you’ve already been diagnosed with high blood pressure or have other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Children age 3 and older will usually have blood pressure measured as a part of their yearly checkups.
If you don’t regularly see your doctor, you may be able to get a free blood pressure screening at a health resource fair or other locations in your community. You can also find machines in some stores that will measure your blood pressure for free.
Public blood pressure machines, such as those found in pharmacies, may provide helpful information about your blood pressure, but they may have some limitations. The accuracy of these machines depends on several factors, such as a correct cuff size and proper use of the machines. Ask your doctor for advice on using public blood pressure machines.
There are two types of high blood pressure.
Primary (essential) hypertension
For most adults, there’s no identifiable cause of high blood pressure. This type of high blood pressure, called primary (essential) hypertension, tends to develop gradually over many years.
Some people have high blood pressure caused by an underlying condition. This type of high blood pressure, called secondary hypertension, tends to appear suddenly and cause higher blood pressure than does primary hypertension. Various conditions and medications can lead to secondary hypertension, including:
- Obstructive sleep apnea
- Kidney disease
- Adrenal gland tumors
- Thyroid problems
- Certain defects you’re born with (congenital) in blood vessels
- Certain medications, such as birth control pills, cold remedies, decongestants, over-the-counter pain relievers and some prescription drugs
- Illegal drugs, such as cocaine and amphetamines
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High blood pressure has many risk factors, including:
- Age. The risk of high blood pressure increases as you age. Until about age 64, high blood pressure is more common in men. Women are more likely to develop high blood pressure after age 65.
- Race. High blood pressure is particularly common among people of African heritage, often developing at an earlier age than it does in whites. Serious complications, such as stroke, heart attack and kidney failure, also are more common in people of African heritage.
- Family history. High blood pressure tends to run in families.
- Being overweight or obese. The more you weigh, the more blood you need to supply oxygen and nutrients to your tissues. As the amount of blood flow through your blood vessels increases, so does the pressure on your artery walls.
- Not being physically active. People who are inactive tend to have higher heart rates. The higher your heart rate, the harder your heart must work with each contraction and the stronger the force on your arteries. Lack of physical activity also increases the risk of being overweight.
- Using tobacco. Not only does smoking or chewing tobacco immediately raise your blood pressure temporarily, but the chemicals in tobacco can damage the lining of your artery walls. This can cause your arteries to narrow and increase your risk of heart disease. Secondhand smoke also can increase your heart disease risk.
- Too much salt (sodium) in your diet. Too much sodium in your diet can cause your body to retain fluid, which increases blood pressure.
- Too little potassium in your diet. Potassium helps balance the amount of sodium in your cells. A proper balance of potassium is critical for good heart health. If you don’t get enough potassium in your diet, or you lose too much potassium due to dehydration or other health conditions, sodium can build up in your blood.
Drinking too much alcohol. Over time, heavy drinking can damage your heart. Having more than one drink a day for women and more than two drinks a day for men may affect your blood pressure.
If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for women and two drinks a day for men. One drink equals 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof liquor.
- Stress. High levels of stress can lead to a temporary increase in blood pressure. Stress-related habits such as eating more, using tobacco or drinking alcohol can lead to further increases in blood pressure.
- Certain chronic conditions. Certain chronic conditions also may increase your risk of high blood pressure, including kidney disease, diabetes and sleep apnea.
Sometimes pregnancy contributes to high blood pressure as well.
Although high blood pressure is most common in adults, children may be at risk, too. For some children, high blood pressure is caused by problems with the kidneys or heart. But for a growing number of kids, poor lifestyle habits — such as an unhealthy diet and lack of exercise — contribute to high blood pressure.
The excessive pressure on your artery walls caused by high blood pressure can damage your blood vessels as well as your organs. The higher your blood pressure and the longer it goes uncontrolled, the greater the damage.
Uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to complications including:
- Heart attack or stroke. High blood pressure can cause hardening and thickening of the arteries (atherosclerosis), which can lead to a heart attack, stroke or other complications.
- Aneurysm. Increased blood pressure can cause your blood vessels to weaken and bulge, forming an aneurysm. If an aneurysm ruptures, it can be life-threatening.
- Heart failure. To pump blood against the higher pressure in your vessels, the heart has to work harder. This causes the walls of the heart’s pumping chamber to thicken (left ventricular hypertrophy). Eventually, the thickened muscle may have a hard time pumping enough blood to meet your body’s needs, which can lead to heart failure.
- Weakened and narrowed blood vessels in your kidneys. This can prevent these organs from functioning normally.
- Thickened, narrowed or torn blood vessels in the eyes. This can result in vision loss.
- Metabolic syndrome. This syndrome is a group of disorders of your body’s metabolism, including increased waist size, high triglycerides, decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (the “good” cholesterol), high blood pressure and high insulin levels. These conditions make you more likely to develop diabetes, heart disease and stroke.
- Trouble with memory or understanding. Uncontrolled high blood pressure may also affect your ability to think, remember and learn. Trouble with memory or understanding concepts is more common in people with high blood pressure.
- Dementia. Narrowed or blocked arteries can limit blood flow to the brain, leading to a certain type of dementia (vascular dementia). A stroke that interrupts blood flow to the brain also can cause vascular dementia.
Diastolic Blood Pressure Independently Results in Adverse CVD Outcomes
Oakland, CA—Based on previous research, the assumption has been that high systolic blood pressure is more likely than diastolic blood pressure to result in adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes.
A report in the New England Journal of Medicine might force pharmacists and other healthcare professionals to rethink that conventional wisdom.
A Kaiser Permanente–led study found that both numbers in a blood pressure reading independently predicted the risk of heart attack or stroke in a study that included more than 36 million blood pressure readings from more than 1 million people.
“This research brings a large amount of data to bear on a basic question, and it gives such a clear answer,” said lead author Alexander C. Flint, MD, a Kaiser Permanente stroke specialist and adjunct researcher with the Division of Research. “Every way you slice the data, the systolic and diastolic pressures are both important.”
The current retrospective study is touted as “the largest by far of its kind,” according to Flint. It reviewed blood pressure readings taken during outpatient visits between 2007 and 2016, from 1.3 million adult Kaiser Permanente members in Northern California.
In embarking on the study, researchers suggested that the relationship between outpatient systolic and diastolic blood pressure and CV outcomes was not only unclear but had been complicated by recently revised guidelines with two different thresholds (≥140/90 mmHg and ≥130/80 mmHg) for treating hypertension.
The study team sought to determine the effect of the burden of systolic and diastolic hypertension on a composite outcome of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or hemorrhagic stroke over a period of 8 years, controlling for demographic characteristics and coexisting conditions.
Results indicate that systolic and diastolic hypertension each independently predicted adverse outcomes. Researchers point out that, in survival models, a continuous burden of systolic hypertension (≥140 mmHg; hazard ratio [HR] per unit increase in z score, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.17-1.18) and diastolic hypertension (≥90 mmHg; HR per unit increase in z score, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.06-1.07) each predicted the composite outcome, independent of each other.
Furthermore, the article notes, similar results were documented with the lower threshold of hypertension (≥130/80 mmHg) and with systolic and diastolic blood pressures used as predictors without hypertension thresholds. “A J-curve relation between diastolic blood pressure and outcomes was seen that was explained at least in part by age and other covariates and by a higher effect of systolic hypertension among persons in the lowest quartile of diastolic blood pressure,” the authors explained.
“Although systolic blood-pressure elevation had a greater effect on outcomes, both systolic and diastolic hypertension independently influenced the risk of adverse cardiovascular events, regardless of the definition of hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg or ≥130/80 mmHg),” the study concludes.
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High blood pressure – adults: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
The goal of treatment is to reduce your blood pressure so that you have a lower risk of health problems caused by high blood pressure. You and your provider should set a blood pressure goal for you.
Whenever thinking about the best treatment for high blood pressure, you and your provider must consider other factors such as:
- Your age
- The medicines you take
- Your risk of side effects from possible medications
- Other medical conditions you may have, such as a history of heart disease, stroke, kidney problems, or diabetes
If your blood pressure is between 120/80 and 130/80 mm Hg, you have elevated blood pressure.
- Your provider will recommend lifestyle changes to bring your blood pressure down to a normal range.
- Medicines are rarely used at this stage.
If your blood pressure is higher than 130/80, but lower than 140/90 mm Hg, you have Stage 1 high blood pressure. When thinking about the best treatment, you and your provider must consider:
- If you have no other diseases or risk factors, your provider may recommend lifestyle changes and repeat the measurements after a few months.
- If your blood pressure remains above 130/80, but lower than 140/90 mm Hg, your provider may recommend medicines to treat high blood pressure.
- If you have other diseases or risk factors, your provider may be more likely to start medicines at the same time as lifestyle changes.
If your blood pressure is higher than 140/90 mm Hg, you have Stage 2 high blood pressure. Your provider will most likely start you on medicines and recommend lifestyle changes.
Before making a final diagnosis of either elevated blood pressure or high blood pressure, your provider should ask you to have your blood pressure measured at home, at your pharmacy, or somewhere else besides their office or a hospital.
You can do many things to help control your blood pressure, including:
- Eat a heart-healthy diet, including potassium and fiber.
- Drink plenty of water.
- Get at least 40 minutes of moderate to vigorous aerobic exercise at least 3 to 4 days a week.
- If you smoke, quit.
- Limit how much alcohol you drink to 1 drink a day for women, and 2 a day for men or less.
- Limit the amount of sodium (salt) you eat. Aim for less than 1,500 mg per day.
- Reduce stress. Try to avoid things that cause you stress, and try meditation or yoga to de-stress.
- Stay at a healthy body weight.
Your provider can help you find programs for losing weight, stopping smoking, and exercising.
You can also get a referral to a dietitian, who can help you plan a diet that is healthy for you.
How low your blood pressure should be and at what level you need to start treatment is individualized, based on your age and any medical problems you have.
MEDICINES FOR HYPERTENSION
Most of the time, your provider will try lifestyle changes first, and check your blood pressure two or more times. Medicines will likely be started if your blood pressure readings remain at or above these levels:
- Top number (systolic pressure) of 130 or more
- Bottom number (diastolic pressure) of 80 or more
If you have diabetes, heart problems, or a history of a stroke, medicines may be started at lower blood pressure reading. The most commonly used blood pressure targets for people with these medical problems are below 120 to 130/80 mm Hg.
There are many different medicines to treat high blood pressure.
- Often, a single blood pressure drug may not be enough to control your blood pressure, and you may need to take two or more drugs.
- It is very important that you take the medicines prescribed to you.
- If you have side effects, your doctor can substitute a different medicine.
Diastolic Blood Pressure – an overview
What causes a pulmonary embolus and how can it be diagnosed?
A pulmonary embolus occurs when something, usually a thrombus (blood clot), occludes part of the pulmonary artery tree. Generally the thrombus forms in the veins of the pelvis or lower limb, and part of that thrombus or the whole thrombus may dislodge and pass through the vena cava, through the right atrium and ventricle and into the pulmonary artery. The thrombus finally lodges in a branch of the pulmonary artery, occluding it. The segment of lung tissue supplied by the obstructed artery has a reduced blood supply (although it often receives some blood – remember the bronchial circulation) and may finally infarct.
In a small number of cases (probably less than 10% of the total number of pulmonary emboli) the thrombus does not form in the veins of the pelvis or leg but forms in the heart. This may be as a result of atrial fibrillation, in which the atria of the heart do not beat properly, or thrombus may form on a part of the myocardium which has infarcted. Very occasionally the embolus is not formed from thrombus but from other substances, such as fat or amniotic fluid.
Conditions that lead to the formation of thrombus in the pelvic and lower limb veins include prolonged immobility, lower limb or pelvic fractures, abdominal surgery, pregnancy, the presence of cancer and clotting abnormalities. Mrs Dodds had two of these risk factors, including immobility (she was bedridden) and a lower limb fracture. If the thrombus forms in the lower limb it may become swollen and painful, which is why the doctor examined Mrs Dodds’ legs. If thrombus occurs in the lower limbs it usually occurs in the deep veins in the muscle, rather than the veins near the skin. Hence the condition is usually called deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Several cases have been reported of patients suffering DVTs and pulmonary emboli following the prolonged immobility that occurs during a long-distance flight, sometimes in rather cramped conditions. The true incidence of this so-called ‘economy class syndrome’ is yet to be established, however.
Small emboli in the lungs cause no symptoms and no haemodynamic problems and go unnoticed. Larger emboli, particularly if they result in pulmonary infarction, can cause clinical symptoms, including pleuritic chest pain and sometimes haemoptysis. Very large emboli are a medical emergency (see Box 4).
Usually there is very little to find on clinical examination of a patient who has suffered a pulmonary embolus – occasionally there may be a few crackles on auscultation. Occasionally, though, a pleural rub may be heard over an area of infarcted lung. A plain chest X-ray is not generally very helpful in diagnosing a pulmonary embolus: if there is quite a large embolus it is said that the affected lung fields can appear ‘oligaemic’: in other words, they appear darker on the chest X-ray as those areas of lung contain less blood. This is not always easy to see, however. Larger pulmonary emboli increase the amount of work that the right ventricle has to do, as it has to pump blood into a partially obstructed pulmonary circulation. This can result in changes in the ECG. Classically these changes consist of S waves in lead I and Q waves and inverted T waves in lead III (hence the mnemonic: ‘S1 Q3 T3’), but these changes are rarely seen in practice.
Diagnosis of a pulmonary embolus can be made using a radioisotope scan of the blood flow in the lungs, but nowadays is often made with a CT pulmonary angiogram. In this test, X-ray contrast is injected into a vein and its flow through the lungs is monitored with a fast CT scanner. Clot in the pulmonary vessels can then be identified.
A CT pulmonary angiogram of a patient with a large pulmonary embolus is shown in Figure 7.5A. The CT shows a cross-section of the patient’s chest at the point where the aorta arches over the dividing pulmonary artery. CT scans are usually shown as if the cross-section is being viewed from below, in other words, the left-hand side of the scan corresponds to the right-hand side of the body. X-ray contrast, which shows up white on the scan, has been injected into a cannula lying in the superior vena cava – the white dot in the otherwise dark vena cava is the contrast within the cannula. Blood which contains contrast is clearly visible in the ascending and descending aorta. There is blood in the right and left pulmonary arteries; however, dark areas are visible within these arteries which correspond to thrombus. This pulmonary embolus is a large one, and thrombus is visible in both pulmonary arteries.
Normal Blood Pressure Numbers By Age – Forbes Health
There are five blood pressure stages: normal and four specific stages of hypertension, which range from very treatable to urgent.
People with a blood pressure range of 90 to 120 systolic and 60 to 80 diastolic have normal blood pressure, says Dr. Wong. A systolic reading below 90 signifies low blood pressure.
A blood pressure reading of 120 to 129 systolic and less than 80 diastolic signifies elevated blood pressure and, thus, a higher probability of developing hypertension.
“As blood pressure elevates, there is increased workload on the heart and arteries,” says Dr. Desai. “This results in [the] thickening of the heart muscle (hypertrophy), which can lead to heart failure. It also results in [the] micro-tearing of the artery wall, leading to cholesterol deposition (atherosclerosis). This leads to [the] narrowing of the vessel and further elevation of blood pressure.”
Hypertension Stage I
Hypertension Stage I is defined by a systolic reading of 130 to 139 and a diastolic reading of 80 to 89.
Dr. Wong says while doctors initially treat this stage of hypertension by suggesting a healthier lifestyle—eating more vegetables and whole grains, using less salt, increasing physical activity and controlling stress—medications may be needed if blood pressure falls in this range on multiple readings over a period of time in people with other cardiovascular risk factors.
Dr. Wong adds that, per 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines, adults with Hypertension Stage I should consider medication after three to six months of nonpharmacologic therapy. There’s also a risk of atherosclerosis—thickening or hardening of the arteries caused by a buildup of plaque in the inner lining of an artery—if it isn’t treated. Risk factors for atherosclerosis may include high cholesterol and triglyceride levels, high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, obesity, physical activity and eating saturated fats.
Hypertension Stage II
Hypertension Stage II is marked by a systolic reading of at least 140 and diastolic reading of at least 90. It’s generally treated with a mix of medications and a healthy lifestyle prescription, says Dr. Wong. Still, this stage of hypertension is more serious than the former and should be watched carefully.
A hypertensive crisis is an emergency situation and occurs when the systolic blood pressure reading exceeds 180 and the diastolic reading exceeds 120. “Immediate organ damage can occur and emergency treatment should be sought if there are symptoms of stroke, headache, visual changes, dizziness, chest pain or shortness of breath,” says Dr. Wong.
Home Blood Pressure Monitoring
Gain portability without compromising accuracy. Check your blood pressure anywhere, anytime with Wrist Blood Pressure Monitors.
What Causes High Diastolic Blood Pressure?
Keeping an eye on both blood pressure numbers as you age can help you mitigate the risk of chronic conditions.
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High blood pressure statistics show the condition is a growing problem in America. In fact, one in every three adults in the United States — about 75 million people — has high blood pressure, or hypertension, according to 2016 estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
In most people with high diastolic blood pressure, no specific cause has been identified. But less commonly, diastolic hypertension is secondary to another disorder such as a thyroid problem, kidney disease or sleep apnea.
What Qualifies as High Blood Pressure?
Blood pressure consists of two numbers — a top (systolic) and bottom (diastolic) number. Thus, there are three types of hypertension.
- High diastolic blood pressure — called diastolic hypertension — occurs when the bottom number is above 80 mmHg.
- High systolic blood pressure — called systolic hypertension — is present when the top number is above 130 mmHG.
- Mixed hypertension occurs when both numbers are high.
Read more: 8 High-Tech Gadgets to Keep Your Heart Healthy
Potential Causes of Diastolic Hypertension
Isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) is primarily seen in younger adults. In most people with IDH, no specific cause has been identified. This is known as primary or essential hypertension. Less commonly, IDH is secondary to another disorder such as a thyroid problem, kidney disease or sleep apnea.
Diastolic pressure is the force exerted by the blood on the walls of arteries as it flows through these blood vessels between heartbeats. In IDH, the diastolic pressure is generally elevated because tiny arteries, called arterioles, in the body are narrower than usual. This compresses the blood flowing through the arterioles, thus raising the pressure.
In IDH caused by primary hypertension, the underlying reason for the arteriolar narrowing is not very well understood. Unusually high levels of certain substances that raise blood pressure, such as angiotensin, or inappropriate contraction of tiny muscles in the arteriole walls are two possible reasons. Genetic factors may also contribute.
Endocrine and Kidney Conditions
An underactive thyroid, or hypothyroidism, is one of the more common secondary causes of IDH. As in primary hypertension, the elevated diastolic pressure is the result of excessive arteriolar narrowing.
Hypothyroidism may be suspected in a person with weight gain, fatigue and intolerance to the cold, but blood tests are required to confirm the diagnosis. Endocrine diseases producing high levels of aldosterone, parathyroid hormone or corticosteroids can also cause IDH.
Most diseases that damage the kidney can lead to IDH by reducing the ability of the kidneys to remove fluids from the body or by increasing the production of angiotensin. Renovascular hypertension, due to narrowing of the main artery leading to the kidneys, is another possible cause of IDH.
Read more: 8 Medical Conditions That Could Bankrupt You
Sleep apnea may contribute to high diastolic blood pressure.
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Sleep apnea — episodic pauses in breathing during sleep — may also cause IDH by excessive arteriolar narrowing and reduced fluid excretion by the kidneys.
The increased heart rate often seen in people with the syndrome may contribute, as it shortens the time between heartbeats so the blood vessels spend more time exposed to the extra blood flow accompanying each heartbeat. Excessive daytime sleepiness is suggestive of sleep apnea syndrome, but a sleep study is required to diagnosis the disorder.
Chronic excessive alcohol consumption can also lead to IDH. This may be especially likely if liver damage occurs, since angiotensin is usually degraded in the liver. IDH may also be caused by medications, such as oral contraceptives, corticosteroids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen.
Risk Factors for High Diastolic Blood Pressure
Certain risk factors have been identified for IDH. They are not a direct cause, but their presence increases the likelihood of developing IDH. Risk factors identified in the large Framingham Heart Study published in March 2005 in Circulation were younger age, being male and having overweight or obesity.
Indeed, this and other research indicate that IDH is more common than systolic or mixed hypertension in adults younger than 40. Additional risk factors for IDH reported in studies published in the July 2012 issue of the Indian Heart Journal and the December 2015 issue of PLoS One were:
- Sedentary lifestyle
- High total cholesterol level
- High coffee or tea consumption
The DASH diet can help you lower your blood pressure.
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Lowering High Diastolic Blood Pressure
Regardless of the cause, IDH should not be ignored. In many individuals, the systolic pressure will also become elevated over time. In the Framingham Heart Study, 83 percent of those with IDH developed mixed hypertension over the next 10 years.
Even if it doesn’t progress, IDH itself increases the likelihood of serious cardiovascular complications. A study published in the March 2014 issue of the Journal of Hypertension noted that adults with IDH had double the risk of cardiovascular complications, including heart attacks, strokes or heart-related death, compared to normal-pressure adults.
Updated 2017 guidelines from the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association recommend treating all individuals with a diastolic pressure of 80 mmHg or greater, regardless of whether the person has IDH or mixed hypertension.
Strategies to lower blood pressure may include weight loss, dietary changes, exercise and medication. Reducing other risk factors for cardiovascular disease by controlling blood sugar and cholesterol levels is also important.
Read more: Health Benefits of the DASH Diet and 9 Delicious Recipes
IDH itself generally causes no symptoms. Headaches, nosebleeds and other symptoms are sometimes attributed to high blood pressure, but they’re just as likely to occur in people with a normal pressure.
Seek immediate medical attention if you develop chest pain, shortness of breath or lightheadedness, or have a sudden onset of weakness, change in speech or decreased level of consciousness. These may indicate the presence of a life-threatening complication of IDH, such as a heart attack or stroke.
Reviewed by: Tina M. St. John, M.D.
Certified High Diastolic Blood Pressure Treatment In San Antonio
Millions of Americans are diagnosed with high blood pressure every year. High blood pressure is a serious health condition that is caused by a variety of factors.
If you have high blood pressure, it’s important to inform yourself of your condition in order to maintain a healthy lifestyle. This can be difficult if you’re just beginning to learn about how you can manage your health.
At South Texas Renal Care Group, our specialist doctors can help you with high-blood pressure treatment and management methods. The prime intent is to ensure your complete health and wellbeing.
Visit Our Clinics in South Texas Near You or Request for An Appointment at 210-212-8622 For Professional Consultation.
This guide will provide extensive information surrounding frequently asked questions (FAQs) about high blood pressure.
What Causes High Blood Pressure?
It remains unclear what causes high blood pressure in most people. However, obesity, older age, poor diet, genetics, and inactivity all contribute to the development of hypertension.
Primarily, people that live inactive and otherwise unhealthy lifestyles are more likely to develop the disease. People that have a family history of hypertension also have increased odds of developing the disease if they live an unhealthy lifestyle.
What Health Issues are Associated with Hypertension?
High blood pressure is linked to other severe health issues. These issues include:
- Atherosclerosis: This is a disease in the major arteries that is caused by the massive buildup of fatty material, or plaque, on the inside walls of your blood vessels. High blood pressure adds stress and pressure to the blood vessel walls.
- Heart Disease: Since high blood pressure affects your arteries, it can lead to heart disease. Specifically, hypertension can lead to heart failure (when the heart is too weak to sufficiently pump blood), hypertensive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (when the heart muscle acts abnormally), and ischemic heart disease (when the heart doesn’t get enough oxygen and blood).
- Kidney Disease: High blood pressure can damage the filters and blood vessels in your kidneys. This can result in your kidneys failing to dispose of waste and filter your blood properly. Reciprocally, kidney disease can cause high blood pressure.
- Stroke: High blood pressure can cause a stroke, either by leading to blockages in your arteries or weakening these arteries until they rupture. Medical studies confirm that people with higher systolic blood pressure may suffer bleeding strokes, while those with higher diastolic blood pressure may have abdominal aortic aneurysm.
- Eye Disease: Hypertension can weaken small blood vessels in your retina, which can eventually lead to complete blindness.
What are High Blood Pressure Symptoms?
High blood pressure typically doesn’t have any symptoms in its first stages. For this reason, high blood pressure is generally diagnosed by a healthcare professional during a checkup.
If you have a relative diagnosed with hypertension, their blood pressure should be monitored closely. People with hypertension in their family history are more likely to develop the disease than others.
People unknowingly with high blood pressure may experience spikes in their blood pressure, which can result in chest pain, strong headaches, poor exercise tolerance, and difficulty breathing.
If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, contact your healthcare provider or blood pressure specialist for effective hypertension treatment and management for lasting results
What are Common High Blood Pressure Treatments?
High blood pressure treatments primarily include lifestyle changes. These lifestyle changes include:
- Losing weight
- Giving up smoking
- Maintaining a healthy diet
- Eating less salt
- Consistent aerobic exercise
- Reducing alcohol consumption
Prescribed medications for high blood pressure include diuretics, alpha-blockers, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, and angiotensin receptor blockers.
Your high blood pressure treatment depends on how well you routinely take your medications, exercise, and maintain a healthy diet.
What are the Side Effects of Hypertension Drugs?
As with any other medications, there are noticeable side effects of hypertension drugs. The most common side effects include:
- Diuretics: low potassium blood levels, headaches, fatigue
- ACE inhibitors: diarrhea, high potassium blood levels, dry cough, strong headaches
- Angiotensin receptor blockers: diarrhea, high potassium blood levels, fatigue, congestion, fainting or dizziness
- Calcium channel blockers: constipation, ankle swelling, dizziness, irregular heartbeat
- Beta-blockers: low heart rate, reduced sex drive, drowsiness, dizziness.
- Alpha-blockers: nausea, weight gain, strong headaches, dizziness, pounding heartbeat, weakness.
What Type of Diet Should I Follow?
People with high blood pressure should follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. This diet is effective for hypertension management while helping you to properly cope with your condition.
In accordance with the DASH diet, you should follow these steps:
- Eat more vegetables, fruits, and low-fat dairy foods.
- Eat fewer foods that contain high amounts of cholesterol, saturated fat.
- Eat more poultry, grain, nuts, and fish.
- Eat fewer sweets and red meat.
- Eat fewer foods that contain high amounts of sodium.
When Should I Call My Doctor About My High Blood Pressure?
If you have been diagnosed with hypertension, visiting with your doctor on a regular basis is important. Your doctor will be able to answer all of your questions concerning your condition.
There are other times you may contact your doctor, which include:
- If your body doesn’t respond to your medications and your blood pressure keeps rising or doesn’t drop.
- If you are experiencing harsh side effects from your medications. Your doctor may adjust the dosage or prescribe new medications depending on your symptoms.
Are There any Medications That Can Cause Hypertension?
Some medications you may be prescribed for other health conditions may increase your blood pressure. These drugs include, but are not limited to:
- Hormonal supplements (including birth control pills)
- Certain migraine medications
There are many over-the-counter medications that may increase your blood pressure, such as allergy medicine. Ask a specialist if the medicine you are currently taking will affect your blood pressure.
Your physician will not prescribe you anything that will conflict with your blood pressure medicine. Nonetheless, it is advised to ask.
Ask your doctor if taking any other medication will affect your blood pressure. This will help you avoid the various side effects and heightened blood pressure from other drugs.
Do not take any medication without consulting first with your doctor.
Contact Us Today!
Are you currently dealing with high blood pressure and would like to speak to a specialist? If so, contact us at (210) 212-8622 to learn more.
90,000 Do weight loss drugs affect blood pressure and reduce the effects of high blood pressure (hypertension, hypertension)?
What is high blood pressure (hypertension)?
Blood pressure is a measure of the force your heart uses to pump blood around your body. It is usually expressed as two values: pressure, when your heart pushes blood (systolic pressure), and pressure, when your heart rests between beats (diastolic pressure).Blood pressure is considered high if the systolic pressure is greater than 140 and / or the diastolic pressure is greater than 90, often referred to as “140 to 90” (140/90) and is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). The risk of developing high blood pressure increases with age.
Hypertension can increase the risk of people developing serious long-term health problems, such as heart attacks or strokes. Lowering blood pressure in people with hypertension reduces the number of patients with heart and vascular disease (cardiovascular disease), which leads to a decrease in mortality and cardiovascular disease.
Weight and hypertension
Guidelines for the management of hypertension recommend maintaining a healthy weight and, if necessary, reducing it. Some people may be taking medications to help them lose weight.
Why did we prepare this Cochrane Review?
Medicines licensed for use in weight loss in the United States and Europe include orlistat and naltrexone in combination with bupropion.Another combination, phentermine with topiramate, is licensed in the US only. We wanted to find out if weight loss drugs have a long-term effect on blood pressure, and if they can reduce the unwanted health effects of high blood pressure.
What have we done?
We searched for studies on the effects of taking weight loss medication in people with high blood pressure. We were interested in how these drugs affect blood pressure and body weight.We also wanted to find out how many patients experienced side effects, how many developed cardiovascular disease, and whether there were any deaths.
We searched for randomized controlled trials in which the decision about the intervention that people received was made at random. This type of research tends to provide the most reliable evidence for treatment effects.
We evaluated the reliability of the evidence found. We considered the following factors: how the studies were conducted, how many people participated in them, and whether the results were consistent with each other.
Search date: We have included evidence published by March 2020.
What we found out
We found six studies involving 12,724 high blood pressure patients (mean age 46-62 years). The studies were conducted in the USA (3 studies) and Europe (3 studies) and lasted from 6 to 28 months.
All studies compared the effects of taking a weight loss medication with those of taking a sham medication (placebo).
What are the results of our survey?
Orlistat may reduce weight and possibly lower blood pressure (4 studies; 2058 people).
Phentermine plus topiramate may reduce weight and blood pressure (1 study; 1305 people).
The combination of naltrexone and bupropion appears to reduce weight, but does not appear to lower blood pressure (1 study; 8283 individuals).
One study looked at the risk of death and major adverse cardiovascular effects; it found no difference between naltrexone treatment with bupropion and placebo after two years.
People taking weight loss drugs reported more adverse effects than those taking placebo. The most common adverse effects were digestive problems (for orlistat and phentermine with topiramate), dry mouth, and tingling or numbness of the skin (for naltrexone with bupropion).
How reliable are these results?
The results were obtained from a small number of studies.In some studies, there were few events for some of the measures (outcomes) that we were interested in.
Our confidence in how orlistat and naltrexone in combination with bupropion affect weight loss and blood pressure is moderate. However, the results may change if more evidence emerges.
We are less confident about the effects of phentermine with topiramate; the undesirable effects of orlistat, as well as the risk of undesirable cardiovascular events associated with naltrexone in combination with bupropion.These results are likely to change if additional evidence becomes available.
Certain weight loss drugs reduce weight and blood pressure in people with high blood pressure, but may cause unwanted effects. We did not find sufficient evidence that weight loss medication can reduce mortality and cardiovascular disease.
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A product for combating hypertension was named – RIA Novosti, 02.02.2021
A product for combating hypertension was named
Garlic is a natural remedy for normalizing blood pressure , writes Express with reference to British experts. RIA Novosti, 02.02.2021
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MOSCOW, Dec 21 – RIA Novosti. Garlic is a natural remedy for blood pressure, writes Express, citing British experts. It is noted that dietary supplements with garlic show the same effectiveness as standard drugs for treating hypertension, but with almost no side effects. On average, the use of 188-2400 milligrams of garlic powder per day for 8-12 weeks reduces the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (upper and lower values) by 6.7 and 4.8 millimeters of mercury, respectively. the strongest with high blood pressure and less significant in cases where this indicator is within normal limits.Thus, the product will not negatively affect the body in the absence of hypertension. Experts also recommend combining the use of garlic with other ways to normalize blood pressure, such as reducing salt in food and regular exercise.
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hypertension, health – society
MOSCOW, December 21 – RIA Novosti. Garlic is a natural remedy for normalizing blood pressure, writes Express, citing British experts.
Garlic supplements have been reported to be as effective as standard hypertension medications with few side effects. On average, the use of 188-2400 milligrams of garlic powder per day for 8-12 weeks reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure (upper and lower values) by 6. 7 and 4.8 millimeters of mercury, respectively
It is noted that the effect of the use of garlic turns out to be strongest with high blood pressure and less significant in cases where this indicator is within normal limits.Thus, the product will not negatively affect the body in the absence of hypertension.
Experts also recommend combining the consumption of garlic with other ways to normalize blood pressure, such as reducing the salt in food and regular exercise.
December 21, 2020, 11:48 AM
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The wife’s disease has progressed over the course of several years. Already from the first stage it passed into the second.The doctors could not provide a quality treatment. I decided to look for advice on the forums. So I came across real reviews about Gipertal. A bit upset about the long delivery. Since the medicine was very necessary, and the transport failed. But the remedy helped my wife and therefore I have no complaints. At the moment she is in the last stage of treatment. The condition became much better after a couple of days of admission.
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Blood pressure disorders (arterial hypertension / hypotension)
Violation of blood pressure is a dysfunction of the cardiovascular system, expressed in an imbalance between the values of cardiac output and the resistance of the blood vessels to it.Blood pressure disorder is one of the most common diseases in the world. Its two dysfunctions are hypertension and hypotension . Hypertension or hypertension is the most common form of blood pressure disorder, although hypotension (hypotension) is similar in its mechanism of formation and can take on equally dangerous forms.
Blood pressure depends on the work of the heart, the tone of the arteries and can change under the influence of various factors (physical exertion, emotions, diseases).
Arterial pathologies mean long-term and stable non-return of blood pressure to normal values. Short-term changes in blood pressure are considered as hyper- or hypotensive reactions.
Arterial hypertension – a steady increase in blood pressure to values of 160/95 mm Hg. Art. and higher. Hypertension is one of the most common diseases, affecting at least 20-30% of the population. With a steady increase in blood pressure, the risk of stroke or myocardial infarction inevitably increases.
The causes of hypertension are often a violation of the neurohormonal function of the heart, leading to its excessive release. And the risk factors include overweight, smoking, hereditary predisposition, unbalanced diet, lack of sleep and physical activity, prolonged stressful situations.
Hypertension can be primary and secondary, resulting from another disease. Such reasons can be, in particular, various kidney diseases, tumors, as well as any other diseases that affect the kidneys.With kidney weakness, there is a delay in the excretion of sodium and water, which in turn affects the increase in pressure. In renal hypertension, there is a relationship between exacerbation of kidney disease and increased blood pressure, and to a greater extent, diastolic pressure increases. As a result, signs of renal failure develop along with hypertension.
Atherosclerotic hypertension, which usually develops in old age, is also widespread. It is characterized by high systolic pressure and low diastolic pressure.It develops in connection with damage to the arteries or blood vessels of the brain. Hypertension with problems with the endocrine system is much less common and may be caused by tumor processes. In addition, arterial hypertension can be caused by any disease leading to damage to the central nervous system.
Dizziness, tinnitus, feeling of heaviness in the head, palpitations.
Arterial hypotension – persistent lowering of blood pressure below 100/60 mm Hg.Art. The main danger of hypotension is that it leads to insufficient blood supply, which results in oxygen starvation of many organs and the brain. Therefore, hypotension should be treated without fail. Most often, hypotension occurs in women. However, in 80% of them, it is primary, or the so-called neurocirculatory, due to high fatigue.
The reasons for lowering blood pressure can be large blood loss, anemia, severe loss of body fluid, heart failure, overdose of certain drugs.Dysfunction can also occur with a decrease in thyroid function, with diseases of the endocrine systems and adrenal glands, or with nervous exhaustion.
Thus, a variety of factors and problems can cause changes in blood pressure. Accordingly, treatment should begin by looking for the cause of this dysfunction. For this, as a rule, a thorough examination is prescribed, which includes tests, determination of the level of cholesterol and sugar, ECG, ultrasound of the kidneys, heart and examination of the brain.
Weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, apathy, dizziness.
In the treatment of blood pressure disorders in Western medicine, in most cases, symptomatic (lowering or increasing blood pressure) is used, against the background of general treatment of the main pathological process. However, this may not be successful in all cases.
Chinese medicine, in the case of any violation of blood pressure, also first of all seeks and works with the immediate cause of the disease, acting comprehensively on all the factors and dysfunctions that form it, thereby restoring the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system.So, with hypotension, the treatment process will be focused on increasing the vascular tone, the level of vitality and activity of the patient, as well as stimulating the body’s own reserves.
Modern medicine classifies hypertension as a problem that requires almost lifelong drug support. But despite the presence of a significant number of drugs that lower blood pressure, the use of these drugs still leads patients suffering from AD to an extremely unpleasant result – myocardial infarction, or stroke.However, when you stop taking them, the disease inevitably progresses. In this sense, arterial hypertension is similar to drug addiction, and thus represents a serious problem for modern medicine.
Chinese medicine primarily determines the type of hypertension. Subsequent treatment is determined depending on it. The most basic causes of hypertension, Chinese medicine considers long-term emotional stress, overwork, slagging of the body.Disruption of the Yin-Yang balance of the Liver and Kidneys causes “Fullness above and Emptiness below.” Depending on the syndrome, arterial hypertension in its course is divided into three forms: an excess of Yang-Liver – Emptiness of Yin, Excess of Yang – Emptiness of Yin and Emptiness of Yang. And the main tasks of treatment are filling the Emptiness, expelling the Fullness (excess), harmonizing Yin and Yang (taking into account the possible stagnation of Wind and Sputum). And the leading principle will be the elimination of toxins from the body and the restoration of a healthy balance in it.
In its arsenal, Chinese medicine also has “means” of ambulance in case of a sharp increase in pressure. As with conventional treatment, a quick effect occurs with acupuncture, tsubo therapy, acupressure. Guasha massage, acupressure massage of the feet and vacuum massage also have good effectiveness in the general treatment of hypertension. All of these natural treatments are non-addictive, non-toxic and have no side effects, which is literally vital in a serious case like hypertension.Traditional Chinese medicine treatments are cumulative. But even one completed course with an experienced specialist will certainly give a lasting and confidently positive effect.
90,000 High blood pressure: causes, symptoms and treatment
High blood pressure, or hypertension, is the amount of force that blood exerts on the walls of arteries as it flows through them. If a person has high blood pressure, then the walls of the arteries receive too much pressure.
Blood Pressure Measurement
(c) Flickr / NIHClinicalCenter
The heart muscle pushes blood continuously every second. Blood, which has a low oxygen level, goes towards the lungs where oxygen stores are replenished. Oxygen-rich blood is pumped throughout the body by the heart to deliver it to muscles and organ cells. Pumping blood creates pressure – blood pressure.
When we measure blood pressure, we measure two types of pressure:
Systolic pressure – blood pressure when the heart contracts, namely at the moment of maximum compression force.
Diastolic pressure – blood pressure between heartbeats when the heart muscle is relaxed.
The first digits indicate the systolic pressure, and the subsequent digits with a lower number indicate the diastolic pressure. Abbreviation “mmHg” means “millimeters of mercury”.
What is high blood pressure?
Pressure above 140/90 mm. rt. Art. considered high blood pressure or hypertension.Blood pressure is divided into five categories:
Hypotension – low blood pressure, while systolic pressure is less than 90 mm Hg, diastolic pressure is less than 60 mm Hg.
Normal blood pressure . Systolic pressure 90-119 mm Hg. and diastolic 60-79mm Hg.
Prehypertension . Systolic pressure 120-139 mm Hg and diastolic 80-89 mm Hg.
Hypertension of the 1st degree.The systolic pressure is 140-159 mm Hg, and the diastolic pressure is 90-99 mm Hg.
Hypertension 2 degrees. Systolic pressure above 160 mm Hg. and diastolic above 100 mm Hg.
Symptoms of high blood pressure
Most people with high blood pressure do not experience any symptoms until the blood pressure reaches 180/110 mmHg. Art. Symptoms of high blood pressure typically include:
Headache , which can last for several days.
Nausea – a feeling of discomfort in the abdomen with an urge to vomit.
Vomiting is rare.
Blurring or doubling in the eyes ( diplopia ).
Unpleasant sensations in the region of the heart or very strong palpitations .
Shortness of breath , suffocation.
Anyone experiencing these symptoms should see a doctor immediately.
Children with high blood pressure may have the following signs and symptoms:
Blurred eyes .
Bell’s palsy – inability to control muscles on one side of the face.
People who have been diagnosed with hypertension should constantly check their blood pressure. Even if you have normal blood pressure, you should check it at least once every five years, and more often if you have concomitant factors.
Causes of high blood pressure
Primary high blood pressure – The cause of high blood pressure has not been identified.
Secondary high blood pressure has an underlying cause, such as kidney disease, or is related to a particular drug the patient is taking.
Despite the fact that it is difficult to identify the causes of hypertension, there are some factors that cause the development of this disease.Here are some of the causes of high blood pressure:
1) Age . The older the person, the higher the risk of hypertension;
2) Heredity . If you have close relatives with hypertension, you have a high risk of developing this disease.
3) Air temperature . The systolic and diastolic blood pressure values change depending on the season and air temperature.Blood pressure drops when the air is warm and rises when it gets colder.
4) Ethnic origin . People from Africa or South Asia have a higher risk of developing hypertension than people of Caucasian or Indian descent (indigenous peoples of the Americas).
5) Obesity / overweight. Obese people are more likely to develop hypertension than people of normal weight.
6) Floor .High blood pressure is more common in men than women. However, after age 60, both men and women have the same risk. Women aged 18-59 are more likely to have signs and symptoms of the disease.
7) Hypodynamia . Lack of exercise and a sedentary lifestyle increase the risk of developing hypertension.
8) Smoking . Smoking causes the blood vessels to constrict, which leads to high blood pressure.Smoking also lowers blood oxygen levels; therefore, the heart starts to work faster, thereby causing an increase in blood pressure.
9) Alcohol consumption . People who drink regularly have high systolic blood pressure.
10) High salt intake . People who eat little salt have lower blood pressure.
11) High fat diet. Nutritionists stress that the problem is not how much fat is consumed, but what type of fat is consumed.Plant-derived fats such as avocados, nuts, olive oil, etc., and omegas are beneficial, while saturated animal fats and trans fats are harmful.
12) Psychological stress . Stress can have a serious impact on blood pressure.
13) Diabetes . People with diabetes are at high risk of developing hypertension. Among diabetic patients, hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) is a risk factor for hypertension.
14) Psoriasis . It is associated with a high risk of developing hypertension and diabetes. Psoriasis is an immune disease in which red, scaly patches develop on the skin.
15) Pregnancy . Pregnant women have a higher risk of developing hypertension. This is a common medical problem that women face during pregnancy. Most countries divide hypertension during pregnancy into four categories:
- Chronic hypertension;
- Chronic arterial hypertension;
- Gestational hypertension.
High Blood Pressure Diagnosis
(c) Pixabay / succo
Most people use a sphygmomanometer (blood pressure tonometer) to measure blood pressure. This device consists of an inflatable cuff that fits over the upper arm. When the cuff is inflated, it restricts blood flow. The tonometer can be mercury or mechanical.
The nurse or doctor listens for the pulse with a stethoscope on the brachial artery in the elbow joint and slowly releases the cuff pressure.As the pressure in the cuff decreases, a sound will be heard. The pressure at the point where the sound occurs is recorded as systolic blood pressure. When the sound disappears, the diastolic blood pressure is recorded at that moment.
With the advancement of new technologies, people can now monitor their blood pressure at home.
Blood pressure alone is not sufficient to diagnose hypertension in a patient. Blood pressure can change throughout the day.A visit to the doctor, stress, food can temporarily affect your blood pressure readings, so three separate measurements in one week may be required.
The doctor may also order additional tests to help diagnose high blood pressure:
Urine and blood tests – Cholesterol, high potassium levels, blood sugar levels, infections, kidney disease, etc. can affect the main causes of hypertension. etc. Protein or blood in the urine may indicate kidney disease.High blood glucose may indicate diabetes.
Stress test – more often used for patients with borderline hypertension. It includes a bike trainer or a stationary treadmill. The stress test measures how the cardiovascular system responds to increased physical activity. The doctor monitors the electrical activity of the heart as well as the patient’s blood pressure during exercise. The stress test sometimes reveals problems that are not obvious when the person is calm.
ECG (electrocardiogram) is a test of the electrical activity of the heart. The ECG is used in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension and high cholesterol levels. An EKG may show changes that indicate coronary artery disease or thickening of the heart wall. Holter Monitoring – The patient wears a portable ECG device for 24 hours.
Echocardiography is a technique that uses ultrasound waves to show how the heart is working.A doctor may detect a thickened heart wall, defective heart valves, blood clots, and excessive fluid around the heart.
Treating high blood pressure
The doctor may suggest some lifestyle changes if the patient’s blood pressure is only slightly elevated and the risk of cardiovascular disease is low.
If a patient’s blood pressure is moderately high and doctors believe that the risk of developing cardiovascular disease exceeds 20%, then the patient will be prescribed treatment and counseling on lifestyle changes.
If the blood pressure is higher than 180/110 mm Hg, the doctor will refer the patient to a specialist (cardiologist).
Lifestyle changes can help lower high blood pressure, but you should always check with your doctor before making any major changes yourself.
Regular exercise program may be helpful in lowering blood pressure. Exercising for 30 to 60 minutes five days a week can lower your blood pressure by 4 to 9 mmHg.Art. If you start an exercise program, you will feel an improvement within two to three weeks. But the exercise should be done taking into account the needs and health of the patient. The secret to success is regularity.
Reducing alcohol consumption
Some studies indicate that alcohol lowers blood pressure, while others report the opposite. In small amounts, alcoholic beverages can lower blood pressure.But if you drink too much and constantly, your blood pressure can go up.
Eat more fruits and vegetables, good quality unrefined carbohydrates, vegetable oils and omega-3 fatty acids. Avoid processed meats (sausages, sausages).
Reducing salt (sodium) intake
Even modest reductions in sodium intake can lower your blood pressure by 2 to 8 mmHg.
Moderate weight loss can have a significant effect in lowering high blood pressure. Achieving your ideal body weight requires exercise, a healthy diet, and adequate sleep.
Reducing caffeine intake
There are many studies that report that caffeine affects blood pressure. Habitual coffee consumption is not associated with an increased risk of hypertension in women, although a link has been found with energy drinks and cola.The caffeine and taurine in energy drinks are responsible for raising blood pressure and heart rate.
Researchers have found that relaxation can improve the treatment of hypertension in the elderly.
Insomnia can increase a person’s risk of developing high blood pressure.
Medicines for the treatment of hypertension
Several antihypertensive drugs are currently used.Some patients may need a combination of different drugs to effectively control high blood pressure.
The most common drugs used to treat high blood pressure:
ACE inhibitors (angiotensin converting enzyme) block the action of certain hormones, such as angiotensin II, that regulate blood pressure. Angiotensin II causes the arteries to narrow and increases blood volume, which leads to high blood pressure.By suppressing the action of angiotensin II, ACE inhibitors help reduce blood volume as well as dilate arteries, which causes blood pressure to decrease.
People with heart and kidney disease and pregnant women should not take ACE inhibitors. Blood tests should be done regularly for patients taking ACE inhibitors.
ACE inhibitors can have side effects that usually disappear after a few days:
Persistent dry cough.
Calcium channel blockers
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs), among other things, reduce the amount of calcium in the blood vessels. A decrease in calcium relaxes vascular smooth muscle, which leads to vasodilation (dilation of the arteries). If the arteries get wider, then the blood pressure will drop.
Patients with diseases of the cardiovascular system and liver should not take calcium channel blockers.
CCBs can have side effects that usually go away after a few days:
Skin redness, usually on the cheeks and neck;
Edema (swelling) – swollen ankles, legs, less often abdomen;
Patients taking calcium channel blockers should avoid eating grapefruit.
Thiazide diuretics act on the kidneys and help the body get rid of sodium and water, which leads to a decrease in blood volume and a decrease in blood pressure.
Thiazide diuretics can cause the following side effects, some of which may persist:
Hypokalemia – low levels of potassium in the blood that can affect kidney and heart function.
Impaired glucose tolerance – increased risk of developing diabetes.
Impotence (erectile dysfunction) – the side effect disappears when the medication is stopped.
Patients taking thiazide diuretics should have regular blood and urine tests to monitor sugar and potassium levels.
Beta-blockers were once very widely used to treat hypertension, but they have many side effects and are usually used today when other therapies have failed.Beta blockers slow down the heart rate and also decrease the strength of the heart muscles, which leads to lower blood pressure.
Beta blockers may have the following side effects:
Cold hands and feet;
Slow heart rate;
Disturbed sleep, nightmares.
Renin is an enzyme produced in the kidney.Renin is involved in the production of a substance in the body called angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is converted to the hormone angiotensin II, which constricts blood vessels. Aliskiren blocks the production of angiotensin I and thus the levels of angiotensin I and angiotensin II fall. This causes the blood vessels to dilate, which leads to a drop in blood pressure. Since this is a relatively new drug, its use and dosage for hypertensive patients are still being determined.
Aliskiren may have the following side effects:
Scientists believe that Aliskiren should not be used by patients who have had Quincke’s edema (swelling of tissues under the skin).
Complications of high blood pressure
If hypertension is left untreated, high blood pressure can damage blood vessels as well as vital organs.The degree of damage depends on two factors: the severity of the hypertension and how long it lasts.
Potential complications of high blood pressure:
Stroke – Blood flow to the brain is disrupted as a result of a blockage or rupture of an artery in the brain, and brain cells die.
Heart attack – the heart muscle dies due to a violation of the blood supply.
Heart failure – The heart struggles to pump enough blood to meet the needs of the entire body.
Formation of a blood clot that can cause serious complications.
Aneurysm – “swelling” of the walls of a vein, artery or heart. The walls are weakened and could rupture.
Kidney Disease – Hypertension often damages the small blood vessels in the kidneys, impairing their function and leading to kidney failure.
Hypertensive retinopathy – Hypertension can cause blood vessels in the eyes to thicken, narrow, or rupture, which can lead to loss of vision.
Metabolic Syndrome is a metabolic disorder in the body, including weight gain, low blood levels of HDL (good cholesterol), hypertension, and high insulin levels. If the patient has hypertension, then this significantly increases the risk of diabetes, stroke and cardiovascular disease.
Cognitive impairment and memory problems.
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Diastolic hypertension is a common disease affecting young and old people.Sometimes hypertension progresses in athletes; is asymptomatic and is diagnosed only during preventive examinations.
Isolated diastolic hypertension is much less common than systolic. It is accompanied by severe complications. The disease develops in young people involved in sports, practicing uncontrolled exercise.
Systolic-diastolic arterial hypertension is characterized by damage to the liver or kidneys, the development of heart disease, blockage of the arteries supplying blood to the brain.
Causes of the disease
Diastolic arterial hypertension is a frequently diagnosed pathology of the cardiovascular system.
The main causes of the development of the disease:
- alcohol abuse;
- hereditary factor;
- violation of lipid metabolism;
- increase in static loads in people involved in sports;
- psycho-emotional overstrain;
- type 2 diabetes mellitus;
Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors for the onset of the disease. Psychological problems complicate the course of diastolic hypertension – the causes of the pathological condition require immediate assistance not only from a cardiologist, but also from a psychologist. Holding your breath during stress leads to high blood pressure and blood clots.
In sick people, an excessive amount of lipids in the blood is often determined, and sports activities associated with a static component cause the development of a stable form of arterial hypertension.The risk of developing the disease is associated with a general lesion of the arteries with atherosclerotic plaques. The pathological process changes the structure of the vascular wall and increases the deposition of cholesterol in it.
Elderly people with diastolic hypertension often have severe complications leading to death.
Manifestations of the disease
If the diastole function is impaired, and the systole is preserved in full, the patient develops arterial hypertension and myopathy.The patient complains of the onset of symptoms of heart failure:
- shortness of breath;
- decrease in resistance to physical stress;
- peripheral edema;
- visual impairment;
- movement disorders.
If the diastolic pressure in hypertension exceeds 100 mm Hg. Art., the patient complains of nosebleeds and blurred vision. The appearance of systolic dysfunction of the left ventricle causes a violation of the contractility of the heart muscle.
During pregnancy, the main symptom of diastolic hypertension is the Korotkoff V tone pressure level within 110-115 mm Hg. Art.
Patients with severe hypertension complain of headache, flashing “flies” before the eyes, palpitations, shortness of breath. Protein is found in the urine; platelets in the blood are much lower than normal.
Diastolic hypertension in pregnant women causes the development of preeclampsia, accompanied by premature placental abruption, convulsions, disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, pulmonary edema, and renal failure.
Indicators of diastolic hypertension
In a pregnant woman, the average systolic pressure should not exceed 126 mm Hg. Art., and the diastolic is in the range of 105-90 mm Hg. Art. Severe hypertension is accompanied by diastolic blood pressure above 110 mm Hg. Art. In patients aged 50-60 years with hypertension, the average values exceed the norm by 10-20 units.
Monitoring of the value of the lower pressure indicates its daily fluctuations in the range from 90 to 134 mm.rt. Art. depending on the gender and age of the patient. Diastolic hypertension causes an increase in pressure up to 140/110 mm Hg. Art., while the patient shows signs of damage to target organs.
If during diastole the lower pressure is higher than 90 mm Hg. Art., the blood vessels suffer from a lack of blood supply, which causes the closure of their lumen. Grade 3 diastolic hypertension is characterized by a pressure greater than 110 mm Hg. Art.
People involved in sports develop high blood pressure after intense strength exercise.Its stable increase is up to 120-130 mm. rt. Art. observed in kidney disease.
Complications of hypertension
A long-term illness leads to the development of serious pathologies:
- heart failure;
- kidney disease.
Stroke is a consequence of hypertensive crises, sclerosis or obesity. Treatment of acute circulatory disorders in the vessels of the brain is carried out in a hospital using a modern technique – thrombolysis.
A constant increase in diastolic pressure leads to defects in the arteries, causing atherosclerosis. Further development of hypertension worsens the condition of the kidneys, disrupts blood flow, transport of oxygen and nutrients to tissues
High blood pressure affects the function of the organ of vision. The patient’s retinal vessels are damaged, blurred vision, inflammation of the conjunctiva appear. Spasm of the cerebral arteries causes frequent headaches. If the coronary vessels are affected, the patient has angina attacks.
Angiospasm is characterized by high pulse pressure. In this case, the difference between the indicators of systolic and diastolic pressure is small – 10-20 mm Hg. Art.
Antihypertensive drug therapy
Treatment of the disease is carried out using selective AT1 receptor blockers. The modern class of drugs does not cause side effects: cough or angioedema.
Continuous intake of medicines allows to normalize blood pressure in hypertension (arterial hypertension), to stop the increase in the left ventricle of the heart, to restore its functions.Treatment with ACE inhibitors alone does not give a lasting effect.
In people involved in sports, diuretics and beta-blockers are not used for the treatment of hypertension, because they are classified as doping agents.
Beta-blockers suppress renin formation in the kidneys. Hypertension is treated with anti-crisis drugs taken routinely.
The doctor prescribes the following medicines:
ACE inhibitors – basic drugs recommended for the treatment of hypertension.
The patient needs to take medications only as prescribed by the doctor. The frequency of taking Captopril, Zofenopril, Benazepril tablets may be different. It is not recommended to use Clonidine, because the drug has many side effects.
In case of intolerance to ACE inhibitors, Candesartan, Losartan, Losacor are prescribed. With elevated cholesterol values, it is necessary to take the drugs Lipostabil, Mevacor, Zokor.A short break in taking the drug from pressure can provoke the development of a hypertensive crisis.
Angiotensin II receptor blockers
Treatment with Valsartan, Losartan and Eprosartan is contraindicated in case of dehydration, low serum potassium ions, individual intolerance. The doctor explains to the patient the principle of action of the drug that prevents the development of hypertension. Such treatment allows you to preserve metabolism, not disrupt the function of the bronchi, and restore kidney function.
Depending on the time of pressure increase, the doctor determines at what time of day it is better to take a drug from the sartan group. Losartan allows you to increase physical activity in patients with heart failure.
If the diastolic pressure increases in the afternoon, the patient drinks the medicine in the afternoon. Sometimes taking the drug causes side effects.
Angiotensin II receptor blockers are not prescribed for pregnant women, adolescents under 18 years of age, during breastfeeding.Valsartan has a positive effect on patients regardless of age, evenly reduces blood pressure throughout the day.
Antihypertensive drugs have an effect on the restoration of the function of the left ventricle of the heart, improve the patient’s quality of life and reduce the symptoms of heart failure: shortness of breath and wheezing in the lungs.
The combined treatment of diastolic hypertension leads to a decrease in pressure. Diuretics are prescribed for patients with uncomplicated disease.The drugs are not recommended for the treatment of the disease as monotherapy.
Thiazide diuretics have little effect compared to other antihypertensive drugs. Spironolactone and Hydralazine drugs in patients with diastolic pressure of 100-130 mm Hg. Art. reduce the number of cases of stroke or heart attack, prevent the appearance of vascular complications.
Uncontrolled intake of diuretics causes arrhythmias. Diuretics prevent the development of left ventricular hypertrophy and decrease the diastolic volume of the heart.Diuretic drugs are often combined with other drugs:
Diuretics are recommended for the treatment of many patients with hypertension, because their use reduces mortality and the risk of coronary complications by 17%.
The diet for patients with high diastolic pressure consists of foods that are low in cholesterol. The patient needs to stop eating fats.The diet includes legumes, oats, carrots, cabbage, apples, and prunes. Vegetables lower serum lipids.
The patient should refuse pickled vegetables, salted fish, fatty meat, because they contain sodium, preservatives, stabilizers, dyes. Abuse of alcohol, strong coffee and tea leads to high blood pressure.
The patient is recommended moderate physical activity, which improves the supply of blood to the heart muscle. The correct treatment regimen helps the patient to stabilize the diastolic pressure.
Systolic and diastolic pressure: what are they talking about?
Systolic and diastolic blood pressure: what are they talking about?
Systolic and diastolic pressure: what are they talking about?
Complexion, mood, performance, well-being and even life expectancy depend on blood pressure.How can you influence the mechanisms of its regulation?
The level of blood pressure is usually characterized by two numbers, which we get when measured by the Korotkoff method. The larger of the numbers is the indicator of systolic pressure, the smaller is the diastolic pressure.
Systolic (upper) blood pressure is the pressure of blood in the arteries at the time of systole (contraction) of the heart. The ventricles of the heart contract and push blood into the vessels, creating pressure there.The level of systolic blood pressure depends mainly on the strength and rate of contraction of the heart, the state of the myocardium.
Diastolic (lower) pressure is the pressure that is maintained in the vessels at the time of relaxation (diastole) of the heart. Diastolic pressure is formed due to the contraction of the peripheral arteries, through which blood flows to organs and tissues. Therefore, vascular tone and elasticity play a key role in the formation of lower pressure indicators.In addition, the total blood volume and heart rate affect the value of diastolic pressure.
The difference between systolic and diastolic is called pulse pressure. Pulse pressure fluctuations are completely dependent on the high and low pressure levels. Normal pulse pressure is about 30-40 mm Hg. Art, but not more than 60% of the systolic. With an increase or decrease in this value, the normal blood supply to organs and tissues is disrupted, and the load on the heart and blood vessels increases.
Low pulse pressure can be caused by a decrease in stroke volume (for example, in heart failure, hypovolemia, and aortic stenosis), as well as increased peripheral vascular resistance (for example, with prolonged exposure to cold or with severe heart failure).
High pulse pressure accelerates the natural aging of internal organs, especially the heart, brain and kidneys, and is a very important indicator of the risk of heart disease and the development of atrial fibrillation.
Within normal limits, the pressure is higher in men, in obese people,
citizens, intellectual workers. Lower pressure figures
observed in women (especially during normal pregnancy),
rural residents and athletes.
Normal pressure readings
Normally, systolic blood pressure in healthy adults should not exceed 129 mm Hg.Art., and diastolic – 89 mm Hg. Art. If the pressure is higher, they talk about arterial hypertension.
The pressure is considered low (arterial hypotension) if the indicators decrease by 20% from the usual or in absolute value are less than 90/60 mm Hg. Art.
The level of pressure in the body has complex regulatory mechanisms involving the urinary, nervous and endocrine systems. Blood pressure rises with physical and mental stress, excitement, stress.Normally, however, these fluctuations are insignificant and short-lived. Physiological increase in pressure in blood vessels improves gas exchange, allows the body to adapt to stress, to perform a “super task”. At rest, the pressure level decreases. With the development of an imbalance in the regulation of these mechanisms, persistent changes in the level of pressure develop, which has a detrimental effect on well-being and health. Heredity also has a significant effect on the level of blood pressure.
Why are pressure surges dangerous?
High blood pressure is recognized as a risk factor for the development of many dangerous diseases, including cerebrovascular accident.High pressure numbers create excessive stress on the walls of blood vessels, which can eventually lead to rupture and hemorrhage. Arterial hypertension leads to premature wear and tear of the heart muscle.
Low blood pressure is not so dangerous. However, against the background of hypotension, the quality of life deteriorates significantly, cognitive functions and work capacity decrease. The lower the blood pressure in the vessels, the slower gas exchange occurs in peripheral tissues and lungs, which leads to the development of hypoxia.A sharp drop in blood pressure (collapse) leads to disruption of the brain, disturbance of consciousness, coma and death.
In a healthy person, blood pressure fluctuates during the day.
So in the morning hours there is low pressure, and in the afternoon the pressure figures are
increase, reaching a peak in the evening. Therefore, measure arterial
pressure is needed at the same time.
How to influence the pressure level?
It is generally accepted that it is possible to normalize pressure figures without drugs and operations.However, this should be done in the early stages of hypertension. The treatment program consists in giving up bad habits, reducing body weight to normal, following a diet with a predominance of vegetable fats over animals, limiting table salt and an active lifestyle.
If these measures are ineffective and in advanced cases of hypertension, antihypertensive drug therapy is prescribed.
Physical therapy, massage, intake of adaptogens and products containing caffeine help to slightly raise the pressure and vitality of hypotonic patients.Salty foods may have a small effect on diastolic blood pressure due to fluid retention and increased blood volume.
Expert: Natalia Dolgopolova, therapist
Author: Tamara Mutnovskaya
The material used photographs owned by shutterstock.com