Sign of eczema baby: Baby Eczema Symptoms, Causes, Treatments, Creams, and More
Does Your Baby Have Eczema?
Our babies inherit a lot from us: our height, our hair color — and our tendency toward sensitive skin, including eczema.
If someone in your immediate family has allergic tendencies, eczema may be the first sign that your baby shares that tendency, too, says pediatrician Chris Tolcher, MD, clinical assistant professor of pediatrics at the University of Southern California School of Medicine.
Eczema can start as early as your baby’s second month. Symptoms can be mild and barely noticeable, or itchy and intense. Know the signs of baby eczema, how to treat it, and what eczema treatments to avoid.
9 Signs of Baby Eczema
Symptoms of eczema in babies include skin that is:
- Thick or leathery
- Crusting or oozing
- Has circular patches of red areas or light areas
Some of the symptoms above can indicate other problems such as diaper rash. So, don’t assume your baby has eczema. Talk to your baby’s pediatrician before treating the skin problem.
Baby Eczema: Top Tips for Treatment
Eczema, sometimes called infantile eczema, or atopic dermatitis, is a chronic inflammation of the outer layers of skin. The condition most often appears in children, though many outgrow it as they get older. For more severe cases of eczema, here are seven tips for treatment:
1. Avoid triggers.The problem with eczema is that skin is easily irritated, so “the main treatment is avoiding irritants,” Tolcher tells WebMD. Triggers that may irritate your baby’s eczema include:
– Dry air
– Animal dander
– Pollen, mold, and dust
– Harsh soaps and detergents
– Heat and sweating
2. Avoid scented products. What irritates eczema varies with each baby, says Tolcher, but start by avoiding fragrances in all products that touch baby’s skin, including soaps, shampoos, and lotions. Opt instead for mild body soaps or soap-free cleansers such as Aquaphor Gentle Wash, Basis, Cetaphil, Dove, or Eucerin. Also avoid perfumed laundry detergents, fabric softeners, and dryer sheets, and select “baby friendly detergents” such as All Free and Clear, Dreft, Ivory Snow, and Purex.
3. Moisturize. Moisturizing is the foundation of healthy skin for people with eczema, says California dermatologist Wendy E. Robert, MD. You can soothe your baby’s eczema symptoms by moisturizing skin at least two or three times daily, using a fragrance-free, hypoallergenic product. Look for oil-based ointments. These help lock in moisture better than lotions, which contain more water.
4. Use eczema creams. Creams that contain colloidal oatmeal or mild hydrocortisone can help ease itching and skin irritation. Some steroid creams may be too potent for infants, Tolcher says. Before using steroids on your baby’s eczema, always consult your doctor. And don’t use hydrocortisone creams for longer than a week unless advised by your baby’s doctor.
5. Consider oral antihistamines. Oral antihistamines like Benadryl, Claritin, and Zyrtec, may help if your baby’s itch is severe, says Tolcher. But consult with your pediatrician before giving your baby these medicines.
6. Keep cool. Hot water strips the body of skin-protecting oils, Roberts tells WebMD, so be sure to bathe baby in lukewarm water — and not too often — then moisturize soon after.
7. Avoid dietary changes. Certain foods can be an eczema trigger for some babies, but “sorting that out can be very challenging,” Tolcher says. “Don’t eliminate foods from your baby’s diet without the supervision of your doctor.”
That’s really the take-home message when treating your baby’s eczema symptoms: Talk to your pediatrician. Your doctor can verify that baby’s symptoms are eczema, and can help you pick the eczema treatments that are just right for baby’s sweet, sensitive skin.
Baby Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) on Your Infant: Symptoms & Treatment
Does your baby have patches of dry, flaky, rashy skin? There’s a good chance it’s infant eczema.
While this common skin condition is not contagious, it can cause a lot of parenting stress, not to mention discomfort for your baby. Here’s everything parents need to know about infant eczema, including strategies to ease your little one’s itchy rash.
What is baby eczema?
Doctors use “infant eczema” as an umbrella term to describe two conditions that usually appear between 2 to 4 months of age:
- Atopic dermatitis: A typically inherited chronic condition more common among babies with a family history of allergies, eczema and asthma. This type of eczema affects 13 percent of all children under the age of 18 in the United States.
- Contact dermatitis: A rash that develops when skin comes into contact with an irritating substance; once the irritant is removed, the rash usually clears.
Eczema rashes can appear all over the body or in just a few spots. They can get worse at certain times (called flare-ups) and be so uncomfortable and itchy that they interfere with sleep – making your baby (and you!) miserable.
In babies, the rashes usually start out on the scalp and face. (Eczema usually doesn’t develop in the diaper area; diaper rashes require a different kind of treatment.)
Eczema is more common in girls, Black children and children with a family history of hay fever and allergies.
What does baby eczema look like?
Eczema can look different from baby to baby, and much of that has to do with melanin, the pigment that gives your skin its color.
- In children with lighter pigmented skin: Eczema is typically pink or red.
- In children with darker pigmented skin: Eczema often appears red-brown, purplish or grayish. Without redness and inflammation, eczema can be harder to detect. But it’s important to seek treatment, since children of color have an increased risk of developing permanent hypo (lightened) or hyperpigmentation (darkened) areas on their skin where the eczema was.
Regardless of skin tone, the location and appearance of eczema tends to change with age:
- Birth to 6 months: Patches of flaky skin may appear in very visible places, including baby’s chubby cheeks, behind the ears and on the scalp.
- 6 to 12 months: You may see eczema on your baby’s elbows and knees. The rash may be irritated or flare up if your child is crawling on a scratchy surface.
- Around age 2: Eczema may appear in the little creases of your toddler’s elbows and knees, or on her wrists, hands and ankles. You may also still see it on her face and eyelids. The skin may start to look thicker with deeper lines — called “lichenification.”
How does baby eczema differ from dry skin?
Dry skin is a symptom of eczema. Your pediatrician can diagnose eczema by examining your baby’s skin. She may send you to a pediatric dermatologist for confirmation and treatment if the condition is severe.
In general, dry skin can be handled at home with some moisturizer and isn’t as bothersome as eczema. However, babies with darker skin tend to have drier skin than those with lighter skin – making moisturization even more crucial.
What are the best treatments for baby eczema?
The type of eczema treatment your baby needs depends on the severity of her symptoms.
A few home remedies you can try to ease baby eczema include:
- Keep baby’s nails short to prevent scratching. Newborn mittens (they come in bigger sizes, too) are great for securing your baby’s hands while she sleeps. Many babies with eczema will wake up bleeding from scratching their little skin so hard. You can also look for long-sleeve sleepers with built-in mittens.
- Bathe your baby daily. Baths are one of the best ways to soothe your baby’s eczema. Keep the water lukewarm (not hot) and make baths short — no longer than 10 minutes. Use a small amount of gentle, fragrance-free soap. No bubble baths!
- Apply a moisturizer designed for children with eczema. The National Eczema Association maintains a directory of over-the-counter products designed for people with eczema that meet their standards. You’ll want to wait a few minutes to let the moisturizer absorb into your baby’s skin before getting her dressed. Using one of these products when baby’s skin is still damp from the bath is best. Reapply (at least once) later. Know, however, that finding a topical product that works for your baby can be a challenge. What works for one child may not work for another. As your baby’s condition and skin change, so can the effectiveness of a moisturizer.
- Consider asking your pediatrician about stronger options. If over-the-counter creams don’t help, your child’s doctor may recommend a topical steroid cream or a non-steroid eczema cream. New drugs and medicines to help eczema sufferers are developed all the time, so if your baby continues to struggle, talk with your pediatrician or pediatric dermatologist about the latest remedies and what they recommend. Just remember that not all treatments approved for adults are safe for babies.
How can you prevent baby eczema?
If your baby has contact dermatitis, you can try your best to prevent a flare-up by identifying and avoiding common triggers, which might include:
- Moisture (from milk, saliva or sweat). Dress your baby in lightweight clothing. Gently pat drool away when you see it.
- Scratchy fabrics. In addition to clothes and rugs, even your baby’s stuffed animals can trigger eczema.
- Allergens. Think pet dander, pollen or dust.
- Harsh detergents and soaps. Consider using a sensitive detergent when washing baby’s clothes and crib sheets.
Does breastfeeding prevent baby eczema?
There is some evidence that breastfed babies may be less likely to develop eczema. Although unproven, the antimicrobial properties in breast milk have also been studied as a type of treatment when directly applied to an eczema rash. To try this, rub a few drops of your liquid gold onto the rash regularly for a few days and watch for any reduction in symptoms. (If you’re nursing, it’s free, so worth a shot!)
When to talk to your doctor about baby eczema
Always talk with your pediatrician if you have any questions or concerns about your baby’s skin. Thanks to telemedicine, a quick photo is often all that’s needed to check for eczema.
Occasionally, infections develop on top of an eczema rash. If you see any yellow-colored crusting and scabbing, oozy skin, blisters or pus bumps, be sure to call your doctor right away. Always call if your baby has a fever. Your baby may need an antibiotic and to be evaluated in person.
Will my baby have eczema all her life?
In some babies with atopic dermatitis, the condition stays put. But, fortunately, eczema clears up in many babies by the time they turn 4.
Remember, eczema is very common among infants and the general population. Mention eczema to your friends, your extended family members or another mom you meet at the park. You are bound to find someone else who has walked this road and can be another voice of support.
Eczema in Babies and Children
By: Sarah Stein, MD, FAAD, FAAP
At least one in 10 children have
eczema (also called
atopic dermatitis), an ongoing skin problem that causes dry, red, itchy skin. Children with eczema have more sensitive skin than other people. Here’s what parents need to know about the condition.
What causes eczema?
Eczema is caused by problems with the skin barrier. Many children with eczema do not have enough of a special protein called “filaggrin” in the outer layer of skin. Filaggrin helps skin form a strong barrier between the body and the environment. Skin with too little of this protein has a harder time holding in water and keeping out bacteria and environmental irritants.
Both a person’s genes and their environment play a role in eczema. It often runs in families and tends to occur with other
allergic conditions such as asthma and allergic rhinitis (hay fever and seasonal allergies). Many children with eczema also have
food allergies, but foods themselves do not cause eczema.
What does eczema look like?
Eczema rashes can be different for each child. They can be all over the body or in just a few spots. The eczema rash often worsens at times (called “exacerbations” or “flares”) and then gets better (called “remissions”). Where the rashes develop may change over time:
In babies, eczema usually starts on the scalp and face. Red, dry rashes may show up on the cheeks, forehead, and around the mouth. Eczema usually does not develop in the diaper area.
In young school-aged children, the eczema rash is often in the elbow creases, on the backs of the knees, on the neck, and around the eyes.
Is eczema contagious?
No. Children with eczema are more prone to skin infections, but
eczema is NOT contagious. The infections that children with eczema tend to get are often from germs that usually live harmlessly on everyone’s skin. These germs cause more problems for children with eczema because their skin doesn’t always have a strong barrier to keep them out.
How do I know if my child’s skin is infected?
Occasionally bacterial or viral infections develop on top of eczema rashes.
Talk to your doctor if you see yellow or honey-colored crusting and scabbing, weepy or oozy skin, blisters or pus bumps, or rash that is not getting better even with the usual treatments.
Do children outgrow eczema?
For some children, eczema starts to go away by age 4. However, some children may continue to have dry, sensitive skin as they grow up. It is hard to predict which children will outgrow the condition and which ones will have eczema as adults.
Eczema can be frustrating for children and their parents, especially when the itching makes it difficult to sleep. Your pediatrician and pediatric dermatologist can help you manage your child’s eczema symptoms with a good treatment plan and a healthy skin maintenance routine.
About Dr. Stein:
Sarah Stein, MD, FAAD, FAAP, a member of the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Dermatology, is Associate Professor and Director of Pediatric Dermatology for UChicago Medicine.
The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.
Is this your child’s symptom?
- An itchy rash that your doctor told you was eczema
- Eczema is a chronic skin disease
- Recurrent flare-ups of severe itching occur
- The medical name for eczema is atopic dermatitis
Symptoms of Eczema
- The main symptom is itching. If it doesn’t itch, it’s not eczema.
- With flare-ups (itching attacks), the rash becomes red or even raw and weepy.
- Onset: Average onset at 3 months old. Range: 1-6 months old. Usually begins by 2 years old.
- Location: Classic eczema starts on the cheeks at 1 to 6 months of age. It can spread to the rest of the face. In infants, the outer surfaces of the arms and legs also become involved.
- In older children, eczema is found in the joint creases. The elbows, wrists, and knees are the most common places.
- The rash is usually the same on both sides of the body.
Cause of Eczema
- A type of dry, sensitive skin that children inherit.
- Flare-ups are from skin contact with soap, shampoo, pollen or other irritating substances.
- About 30% of babies with severe eczema also have food allergies. The most common is cow’s milk.
- Over 10% of children have eczema. It’s the most common skin condition of the first 10 years.
Triggers of Eczema Flare-Ups
- Soaps. Never use bubble bath. It can cause a major flare-up.
- Pollens. Keep your child from lying on the grass during grass pollen season.
- Animals. Avoid any animals that make the rash worse.
- Foods. If certain foods cause severe itching (flares), avoid them.
- Wool. Avoid wool fibers and clothes made of other scratchy, rough materials.
- Dry Air. Use a humidifier if the air in your home is dry.
- Herpes Virus Infection (Serious). Keep your child away from anyone with fever blisters (cold sores). The herpes virus can cause a serious skin infection in children with eczema.
- Eczema is not caused by laundry soap you use to wash clothing.
- Mild: doesn’t interfere with normal activities
- Moderate: interferes with child care or school, sleep, or other normal activities
- Severe: constant itching that can’t be controlled
Food Allergy and Eczema Flare-Ups
- Food allergies are a factor in 30% of young children with severe eczema. This factor is mainly seen in babies.
- The main allergic foods are cow’s milk and eggs.
- The main symptoms are increased skin redness and itching. Some parents report these symptoms start during or soon after the feeding.
- The eczema becomes easier to control if you avoid the allergic food.
Diagnosing Food Allergy and Eczema Flare-Ups
- Your child’s doctor may suggest the steps listed below:
- Remove the suspected food or foods from your child’s diet for 2 weeks. The eczema should greatly improve.
- Then give your child that food when the eczema is under good control. This is called a “challenge.”
- If the food is causing flare-ups, the eczema should become itchy and red. The flare-up should occur quickly within 2 hours of eating the food.
- If this occurs, avoid giving this food to your child. Talk to your child’s doctor about the need for any food substitutes.
- If the eczema does not flare-up, your child isn’t allergic to that food.
When to Call for Eczema
Call 911 Now
- You think your child has a life-threatening emergency
Call Doctor or Seek Care Now
- Fever in baby less than 12 weeks old. Caution: do NOT give your baby any fever medicine before being seen.
- Looks infected (spreading redness, pus, soft oozing scabs) and fever
- Many small blisters or punched-out sores occur
- Your child looks or acts very sick
- You think your child needs to be seen, and the problem is urgent
Contact Doctor Within 24 Hours
- Eczema is very painful to touch
- Looks infected but no fever
- Itching is severe after using steroid cream for more than 48 hours
- You think your child needs to be seen, but the problem is not urgent
Contact Doctor During Office Hours
- Itching flare-ups occur often
- Eczema diagnosis was never confirmed by a doctor
- You have other questions or concerns
Self Care at Home
- Eczema with no other problems
- Questions about prevention of eczema flare-ups
Seattle Children’s Urgent Care Locations
If your child’s illness or injury is life-threatening, call 911.
Treatment for Eczema
- What You Should Know About Eczema:
- Eczema is a chronic skin disease. So, you need to learn how to control it.
- Itching attacks (flare-ups) are to be expected.
- The goal is to treat all flare-ups quickly. Reason: To prevent skin damage.
- Here is some care advice that should help.
- Treatment is Based on Severity of Eczema:
- Mild Eczema. Just need to use a moisturizing cream and to avoid flare-up triggers.
- Moderate Eczema. Also need to use a steroid cream and bedtime allergy medicine.
- Severe Eczema. Also may need antibiotics for a skin infection caused by Staph bacteria. This infection starts in open skin from severe itching.
- Moisturizing Cream or Ointment for Dry Skin:
- All children with eczema have dry sensitive skin.
- The skin needs a moisturizing cream (such as Eucerin) Apply once or twice daily.
- Apply the cream after a 5 or 10-minute bath. To trap moisture in the skin, apply the cream while skin is still damp. Do this within 3 minutes of leaving the bath or shower.
- The steroid cream should be applied to any itchy spots first. Then use the moisturizing cream as the top layer.
- While most parents prefer creams, moisturizing ointments are sometimes needed in the winter. An example is Vaseline.
- Caution: Never stop the moisturizing cream. Reason: The rash will come back.
- Steroid Cream or Ointment for Itching:
- Itchy skin is the main symptom of eczema.
- Steroid creams or ointments are essential for controlling red, itchy skin.
- Apply steroid creams only to itchy or red spots (not to the normal skin).
- Most children have 2 types of steroid creams. (1) A mild steroid cream is used to treat any pink spots or mild itching. This is often 1% hydrocortisone cream (such as Cortaid). No prescription is needed. (2) Another stronger steroid cream is needed to treat any spots with severe itching. This is a prescription steroid cream such as Synalar. Never apply this stronger cream to the face.
- Apply these creams as directed or 2 times per day.
- After the rash quiets down, apply it once per day. After 1 good week just use moisturizing cream.
- Bathing – Avoid Soaps:
- Give one bath a day for 10 minutes in lukewarm water. Reason: Water-soaked skin feels less itchy. Follow the bath with a moisturizing cream (such as Eucerin) to all the skin.
- Avoid all soaps. Reason: Eczema is very sensitive to soaps, especially bubble bath. There is no safe soap for young children with eczema. They can be cleaned using warm water.
- Allergy Medicine for Itching at Bedtime:
- Many children with eczema need an allergy medicine by mouth at bedtime.
- Reason: Scratching in bed can cause severe skin breakdown. It may also interfere with falling sleep.
- Give the med your child’s doctor wanted you to use for itching.
- If none was suggested, you can try Benadryl at bedtime. No prescription is needed.
- Caution: Do not use if age is under 1 year. Reason: Benadryl is a sedative. Give your doctor a call for advice.
- Itching Attack – Shower to Remove Irritants:
- Playing in the grass, being around animals, or swimming can cause increased itching.
- For itching from these causes, give your child a quick shampoo and shower.
- Itching Attack – Treatment:
- At the first sign of any itching, use the steroid cream. Put it on the areas that itch. If unsure, apply 1% hydrocortisone cream (such as Cortaid). No prescription is needed.
- Keep your child’s fingernails cut short and smooth.
- Ask older children to try not to itch, but never punish for itching.
- For constant itching in young children, cover the hands with socks or gloves. Use for a day or until the itching is brought under control. Provide extra cuddling during this time.
- Return to School:
- Eczema cannot be spread to others.
- Children with eczema do not need to miss any child care or school.
- What to Expect:
- Eczema is a chronic condition. Around the teen years, about half get over their eczema.
- Many children who have severe eczema as babies develop asthma and nasal allergies.
- Call Your Doctor If:
- Itching is not under control after 2 days of steroid cream
- Rash looks infected (spreading redness, yellow scabs or pus)
- You think your child needs to be seen
- Your child becomes worse
Prevention of Eczema Flare-Ups
- Tips to Help Prevent Flare-Ups:
- Some flare-ups of eczema cannot be explained. But others are triggered by things that can be avoided.
- Avoid chlorine in swimming pools and spas, harsh chemicals, and soaps.
- Never use bubble bath. It can cause a major flare.
- Keep your child off the grass during grass pollen season.
- Avoid any animals that make the rash worse.
- If certain foods cause severe itching (flares), avoid them.
- Wear clothes made of cotton or cotton blends as much as possible. Avoid wool fibers and clothes made of other scratchy, rough materials. They make eczema worse.
- Try to avoid excess heat, excess cold and dry air (use a humidifier). Avoid over-dressing. Heat can make the rash worse.
- Caution: Keep your child away from anyone with fever blisters (cold sores). The herpes virus can cause a serious skin infection in children with eczema.
- Call Your Doctor If:
- You have other questions or concerns
And remember, contact your doctor if your child develops any of the ‘Call Your Doctor’ symptoms.
Disclaimer: this health information is for educational purposes only. You, the reader, assume full responsibility for how you choose to use it.
Last Reviewed: 04/11/2021
Last Revised: 03/11/2021
Copyright 2000-2021. Schmitt Pediatric Guidelines LLC.
When to be Concerned About Baby Eczema
What is Eczema?
Eczema (also called atopic dermatitis) is a skin condition that causes the skin to be inflamed, red, and itchy because of the body’s overactive response to irritants. Most adults who develop eczema develop it after the age of 18. The symptoms typically come and go throughout their lives. It is very common in young children, although most typically outgrow it by the time they start school.
If your baby has eczema, the best thing is to control eczema flare-ups and to avoid what may worsen your child’s condition.
Symptoms of eczema will vary depending on its severity. When irritants are around that trigger eczema, symptoms can be worse. Here are some common symptoms:
- Red, inflamed, and dry skin patches of skin – typically on the face and near the knees, elbows, and wrists
- Very itchy skin
- Pus-filled wounds – this commonly happens when the condition worsens, and patients itch patches severely
There are many triggers that can make eczema worse for your baby. Every person has different triggers and it’s your job to figure out what your baby’s triggers are so you can avoid them. This will help reduce eczema symptoms so your baby can be as comfortable as possible. Common triggers include:
- Very hot or cold weather
- Harsh chemicals found in lotions, soaps, and perfumes
- Certain types of cloth
- Animal dander
- Certain foods
When to See a Doctor
While you can do a lot to control your baby’s eczema, sometimes you have to seek medical attention. Look out for the following signs and see a doctor if any of these occur.
- Unresponsiveness to over-the-counter medications. There are a lot of over-the-counter creams available that can sooth eczema. These ointments are very good at treating eczema for your baby. If they aren’t working, however, you should see a doctor to get prescription medicine instead.
- Changes in responsiveness to prescription medicine. Just because one medicine is working today doesn’t mean it will always work. If you have prescription medication for your baby’s eczema and you see it doesn’t work as well as it previously did to control symptoms, it’s time to reevaluate the medicine. Your doctor will be able to examine your baby and see if another medicine will be better.
- Appearance of yellow crust on the eczema patches. Yellow crust indicates that there may be a bacterial infection. This needs to be checked out immediately by a doctor because if it goes untreated, it will get worse. Your doctor will be able to determine if antibiotics should be prescribed to stop the infection.
- Development of pus-filled blisters on the eczema patches. Blisters (often filled with pus) are also a sign that there may be an infection. They are also very painful and a sign that the eczema isn’t being managed adequately. A doctor can evaluate your management plan and make adjustments, so you can better control your child’s eczema symptoms.
If you are looking for a doctor to treat skin conditions for you and your family, call the Children’s Skin Center. Dr. Ana M. Duarte is an expert in pediatric and adult dermatology and treats a variety of skin conditions like eczema. Call (305) 669-6555 to make an appointment today. You can also request an appointment online.
Pediatrician breaks down infant eczema and how best to combat it
Eczema is said to be the itch that rashes. While frequently worse in the winter, air conditioning used in the summer months also makes babies susceptible to eczema flares as it dries out the skin. Sweating and chlorine from pools can also be triggers.
Babies are pre-disposed to eczema because their skin barrier is more fragile than an adult’s, leadingto dry skin as a consequence of a high water loss and an enhanced penetration of irritants and allergens into the skin. To remedy the discomfort, infants will rub their skin on surfaces to get rid of the itch. This friction worsens skin breakdown and creates rashes.
Eczema in babies presents in two main ways. First, a baby may seem fussy or irritable for no reason or constantly rubbing his or her cheeks or body on surfaces to get rid of the itch. Second, a baby may have dry, flaky skin that can be either skin tone or appear pink or red.
Pediatricians at Loma Linda University Children’s Hospital understand just how uncomfortable and frustrating this skin condition can be for both infants and parents — we want to help.
Generally, parents will turn to eczema creams or lotions to soothe their child. Here are three of my tips for choosing a cream that will work best for your baby:
Creams are better than lotion
Parents should look for thicker creams because they create a better barrier on an infant’s skin and therefore decreases the itch and skin breakdown.
Fewer chemicals and more natural oils are better
Be aware that all infants are different — sometimes it’s trial and error to gauge which creams and natural oils are best. Give any new product a minimum of two weeks to see if it works before abandoning it — the body’s healing process takes time.
Don’t be afraid to go generic
As a pediatrician, I look for creams that have known soothing properties or natural ingredients, but there are many on the market that work well. Parents don’t have to spend lots of money on the most expensive creams. Often, the generic versions of well-known brands work just as effectively.
Here are a few other key things to remember about the importance of paying attention to skin care for babies:
- Babies should be bathed in warm water, not hot, for 10 to 15 minutes at a time. They should be immediately patted dry and within three minutes a thick, moisturizing cream should be applied from neck to toes and carefully on any facial areas that are affected.
- Areas that are skin-toned but dry and flakey need a moisturizing cream minimally twice a day at least, but often more frequently.
- Areas that are pink or red present evidence of inflammation. Cream alone may not calm that down and those areas may require a steroid cream. Parents can start with an over-the-counter 1% hydrocortisone cream two times a day for up to seven days, but if this does not resolve the redness, they should see their physician. Steroid cream should be used at least one hour apart from a moisturizing cream for best effectiveness and should not be put in a diaper area or near eyes without discussing with the physician first.
- If honey crusted scabbing is noticed over broken apart skin, the family should seek the advice of their physician because this can be an indication of bacterial growth in that area.
Sadly, it’s difficult for families to identify all the triggers for their baby’s eczema flares, which can be frustrating for parents.
Breastfeeding moms should pay attention to see if their child breaks out more frequently after certain food types. But in general, we do not ask moms to have a very restrictive diet because this does not create the healthiest breastmilk. A diet rich in fruits, vegetables, fish, and Vitamin D may decrease eczema in breastfed babies. Families who have chosen to formula feed should not jump from formula to formula, but instead should have a structured plan with their physician, and any new formula trial should be given a minimum of two weeks before a decision is made to move away.
Babies should be dressed in only cotton clothes without itchy adornments, like lace or fringe near the skin. Clothes should be washed in detergents that are “free and clear” of perfumes and dyes and without harsh chemicals. It’s best for these clothes to be double rinsed. Dryer sheets should be avoided.
While eczema is a frustrating infant skin problem, the good news is that there are lots of options on the market to help. Seek your pediatrician’s advice early — we are happy to answer your questions and want your baby to be as comfortable as possible. Keep the hope and knowledge that most children outgrow eczema.
Call us today at 800-825-KIDS to schedule an appointment with a pediatrician or schedule online using MyChart. Not signed up in MyChart? Learn how to enroll here.
—Alexandra Clark, MD, is the division chief of general pediatrics at Loma Linda University Children’s Health.
How to tell if your child has eczema
Kids get skin rashes from time to time, so when your little one has red patches on their face, how do you know if it’s eczema or another skin condition such as heat rash, acne or hives? Dermatologist Dr. Anna Kirkorian shares four ways you can spot signs of eczema on your child.
Eczema is commonly known as the “itch that rashes.” It causes skin to dry and flake, which leads to a constant itchy feeling that’s uncomfortable.
If you notice that your child is scratching a scaly, red rash all day and night, that may be the first sign that he or she is suffering from eczema. Babies don’t know how to use their hands to scratch their skin, so they will rub against anything, including bed sheets, to relieve the painful feeling.
The itchiness can be so severe that your child may be fussy and have trouble sleeping. But scratching the affected area can make the rash worse, leading to a thick, brownish scab that can ooze with blood.
Location plays a big part
Babies from 1 month to 2 years old tend to get eczema on their cheeks (especially when they are drooling) and scalp. Older children will generally have it on the folds of their wrists, knees and ankles. If your child has a red, itchy and scaly rash that isn’t in a classic location for eczema, it could be allergic contact dermatitis, meaning they might be allergic to something they’re coming into contact with such as soap, shampoo or lotion.
It goes away and comes back
Most skin rashes go away within a few days or weeks, but eczema goes away for a short period of time and then reappears. Everyday elements in the environment like smoke, pollen, pet dander and fragrances can cause eczema to flare up.
The best way to prevent eczema flare ups is to use a thick, fragrance-free moisturizer at least twice a day over your child’s entire body.
If your 12-year-old has never had eczema and suddenly has a dry and itchy rash, it’s less likely to be eczema since eczema usually starts at a young age. But if a baby starts to get dry itchy patches, eczema is most likely the culprit.
There are many skin rashes that are red and itchy, so if you’ve tried using moisturizers on your child’s skin and that isn’t working, you should see a dermatologist for a diagnosis.
This blog post originally appeared in Northern Virginia Magazine online.
Treatment of eczema in children: prices, reviews
Eczema in children is an inflammatory, chronic skin disease. It not only causes physical and psychological discomfort, but can also lead to complications, including provoking the addition of a bacterial infection. Most often, the disease affects children from 2 months to 5 years.
Causes of eczema
In infants, eczema can be associated with atopy and food intolerances. In general, the disease is of an allergic and neurological nature.The causes of eczema are not fully understood, but it is believed that external and internal factors can provoke the disease. The latter include the following:
immunodeficiencies and immunological disorders;
diseases of the digestive system;
violations of neurohumoral regulation;
bacterial, viral infections.
External factors include the influence of toxins and allergens and violation of hygiene rules. The causes of eczema in a child can be a violation of the integrity of the skin, chemical burns, temperature effects – burns and frostbite.
Types and symptoms of eczema
There are several types of eczema in children
True. It is characterized by severe symptoms, has a chronic course, and often recurs.The skin lesion appears symmetrically in open areas. Infants present with multiple red rashes. Serous content appears inside the elements. The bubbles open over time, and in their place, punctate ulcers with peeling and crusts are formed. The subacute course of eczema is redness and swelling of skin areas, the appearance of weeping erosions.
Microbial (bacterial). This form of eczema is triggered by opportunistic or pathogenic bacteria.A disease is formed around chronic foci of bacterial inflammation of the skin, infected wounds, abrasions, scratches. One of the subspecies is coin-like eczema, which is characterized by the appearance of clearly limited foci with rounded outlines, up to 3 cm in diameter.
Mycotic. This form of the disease occurs as an allergic response to fungal infections. Common causes are candidiasis, ringworm and other mycoses. The lesion focus combines the signs of both a fungal infection and an eczematous disease itself.
Seborrheic. This form develops in patients with seborrhea. Localized lesions on areas of the skin with a large number of sebaceous glands: the scalp, between the shoulder blades, on the face. The lesions look like plaques of scaly patches.
Dyshidrotic. It is localized on the palms and soles. They have mild symptoms due to the large thickness of the stratum corneum in these areas.The bubbles open or dry up, becoming serous-purulent crusts. As it develops, the lesion can spread to the back of the hand and foot.
Treatment of eczema in children depends on the form, so the doctor conducts an accurate diagnosis. Usually, the detection of the disease is not difficult, the symptoms are quite specific. However, to clarify the diagnosis and assess the general condition of the patient, carry out:
examination, questioning of the child and parents;
general clinical tests of blood and urine;
scrapings from foci of the disease;
In some cases, consultation with other specialists of a narrow profile is required, for example, an immunologist-allergologist, a gastroenterologist, a pediatric gynecologist, etc.
A pediatric dermatologist will tell you how to treat eczema in a child. It is important to eliminate predisposing factors: to limit contact with allergens, chemicals, to ensure a balanced diet. A set of measures may include:
Medication.Aimed at eliminating the infectious agent – fungus, bacteria. Another goal of drug therapy is to reduce itching, improve skin condition. Can be used, antibacterial, antifungal drugs, antihistamines, antipruritics, sedatives, vitamins and minerals. Also widely used are anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, analgesic drugs of both local and systemic action.
Physiotherapy treatment.Physiotherapy is available with virtually no restrictions for patients of all ages. It serves as an effective addition to the course of medications and can consolidate the results obtained, enhance the effectiveness of medications, and serve as a way to prevent relapse. Physiotherapy is practiced outside of exacerbations. Cryotherapy, laser therapy, ozone therapy, electro- and phonophoresis, magnetotherapy enhance tissue regeneration, eliminate itching, and soothe the skin.
Diet therapy.Even if the child does not have food allergies, it is important to follow a hypoallergenic diet to reduce the burden on the immune system. It is better to exclude honey, chocolate, citrus fruits, nuts, red fish from the diet. It is also worth limiting spicy foods, easily digestible carbohydrates. The attending physician will definitely give individual recommendations.
Eczema is a chronic disease with frequent relapses. Therefore, it is important to follow a rational daily routine, maintain the general health of the child, and sanitize the foci of infection in time.Compliance with hygiene is of particular importance in any form of the disease, it helps to prevent relapses and the addition of secondary infections. Talk to your doctor about what cosmetics can be used for dry skin of a child during periods without exacerbations.
Benefits of contacting the Family Doctor clinic
You can get eczema treatment in children at the Family Doctor clinic. We have everything you need to provide quality care: modern diagnostic equipment, equipment for physiotherapy treatment.Highly qualified doctors will make an accurate diagnosis and prescribe effective procedures.
To make an appointment at a convenient time for you, call the unified contact center in Moscow +7 (495) 775 75 66, use the online appointment service or contact the clinic’s registry.
dermatovenerologist, oncologist, cosmetologist, Ph.D.
dermatovenerologist, cosmetologist, trichologist
dermatovenerologist, trichologist, Ph.MD, associate professor
90,000 Eczema on hands, feet and face: treatment, causes, symptoms
Eczema is a chronic skin pathology that manifests itself in the form of foci of inflammation on the body, arms, legs and head. Rashes that form on the skin go through several stages of development: primary redness, dense nodules that transform into vesicles, then weeping erosions form, which become covered with a scab during the healing process (the so-called “crust”). The last stage is peeling. Against the background of eczema, secondary purulent infections often develop. With prolonged absence of treatment, cosmetic defects of the skin may appear in patients of all ages.
Causes and symptoms of the disease
Doctors cannot give an unambiguous answer to the question of what are the basic conditions for the development of pathology. Among the causes of eczema in patients, the following factors are considered:
- genetic condition;
- chronic allergies;
- pathology of the endocrine system;
- psycho-emotional triggers.
Doctors-dermatologists distinguish several types of eczema: true, microbial, professional and seborrheic. The clinical picture in each case is unique, as are the factors provoking the inflammatory process on the skin surface.
|Types of eczema||Symptoms||Diagnosis of eczema|
Symmetrical foci of inflammation in open areas of the skin, hyperpigmentation, wetting of the surface.Later, numerous vesicles are formed, in place of which microscopic erosion gradually develops. Exudate accumulates on them. Patients experience bouts of itching, as the vesicles heal, peeling of the skin occurs
Diagnostics is carried out by a dermatologist during the examination of the patient. Symmetrical rashes on the hands, feet, or face indicate that a child or adult has experienced true eczema.
It develops against the background of traumatic skin lesions, fungal, bacterial or viral infections.The lesions are asymmetric, focused on the patient’s lower extremities. Varicose veins become a risk factor. Failure to comply with the rules of personal hygiene leads to the accelerated development of pathology. Clusters of infiltrate form under the skin adjacent to the pathological focus
The diagnosis is established during the collection of anamnesis and visual examination of the patient. The doctor pays attention to traumatic injuries of the skin of the lower extremities, mycoses, varicose veins.Bacteriological examinations of scrapings are performed to identify the resistance of the pathogen of eczema to antibiotics
It develops against the background of the patient’s professional activity due to regular contact of the skin with allergens: chemicals, dust, cleaning agents, air with atypical humidity. The size of the rashes is variable.The foci of inflammation can be located on any part of the patient’s body. A characteristic symptom of eczema is an abundance of small vesicles
The main diagnostic technique is the exclusion of a factor provoking inflammatory processes. When confirming the professional nature of the rash, the dermatologist can prescribe the patient an appropriate course of treatment
Affects the scalp.The affected areas are dry, abundant peeling. Itching worsens after performing hygiene procedures. The zones of inflammation have pronounced boundaries. In some cases, the course of the disease is complicated by the formation of puffiness and weeping cracks in the surface layers of the skin.
Some dermatologists do not agree that seborrheic eczema can be considered an independent type of pathology (changes in the skin are considered as a special case of the true type of the disease).The main diagnostic method is a histological examination of cells to exclude microbial eczema from the diagnostic conclusion
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Treatment and prevention
The above classification of eczema and the description of the symptoms of the disease indicate the impossibility of self-treatment.Consultation with a dermatologist and consistent adherence to his recommendations remain the only way to relieve seasonal exacerbations. The key task of the doctor is to identify provoking factors. After that, a treatment strategy is formed – drugs are prescribed for the treatment of eczema. It can include systemic and local therapy. Physiotherapy procedures become an additional option.
The basis of drug treatment is antihistamines, which are designed to reduce the risk of developing acute allergic reactions of the patient to various internal and external factors.Sedatives are prescribed against the background of high psycho-emotional stress that adults and children endure. Plasmapheresis and other types of hemocorrection are used in severe disease complicated by systemic pathologies.
If the effectiveness of the treatment is low, the doctor may prescribe the patient to take oral glucocorticosteroids. Against the background of an improvement in the condition of a child or an adult, the dose of hormonal drugs is reduced.
Retinol ointment is applied to local foci of inflammation.An alternative can be paste applications with keratolytic properties. Anti-inflammatory and antiseptic components help to successfully eliminate bacteria, viruses or fungal infections. In the presence of a significant number of vesicles, the patient is prescribed drugs with individually selected components. Their combination is based on the clinical picture of the pathology and the cause of the inflammatory processes on the skin revealed during the diagnosis.
Physiotherapy complexes include:
- ozone therapy;
- laser stimulation.
In difficult cases, a dermatologist may insist on treating eczema-affected skin areas with cryotherapy. After overcoming the acute phase of the disease, children and adults are shown therapeutic and mud baths. In some cases, irradiation of damaged skin areas with ultraviolet rays is prescribed. The dermatologist may refer the patient to a physiotherapist to properly select the treatment.
If signs of eczema are found, patients should seek the advice of a dermatologist.After confirming the diagnosis, a diet should be followed – dishes that can provoke allergic reactions should be excluded from the diet. It is recommended to refrain from drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes.
Personal hygiene practices when treating eczema of the feet, hands, arms, legs, or face involve avoiding scented soaps. To moisturize the skin, it is permissible to use water-based creams.
Symptoms of pathology are found in 17-20% of preschool and primary school children.Remission occurs in 68-69% of patients treated. The incidence among the adult population does not exceed 200 cases in every 10,000.
Questions and answers
Are there differences in the causes of eczema on the hands and eczema on the feet?
The appearance of foci of inflammation on the extremities in most cases is associated with traumatic factors or exposure to aggressive chemicals.The formation of vesicles or oozing on the body is often the result of allergic reactions and systemic pathologies identified in patients.
What are the main clinical guidelines for diagnosed eczema?
A patient with a confirmed diagnosis of eczema should discuss with a dermatologist the advisability of consulting with other doctors: endocrinologist, allergist, gastroenterologist.Their appointment can reduce the frequency of exacerbations of the disease and reduce the intensity of reactions to factors provoking the inflammatory process.
Do patients with chronic eczema need to take any medication regularly?
Medication and hardware treatment, along with courses of physiotherapy, is prescribed during periods of exacerbations. After the relief of acute symptoms of the disease, the patient does not need to systematically take medications.A significant role during this period is played by the child or adult’s compliance with the recommendations of the attending physician and preventive measures.
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90,000 Signs of skin eczema and its treatment
Skin eczema accounts for about thirty-five percent of the total number of dermatological pathologies. There are several types of skin eczema that develop for various reasons.Medical statistics show that one in fifteen children has eczema. Adults are not so often affected by the disease – out of a hundred people, only three are affected by eczema. As a rule, the disease begins in early childhood. With untimely or illiterate treatment, eczema begins to be chronic.
Factors provoking the disease
The development of eczema is provoked by all sorts of factors that are classified into:
- exogenous: thermal, chemical, mechanical damage to the skin;
- endogenous: kidney and liver diseases, gastrointestinal tract diseases, endocrine disorders, nervous factors;
- allergic reactions to various allergens.
Skin eczema can take several forms. The most common and severe is atopic eczema, which is also called atopic dermatitis . The causes of this disease are still not fully understood. Although experts are inclined to determine its occurrence by the features of the protective function of the immune system. Certain types of eczema can accompany dermatological allergies. Eczema of the skin is not contagious. But according to the existing data, eczema, as a rule, affects people with a hereditary predisposition.Experts believe that eczema can be transmitted through genetic channels or by inheritance. In general, eczema is the most common dermatological disease. Of all people in the world, every ninth person knows what eczema is. At risk of eczema are bronchial asthmatics and people suffering from some other types of allergic reactions, for example, hay fever patients. An allergic reaction to any food can also lead to the development of eczema or exacerbate the manifestations of the disease, similar to allergies to animal hair, natural fibers or household dust.It is almost impossible to completely limit contact with all existing factors that can lead to the development of eczema. As a rule, eczema rashes cover the skin on the elbows, popliteal notches, as well as the skin of the wrists and ankles. In addition, eczema can occur on the skin of the face, neck and chest. The listed areas of the body are the most often affected, however, the entire skin of the human body is subject to eczema.
Means for the treatment of eczema
Among all skin rashes that occur with eczema, peeling, cracking of the skin surface, scratching, etc. are distinguished.e. Further scratching and, in principle, any touching of the affected skin can cause infection of the skin without integrity and the tissues located under it. On the skin with pigmentation, eczema does not stand out so much. The tightening of the skin is much more pronounced, combined with hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation. In addition, eczema spots are characterized by increased dryness. Meanwhile, it should be noted that the symptoms of eczema in each case are individual. Treatment of skin eczema is carried out using many methods and means.Based on the results of the examination and testing, the dermatologist prescribes treatment using cryotherapy or acupuncture procedures. If eczema has arisen due to allergies, the dermatologist may prescribe a plasmapheresis procedure to the patient. Regardless of what treatment for eczema is prescribed, hypoallergenic ointments must be applied to the affected skin to moisturize the skin.
90,000 Eczema: description of the disease, causes, symptoms, cost of treatment in Moscow
A dermatological disease characterized by the presence of skin rashes is eczema.Such rashes are papules that have serous contents, swell and itch. This disease has a dry and weeping form. Inflammation is of an allergic nature, however, the disease can appear due to prolonged contact of the skin with allergens, disturbed metabolic processes, and also if the nervous endocrine system has ceased to function normally. It follows that the treatment of eczema involves an integrated approach. The treatment regimen can only be prescribed by a doctor on an individual basis.
The disease can be acute or chronic. The periods of exacerbation are replaced by remission. The presence of skin rashes that provoke the onset of unpleasant sensations that can both spoil the patient’s appearance and harm the psychological state. Given that the disease is of a neuro-allergic nature, such a patient’s condition will aggravate pathological processes in the body, as a result of which the healing process will slow down.
With idiopathic eczema, spontaneous eruptions appear.In most cases, the provoking factor is contact with an allergen, a chemical aggressive substance. The idiopathic form of the disease is characterized by the presence of papules that have serous contents, weeping erosion, crust, scales. It can be on the skin at the same time, which is a hallmark symptom of this form of the disease. Another feature is the presence of symmetry of the rash. If one hand is affected, then skin rashes will appear on the other hand.Idiopathic eczema worsens in the fall and winter.
Another type of eczema is infantile. This disease manifests itself in infants, characteristic signs first appear on the face, then on the neck, chest, limbs. Medical practice knows frequent cases when the disease appeared in children who are fed artificially, and not with breast milk. Also, children with a genetic predisposition to bronchial asthma and other atopic diseases are at risk.
The provoking factor in the occurrence of seborrheic eczema is a fungus. The localization of the damaging effect is the scalp. Also, this type of eczema affects the area of the skin on which the sebaceous glands are located. These areas include the axillary region, face, scapula. A characteristic sign of seborrheic eczema is the presence of nodular eruptions that are flaky, crusty or scaly.
With atopic eczema, bubbles appear, the skin swells, and redness occurs upon contact with allergens.This form of the disease appears in those who are prone to an allergic reaction.
Another type is professional eczema. It manifests itself in those whose professional activities are associated with a chemical enterprise, as well as in people who regularly come into contact with dyes, household chemicals, formaldehyde. This disease initially affects the hands, which are exposed to a chemical irritant. Then the eczema will move to another area of the body.
With varicose eczema, blood circulation is disturbed, the presence of venous stasis is observed, as a result of which the lower limbs are covered with a rash.In most cases, this type of eczema affects women over 45 years old, as well as those people who are diagnosed with cardiovascular pathology and overweight. Signs of varicose eczema include a darkened epidermis, the presence of red spots and irritation on the skin in the form of non-healing wounds.
The onset of microbial eczema is characterized by an inflammatory process caused by a microbial or fungal infection. The main focus of the disease is atrophic ulcers, fistulas, greenish or yellowish crusts are formed on them.If such crusts are damaged, a weeping surface will open, which is distinguished by a red color and growth from the periphery.
Another type of disease is dyshidrotic eczema. It appears when the sweat glands and neuroendocrine regulation cease to function normally. In most cases, the development of such a disease is observed when a person is diagnosed with hyperhidrosis of the palms and feet. The hands are initially affected, then the lateral surfaces of the fingers.The disease will spread to another area of the body. The spontaneous onset of dyshidrotic eczema is observed after a severe stress state, overheating of the body.
What causes the disease
Since eczema is classified as an adiabatic disease, the exact cause of its development is not exactly known. But there are some predisposing factors. These include:
Disturbed digestion. This includes the presence of pancreatitis, flatulence, dysbiosis, hepatitis, constipation, diarrhea.
If the skin is regularly exposed to allergenic, synthetic and aggressive chemicals. This includes acid, alcohol, phenol, and petroleum products.
Renal dysfunction, nephrosis.
Exposure to ultraviolet rays, hypothermia, overheating, other climatic changes.
The presence of a hereditary predisposition to atopic disease.
If the skin, especially the peripheral nerves, are injured.
Presence of an allergic reaction to a pharmaceutical product.
The presence of one or more of the above factors is the cause of skin hypersensitivity to physical, chemical and other irritants.
There are some pathological conditions that also cause eczema. Namely:
If polyunsaturated fatty acids are in insufficient quantities in the human body.
The gallbladder has undergone an inflammatory disease.
Congenital or acquired disorders of the immune system.
In most cases, the onset of eczema occurs with no apparent external cause. This is due to the functional and metabolic relationship of the skin and internal organs. Toxins can enter the body with food. The elimination of such toxins occurs during bowel movement or with the help of the liver.In case of impaired functioning of this organ or other body systems, metabolites are excreted using the skin. If the poison is regularly passed through the skin, the epithelium is destroyed, resulting in eczema.
How to treat
Eliminating eczema is a lengthy process. This is explained by the fact that the acute form is replaced by a chronic one, and a relapse or exacerbation may occur. Complex therapy is based on the individual characteristics of the patient, as well as on the age, the effect of previous treatment measures, and the type of disease.
The treatment prescribed by a qualified and experienced doctor can restore the normal function of the damaged organ, increase immunity, and enhance the body’s resistance to internal and external negative factors. Also, the patient is assigned to carry out medical procedures, with the help of which the sensitization of the body is reduced. These procedures include blood transfusion, hirudotherapy, autohemotherapy, etc.
With a severe form of the disease, the patient is prescribed plasmapheresis, hemosorption and enterosorption.With a strongly pronounced neurological component of eczema, the patient is prescribed the use of drugs with the help of which the disorder is corrected. This implies the use of Persen, Sedasen, Novopassit, Valerian, Phenazepam, Chlosepide.
The complex treatment of eczema includes the intake of enterosorbents. With the help of such drugs, intoxication of the body is reduced. Enterosorbents absorb and bind toxic substances. This means taking polysorb, multisorb, atoxil, enterosgel, polyphepan.The course of treatment lasts no more than 7 days.
If necessary, the patient is prescribed hormone therapy. It is forbidden to take hormonal drugs without first consulting a doctor. This can cause serious complications (the inflammatory process worsens, the immune defense decreases, and chronic diseases become aggravated). If the skin has undergone minor lesions, you can limit yourself to hormonal ointment and another local remedy. Generalized inflammatory process involves taking oral drugs for two weeks.This implies the use of dexamethasone, corticotropin, triamcinolone, prednisolone.
Any type of eczema is characterized by the intake of vitamins. With their help, the development of an allergic reaction is inhibited, the inflammatory process is reduced, the regenerative processes of the damaged area of the skin are accelerated. In addition, with the help of an oil solution of vitamin e, an antioxidant effect can be achieved, and the absorption of fatty acids can be improved. Vitamin therapy includes taking folic, ascorbic, niacin.
The use of antihistamines is prescribed for any form of the disease. The acute stage of the disease is characterized by the administration of promethazine, chloropyramine, diphenhydramine. With a decrease in the inflammatory process and the transition of the disease to a less severe stage, such medicines are taken in tablets.
If eczema has become chronic, a patient whose immune system is impaired is prescribed immunomodulatory agents.The intake of immunomodulators should be monitored by the attending physician. Careful use of such drugs will save the patient from possible complications.
A treatment regimen may include multiple types of physiotherapy. This includes the use of:
Radon and mineral baths.
Compliance with dietary nutrition is necessary for both therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. According to medical research, a direct link has been proven between the digestive system and the development of eczema. The patient is not recommended to eat fried, spicy, smoked, spicy foods. And also those dishes that contain a large amount of protein.In addition, it is necessary to exclude alcohol, chocolate, coffee, sausage, canned food. If you follow your diet conscientiously, you will notice that your eczema symptoms have significantly improved.
7 types of eczema – causes, symptoms, treatment
Eczema usually manifests itself in the fact that areas of a person’s skin begin to become inflamed, itchy and redden. There are several different types of eczema, including atopic and discoid eczema and contact dermatitis.
World statistics indicate that the prevalence of eczema is about 1-2% among the adult population of the planet.The disease affects all races and age categories, women and men. It has been found that women suffer from eczema more often than men. In 70% of cases, eczema is the reason for going to a doctor, in 20% – the cause of temporary disability, in 10% of cases – the reason for changing jobs or professions.
In general, eczema can affect the skin, causing:
- dark spots;
- rough scaly or leathery patches;
- peel and wet.
Eczema is not contagious, which means that a person cannot get it himself and / or infect another person.
This article examines seven different types of eczema and their causes and symptoms. The article also discusses methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the disease.
1. Atopic dermatitis
Atopic dermatitis, or atopic eczema, is the most common type of eczema.
Often onset during childhood and can range from mild to severe.A child often develops atopic dermatitis if one of the parents has had it.
Children with atopic dermatitis are at high risk for food sensitivities. Also, these children are prone to diseases such as asthma and hay fever. In some children, atopic dermatitis can go away with age.
Atopic dermatitis tends to present with patches of dry skin that can become itchy, red, and inflamed. These areas often appear in the folds of the elbows and knees, as well as on the face, neck, and wrists.Scratching these areas can worsen itching and cause clear fluid to ooze out of the skin. Repeated scratching or constant friction can cause the skin layer to thicken. This condition is known as Lichen Simplex Chronicus (LSC).
People with atopic dermatitis usually experience flare-ups for a time in which the eczema worsens. The reasons for the manifestations of such outbreaks can be:
- low humidity, cold weather and extreme temperature changes;
- Certain irritants such as detergents, soaps, perfumes and fragrances;
- dust mites;
- animal hair and saliva;
- skin infections;
- Certain fabrics such as wool and synthetics;
- hormonal changes, eg during pregnancy;
- food allergies.
2. Contact dermatitis
In some people, a skin reaction is caused by contact with certain substances. This condition is known as contact dermatitis.
Symptoms of contact dermatitis may include:
- dry, red and itchy skin, the person feels like the skin is on fire;
- rash that looks like small red bumps;
A person with atopic dermatitis is at increased risk of developing contact dermatitis.
There are two types of contact dermatitis:
Irritant contact dermatitis
Irritant contact dermatitis can result from repeated exposure to a substance that irritates the skin, for example:
- acids and alkalis;
- fabric softeners;
- strong detergents;
- hair dyes;
- chemicals against weeds
- some shampoos.
People who regularly use or work with such substances have a higher risk of developing contact dermatitis.
Allergic contact dermatitis
Allergic contact dermatitis occurs when a person’s immune system reacts to a specific substance known as an allergen.
A person may not react to an allergen upon first contact with it. However, once they develop an allergy, it remains for life.
Potential allergens include:
- glues and adhesives:
- latex and rubber:
- Certain medicines such as topical and oral antibiotics;
- fabrics and dyes for clothing;
- some plants;
- ingredients in make-up, nail polish, creams, hair dyes and other cosmetics;
- some metals such as nickel and cobalt.
3. Dyshidrotic eczema
Dyshidrotic eczema usually occurs in adults under the age of 40.It usually manifests itself on the hands and feet and has characteristic symptoms, including severe itching and the appearance of small blisters filled with fluid (vesicles). In some cases, the blisters may become large and watery. The vesicles can also become infected, which can lead to pain and swelling. They may also ooze pus.
Vesicles usually burst within a few weeks. After this, the skin often becomes dry and eroded, which can lead to painful skin cracks.
It is unclear what causes dyshidrotic eczema. However, the disease is more common in humans:
- suffering from hay fever;
- with atopic dermatitis or atopic dermatitis have a family history;
- with fungal skin infections.
People who work with certain chemicals or work with their hands immersed in water during the day are also at greater risk of developing dyshidrotic eczema.
Emotional stress and changes in the weather are among the factors contributing to the development of dyshidrotic eczema.
Dyshidrotic eczema can be a form of contact dermatitis. People with dyshidrotic eczema also tend to experience flare-ups from time to time.
4. Discoid eczema
Discoid eczema or nummular eczema, recognizable by the disc-like patches of itchy, red, cracked and swollen skin it causes.
Disks usually appear on the lower limbs, trunk and forearms.Sometimes the center of the disc is clear, surrounded by a ring of red skin.
Discoid eczema can occur in people of any age, including children.
As with other types of eczema, the causes of discoid eczema are not entirely clear. However, known causes and risk factors include:
- dry skin;
- skin injuries such as friction or burns;
- insect bites;
- poor blood flow;
- cold climate;
- bacterial skin infections;
- some medicines;
- sensitivity to metals and formaldehyde;
- atopic dermatitis.
5. Seborrheic dermatitis
Seborrheic dermatitis is a condition that causes a red, itchy and scaly rash. The rash may appear swollen or raised, and may develop a yellowish or white crust on its surface.
Seborrheic dermatitis develops in areas with oily skin, for example:
- skin of the skull;
- upper chest and back;
Seborrheic dermatitis can affect people of any age. For example, a type of seborrheic dermatitis may develop on the scalp of babies, but this usually disappears after a few months.
There is no cure for seborrheic dermatitis in adults, so the person will periodically experience outbreaks of the disease. This course of the disease is typical for people aged 30 to 60 years.
Certain medical conditions and medical conditions can increase the risk of seborrheic dermatitis.These include:
- Parkinson’s disease;
- acne, rosacea and psoriasis;
- alcohol use disorders;
- recovery from stroke or heart attack;
- eating disorders.
Certain medications, including interferon, lithium, and psoralen, may also increase your risk of seborrheic dermatitis.
Varicose eczema is also known as venous, gravitational or static eczema. It is common in older people with varicose veins.
Aging, decreased motor activity can weaken the veins in a person’s legs. This condition can lead to both varicose veins and varicose eczema.
Varicose eczema usually affects the lower legs, symptoms may include:
- itchy spots or blisters;
- dry, scaly seals;
- oozing, hard stains;
- cracked leather.
The skin on the leg can become fragile, so it is important to avoid scratching and scratching spots and blisters.
7. Asteatous eczema
Asteatous eczema, also called xerotic or craquelure eczema, usually only affects people over the age of 60. The disease may be due to the fact that as a person ages, his skin becomes drier.
Asteatous eczema usually occurs on the lower extremities, but it can also appear on other parts of the body.Symptoms include:
- cracked, dry skin with a characteristic appearance;
- pink or red cracks or depressions;
- itching and soreness.
As with other types of eczema, the causes of asteatous eczema are unknown, but the causes of its manifestations can be:
- dry, cold weather:
- hot baths:
- soap and other detergents:
- excessive cleaning of the skin;
- towel drying.
When to see a doctor and diagnostics
People who develop eczema should see a dermatologist. Eczema can indicate an allergy, so it is important to determine what is causing the reaction. Eczema also increases the likelihood of infection with staphylococci and has a serious impact on a person’s mental health. Your doctor may recommend a treatment plan for outbreaks.
There is no specific test for diagnosing most types of eczema.The doctor may need information about the patient’s personal and family medical history. He may also inquire about recent exposure to potential allergens and irritants. It is important that patients inform their doctor if they have hay fever or asthma.
The doctor can also ask the patient about:
- the nature of the sleep period;
- stress factors:
- any previous skin treatments;
- any steroid use.
A physical examination of the rash will help the doctor determine the type of eczema.
A doctor may also perform a test that involves tingling a person’s skin with a needle that contains potential irritants and allergens. Such a test can determine if a patient has contact dermatitis.
There is no cure for eczema, so treatment includes managing symptoms and trying to prevent further manifestations of the disease.
Some treatment options for eczema include:
- applying moisturizers or emollients to the skin to reduce itching and cracking;
- the use of steroid creams and ointments to reduce swelling, redness and soreness;
- use of antihistamines to reduce itching, especially at night;
- use of calcineurin inhibitors to help reduce inflammation;
- phototherapy, which uses ultraviolet light to fight inflammation
- The use of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial skin infections.
Prevention of disease manifestations.
A list of tips that can help prevent flare-ups of eczema include:
- use of mild soaps and detergents;
- the need to avoid aromatic fragrances or perfumes;
- use of cool water for showers and baths;
- gentle drying and skin care after washing;
- the need to avoid scratching or rubbing areas of eczema, as damage to the skin can worsen and increase the likelihood of infection;
- thorough and regular skin hydration using light, oil-rich products;
- Application of non-cosmetic moisturizers after showers and baths to maintain skin moisture
- wearing clothes made of natural fabrics, refusal from tight clothes.
Patients with eczema should be in constant contact with a dermatologist to determine what is causing or worsening the symptoms of the disease. Knowing the causes of eczema or allergens can help prevent or minimize the manifestations of the disease.
Original article on Medical News Today – What are the different types of eczema?
The Professors’ Clinic is attended by qualified dermatologists who will help patients in the treatment of skin diseases.You can clarify information, make an appointment with a specialist by calling a single telephone number in Perm -206-07-67 or using the “Appointment” service on our website.
The information in this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-medication. In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, only the attending physician should prescribe diagnostic tests.For a diagnosis and correct prescription of treatment, you should contact your attending physician.
Eczema: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.
Eczema is an inflammatory non-infectious skin disease prone to a chronic course with relapses. It is characterized by the appearance of rashes and blisters, itching, burning, peeling.
The main problem with eczema (especially in children) is the high probability of bacterial infection of the affected skin areas, which leads to the development of purulent complications.
Causes of eczema
The causes of eczema are not fully understood, but the factors that provoke this disease are clearly defined.
Of great importance in the development of eczema is the state of the nervous and endocrine systems, the well-coordinated work of which is the key to healthy skin.
Risk factors for the development of eczema include:
- The presence of eczema in close relatives.
- Presence of allergic diseases such as allergic urticaria, bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, hay fever and others.
- Neuroendocrine diseases.
- Immunological diseases.
- Deficiency of B vitamins (in particular, B 6 ) and microelements.
- Intestinal dysbiosis, helminthic invasion (more often in children) and gallbladder disease.
- Kidney pathology.
- Lack of intake of unsaturated fatty acids or impaired absorption.
- Unfavorable psycho-emotional environment: stress, lack of sleep.
- Unfavorable environmental conditions, frequent contact with irritating agents (occupational eczema).
Classification of the disease
Based on the clinical picture of the disease, dermatologists use the following classification of eczema:
- Idiopathic (true) eczema is characterized by acute inflammatory edematous erythema followed by the rash of small vesicles.
- Microbial eczema develops on damaged skin (around wounds).Allocate mycotic (fungal), near-wound (arising around wound skin defects) and varicose eczema.
- Seborrheic eczema develops in the same places as seborrheic dermatitis.
- Occupational eczema develops in people who are in frequent contact with irritating agents. It is possible that eczema may appear in people wearing tight, uncomfortable clothes, which contributes to the disruption of microcirculation and the appearance of microtraumas on the skin.
Eczema can be either an independent disease or a symptom.
In this case, cure without eliminating the cause is impossible – eczema will constantly recur, treatment will be ineffective, and the underlying disease can become chronic.
Symptoms of eczema
True eczema affects exposed areas of the body, with the formation of erythematous rashes. In the center of the focus, vesicles filled with serous contents first form. After opening the bubbles, areas with a profusely weeping surface are formed.The process is accompanied by severe itching. Gradually, the serous fluid dries up, forming grayish-yellow crusts, under which epithelization occurs. These areas of the skin are highly flaky, coarse, and over time become hyperpigmented. The triggering factors for the development of idiopathic eczema are considered to be nervous stress, the use of potentially allergenic products, frequent contact with household chemicals, etc.
Microbial eczema develops at the site of chronic foci of pyoderma (purulent skin lesions).Areas of inflammation can grow, a secondary infection often joins, and suppuration develops. The borders of the spots are uneven, red in color, the arrangement is continuous, without layers of healthy skin. The process is accompanied by itching.
Seborrheic eczema develops only on the scalp, behind the ears, in the natural folds of the skin, on the face and on the extensor surfaces of the limbs. It is characterized by dry skin, itching, the appearance of gray scaly scales, when removed, an eroded, weeping surface with clear boundaries is exposed.
Occupational eczema occurs as a result of exposure to occupational hazards and has a sluggish chronic course. The clinical picture is almost identical to true eczema, a characteristic feature is the presence of a provoking factor.
Diagnosis of eczema
Diagnose eczema by clinical manifestations, taking into account the presence or absence of provoking factors in the anamnesis.
If allergic eczema is suspected, an allergist is involved in the examination of the patient.For the convenience of doctors and patients, complex allergy panels have been developed to identify the most common allergens: food, dust or respiratory.
In the clinical analysis of the blood of a patient with eczema, as well as with allergic diseases, the number of eosinophils will be increased; also characterized by an increase in the level of immunoglobulins of class E.
With eczema, scrapings are made from the affected area, which is the standard for diagnosing skin diseases.
A general urine test, ultrasound of the kidneys, determination of creatinine and urea in the blood will help to identify abnormalities in the functioning of the kidneys that could lead to skin problems.In the treatment of such pathologies, both the therapist and the nephrologist are competent.
Varicose veins of the lower extremities, which led to the development of eczema, is diagnosed by a phlebologist or surgeon, and ultrasonography of the veins of the lower extremities is additionally performed.
To determine the causative agent of mycosis, a microscopic examination of the skin and nails is carried out.
For diseases of the neuroendocrine system, joint work
an endocrinologist will allow you to quickly and effectively identify the cause of eczema, carry out timely and complete diagnostics, as well as develop treatment tactics.In particular, in diabetes mellitus, the basis of skin manifestations is a violation of metabolic processes. To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor may prescribe a screening and / or extended examination.
Certain diseases of the adrenal or pituitary gland can indirectly lead to eczema. To diagnose them, it is necessary to determine the level of hormones produced by these organs, for example, ACTH and cortisol.
If a disorder of the autonomic nervous system is suspected, CT or MRI of the brain, in some cases EEG, is performed.
To diagnose diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, an ultrasound scan of the abdominal organs is performed, if indicated, gastro- and colonoscopy.
These examinations can be carried out both in combination and with sedation.
Ultrasound will reveal the pathology of the gallbladder (for example, gallstone disease), and endoscopic manipulations – structural changes in the wall of the stomach or intestines.
If neoplasms or pathology of the gastrointestinal mucosa are detected, a biopsy is performed.
Diseases of the biliary organs will be indicated by an increase in the biochemical blood test of such indicators as bilirubin (free and bound), alkaline phosphatase and, in some cases, ALT and AST.
To detect dysbiosis, a microbiological study of feces is prescribed, which allows one to assess the composition of the intestinal microflora, taking into account its sensitivity to bacteriophages.
To confirm the deficiency of vitamins and trace elements, it is necessary to donate blood for vitamin B 6 and for studies included in the profile, which will help determine the state of vitamin and mineral metabolism and identify possible imbalances.
To diagnose worm infestation, feces are analyzed for eggs of worms.
An increase in the number of eosinophils in the general blood test is also an indirect sign of helminthiasis.
Which doctors should you contact
Undoubtedly, the first doctor when a skin rash occurs will be a dermatologist who can help determine if eczema is a purely skin process or a symptom. In some cases, he can refer the patient for consultation to narrow specialists: an allergist-immunologist,
Treatment depends on the cause and form of eczema, for which you should consult a dermatologist and undergo an examination.
If eczema is an independent disease, treatment consists in eliminating provoking factors, maintaining a sleep and rest regimen, reducing stress, and following a hypoallergenic diet.
Of the medications, topical preparations are widely used – creams and ointments containing hormones.Antihistamines that block histamine receptors, which cause tissue swelling, itching, may also be recommended.
In cases where eczema is a symptom of kidney disease, with the development of renal failure, hemodialysis can reduce the severity of the clinical manifestations of eczema.
Compliance with the rest and wakefulness regimen, the use of certain sedatives, antioxidants and angioprotectors, the treatment of endocrine diseases and strict adherence to all doctor’s prescriptions can significantly reduce or even stop the manifestations of eczema.
The treatment regimen for intestinal dysbiosis most often includes pre- and probiotics that restore the intestinal microflora, as well as diet. If a deficiency of trace elements and vitamins is detected, regardless of the cause that caused them (insufficient intake from the outside or impaired absorption), multivitamin complexes are prescribed. If pathology is detected on the part of the biliary organs, conservative treatment is carried out, and in case of its ineffectiveness, surgical intervention is recommended.
When parasite eggs are found in the feces, a pediatrician or therapist conducts diagnosis and treatment. In such cases, antihelminthic drugs are prescribed, but it should be remembered that they have many contraindications.
A serious complication of eczema is the addition of a secondary bacterial infection.
To prevent the development of this condition, it is necessary to seek medical help in a timely manner. You should refrain from scratching the foci of inflammation, observe the rules of personal hygiene.
There is no specific prophylaxis for eczema. With true eczema, a decrease in the impact of provoking factors has a positive effect.
Persons with chronic diseases, the presence of which can provoke the development of eczema, should regularly visit the attending physician and undergo medical examination in order to timely prevent the development of complications.
- Celiac disease in children.Clinical guidelines. 2016
- Russian Society of Dermatovenereologists and Cosmetologists. Federal clinical guidelines for the management of patients with eczema. Moscow, 2015, 12 p.
The information in this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-medication. In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, only the attending physician should prescribe diagnostic tests. For a diagnosis and correct prescription of treatment, you should contact your attending physician.
Information checked by expert
Lishova Ekaterina Alexandrovna
Higher medical education, work experience – 19 years
90,000 Eczema on hands – Triderm
How to treat eczema on the hands and other parts of the body
Therefore, first of all, it is necessary to stop contact with allergens, get rid of neuropsychological overstrain, revise the diet, eliminate foci of chronic infection and influence other factors that provoke an exacerbation of the underlying disease 1.2 .
Ointments and creams are used to treat eczema, usually glucocorticosteroid preparations.
1) Glucocorticoids. This group of hormonal drugs is prescribed with the development of pronounced clinical signs, for example, during periods of exacerbation. After improving the patient’s condition, the dosage of these drugs is reduced, up to their complete cancellation. The most commonly used are betamethasone dipropionate, hydrocortisone.
In the presence of signs of infection or suspicion of it – vesicles and purulent crusts – it is most rational to prescribe combined agents (GCS and antimicrobial drugs) in order to simultaneously affect the infection and inflammation.
The original combination drug Triderm® can help treat eczema symptoms 3. Thanks to its triple action – anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal – Triderm® helps to relieve itching and rashes and fights infection.
In studies, a pronounced decrease in itching and edema was found already on the second day, and after 7-10 days of using Triderm® in the form of a cream and / or ointment, a complete regression of acute inflammatory phenomena was noted and night sleep was restored3.When comparing the original Triderm® and the reproduced drug in laboratory studies, the activity of Triderm® cream and ointment was higher, and the minimum required concentration of the original drug against fungi and bacteria was 2-4 times lower4. This may be due to differences in the quality of the starting substances and the base of the preparations. The composition of the base determines such important properties as solubility, uniformity and thermal stability 3.4 . Thus, Triderm® is a modern, original complex remedy for combating eczema.
2) Sedatives are prescribed in cases where the itching of the affected skin greatly disturbs the patient, which affects the state of sleep and the nervous system as a whole.
3) In the treatment of dry eczema, in addition to therapeutic agents, caring agents are used, for example, moisturizers, which prevent flaking and cracking of the skin.
Other methods that may be effective in combating the disease are: plasmapheresis, vitamin therapy, cryotherapy, ozone therapy, laser treatment, ultraviolet irradiation and other methods of physiotherapy.It is important to give up bad habits and regularly follow the rules of diet and hygiene.
In order to understand how to cure eczema on the hands, you need to contact a dermatologist for an examination and the necessary examination. After the cause of eczema on the hands is established, the doctor will draw up a treatment plan. These principles are followed when localizing the disease to other parts of the body.
Eczema refers to chronic diseases with frequent relapses, therefore, the aim of maintenance therapy is to prolong the state of remission and reduce the incidence of relapses.With the right treatment and adherence to preventive measures, remission can last for several years, and in some cases – for life 1 .