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Signs and symptoms of indigestion: Indigestion – Symptoms and causes


Symptoms, Causes, Diet, and Treatments


Indigestion is often a sign of an underlying problem, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcers, or gallbladder disease, rather than a condition of its own.

Also called dyspepsia, it is defined as a persistent or recurrent pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen.

What Are the Symptoms of Indigestion?

The symptoms of indigestion can include:

These symptoms may increase in times of stress.

People often have heartburn (a burning sensation deep in the chest) along with indigestion. But heartburn itself is a different symptom that may indicate another problem.

Who Is at Risk for Indigestion?

People of all ages and of both sexes are affected by indigestion. It’s extremely common. An individual’s risk increases with:

  • Excess alcohol consumption
  • Use of drugs that may irritate the stomach, such as aspirin and other pain relievers
  • Conditions where there is an abnormality in the digestive tract, such as an ulcer
  • Emotional problems, such as anxiety or depression

What Causes Indigestion?

Indigestion has many causes, including:




  • Eating too much, eating too fast, eating high-fat foods, or eating during stressful situations
  • Drinking too much alcohol
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Stress and fatigue

Indigestion is not caused by excess stomach acid.

Swallowing excessive air when eating may increase the symptoms of belching and bloating, which are often associated with indigestion.

Sometimes people have persistent indigestion that is not related to any of these factors. This type of indigestion is called functional, or non-ulcer dyspepsia.

How Is Indigestion Diagnosed?

If you are experiencing symptoms of indigestion, make an appointment to see your doctor. Because indigestion is such a broad term, it is helpful to provide your doctor with a precise description of the discomfort you are experiencing. In describing the symptoms, try to define where in the abdomen the discomfort usually occurs.

Your doctor will rule out any underlying conditions that may be causing your symptoms. Your doctor may perform several blood tests and you may have X-rays of the stomach or small intestine. Your doctor may also suggest you have an upper endoscopy to look closely at the inside of the stomach. During the procedure, an endoscope — a flexible tube that contains a light and a camera to produce images from inside the body — is used to look inside your stomach.

What Is the Treatment for Indigestion?

Because indigestion is a symptom rather than a disease, treatment usually depends upon the underlying condition causing the indigestion.

How Can I Prevent Indigestion?

The best way to prevent indigestion is to avoid the foods and situations that seem to cause it. Keeping a food diary is helpful in identifying foods that cause indigestion. Here are some other suggestions:

  • Eat small meals so the stomach does not have to work as hard or as long.
  • Eat slowly.
  • Avoid foods that contain high amounts of acids, such as citrus fruits and tomatoes.
  • Reduce or avoid foods and beverages that contain caffeine.
  • If stress is a trigger for your indigestion, learn new methods for managing stress, such as relaxation and biofeedback techniques.
  • If you smoke, quit. Smoking can irritate the lining of the stomach.
  • Cut back on alcohol consumption, because alcohol can also irritate the stomach lining.
  • Avoid wearing tight-fitting garments, because they tend to compress the stomach, which can cause its contents to enter the esophagus.
  • Don’t exercise with a full stomach. Rather, exercise before a meal or at least one hour after eating a meal.
  • Don’t lie down right after eating.
  • Wait at least three hours after your last meal of the day before going to bed.
  • Sleep with your head elevated (at least 6 inches) above your feet and use pillows to prop yourself up. This will help allow digestive juices to flow into the intestines rather than to the esophagus.

When Should I Call the Doctor About Indigestion?

Because indigestion can be a sign of a more serious health problem, call your doctor if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • Vomiting or blood in vomit (the vomit may look like coffee grounds)
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Black, tarry stools or visible blood in stools
  • Severe pain in the abdomen
  • Discomfort unrelated to eating

Symptoms similar to indigestion may be caused by heart attacks. If indigestion is unusual, accompanied by shortness of breath, sweating, chest pain, or pain radiating to the jaw, neck, or arm, seek medical attention immediately.


Symptoms & Causes of Indigestion

What are the symptoms of indigestion?

When you have indigestion, you may have one or more of the following symptoms:

  • pain, a burning feeling, or discomfort in your upper abdomen
  • feeling full too soon while eating a meal
  • feeling uncomfortably full after eating a meal
  • bloating
  • burping

Other symptoms may include

Sometimes when you have indigestion, you may also have heartburn. However, heartburn and indigestion are two separate conditions.

When you have indigestion, you may have pain, a burning feeling, or discomfort in your upper abdomen.

Seek care right away

If you have indigestion and any of the following symptoms, you may have a more serious condition and should see a doctor right away:

  • black, tarlike stools
  • bloody vomit
  • difficulty swallowing or painful swallowing
  • frequent vomiting
  • losing weight without trying
  • pain in your chest, jaw, neck, or arm
  • severe and constant pain in your abdomen
  • shortness of breath
  • sweating
  • yellowing of your eyes or skin

You should also see a doctor if your indigestion lasts longer than 2 weeks.

What causes indigestion?

Some of the causes of indigestion include

  • drinking
    • too many alcoholic beverages
    • too much coffee or too many drinks containing caffeine
    • too many carbonated, or fizzy, drinks
  • eating
    • too fast or too much during a meal
    • spicy, fatty, or greasy foods
    • foods that contain a lot of acid, such as tomatoes, tomato products, and oranges
  • feeling stressed
  • smoking

Some medicines can cause indigestion, such as

Health problems and digestive tract diseases and conditions can cause indigestion, including

Researchers do not know what causes functional dyspepsia. Some research3 suggests that the following factors may play a role in functional dyspepsia:

  • eating
  • gastroparesis
  • problems in the first part of your small intestine, including inflammation and being overly sensitive to stomach acids
  • infection by microorganisms such as H. pylori, Salmonella, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Campylobacter, giardia, or norovirus
  • psychological problems, especially anxiety
  • genes—a trait passed from parent to child


[3] Talley NJ. Functional dyspepsia: new insights into pathogenesis and therapy. The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine. 2016:31(3):444–456.

This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
(NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.

Indigestion (Dyspepsia): Causes & Treatment


What is indigestion?

Indigestion, or dyspepsia, describes an upset stomach. It may cause a painful or burning feeling in your abdomen (belly). Also called a sour stomach, indigestion may happen once in a while or often.

Indigestion is sometimes confused with heartburn. Heartburn, is a separate condition that affects your upper chest.

How common is indigestion?

Indigestion is a very common condition. About 25% of people in the U.S. experience indigestion each year.

Possible Causes

How is indigestion diagnosed?

A healthcare provider will review your medical history, symptoms and lifestyle. Try to explain your indigestion in as much detail as possible. Note the type of discomfort and where you feel it. Also tell your healthcare provider when you experience indigestion. For example, does it occur after a meal or on an empty stomach? Is it worse in the morning or at night? Do certain foods make it worse?

Your healthcare provider will do a physical exam. They’ll check your belly for swelling or tenderness. They may use a stethoscope (medical instrument to hear sounds inside the body) to check your stomach for growling or gurgling.

Other diagnostic tests may include:

  • Blood tests, to assess your liver, kidney and thyroid function.
  • Breath test, to check for H pylori.
  • Imaging exams, to check for blockages or other problems in the intestines. Imaging exams may include X-ray, CT scan or upper endoscopy.
  • Stool test, to check poop for H. pylori or other bacterial infections.

What causes indigestion?

  • Indigestion is usually caused by:
  • Drinking too much alcohol or caffeine.
  • Eating too much or too fast.
  • Eating fatty, spicy or acidic foods.
  • Experiencing stress or anxiety.
  • Taking certain medications, including aspirin — especially if taken on an empty stomach.

Sometimes indigestion means there’s a problem in your digestive tract. Your digestive system contains organs that help your body break down food and absorb nutrients.

Indigestion could be a sign of:

Sometimes chronic (ongoing) indigestion isn’t related to any of these causes. In that case, it’s called functional indigestion.

What are the symptoms of indigestion?

Symptoms of indigestion may include:

  • Acidic taste in your mouth.
  • Bloating (full feeling).
  • Burning or pain in your stomach or upper abdomen.
  • Burping and gas.
  • Gurgling sound in your stomach.
  • Nausea or vomiting.

Care and Treatment

How can indigestion be prevented?

You can reduce your risk of indigestion by:

  • Avoiding alcohol.
  • Eating a healthy, balanced diet.
  • Managing your stress level.
  • Not eating meals before bed.
  • Not smoking.
  • Replacing aspirin with acetaminophen.

How is indigestion treated?

Most people find relief from indigestion by making diet changes or taking medication. Your healthcare provider may recommend a combination of both.

Diet changes include:

  • Avoiding foods or drinks that trigger indigestion.
  • Cutting down on alcohol, caffeine and carbonated drinks.
  • Removing fatty, spicy or acidic foods from your diet.

What medications help indigestion?

Indigestion caused by another health condition might improve with medication. Common medications for relief include:

  • Antacids: These over-the-counter medications provide quick relief for acid reflux. They neutralize stomach acid.
  • Antibiotics: Antibiotics treat bacterial infections like H. pylori.
  • h3 blockers: These medications decrease the amount of acid your stomach produces. h3 blockers may help peptic ulcers.
  • Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs): PPIs decrease the acid in your stomach, but are usually only for people with heartburn.

Will I need surgery for indigestion?

Your healthcare provider may recommend surgery if ongoing acid reflux gives you indigestion. A procedure called laparoscopic antireflux surgery may help relieve the symptoms of GERD. It’s a minimally invasive procedure, meaning it doesn’t need a large incision (cut).

How long will indigestion last?

Indigestion might go way as soon as you change your diet and habits. If you do take medication for your upset stomach, only do so with your healthcare provider’s approval. Some medications, especially acid reducers, can have long-term side effects. These may include an increased risk of infections or low levels of important nutrients.

When to Call the Doctor

When should I contact my healthcare provider about indigestion?

Contact a healthcare provider right away if you experience:

  • Black stools.
  • Chest pain.
  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Frequent or bloody vomiting.
  • Jaundice (yellowing of your eyes or skin).
  • Severe pain in your belly.
  • Unexplained weight loss.

The occasional stomach problem is normal. But frequent stomach problems can keep you from eating, sleeping or working. If indigestion is affecting your quality of life, it’s time to see a healthcare provider. There are a variety of professionals who can help with stomach problems. They include primary care providers, dietitians, gastroenterologists and talk therapists.

Indigestion – Illnesses & conditions

Treatment for indigestion (dyspepsia) will vary, depending on what is causing it and how severe your symptoms are.

If you have been diagnosed with an underlying health condition, you may want to read our information on:

Diet and lifestyle changes

If you only have indigestion occasionally, you may not need to see your pharmacist or GP for treatment. It may be possible to ease your symptoms by making a few simple changes to your diet and lifestyle, summarised below.

Healthy weight

Being overweight puts more pressure on your stomach, making it easier for stomach acid to be pushed back up into your gullet (oesophagus). This is known as acid reflux, and is one of the most common causes of indigestion.

If you are overweight or obese, it is important to lose weight safely and steadily through regular exercise and by eating a healthy, balanced diet. Read advice on losing weight.

Stop smoking

If you smoke, the chemicals you inhale in cigarette smoke may contribute to your indigestion. These chemicals can cause the ring of muscle that separates your oesophagus from your stomach to relax, causing acid reflux.

Read more about quitting smoking, or speak to your GP or pharmacist. You can also call the Quit Your Way Scotland service on 0800 84 84 84 (8.00am to 10.00pm, every day).

Diet and alcohol

Make a note of any particular food or drink that seems to make your indigestion worse, and avoid these if possible. This may mean:

  • eating less rich, spicy and fatty foods
  • cutting down on drinks that contain caffeine – such as tea, coffee and cola
  • avoiding or cutting down on alcohol

At bedtime

If you tend to experience indigestion symptoms at night, avoid eating for three to four hours before you go to bed. Going to bed with a full stomach means there is an increased risk that acid in your stomach will be forced up into your oesophagus while you are lying down.

When you go to bed, use a couple of pillows to prop your head and shoulders up or, ideally, raise the head of your bed by a few inches by putting something underneath the mattress. The slight slope that is created should help to prevent stomach acid moving up into your oesophagus while you are asleep.

Stress or anxiety

If you regularly experience feelings of stress or anxiety, this can contribute to symptoms of indigestion.

Read some relaxation tips to relieve stress.

Changing current medication

Your pharmacist may recommend making changes to your current medication if they think it could be contributing to your indigestion.

As long as it is safe to do so, you may need to stop taking certain medications, such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Where required, your pharmacist may advise you see your GP to prescribe an alternative medication that will not cause indigestion. However, never stop taking any medication without consulting your pharmacist or GP first.

Immediate indigestion relief

If you have indigestion that requires immediate relief, your pharmacist can advise you about the best way to treat this. As well as lifestyle changes and reviewing your current medication, your GP may prescribe or recommend:

  • antacid medicines
  • alginates

These are described in more detail below.


Antacids are a type of medicine that can provide immediate relief for mild to moderate symptoms of indigestion. They work by neutralising the acid in your stomach (making it less acidic), so that it no longer irritates the lining of your digestive system.

Antacids are available in tablet and liquid form. You can buy them over the counter from most pharmacies without a prescription.

The effect of an antacid only lasts for a few hours at a time, so you may need to take more than one dose. Always follow the instructions on the packet to ensure you do not take too much.

It is best to take antacids when you are expecting symptoms of indigestion, or when they start to occur, such as:

This is because antacids stay in your stomach for longer at these times and have more time to work. For example, if you take an antacid at the same time as eating a meal, it can work for up to three hours. In comparison, if you take an antacid on an empty stomach, it may only work for 20 to 60 minutes.

Read more about antacids, including possible interactions with other medicines and side effects.


Some antacids also contain a medicine called an alginate. This helps relieve indigestion caused by acid reflux.

Acid reflux occurs when stomach acid leaks back up into your oesophagus and irritates its lining. Alginates form a foam barrier that floats on the surface of your stomach contents, keeping stomach acid in your stomach and away from your oesophagus.

Your pharmacist may suggest that you take an antacid that contains an alginate if you experience symptoms of acid reflux or if you have GORD.

Take antacids containing alginates after eating, because this helps the medicine stay in your stomach for longer. If you take alginates on an empty stomach, they will leave your stomach too quickly to be effective.

Treating persistent indigestion

If you have indigestion that is persistent or recurring, treatment with antacids and alginates may not be effective enough to control your symptoms. Your pharmacist may recommend a different type of medication, which will be prescribed at the lowest possible dose to control your symptoms. Possible medications include:

  • proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)
  • h3-receptor antagonists

These are described in more detail below. Your pharmacist may advise you to see your GP who may also test you for the Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) bacteria (see Indigestion – diagnosis) and prescribe treatment for this if necessary.

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)

PPIs restrict the acid produced in your stomach.

The medication is taken as tablets and if you are over 18, you can buy some types of PPIs over the counter in pharmacies, but these should only be used for short-term treatment. PPIs may enhance the effect of certain medicines. If you are prescribed a PPI, your progress will be monitored if you are also taking other medicines, such as:

  • warfarin – a medicine that stops the blood clotting
  • phenytoin – a medicine to treat epilepsy


If your ingestion is persistent, your pharmacist might advise you to see your GP.

If your GP refers you for an endoscopy (a procedure that allows a surgeon to see inside your abdomen), you will need to stop taking a PPI at least 14 days before the procedure. This is because PPIs can hide some of the problems that would otherwise be spotted during the endoscopy.

PPIs can sometimes cause side effects. However, they are usually mild and reversible. These side effects may include:

  • headaches
  • diarrhoea
  • constipation
  • feeling sick (nausea)
  • vomiting
  • flatulence
  • stomach pain
  • dizziness
  • skin rashes

h3-receptor antagonists

h3-receptor antagonists are another type of medication that your pharmacist or GP may suggest if antacids, alginates and PPIs have not been effective in controlling your indigestion. There are four h3-receptor antagonists:

  • cimetidine 
  • famotidine 
  • nizatidine 
  • ranitidine 

These medicines work by lowering the acidity level in your stomach.

Your GP may prescribe any one of these four h3-receptor antagonists, although ranitidine is available from pharmacies under the Pharmacy First Scotland service. h3-receptor antagonists are usually taken in tablet form.

As with PPIs, you will need to stop taking h3-receptor antagonists at least 14 days before having an endoscopy if this has been arranged through your GP. This is because they can hide some of the problems that could otherwise be spotted during the endoscopy.

Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection

If your indigestion symptoms are caused by an infection with H pylori bacteria, you will need to have treatment to clear the infection from your stomach. This should help relieve your indigestion, because the H pylori bacteria will no longer be increasing the amount of acid in your stomach.

H pylori infection is usually treated using triple therapy (treatment with three different medications). Your GP will prescribe a course of treatment containing:

  • two different antibiotics (medicines to treat infections that are caused by bacteria)
  • a PPI

You will need to take these medicines twice a day for seven days. You must follow the dosage instructions closely to ensure that the triple therapy is effective.

In up to 85% of cases, one course of triple therapy is effective in clearing an H pylori infection. However, you may need to have more than one course of treatment if it does not clear the infection the first time.

Indigestion: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment

Indigestion is a feeling of discomfort and pain in the upper abdomen and chest, often accompanied by feeling too full, bloating, belching, and nausea that occurs after eating. Certain foods can trigger indigestion, such as fried and fatty foods and chocolate. Other names for indigestion are dyspepsia and upset stomach.

What Is Indigestion?

Indigestion is a painful or burning sensation in the upper abdomen or chest. It happens after you eat. Certain foods can trigger indigestion including fatty or fried foods and chocolate.

Indigestion vs. Heartburn and GERD

It is common for people to confuse indigestion with heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), but these are separate conditions. Some people who experience heartburn describe it as indigestion. Although both conditions have similar triggers, and in many instances may even be treated similarly, indigestion isn’t the same thing as heartburn. Indigestion is an overall condition, whereas heartburn may be a symptom of indigestion, GERD, or other underlying diagnosis.

Image Source / Getty Images

Occasionally, heartburn is one of the symptoms of indigestion. Heartburn is felt when stomach acid comes up through the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) that links your esophagus to your stomach. This causes a burning sensation in the chest or throat. When you feel the taste in the back of your mouth it may be called acid indigestion. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is when your stomach contents come back up into the esophagus; GERD is classified as a sustained or chronic state of GER.


You may experience these symptoms with indigestion:

  • Heartburn: A burning pain that usually starts in the chest, behind the breastbone
  • Pain in the upper abdomen or chest that may or may not be related to overeating or consuming a trigger food or beverage
  • A feeling of discomfort or that you are full too soon when eating and fullness lasting longer than it should after eating
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
  • Burping
  • Flatulence
  • Bloating

When to See a Doctor

Indigestion can be a sign of a more serious condition, such as an ulcer or occasionally cancer. If you experience the following symptoms in addition to indigestion, see your doctor.

  • Heartburn more than twice a week
  • Unplanned weight loss
  • Severe pain
  • Difficulty or pain when swallowing
  • Black, tarry stools
  • Family history of gastric cancer

You also should see your doctor if you’re over 45 and have rarely had indigestion in the past.

When to Seek Immediate Care

If you experience any of these symptoms at the same time as indigestion, get medical help right away:

  • Vomiting with specks of blood or with blood that looks like coffee grounds
  • Vomiting fresh blood
  • Shortness of breath, sweating, chest pain


Indigestion is a common problem that can be triggered by several things, including what and how you eat and drink. It can also be caused by more concerning health problems. Common causes include:

  • Overeating
  • Eating too fast
  • Significant caffeine intake
  • Eating fatty or spicy foods
  • Significant alcohol consumption
  • Smoking
  • Pregnancy
  • Cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder)
  • Chronic or acute gastritis (inflammation of the stomach)
  • Chronic or acute pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
  • Duodenal ulcer
  • Gastric ulcer
  • Antibiotics
  • Aspirin
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  • Stress
  • Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a bacterium in the mucous layer of the stomach that can cause irritation (gastritis) and ulcers. If H. pylori is diagnosed, it can usually be treated with antibiotics.

Less commonly, a hiatal hernia may cause indigestion. This occurs when part of the stomach slides upward through the diaphragm and into the chest cavity. Besides indigestion, a hiatal hernia can cause pain and heartburn.


To diagnose indigestion, your doctor will start with a medical history and physical exam, and also go over your lifestyle and which medications you take. From there they may recommend:

  • Endoscopy: This procedure uses a thin, flexible scope, which has a small camera and light attached to evaluate the inside of the body. It is rarely used to assess indigestion unless symptoms are severe.
  • Imaging tests such as X-ray, computerized tomography, or ultrasound
  • H. pylori testing, which may include blood, stool, or breath testing


You can make changes to how you live your life that will help alleviate heartburn. There are also over-the-counter and prescription drugs that can help.

Lifestyle Changes

Lifestyle modifications can often relieve indigestion symptoms.

  • Eat smaller, more frequent meals and avoid late-night snacks. Large meals expand your stomach and increase upward pressure against the esophageal sphincter.
  • Limit your intake of foods and beverages that trigger your symptoms. Eat foods that rarely cause heartburn and avoid those foods known to cause or exacerbate heartburn.
  • Exercise regularly, but not immediately after eating. Wait an hour or two to allow food to digest.
  • Stay upright for about two hours after you eat. Gravity helps prevent stomach juices from backing up into the esophagus and also assists the flow of food and digestive juices from the stomach to the intestines.
  • Elevate your head a few inches during sleep. Lying down flat presses the stomach’s contents against the lower esophageal sphincter. When your head is higher than your stomach, gravity helps reduce this pressure. To elevate your head, place bricks, blocks, or anything that’s sturdy securely under the legs at the head of your bed. You can also use an extra pillow, or a wedge-shaped pillow, to prop up your head.
  • Don’t smoke. Nicotine relaxes the esophageal sphincter. Smoking also stimulates the production of stomach acid. 
  • Cut back on alcohol or don’t dring at all. If you still want to drink alcoholic beverages, dilute alcoholic beverages with water or club soda, limit the amount you drink at one time, choose white wine rather than red, and avoid mixers you know may trigger your symptoms.
  • Relax. Follow relaxation tips to alleviate stress, which can make stress-related indigestion less likely.
  • Loosen your belt and other clothing around your waist. Tight-fitting clothing will squeeze the stomach, forcing food up against the lower esophageal sphincter, and causing food to reflux into the esophagus. This goes for slenderizing undergarments as well as belts.
  • Maintain a healthy weight. Excess fat on your abdomen pushes on your stomach.


These drugs may help with indigestion.

  • OTC heartburn medications: There are various over-the-counter treatment options available for acid reflux. For some individuals, they’ve found relief from their indigestion symptoms by using these drugs. These include antacids, for example Tums, Maalox, and Milk of Magnesia.
  • Histamine receptor antagonists: An important group of medicines for treating indigestion and heartburn known as h3-receptor antagonists or h3 blockers. These include Tagamet HB (cimetidine) and Pepcid AC (famotidine).
  • Proton pump inhibitors: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a group of medications that prevent the release of acid in the stomach and intestines. These include Nexium, Prevacid, and Prilosec. They are also available over-the-counter.
  • Prokinetics: These drugs help your stomach empty faster. They include Urecholine (bethanechol) and Reglan (metoclopramide).
  • Antibiotics: If your doctor detects an H. pylori infection, they will likely prescribe a combination of antibiotics, PPIs, and bismuth.
  • Tricyclic antidepressants: Drugs such as nortriptyline and amitriptyline may help relax the lower esophageal sphincter and improve symptoms of indigestion.

A Word From Verywell

Indigestion is a common—and unpleasant condition—but it isn’t one you need to worry about, given the myriad options you have for preventing and treating it. If you have frequent indigestion, do let your doctor know, however, especially if you can’t pinpoint a common reason (such as drinking too much coffee or overeating occasionally). Chances are your digestive system is just fine, but it never hurts to check.

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Dyspepsia: Symptoms, causes, and treatments

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Dyspepsia, also known as indigestion, refers to discomfort or pain that occurs in the upper abdomen, often after eating or drinking. It is not a disease but a symptom.

Dyspepsia is a common problem, affecting up to 30% of the population. Common symptoms include bloating, discomfort, feeling too full, nausea, and gas.

In most cases, it happens after eating or drinking. Lifestyle changes can often help.

Other causes include medical conditions, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and the use of certain medications.

A doctor will diagnose dyspepsia if a person has one or more of the following symptoms:

  • pain relating to the digestive system
  • a burning sensation in the digestive tract
  • feeling too full after eating
  • feeling full too quickly during eating

A person may also experience bloating and nausea.

A person can have symptoms even if they have not eaten a large amount.

Treatment for dyspepsia depends on the cause and severity. Often, treating an underlying condition or changing a person’s medication will reduce dyspepsia.

Lifestyle treatments

For mild and infrequent symptoms, lifestyle changes may help. These include:

  • avoiding or limiting the intake of trigger foods, such as fried foods, chocolate, onion, and garlic
  • drinking water instead of soda
  • limiting the intake of caffeine and alcohol
  • eating smaller meals more often
  • eating slowly
  • maintaining a moderate weight
  • avoiding tight-fitting clothing
  • waiting 3 hours or more before going to bed
  • raising the head of the bed
  • avoiding or quitting smoking, if a smoker


For severe or frequent symptoms, a doctor may recommend medication. People should speak to their doctor about suitable options and possible side effects.

There are various medications and treatments available, depending on the cause of dyspepsia.

Medication options include:


These counter the effects of stomach acid. Examples include Alka-Seltzer, Maalox, Rolaids, Riopan, and Mylanta. These are over-the-counter (OTC) medicines that do not need a prescription. A doctor will usually recommend an antacid medication as one of the first treatments for dyspepsia.

H-2-receptor antagonists

These reduce stomach acid levels and are more effective than antacids. Examples include Tagamet and Pepcid. Some are available OTC, while others are by prescription only. Some may carry a risk of adverse effects. A doctor can help a person choose a suitable option.

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)

PPIs reduce stomach acid and are stronger than H-2-receptor antagonists. Examples are Aciphex, Nexium, Prevacid, Prilosec, Protonix, and Zegerid.


These can help boost the movement of food through the stomach. Examples include metoclopramide (Reglan). Side effects may include tiredness, depression, anxiety, and muscle spasms.


If a Helicobacter pylori infection is causing peptic ulcers that result in indigestion, a doctor may prescribe an antibiotic. Side effects may include an upset stomach, diarrhea, and fungal infections.


Sometimes, a problem with the central nervous system can lead to digestive problems. A low dose of an antidepressant may help resolve it.


Chronic indigestion can affect a person’s quality of life and overall well-being. Counseling may help some people manage these issues.

Options may include:

Drug interactions

If a person’s medication appears to be a trigger for indigestion, a doctor may recommend adjusting the drug dose or type.

It is important to change medications only under the supervision of a doctor.

Dietary choices may help manage indigestion.

Tips include:

  • following a healthful, balanced diet
  • limiting the intake of spicy and fatty foods
  • limiting caffeine and alcohol consumption
  • drinking water instead of sodas
  • avoiding acidic foods, such as tomatoes and oranges

Consuming four or five smaller meals per day instead of three larger ones can also help.

Indigestion can result from lifestyle or dietary habits, a medical condition, or the use of some drugs.

Common causes of indigestion include:

  • dietary factors
  • smoking
  • obesity
  • stress

If there is no identifiable structural or metabolic cause, a doctor will diagnose functional dyspepsia.

Dyspepsia can also be a symptom of a wide range of health conditions, including:

In pregnancy

Dyspepsia is common during pregnancy, especially in the last trimester. This is due to hormonal changes and the way the fetus presses against the stomach.

A doctor or pharmacist can recommend safe ways to manage indigestion during pregnancy.

Many people experience mild dyspepsia from time to time and manage it with lifestyle changes or OTC medication.

However, anyone who has frequent indigestion or worsening symptoms should seek medical help.

People should see a doctor if they have the following symptoms alongside indigestion:

  • severe stomach pain
  • changes in bowel movements
  • frequent vomiting, especially with traces of blood
  • blood in the stools or black stools
  • a lump in the abdominal area
  • unexplained weight loss
  • anemia
  • generally feeling unwell
  • difficulty swallowing food
  • yellow coloring in the eyes and skin
  • shortness of breath
  • sweating
  • chest pain that spreads to the jaw, arm, or neck

A doctor will ask the person about:

  • their symptoms
  • their personal and family medical history
  • any other health conditions and medications that they are taking
  • their dietary habits

They may also examine the chest and stomach. This may involve pressing down on different parts of the abdomen to check for areas that may be sensitive, tender, or painful under pressure.

In some cases, a doctor may use the following tests to rule out an underlying health condition:

  • Blood test: This can assess for anemia, liver problems, and other conditions.
  • Tests for H. pylori infection: In addition to a blood test, these tests may include a urea breath test and a stool antigen test.
  • Endoscopy: The doctor will use a long, thin tube with a camera to take images of the gastrointestinal tract. They may also take a tissue sample for a biopsy. This can help them diagnose an ulcer or a tumor.

In rare cases, severe and persistent indigestion can lead to complications. These include:

Esophageal stricture

Persistent exposure to stomach acid can cause scarring in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The tract can become narrow and constricted, causing difficulty with swallowing and chest pain. Surgery may be necessary to widen the esophagus.

Pyloric stenosis

In some cases, stomach acid can cause long-term irritation of the pylorus, the passage between the stomach and the small intestine. If the pylorus becomes scarred, it can narrow. If that happens, a person may not be able to digest food properly, and they may need surgery.


Over time, stomach acid can cause the lining of the digestive system to break down, leading to an infection called peritonitis. Medication or surgery may be necessary.

Dyspepsia is often mild, and people can make dietary and lifestyle changes to help manage it. If these do not work, a doctor can prescribe medications.

In some cases, there may be a more serious underlying cause. Anyone who has concerns about new, severe, or ongoing dyspepsia should seek medical advice.

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Heartburn and Indigestion – What Are The Differences

Heartburn and indigestion are often used interchangeably, but they’re actually different conditions. Indigestion is a general term that speaks to a wide range of digestive issues. Heartburn, on the other hand, occurs when stomach acid escapes into your esophagus. It’s one type of indigestion.1

What Is Heartburn?

Heartburn is a painful condition that’s caused when stomach acid flows up into your esophagus. The lining of your esophagus simply doesn’t have the same protective layers that allow your stomach to stand up to powerful digestive acids. So when acid flows up into your esophagus, a process called Acid Reflux, it causes a nagging pain in your chest, and possibly even your throat, called heartburn.2

Heartburn is quite common—up to 20% of Americans suffer from heartburn on a weekly basis. It affects men and women, young and old, even infants and young kids.3

Heartburn can last from a few minutes to several hours, and often feels worse after you eat. Not only is heartburn painful, it can also rob you of a good night’s sleep.

What Triggers Heartburn?

Heartburn can be triggered by a lot of things, but eating is the main culprit. It can be caused by the specific foods you eat—we’re looking at you, greasy fries and hot wings—as well as by eating too much, or simply eating a big, heavy meal close to bedtime.

Carbonated and alcoholic beverages can also give you heartburn. People who are overweight often suffer from heartburn. Even a few extra pounds can put pressure on your stomach, causing acid to back up into your esophagus.

What Is Indigestion?

You might call it an upset stomach, a stomachache, or even a bellyache—but the medical term is dyspepsia. Whichever term you use, indigestion is an uncomfortable, sometimes painful, feeling you get in your stomach, usually during or after eating.1

In most cases, indigestion is caused by eating too much, too fast, or by eating foods that your body doesn’t respond well to—typically foods high in fat. Chewing with your mouth open also can lead to indigestion. Swallowing too much air while eating can cause belching and bloating, which is another variation of indigestion.4

Other indigestion triggers include stress, smoking, or drinking caffeinated, carbonated, or alcoholic drinks.4

What Triggers Indigestion?

Depending on what’s causing your indigestion, you may experience abdominal pain, bloating (full feeling), belching and gas, nausea, vomiting, and acidic taste in your mouth, “growling” stomach, and even diarrhea. Symptoms usually get worse when you’re stressed but normally go away in a few hours.

Indigestion can be linked to more serious chronic conditions, including ulcers, pancreas abnormalities, or acid reflux disease. Speak to your doctor if your symptoms are severe or last for more than two weeks.

90,000 what is it, symptoms and treatment (diet, drugs, folk)

Dyspepsia is a digestive disorder in which a person feels pain and discomfort in the upper abdomen.

The range of symptoms of dyspepsia includes a feeling of fullness in the stomach, heaviness, fast and early satiety, inability to eat the entire portion as a whole. Pain and other unpleasant sensations bother in the epigastric region closer to the middle of the abdomen.


Intestinal and extraintestinal manifestations are fairly conditionally distinguished.

Intestinal manifestations

  • Epigastric pain associated with food digestion;
  • Vague discomfort in the epigastric region;
  • feeling of instant filling of the stomach immediately after the start of a meal – early satiety syndrome;
  • Feeling of fullness in the stomach, which may not be associated with food intake;
  • sensation of food retention in the stomach;
  • sensation of bursting of the epigastrium, which is perceived as swelling – in the absence of objective signs of swelling;
  • mild nausea, disturbing often or almost constantly.

Extraintestinal manifestations

Doctors dealing with the problem of dyspepsia note the characteristic personal characteristics of patients.

These are anxious and suspicious people who suffer from cancerophobia and are extremely attentive to the slightest changes in their well-being.

Patients take a long time to communicate with themselves and are most often unhappy that they received little attention. For them, it is not so much treatment that is important as empathy and compassion.


The reasons for the formation of dyspepsia are multifaceted and are in different planes. An approximate list is as follows:

  • gross supply errors;
  • congenital excessive production of hydrochloric acid;
  • stress;
  • anxious and suspicious personality structure;
  • long-term medication intake;
  • motor disorders of the stomach and duodenum;
  • chronic infection with Helicobacter;
  • violation of the digestion of disaccharides due to congenital defects in carbohydrate metabolism;
  • Infrasound impacts or sound vibrations from 16 Hz to 0.001 Hz, in nature infrasound is generated during strong winds, hurricanes and storms, lightning strikes, earthquakes.

In general, dyspepsia can be defined as a person’s excessive sensitivity to environmental influences against the background of minor congenital defects in digestion.

Diagnosis of causes

Dyspepsia is a diagnosis of exclusion; it is made only after all other organic diseases of the alimentary canal have been excluded. Therefore, the establishment of the diagnosis is preceded by a thorough clinical examination. In each case, the list of examinations depends on the individual characteristics of the patient.

  • FGDS – an objective method that allows you to visualize existing disorders and obtain material for biopsy;
  • Ultrasound – focuses on the gallbladder and pancreas;
  • clinical and biochemical blood test;
  • coprogram and feces for occult blood;
  • bacterial culture of feces;
  • X-ray examination of the digestive tract, if necessary with contrast;
  • Electrogastroenterography or study of gastric and duodenal motility;
  • scintigraphy – research using radioactive isotopes;
  • Helicobacter infection tests;
  • daily pH-metry – a study of the reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus;
  • manometry – a study of the contractility of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum 12.

In the presence of concomitant diseases, related specialists are involved and the examinations assigned by them are performed.

The amount of research on a particular patient is a complex issue. On the one hand, it is necessary to exclude the organic causes of digestive disorders, and on the other, in an anxious person, a long and detailed examination pushes the formation of a belief about the presence of an incurable disease. Doctors are very wary of such patients.


Any digestive disorders, including dyspepsia, are formed on the basis of an unsuitable diet for a person.Therefore, the basis of recovery, or at least stable well-being, is adherence to dietary rules.


Basic Principles

  • meals are fractional and frequent, breaks are not more than 4 hours;
  • a small amount of food for dinner, the last time at least 2 hours before bedtime;
  • while eating, do not engage in anything outsiders – TV, reading;
  • chew well, not swallow in chunks;
  • obligatory first – broths, soups;
  • no dyes or preservatives;
  • food temperature – room temperature, not cold or hot;
  • Correct ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates – 1: 1: 4 – unless otherwise recommended by the doctor.


It is advisable to cook food using products from the permitted list, avoiding those that can harm.

Featured Products Products not recommended
  • secondary broths and soups on them;
  • boiled meat and low-fat fish;
  • steam cutlets, meatballs and meatballs;
  • mashed potatoes;
  • boiled porridge;
  • natural jelly and compotes;
  • yesterday’s white bread;
  • white crackers and biscuits;
  • boiled eggs;
  • low-fat fresh cottage cheese;
  • baked apples;
  • stewed vegetables;
  • berry and fruit fruit drinks.
  • fast food;
  • flavors and condiments;
  • coffee with a cigarette;
  • 90,017 smoked, salted and pickled;

  • fatty and fried;
  • spicy and spicy;
  • frying and sautéing;
  • 90,017 carbonated drinks;

  • tomato paste;
  • yeast baked goods;
  • canned food


Recent studies have proven the effectiveness of only two groups of drugs for dyskinesia: proton pump inhibitors and prokinetics.

  • Proton pump inhibitors are Omez and its analogues: Rabeprazole, Esomeprazole and the like.
  • Prokinetics – drugs that improve the motility of the alimentary canal. This is Metoclopramide, Domperidone.

In patients with a confirmed diagnosis of dyspepsia, when these two groups of drugs are ineffective, antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs are prescribed. For this, a psychotherapist is involved.

Folk remedies

Used as an aid to improve digestive processes.Decoctions, infusions and teas from traditional plants are used:

  • dill;
  • 90,017 fennel;

    90,017 caraway seeds;

  • celery;
  • calamus;
  • 90,017 mint leaves.

Potential consequences and forecast

The forecast is favorable as there are no organic changes.

In 30 or 50% of cases, complete recovery occurs within a year, sometimes spontaneously and without treatment. At the same time, relapses are possible with the subsequent confluence of unfavorable life circumstances.


There is no specific prophylaxis, but the likelihood of dyspepsia can be reduced if you follow simple rules:

  • enough rest;
  • to diversify the experience;
  • adhere to a diet;
  • Eat balanced, healthy, fresh food;
  • avoid stress as much as possible;
  • If necessary, visit a psychotherapist if you cannot cope with the effects of stress on your own.

Indigestion: symptoms, what to do, causes and treatment of gastric dyspepsia syndrome

Many people experience heaviness in the stomach after eating, discomfort or pain. Bloating, belching, and flatulence sometimes occur. In this case, indigestion is said to have developed. This phenomenon has been known for a very long time, only now in medicine it is called dyspepsia.

Indigestion is a malfunction of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to a slowdown in the process of digesting food.This can happen in any person, even in the absence of pathologies of the digestive system. In this case, indigestion appears occasionally and passes quickly.

But most often dyspepsia is one of the symptoms of diseases of the digestive system.

How is it manifested

Indigestion in medicine is not considered a dangerous phenomenon. But it can bring a person serious discomfort, as it is always accompanied by unpleasant symptoms. Without treatment, they may not go away for a long time.

Signs of indigestion can occur unexpectedly, at the most inopportune moment, which can seriously disrupt a person’s usual lifestyle. In addition, many diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are also manifested in this way.

Therefore, it is important to recognize dyspepsia in time and begin to treat it.

The most common symptoms of indigestion are:

  • abdominal discomfort;
  • stomach pain or lower;
  • heaviness, feeling of fullness and fullness of the stomach;
  • belching, nausea and heartburn;
  • increased gassing;
  • bowel dysfunction.

There may also be a burning sensation in the stomach or esophagus, vomiting. All these signs are often not associated with food intake, can occur after exercise or during fasting. But the main symptom of indigestion is fast satiety.

This is a feeling of fullness and a full stomach after eating even a small amount of food. As a result, the patient’s appetite decreases, he refuses to eat. In a healthy person, all these phenomena go away on their own in a couple of days.

If stomach discomfort persists for a long time, it is better to seek medical advice. This is especially important if there is a sudden severe pain, burning sensation in the esophagus, indomitable vomiting, blood in the stool. All of these signs, as well as a fever, can indicate serious damage to the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, inflammation or infection.

The main symptom of indigestion is heaviness in the abdomen and belching even after eating small amounts of food

But even without this, prolonged dyspepsia can lead to serious consequences.A decrease in appetite, a decrease in the amount of food consumed, as well as poisoning of the body as a result of poor digestion of food – all this often causes a deterioration in overall health.

The patient has weakness, decreased performance, the temperature and hemoglobin level in the blood may drop. In addition, the condition of the skin and hair deteriorates. The skin becomes dry, flakes, wrinkles appear on the face. Hair is brittle, dry and lifeless. A white coating appears on the tongue.

All this can become signs of other diseases, but it is still worth examining the state of the gastrointestinal tract.


Depending on what caused this condition, functional and organic dyspepsia are distinguished. In the second case, indigestion is associated with pathologies of the digestive system.

But about half of the cases of dyspepsia are of a functional nature. That is, indigestion appears due to the malfunctioning of the digestive system.

At the same time, there are no serious diseases.

Most often this happens in adults who do not follow the diet and lead the wrong lifestyle. Indigestion can be associated with alcohol or smoking, frequent stressful situations, or prolonged use of certain medications.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and hormonal drugs are especially severely disrupting the work of the digestive system.

And during stress, the body produces many hormones cortisol and adrenaline, which impair the blood supply to the digestive system and can cause spasms of smooth muscles.

There are many reasons for functional dyspepsia. In addition to improper nutrition or bad habits, it can be enzyme deficiency, anatomical features of the structure of the digestive tract, infection with the bacterium Helicobacter Pylori, changes in climatic conditions, and even an incorrect motor regime.

Most often this is a sedentary lifestyle, since intestinal motility is highly dependent on a person’s mobility. In people who spend a long time in a sitting position, metabolic processes and blood circulation slow down, and stagnant processes develop in the abdomen.

But indigestion can also occur due to physical exertion immediately after eating.

With functional dyspepsia, serious disorders in the work of the digestive system are usually not detected, therefore the general condition of the patient is satisfactory.Discomfort in the abdominal cavity occurs intermittently and goes away quickly. Most often, this phenomenon is associated with improper diet.


The most common cause of indigestion is eating disorders and an unbalanced diet. First of all – haste when eating. This leads to the fact that food enters the stomach insufficiently chewed.

And the process of digestion begins in the mouth, where food is moistened with saliva and stimulates the production of gastric juice.

And due to the fact that a person swallows it very quickly, it is not completely digested. As a result, the processes of decay and fermentation develop.

In addition, when eating quickly or talking while eating, a lot of air is swallowed, which then leads to increased gas production.

The second common cause of indigestion is overeating. The stomach can only hold a certain amount of food. And for the normal process of digestion, it is necessary that free space remains in it.The stomach does not accept food that exceeds this volume. The result is belching and heaviness in the abdomen.

Often indigestion occurs when overeating

A similar problem occurs with an improper diet, when a person often eats foods that are difficult to digest or eats at night. In this case, the stomach does not digest food, and it begins to rot. But long breaks between meals are also harmful for the body.

Another common cause of dyspepsia is an unbalanced diet.If the diet is low in fiber, but high in protein and carbohydrates, digestion will be slowed down. Some foods can also lead to indigestion:

90 016

  • carbonated drinks;
  • fatty meat and fish;
  • hot dishes, spices;
  • fried food;
  • coffee and other caffeinated beverages.
  • Children

    Indigestion can also occur in a child. Most often this happens in the first years of life, which is associated with imperfection of the digestive system, insufficiency of secretory functions and with a completely unformed intestinal microflora.

    In infants, dyspepsia manifests itself with slightly different symptoms. They immediately have a stool disorder. There is also frequent regurgitation, bloating, and colic.

    In such a condition, it is necessary to immediately take action, since at this age dehydration rapidly develops due to diarrhea and developmental delay due to insufficient nutrition.

    In older children, gastric dyspepsia appears for the same reasons as in adults, and its manifestations are also similar.Indigestion can develop with severe stress or psycho-emotional arousal. This usually results in diarrhea in the child. In addition, indigestion is often caused by poor nutrition.

    During pregnancy

    Indigestion is a common problem in women who are carrying a baby. It is further aggravated by the fact that almost no medication can be taken during pregnancy.

    Therefore, it is important to know what causes indigestion and try to prevent it.

    Usually, this condition is not associated with serious pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, but arises from hormonal changes in the body and squeezing of the digestive tract by the growing uterus.

    Therefore, a woman should try to eat right, giving up heavy food, not overeating and not eating at night. It is recommended to sleep on a high pillow, and not to lean forward during the day.

    Abdominal heaviness and other symptoms of indigestion are common during pregnancy

    What diseases cause indigestion

    If there is a constant disturbance of digestion, which is manifested by periodic pain, frequent heartburn and lack of nutrients, they talk about organic dyspepsia.

    This condition appears in various pathologies of the digestive tract. It is advisable to undergo an examination in time and determine why indigestion has occurred.

    After all, without treatment, gastrointestinal diseases will progress and lead to serious complications.

    The most common causes of indigestion symptoms are:

    • gastritis;
    • peptic ulcer;
    • gastroesophageal reflux;
    • acute or chronic pancreatitis;
    • cholecystitis, biliary dyskinesia, cholelithiasis;
    • irritable bowel syndrome;
    • acute intestinal infections;
    • tumors anywhere in the digestive tract.

    Treatment details

    Stomach dyspepsia is not considered a very dangerous pathology, especially if it is not associated with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. But its manifestations cause a lot of trouble to a person. Therefore, it is advisable to get rid of them immediately.

    Effective treatment of indigestion is only possible when the cause of the disorder has been eliminated. Therefore, it is first of all recommended to undergo an examination. You cannot take medications without a doctor’s prescription.

    And in many cases it is impossible to eliminate dyspeptic syndrome only with the help of drug therapy. Complex treatment is necessary, the features of which depend on the cause of the pathology.

    With frequent signs of indigestion, you need to see a doctor, you can see a therapist. He will prescribe the necessary diagnostic procedures and advise on what to do to get rid of the discomfort. And if necessary, the therapist will give a referral to a gastroenterologist.

    Timely examination will help to diagnose serious diseases in time and begin their treatment.It is especially important to exclude the presence of any tumors in the gastrointestinal tract. For this, fibrogastroduodenoscopy and tissue biopsy are necessarily prescribed.

    Ultrasound examinations of the abdominal organs are also often performed. It helps to identify abnormalities in the functioning of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas. Sometimes other diagnostic procedures are needed: blood tests, feces, intragastric PH-metry, colonoscopy.

    They are prescribed by the doctor individually.

    If no diseases were found during the examination, indigestion therapy consists in changing the patient’s lifestyle and diet. This is usually sufficient, but sometimes your doctor may prescribe medication to relieve symptoms.

    How it hurts with gastritis

    But usually you can get rid of functional dyspepsia by observing the following rules:

    • you need to eat 3-4 times a day, there should not be long breaks between meals, and the last time you can eat no later than 3 hours before bedtime;
    • you should not talk while eating, all food must be chewed thoroughly;
    • you can not overeat, it is recommended to stop eating before the stomach is completely full;
    • you need to give up food that is poorly absorbed, most often it is mushrooms, legumes, fatty meats, canned food, fried and spicy foods;
    • Limit the use of carbonated drinks, alcohol, fruit desserts, coffee, and it is better to eat fruits separately or half an hour before meals;
    • any physical activity should be no earlier than an hour after eating;
    • need to quit smoking;
    • It is desirable to observe a balanced diet and the correct daily regimen;
    • try to avoid stressful situations.

    With frequent onset of symptoms of indigestion, it is advisable to be examined in order to detect pathologies in time

    These measures will help to alleviate the patient’s condition, relieve most of the symptoms of indigestion and prevent attacks of dyspepsia. But in serious cases, only medications can help.

    It is additionally recommended to use physiotherapeutic procedures, for example, acupuncture, massage or mineral water intake.Treatment with folk remedies is also effective.

    In addition, the patient is advised to intensify physical activity, it is best to perform special exercises that improve intestinal motility.

    Drug treatment

    Special medications are the best way to relieve the unpleasant symptoms of indigestion. It is advisable to take them only as directed by a doctor, since their choice depends on the cause of the ailment and the symptoms manifested.

    It is especially dangerous to take pain relievers or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.They will not alleviate the patient’s condition, but can only worsen it. Therefore, in case of pain, it is better to take an antispasmodic, for example, No-Shpu or Buscopan.

    But it is best to eliminate its cause.

    The following drugs are used for this:

    • antacids that reduce the acidity of gastric juice and protect the mucous membrane from its damaging effects – Almagel, Fosfalugel, Rennie, Maalox;
    • proton pump inhibitors, such as omeprazole, reduce gastric acid production;
    • tablets to stimulate the motility of the digestive tract will help to quickly release it from food – Cerucal, Motilium, Domperidone;
    • in case of severe flatulence, antifoaming agents, for example, Espumisan, can be prescribed;
    • sorbents, for example, Smecta or Enterosgel, help well in mild cases.

    Folk remedies

    Diet is the basis for a successful cure of any pathology of the digestive system. The choice of the regimen and diet depends on the individual characteristics of the patient. But more often than not, it is recommended to limit the use of heavy-to-digest foods, carbonated drinks, caffeine and alcohol. In addition, it is beneficial to include various herbs in the diet for indigestion.

    It is useful for the normal functioning of the digestive tract to eat herbs, fresh vegetable salads with olive oil.

    Instead of coffee, it is recommended to drink a decoction of chicory, and instead of tea – decoctions of medicinal herbs. For dyspepsia, chamomile, sage, mint, burdock root, dandelion are effective.

    Dill, caraway or fennel seeds help with bloating and flatulence. And for pain in the abdomen, it is recommended to drink potato juice.


    Indigestion is such a common problem that many people face it all the time. But it must be remembered that the frequent appearance of such symptoms indicates the presence of pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Therefore, it will not be possible to get rid of indigestion by conventional methods, it is imperative to treat the underlying disease.

    And for this, as a rule, complex therapy is needed, including special drugs, diet and folk remedies.

    ( 1

    Dyspepsia – symptoms, treatment, diet for indigestion

    Dyspepsia is a violation of the functional activity of the stomach caused by a chronic or recurrent disorder of the main organ of the digestive tract.

    Patients complain of stomach discomfort, especially worse after eating. Diseases have very diverse causes, although frequent functional dyspepsia usually develops on a psychogenic basis.

    Consider what symptoms accompany dyspepsia, how the diagnosis and treatment of the disease looks like.

    What is stomach indigestion?

    Dyspepsia is one of the most common complaints of diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract.It is characterized by recurrent or long-term, that is, chronic, symptoms of indigestion.

    Studies show that, in general, dyspepsia affects up to 60% of the population.

    Of these people, about 20% occasionally complain of an upset stomach, while in about 60% of patients, these pain symptoms are a chronic problem.

    The clinical and functional unit covers three types of dyspepsia:

    • Undiagnosed dyspepsia applies to patients who are seeking help for the first time with so-called dyspeptic symptoms (digestive problems), as well as to those who have previously reported such symptoms but the cause has not been established.
    • Organic dyspepsia is diagnosed in people with recognized organic changes in the digestive tract. Symptoms of indigestion are most often the result of diseases of the digestive system.
    • Functional dyspepsia is diagnosed in patients who have no known abnormalities in the structure or functioning of the digestive system. Despite this, people suffer from aching pain, chronic digestive problems, and symptoms of indigestion.Causes of dyspepsia

    In most cases, functional disorders of the digestive system are responsible for the development of dyspepsia. After eating, the lower stomach should be relaxed by the action of the vagus nerve.

    When this mechanism is disturbed, the patient feels satiety and unpleasant fullness in the stomach too early. Sometimes stomach discomfort is caused by an increased sensitivity of the stomach lining to hydrochloric acid.

    Dyspepsia is not the same as temporary digestive problems.Temporary stomach upset can occur after eating too heavy or hard-to-digest food. Dyspepsia is a condition for chronic stomach dysfunction.

    The following factors that can contribute to the development of dyspepsia:

    • visceral hypersensitivity;
    • Helicobacter pylori infection, in particular chronic gastritis caused by it;
    • 90,017 medications taken, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetylsalicylic acid;

    • improper nutrition;
    • inability to cope with stress;
    • anxiety, depression and so on.

    There is also dyspepsia associated with gastrointestinal diseases:

    • in 15-25% of cases, patients with symptoms of dyspepsia have gastric and duodenal ulcers;
    • in 5-15% of cases, dyspepsia coexists with gastroesophageal or gastroduodenal reflux disease;
    • 90,017 Less than 2% of the population is diagnosed with cancer of the stomach or esophagus.

    What is functional dyspepsia?

    This type of dyspepsia causes the greatest diagnostic problems, which further explains the choice of treatment.Experts distinguish two types of this disease:

    • Postprandial Discomfort Syndrome (PDS). Postprandial distress syndrome is the main symptom, a feeling of early satiety and a feeling of fullness in the stomach after eating.
    • Epigastric pain syndrome (EPS). In the syndrome of epigastric pain, mainly patients often complain of pain and burning sensation in the upper abdomen after eating for an hour. felt a burning sensation in the upper abdomen after eating and for another hour after eating.

    Functional dyspepsia has a clear relationship with certain characteristics of sick people. They usually find it difficult to cope with stress. They are characterized by frequent anxieties in everyday life, as well as fear of a serious illness.

    The described correlation is observed in both women and men. These are the so-called somatization symptoms that occur when psychological problems manifest in the form of physical ailments.

    Functional dyspepsia – symptoms

    Dyspepsia is characterized by the appearance of nonspecific symptoms that also occur in other gastrointestinal diseases.The dyspeptic symptoms most commonly reported by patients include:

    • Rapid onset of unpleasant satiety after eating;
    • pain in the middle epigastric region, typical for heartburn;
    • bloating;
    • nausea and vomiting;
    • sensation of delayed food and slow digestion;
    • belching.

    Patients also suffer from depressed mood, but they usually cannot determine if stomach discomfort is the cause of the depressed mood, or rather vice versa.Spontaneous periods of remission and relapses of diseases are also characteristic.

    Diagnosis of dyspepsia

    Functional dyspepsia is established on the basis of diagnostic criteria developed in Rome in the 90s of the last century, hence the name Roman III criteria.

    Dyspepsia is diagnosed when the disease has been present for at least three months.

    Diagnosis of dyspepsia requires differentiation from many diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome or reflux disease.The basis of diagnostics is an interview and a medical examination.

    The medical interview is dominated by lifestyle issues, daily eating habits and stress levels. After collecting the data, the physician should refer the patient to a gastroenterologist.

    If the patient is over 45 years of age and has other symptoms that cause anxiety in the doctor, the first examination is a gastroscopy of the tumors.

    Alarming symptoms are:

    • unexplained weight loss;
    • 90,017 nighttime abdominal pain;

    • problems with swallowing;
    • gastrointestinal bleeding.

    In other cases, the first examination performed in the diagnostic process is endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. During the procedure, a section of tissue is taken to check for the presence of the bacteria Hylobacter pylori, which contributes to the development of stomach ulcers.

    If the test excludes the presence of Hylobacter pylori, or treatment with a prescribed antibiotic does not improve the patient’s condition, then treatment is carried out with proton pump inhibitors, which reduce the secretion of hydrochloric acid.

    If this treatment fails, the physician diagnoses functional dyspepsia and diagnoses other gastrointestinal conditions often associated with dyspepsia.

    Functional dyspepsia – treatment

    Dyspepsia is a disease that cannot always be cured by standard methods.

    Symptomatic treatment is ineffective, therefore, it is recommended to take a placebo – a drug without obvious healing properties, which is closely related to psychological symptoms.

    The neutral effect of the drug improves the patient’s well-being, thanks to his belief in the effective effect of the medication prescribed by the doctor.

    As a rule, dyspepsia therapy begins with the use of various drugs against flatulence, antacids, prokinetics, and so on, the effect of which is almost the same as when taking a placebo:

    • Antacids contain compounds that form a base of aluminum, calcium or magnesium, the latter two being recommended.An exception is often used in dyspeptic patients in whom aluminum is not absorbed significantly. However, commonly available drugs in this group work only temporarily, and therefore the best results are achieved with an alkaline diet and daily consumption of alkaline water, preferably with a pH above 8.
    • Anti-flatulence drugs – simethicone, which reduces the surface tension of gas bubbles in the intestine, causing them to burst. This allows intestinal gas to escape and relieves painful intestinal tension.
    • Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are drugs with fairly high efficacy. These medicines interfere with the production of hydrochloric acid. These are the strongest substances available for this action. They rarely show side effects and are inexpensive and readily available. Many dyspeptic patients benefit from proton pump inhibitors, so they are used first, within 4-8 weeks. Only the lack of improvement is an indication for other treatments.
    • Prokinetic drugs are a group of rather controversial drugs that accelerate the emptying of the stomach and intestinal tract.In some patients, they have an effect, but, unfortunately, in the majority they cause side effects. The drugs in this group are Cisapride and Metoclopramide. The first substance can cause irregularities in the heart rhythm, and is permitted in exceptional cases. Metoclopramide should not be taken all the time, but only on a one-off basis. It should not be used for chronic stomach upset and pregnancy.
    • Antidepressants. The effect of tricyclic antidepressants has been confirmed, but little is known about the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).Treatment for patients without symptoms of depression begins with very low doses of these drugs. If dyspepsia is accompanied by depressed mood, antidepressant therapy and treatment can help eliminate the psychogenic causes of discomfort.
    • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. In some patients, dyspepsia is not treated with any available substance. In such cases, the patient is advised to undergo cognitive behavioral therapy. In diseases with a known psychogenic background, and this is functional dyspepsia, therapeutic actions can significantly alleviate the symptoms.

    With psychotherapy, patients learn to better deal with stress, effectively relax and relieve anxiety symptoms. This, in turn, leads to the fact that the activity of the digestive system is significantly improved.

    Hypnosis is also quite effective, while about 30% of patients with dyspepsia have improved their condition with the help of self-hypnosis. The process of diagnosing and treating a gastrointestinal disorder can be lengthy and difficult.

    It is important that the patient is aware of the nature of the disease and is informed about the course of treatment.Good, honest contact with your doctor is an extremely important part of the treatment process.

    Without this, patients are often frustrated and feel that no one can help them, which in turn aggravates the symptoms. Patients should also be aware that relapses are common with dyspepsia.

    Nutrition for gastric dyspepsia

    It is known that the symptoms of dyspepsia are usually worse after eating. Therefore, the diet used should be easily digestible.While this is still the subject of research, the results suggest that the occurrence of severe symptoms of indigestion is related to the consumption of certain foods, such as:

    • fats;
    • 90,017 wheat;

      90,017 carbohydrates;

    • hot spices;
    • caffeine.

    Patients with dyspepsia are advised to stop drinking alcohol, fried and spicy foods, coffee and reduce the intake of cereal products. It is also helpful to limit your fat intake, especially animal fat.

    Treatment of dyspepsia with traditional and folk methods

    Dyspepsia refers to the totality of symptoms that appear in disorders of the digestive tract.

    Often, this syndrome makes itself felt when the process of digestion in the stomach is disturbed and the emptying of the intestines is delayed.

    The impetus for the development of pathological signs can be various factors, including all kinds of diseases of the internal organs. If dyspepsia is diagnosed, treatment should be started immediately.

    Gastroenterologist Mikhail Vasilievich:

    ‘It is known that for the treatment of the gastrointestinal tract (ulcers, gastritis, etc.), there are special drugs that are prescribed by doctors. But we will not talk about them, but about those medicines that you can use yourself and at home … ’Read more >>>


    Dyspepsia is divided into two main forms:

    1. Functional. Functional dyspepsia is characterized by the absence of organic lesions of the digestive organs.Exceptionally functional dyspepsia is present.
    2. Organic. In this case, dyspepsia is accompanied by structural changes in the cellular and tissue systems of the digestive system. With the organic form of pathology, the signs are characterized by greater severity.
    • In accordance with the reasons that caused the pathological syndrome, dyspepsia occurs:
    • 1. Alimentary
    • In this form, there is a direct link between the onset of symptoms and malnutrition.It is subdivided into the following types:
    • fermentation. Occurs with the abuse of products enriched with carbohydrate components, as well as drinks, the preparation of which was carried out by the fermentation method;
    • putrid. Often it develops in the case of eating a large amount of protein products and meat;
    • soapy. It occurs when an excess amount of fat enters the body, which is most often observed when eating pork and lamb meat.

    2. Arising as a result of deficient excretion of food enzymes

    This process significantly complicates the digestion of food in the stomach. In turn, this type of dyspepsia is divided into:

    • enterogenic, when an insufficient amount of gastric juice is secreted;
    • gastrogenic, in which there is a deficiency of gastric enzymes;
    • hepatogenous, characterized by impaired production of bile by the liver;
    • pancreatogenic, when the pancreas flies out a deficient amount of its own enzymes.
    1. 3. Associated with impaired intestinal absorption process
    2. This type of dyspepsia develops against the background of malabsorption syndrome, which is understood as a congenital disease, accompanied by impaired absorption of nutrients into the blood.
    3. 4. Developing against the background of intestinal infections
    4. In this case, dyspepsia gets its secondary development. May occur on background:
    • dysentery, which is a pathology in which the large intestine is affected.The most characteristic feature is the presence of blood and mucous impurities in the feces;
    • salmonellosis, when there is a combination of the gag reflex, diarrhea, dizziness.

    5. Intoxication

    Occurs as a result of poisoning during the development of various pathological processes in the form of infections of a purulent nature, poisoning with poisonous substances.

    Click on the picture to enlarge

    Methods of therapy

    The choice of how to treat dyspepsia is largely determined by the existing symptoms.With dyspepsia, treatment also involves adjusting the factors that contribute to the development of pathology. An integrated approach is important, which should consist of:

    Drug treatment

    Drug therapy is aimed at eliminating the clinical manifestations of dyspepsia. In this case, the following groups of medicines are used:

    1. Prokinetics. They are means that contribute to the normalization of the motor function of the digestive tract. These drugs are prescribed primarily for indigestion, as dyskinesia is the main and most common risk factor for dyspepsia.
    2. Antibiotics. They become relevant when Helicobacterium is detected. However, the diagnosis of such a pathogenic microorganism sometimes becomes quite difficult, as a result of which a breath test is used, the results of which determine the choice of specific groups of antibacterial drugs.
    3. Antacids. This group of medicines shows high therapeutic efficacy in the ulcerative form of dyspeptic disorders. Medicines help neutralize increased stomach acidity, thereby relieving soreness.

    It should be noted that dyspepsia has various forms and can develop as a result of numerous diseases of a chronic nature. Weakened immunity and mental health instability are predisposing factors for dyspepsia. For this reason, a medical consultation is advisable.

    Self-treatment is undesirable, since it can aggravate the course of the pathological condition. Sometimes it is allowed to take medications containing active enzyme components.

    It is important to know that regular intake of such funds is undesirable, which is due to a decrease in the synthesis of enzymes in the body, provided that the described funds are used for a long time. Useful to receive:

    90 016 90 017 pepsin;

  • pancreatin;
  • pancrelipase;
  • panzinorma.
  • In the presence of profuse diarrhea, it is important to restore lost fluids. For this purpose, it is necessary to take rehydron, a powdery agent, a sachet of which is dissolved in a liter of water.

    Diet correction

    Changing eating habits is one of the main conditions for the successful treatment of dyspepsia. When the first signs of such a disorder appear, you should go on a hunger strike for a couple of days.

    In cases where fasting becomes impossible, you should refuse the evening meal, and all meals should be consumed in a pureed form. At the same time, it is necessary to observe the drinking regime, in which 2.5 liters of water are drunk during the day.

    This measure is necessary in order to prevent intoxication and dehydration of the body, which develop due to diarrhea.

    Click on the picture to enlarge

    After a couple of days, a therapeutic dietary food is prescribed. The type of diet is appropriate for the type of disorder present. For example, an abundant amount of loose stool, which does not have a pronounced odor and is accompanied by increased gas formation, are signs of a fermentative form of dyspepsia.

    In this case, the diet consists in limiting or completely avoiding foods containing carbohydrates. In the presence of a stool with a fetid odor and the absence of flatulence, one should speak of putrefactive dyspepsia. In this case, it makes sense to give up protein foods, giving preference to carbohydrates.

    Folk remedies

    Traditional medicine also offers a variety of remedies to help fight dyspeptic disorders. Some of these are medicinal plants.The most effective for dyspepsia are:

    1. Dandelion

    The roots, leaves and flowers of the plant are used for therapeutic purposes. Dandelion tea is very useful, which must be drunk at the end of the course of antibiotic therapy used to restore bowel function.

    It is also possible to use juice obtained from fresh leaves, as well as decoctions from dried roots. A great dandelion-based home remedy for dyspepsia is a salad made with fresh plant leaves that contain teraxacin.

    The action of this substance is aimed at stimulating the digestive system. Its beneficial properties contribute to the production of bile and gastric juice.

    Treatment of toxic dyspepsia in adults and children of the population is treated with dandelion leaves and roots, which are pre-mixed with carrot or apple juice. In order to suppress the disease, it is necessary to give such a mixture throughout the day in the amount of half a glass.

    In the presence of a toxic form of dyspeptic disorder, dandelion tea will be effective.For its preparation, it is necessary to use dried parts of the plant. A tablespoon of raw materials is carefully crushed and poured into a glass of boiling water.

    A little honey can be added to the finished drink.

    2. Cumin

    Cumin contains carvone, limonene, flavonoids and organic acids. Caraway fruits stimulate the production of digestive juices, and also have antispasmodic properties, while restoring normal intestinal microflora.

    It is useful to use cumin in fermentative and putrefactive forms of dyspepsia, as well as in the presence of increased gas formation. To do this, pour half a teaspoon of the fruit with a glass of boiling water. The medicinal composition should be consumed warm three times during the day.


    Rich mint:

    • essential oils;
    • tannins;
    • 90,017 flavonoids;

    • vitamin C;
    • carotene.

    Infusion made from the leaves of the plant is excellent for gastritis and enteritis, accompanied by flatulence and dyspepsia. Mint tea helps to improve digestion, which is why it is advisable to drink the drink after taking heavy meals.

    In case of the development of an acute form of dyspeptic disorder, an alcoholic tincture of mint is attached, which can be purchased at pharmacies or prepared on your own.

    To do this, you need to pour 250 ml of alcohol into fresh and pre-chopped grass in an amount of 100 grams, and then insist for a week.Taking such a remedy relaxes the muscle structures of the intestines, relieving pain.

    The dosage is 20-30 drops with a little water.

    Click on the picture to enlarge

    Remedial gymnastics

    Therapeutic exercises are excellent for dyspeptic disorders. One of these is an activity that helps to improve intestinal motility. Starting position – lying on your back.Next you need:

    • Bend your legs at the knee joints and press to your chest;
    • 90 017 straighten your legs and take your feet with your hands;

    • with slow movements, pull your feet towards you, and then away from you.

    Repeat the exercise after a few seconds. It is also helpful to do normal flexion and extension of the raised lower limbs. Such gymnastics can be supplemented with abdominal massage, for which use stroking movements in a clockwise direction.This tactic is especially effective in treating lazy stomachs.

    90,000 Symptoms and Causes of Indigestion

    Digestive problems are one of the most common types of functional disorders.

    The main symptoms of “indigestion” 1 :

    • feeling of discomfort, pain in the upper abdomen;
    • heartburn, belching after eating;
    • feeling of fullness in the stomach, flatulence;
    • nausea, loss of appetite.

    In children, the symptoms of “indigestion” appear in a similar way, only minor ones can be added to the main symptoms, for example 1 :

    • physical weakness;
    • 90,017 irritability;

      90,017 sleep disorders;

      90,017 headaches;

    • Fear of a full meal, due to the fact that every time after eating, there is pain in the abdomen.

    “Indigestion” can occur once, for example, against the background of overeating, or appear regularly.

    Sometimes disruptions in the work of digestion can even be provoked by factors such as climate change. Abrupt changes in the environment, the use of new unusual dishes – a common cause of unpleasant feelings of indigestion.

    Diet is an important step in treatment. From the diet, it is necessary to exclude those foods that impair digestion and irritate the intestinal mucosa. These include 3 :

    • fried food;
    • spicy food;
    • 90,017 sweet carbonated drinks;

    • condiments and sauces;
    • strong coffee;
    • fatty meat;
    • semi-finished products.

    It is recommended to chew food thoroughly. Give up the habit of whipping up lunch, eating in front of a laptop or TV. Avoid long breaks between meals: increased appetite threatens to turn into overeating. Meals should be fractional, up to 5-6 meals, including snacks.

    Any form of indigestion resulting from inadequate secretion of digestive enzymes or poor nutrition requires a complete rejection of alcohol.Alcoholic beverages literally burn the lining of the stomach, increasing inflammation. Smoking, both active and passive, has a negative effect on the mucous membrane.

    To avoid the onset of indigestion symptoms, do not drink food and eat desserts and fruits immediately after the main meal. A quick transition from a main dish to a sweet one can intensify the fermentation process.

    Self-massage, a heating pad on your stomach, physical activity, such as a few squats or a walk in the fresh air, will help alleviate the unpleasant symptoms of “indigestion”.You can also help the body cope with heaviness, bloating and nausea by taking enzymes such as Creon ® 10000.

    Preparation Creon

    ® 10000 from “indigestion”

    Creon ® 10000 is an enzyme preparation specially designed to support digestion. The drug is available in the form of capsules containing the active ingredient (pancreatin) in the form of hundreds of small particles. These particles are called minimicrospheres and do not exceed 2 mm in size, which is recorded as recommended in world and Russian scientific works 4.5 .Unlike tablet preparations, Creon ® 10000 minimicrospheres are evenly mixed with food in the stomach and cover its maximum volume 6 .

    To learn more

    This is important, since the enzyme preparation works only in contact with food: the more food is covered with its particles, the more it helps to digest. Tablet preparations cannot be divided, since this can break the protective shell, and the active substance will simply die in the stomach.Creon ® capsules are easy to use: if necessary, they can be opened and the minimicrospheres can be mixed with food or juice 7 . You can also individually select the dose, which is especially important for young children, for whom Creon ® 10000 is allowed from birth 7 . More information about Creon ® 10000 and the rules for its administration can be found here.

    90,000 Indigestion: what is it and how is it treated? | Creon®10000

    Indigestion is a complex of symptoms in the form of heaviness and discomfort in the abdomen and intestines.Unpleasant sensations are often associated with overeating, although indigestion can occur for other reasons, such as stress.

    Digestive problems are one of the most common types of functional disorders.

    Indigestion symptoms

    Main indigestion symptoms:

    • discomfort, pain in the upper abdomen;
    • heartburn, belching after eating;
    • feeling of fullness in the stomach, flatulence;
    • nausea, loss of appetite.

    In children, the symptoms of indigestion manifest themselves in a similar way, only minor ones can be added to the main symptoms, for example:

    • physical weakness;
    • irritability; 90,018 90,017 sleep disorders;
    • headaches;
    • Fear of a full meal, due to the fact that every time after eating, there is pain in the abdomen.

    Indigestion may occur once, for example, on the background of overeating, or appear regularly.

    Causes of Indigestion

    Some of the most common causes of indigestion are:

    • Overeating: Eating large amounts of food at one time leads to heaviness, pain and bloating;
    • low content of vegetable fiber in the diet;
    • Haste when eating: poorly chewed food is not sufficiently soaked with saliva, and large pieces of food, getting into the stomach, impede digestion;
    • constant stress and psycho-emotional overload, which can trigger pathological processes in internal organs and systems and reduce immunity;
    • the presence of chronic or ulcerative diseases of the gastrointestinal tract: pancreatitis, cholecystitis, duodenal ulcer.Chronic gastritis, one of the most common diseases in gastroenterology, occupies a special place in the list of diseases. According to statistics, chronic gastritis occupies 85% of the total mass of all diagnosed stomach diseases.

    Sometimes disruptions in the work of digestion can even be triggered by factors such as climate change. Abrupt changes in the environment, the use of new unusual dishes – a common cause of unpleasant feelings of indigestion.

    Treatment of indigestion

    Therapy is most often carried out at home, hospitalization is indicated only when carrying out complex studies and deterioration of health.

    Diet is an important step in treatment. From the diet, it is necessary to exclude those foods that impair digestion and irritate the intestinal mucosa. These include:

    • fried foods;
    • spicy food;
    • sugary carbonated drinks;
    • condiments and sauces;
    • strong coffee;
    • fatty meat;
    • semi-finished products.

    It is recommended to chew food thoroughly. Give up the habit of whipping up lunch, eating in front of a laptop or TV.Avoid long breaks between meals: increased appetite threatens to turn into overeating. Meals should be fractional, up to 5-6 meals, including snacks.

    Any form of dyspepsia (indigestion resulting from insufficient secretion of digestive enzymes or poor nutrition) requires a complete rejection of alcohol. Alcoholic beverages literally burn the lining of the stomach, increasing inflammation. Smoking, both active and passive, has a negative effect on the mucous membrane.

    To avoid the onset of indigestion symptoms, do not drink food and eat desserts and fruits immediately after the main meal. A quick transition from a main dish to a sweet one can intensify the fermentation process.

    Self-massage, a heating pad on the stomach, physical activity such as a few squats or a walk in the fresh air can help alleviate the unpleasant symptoms of indigestion. You can also help the body cope with heaviness, bloating and nausea by taking enzyme preparations such as Creon®.

    Creon® preparation for indigestion

    Creon® helps to improve the digestive processes and normalize well-being in case of indigestion symptoms. Pancreatic enzymes, which are part of the preparation, provide high-quality breakdown of nutrients and their maximum absorption in the intestine.

    Creon® helps to eliminate the symptoms of indigestion. It is available in the form of capsules with small particles of the active substance – minimicrospheres. The gelatinous shell of the capsule instantly dissolves in the acidic environment of the stomach, and the minimicrospheres are evenly mixed with food, contributing to the effective assimilation of all the necessary microelements.

    The drug should be taken during or immediately after a meal with plenty of water. If it is difficult to swallow a whole capsule, you can mix the minimicrospheres with any mild acidic food, for example, minimicrospheres can be added to applesauce, yogurt, or fruit juice (apple, orange, or pineapple). It is not recommended to add the contents of the capsules to hot food.

    Developed with support from Abbott to improve patient health awareness.The information in this material does not replace the advice of a healthcare professional. Contact your doctor

    RUCRE172658 dated 25.07.2017

    1. Isakov V.A. Epidemiology of GERD: East and West // Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology 5, 2004.

    2. Diagnosis and treatment of dyspepsia Recommendations of the American Gastroenterological Association // Clinical Pharmacology and Therapy -1999 -№1.

    3. Vasiliev Yu.V Chronic gastritis // Consilium medicum, App.Issue 3-2002.

    4. Dorofeev GI Functional stomach disorders L, 1976.

    5. Grigoriev PYa, Yakovenko AV Clinical gastroenterology -M Medical information agency, 1998.

    6. Instructions for medical use Creon® 10000 dated 05/03/17.

    You can find more information about the drug on the website https://kreon.ru/

    Dyspepsia is called poor digestion, and in our days it is simply called indigestion.

    How to get to the medical center

    1st Nagatinsky proezd, 14.

    from metro Nagatinskaya:

    Exit 4 from the metro station, bus stop “Metro Nagatinskaya”. Bus 142 to the stop 1-y Nagatinsky passage. Cross the road, walk along the Post Office and Western Union along the Projected Passage. Exit to 1st Nagatinsky passage. On the left there will be a large red building with a balcony, go up to the balcony, there will be a sign “ElKlinik”.

    from metro Prazhskaya:

    From the Prazhskaya metro station, go to the Nagatinskaya metro station.

    Exit # 5 from the metro station. Trams: 3, 16 to the stop 1st Nagatinsky proezd.

    From the metro exit No. 4, bus stop “Metro Nagatinskaya”, bus t8 to the stop 1-y Nagatinskiy proezd.

    from metro Anino:

    Exit 4 from the metro station. Walk to the Metro Anino bus stop, take bus t40 to the stop 1-y Nagatinskiy proezd.

    Yuzhnaya metro station:

    From the Yuzhnaya metro station, get to the Nagatinskaya metro station.

    From the metro exit No. 4, to the bus t8, or exit No. 5 to trams 3, 16. To the stop 1-y Nagatinskiy proezd.

    from Varshavskaya metro station:

    From the metro go to the bus stop and buses t40, 142, t8 to the stop “1st Nagatinskiy proezd”.

    from Nagornaya metro station:

    From the Nagornaya metro station, get to the Nagatinskaya metro station. Exit 4 to buses t8, 142, n8 (night), t40, or exit 5 to trams 3, 16 to the stop “1st Nagatinskiy proezd”.

    from Tulskaya metro station:

    Exit 2 from the metro, cross Bolshoi Starodanilovskiy lane, on the left there will be a Rigla pharmacy and a chain of stores. Go through the park to the Danilovskaya chapel, turn right and get off at the Serpukhovskaya Zastava tram stop. Take the 3rd tram, get to the stop “1st Nagatinskiy proezd”.

    from Tsaritsyno metro station:

    From Tsaritsyno, get to the Kashirskaya metro station, walk to the bus stop. Take bus t71, get to the stop “1st Nagatinskiy proezd”.

    from metro Orekhovo:

    From the Orekhovo metro station, get to the Kashirskaya metro station, exit No. 4, turn right, go through the monument to G.K. Zhukov, walk to the bus stop. Take bus t71, get to the stop “1st Nagatinskiy proezd”.

    from Domodedovskaya metro station:

    Exit 12 from the metro, there will be a bus stop on the left. Take bus t71. Get to the stop “1st Nagatinskiy proezd”.

    from Chertanovo railway station:

    From the station, cross the road, walk along the Projected passage to Dorozhnaya Street, turn left, walk to the bus stop “Center for Martial Arts”.Buses: 683, 225, 241. Get to the stop “Metro Varshavskaya”. Cross the road, go to the bus stop and buses t40, 142. Get to the stop 1-y Nagatinskiy proezd.

    from Kolomenskaya metro station:

    From the metro, cross the road and walk Beeline and Unistream to the Kolomenskaya metro stop. Take tram 47, 49, get to the Yuvelirny Zavod stop. Turn left towards Projected Passage, walk along the Medical Center and Investigation Department, and pass Dixie.Go around the residential building and walk along the Projected passage until the traffic light. Cross the road to the large red building (house 14) with a balcony. Climb to the balcony, there will be a sign “ElKlinik”.

    Exit 7 from the metro station, to the bus stop “Metro Kolomenskaya”. Buses: 751, 351. Get to the stop “Nagatinskaya embankment, 10”. Walk along the embankment to the Tatneft gas station and the barrier. Walk to the residential building and turn left. Get off at 1st Nagatinsky passage. Go through the Glafira coffee shop to the traffic light.Cross the road. Walk forward and exit to a large red building (house 14) with a balcony. Climb to the balcony, there will be a sign “ElKlinik”.

    Exit 5 from the metro, there will be a bus stop on the right. Buses: 901, 299, 608, t71. Get to the stop “1st Nagatinskiy proezd”. Pass Pyaterochka (will be on the left), turn left towards the Post Office and Western Union, go straight along the Projected passage. Exit to 1st Nagatinskiy proezd. On the left there will be a large red building with a balcony, go up to the balcony, there will be a sign “ElKlinik”.

    from Technopark metro station:

    From the Technopark, get to the Kolomenskaya metro station, exit No. 1, go through “French pastry”, get off at the tram stop. Take tram 47, 49, get to the Yuvelirny Zavod stop. Turn left towards Projected Passage, walk along the Medical Center and Investigation Department, and pass Dixie. Go around the residential building and walk along the Projected passage until the traffic light. Cross the road to the large red building (house 14) with a balcony. Climb to the balcony, there will be a sign “ElKlinik”.

    from Avtozavodskaya metro station:

    From the Avtozavodskaya metro station, get to the Kolomenskaya metro station, exit No. 1, go through the French pastry, get off to the tram stop. Take tram 47, 49, get to the Yuvelirny Zavod stop. Turn left towards Projected Passage, walk along the Medical Center and Investigation Department, and pass Dixie. Go around the residential building and walk along the Projected passage until the traffic light. Cross the road to the large red building (house 14) with a balcony.Climb to the balcony, there will be a sign “ElKlinik”.

    90,000 Indigestion – causes, diseases, diagnosis and treatment


    The information in this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-medication. In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, only the attending physician should prescribe diagnostic tests. For a diagnosis and correct prescription of treatment, you should contact your attending physician.

    Digestive upset: causes of occurrence, in what diseases it occurs, diagnosis and methods of treatment.


    Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that cause indigestion are among the most common in the population. Signs of indigestion to one degree or another are observed in almost a quarter of the world’s population, however, most do not seek help from doctors and are treated on their own, which in some cases threatens the development of complications.

    Diseases of the digestive system can occur even in childhood or adolescence and acquire a chronic course.

    Types of digestive disorders

    Digestive disorders can be divided into two large groups.

    The first includes diseases caused by a lack of pancreatic enzymes and substances necessary for the digestion of food – gastric juice, bile. In these cases, the characteristic symptoms are heartburn, belching, bloating, colic, and pain in the iliac region.

    The second group combines disorders caused by impaired absorption in the intestine. These disorders are characterized by spastic pain, increased peristalsis (rumbling) in the abdomen, a feeling of fullness, unstable defecation (constipation or diarrhea), exhaustion, and muscle weakness.

    Possible causes of digestive upset

    One of the most common causes of digestive upset doctors call esophageal motility disorders .Pathologies of the motor activity of the esophagus lead to difficulty in the movement of food into the stomach and, conversely, to easy ingestion (throwing) of concentrated gastric juice onto the walls of the esophagus.

    Another significant cause is functional dyspepsia , which combines conditions caused by temporary (no more than 3 months) disruption of the stomach, duodenum and pancreas. Patients complain of pain or discomfort in the iliac region, heaviness, a feeling of fullness in the stomach after taking the usual amount of food, bloating, nausea, vomiting, belching, heartburn.Pain is characterized by periodicity (on an empty stomach or at night) and rapid cessation after ingestion of food or drugs that lower the acidity in the stomach.

    If the pains are localized in the left hypochondrium or are of a shingles nature, then problems with the pancreas can be suspected, if in the right – dysfunction of the liver and gallbladder.

    When examining such patients, it is often not possible to identify “organic” diseases (ulcers, tumors, pancreatitis).

    Problems with digestion can occur as a result of functional disorders of the biliary tract (biliary system).They are based on a violation of synchronicity in the work of the gallbladder and the sphincter of Oddi, through which bile enters the duodenum. With a spasm of the sphincter, not only stagnation of bile in the gallbladder occurs, but also a malfunction of the pancreas, which together leads to the appearance of acute pain, which is more often localized in the right hypochondrium and can be given to the back. Attacks are provoked by the intake of fatty and spicy foods, cold drinks, stressful situations. Pain in the right hypochondrium can be combined with a feeling of fullness.Nausea, bitterness in the mouth, bloating, and constipation are also characteristic symptoms.

    Another cause of indigestion is irritable bowel syndrome – painful conditions in which abdominal pain or discomfort resolves after a bowel movement. At the same time, the chair is irregular with a predominance of diarrhea (diarrhea) or constipation.

    As the causes of irritable bowel syndrome, infectious diseases, nervous stress, poor-quality nutrition, the use of a large amount of gas-forming products, overeating are called.

    The main symptoms of this disease are bloating, a cramping abdominal pain that usually worsens after eating and improves after a bowel movement. It is noteworthy that at night the pain stops.

    With diarrhea, the number of bowel movements can be up to 5 times a day, and the urge to defecate may occur after each meal. There is often a feeling of incomplete bowel movement. In case of constipation, the character of feces resembles “sheep”, consisting of small dense pellets.So-called constipation diarrhea may occur – loose stools after several days of its delay.

    Which doctors should I contact for digestive upset

    It is important to remember that the initial symptoms of esophageal spasm and motility disorders occur most often in childhood (regurgitation, sudden vomiting of unchanged food immediately after eating, pain when swallowing) and require consultation with a pediatrician.

    If such symptoms appear in an adult for a long time (more than a month), you should visit a general practitioner to receive a referral for an examination of the gastrointestinal tract and make an appointment with a gastroenterologist.

    Therapists, gastroenterologists and psychotherapists are involved in the treatment of functional digestive disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome.

    Diagnostics and examinations for digestive disorders

    If you suspect a disease of the esophagus, an X-ray is prescribed, which allows you to detect a violation of the passage of barium suspension into the stomach and the expansion of the esophagus. To exclude organic lesions of the esophagus, esophageal manometry and esophagoscopy are performed.

    Diagnosis of functional dyspepsia usually includes a CBC; blood chemistry; analysis of feces for occult blood; C-urease test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection; gastroduodenoscopy in order to visually assess the condition of the stomach wall and exclude its ulcerative lesions and tumors; Ultrasound of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas to clarify their condition.

    Indigestion – what to do and how to treat: symptoms and causes of indigestion

    In Tibetan medicine there is the concept of “ma-zhu” – “ indigestion” , meaning the weakening of the function of the gastrointestinal tract and the inability to digest and assimilate food and drink.


    Causes and conditions provoking depletion of the “fiery” warmth of the stomach:

    • Long-term consumption of raw or “unsuitable” foods
    • Excessive passion for drinking cold water and other hard-to-digest foods
    • Coarse and light food and drink (fat-free, raw)
    • weakened liver
    • transferred hepatitis A, B, C
    • infectious diseases
    • prolonged hypothermia
    • prolonged fasting, rigid diets
    • Incorrect fasting days
    • untimely (irregular) food and drink
    • gastroptosis (gastric emptying)
    • colonoptosis (bowel prolapse)
    • long-term prescription of refrigeration drugs


    • deterioration in appetite (the patient is very picky about food)
    • food is hard to digest, stomach discomfort is felt
    • bloating and fullness in the abdomen
    • Frequent belching, especially after a small meal
    • constipation
    • pain in the solar plexus area
    • stomach rumbling
    • aching pains in the stomach, weakening on palpation
    • body heat reduction
    • decrease in total body temperature <36.6
    • cold, sweaty limbs
    • dry skin
    • “loss” of strength, lethargy
    • pulse becomes weak and slow
    • A thin layer of whitish plaque appears on the tongue
    • dry hair prone to shedding
    • the skin is loose, the symptoms of aging appear quickly
    • The number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin significantly decreases (the body does not absorb iron, nutrients)

    If treatment is not started promptly , anemia develops, the risk of cancer increases, anorexia can be fatal


    Treatment of “ma-zhu” disease in the “Naran” clinic is aimed at increasing the generation of heat in the stomach, “melting” excess mucus, eliminating heaviness in the stomach and normalizing its digestive ability.

    Depending on the symptoms, Tibetan medicines of the corresponding spectrum of action are prescribed:

    • To restore the stomach’s ability to digest food, remove belching, you must take “Ruda-6”
    • To suppress badkan (mucus), increase the “fiery warmth” of the stomach, get rid of severe, sudden pain after a sharp abundant satiety, “Shijid-6” is taken
    • with severe bloating and distention, with nausea and bitterness in the mouth, the doctor of Tibetan medicine prescribes additional medications that eliminate the cause of these symptoms
    • if indigestion is accompanied by excessive agitation, palpitations, it is necessary to take medications that eliminate disturbances in the “wind” system (nervous system)

    You need to eat in small portions, little by little, drink more boiling water and avoid hypothermia.

    Complex treatment in the Naran clinic includes simultaneous internal (Tibetan herbal medicine) and external effects on the body (procedures).

    By external influence we mean a combination (depending on the disease) of the methods of Tibetan medicine.

    A mandatory procedure in the treatment of “ma-zhu” is acupuncture, burning with wormwood cigars at the point of the 12th vertebra and / or at your choice at nine points of the stomach on the anterior surface of the body, deep acupressure of the whole body, including visceral action to improve energy circulation qi and blood.


    1. Harmonization of the systems “wind” (nervous system), “bile” (digestive system), “mucus” (lymphatic system)

    2. Improving the digestive capacity of the stomach – “cauldron for digesting food”

    3. Improving the absorption of nutrient juices by the body, contributing to the renewal of all cells in the body and the emergence of new ones

    4. Elimination of excess mucus in the stomach, which blocks gastric motility, the production of hydrochloric acid for the digestion of food, etc.d.

    5. Normalization of metabolic processes

    6. Elimination of obstructed evacuation of food in the intestine

    7. Prevention of gastroptosis (gastric emptying)

    90,000 Indigestion turned out to be a sign of a fatal disease


    Indigestion turned out to be a sign of a fatal disease

    Indigestion turned out to be a sign of a fatal disease

    Indigestion can be a sign of a deadly disease, Express writes about this with reference to the data of British doctors. RIA Novosti, 03.03.2021

    2021-03-03T01: 06

    2021-03-03T01: 06

    2021-03-03T01: 06




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    MOSCOW, March 3 – RIA Novosti. Indigestion can be a sign of a deadly disease, writes Express, citing data from British doctors, about pancreatic cancer. As a rule, patients suffering from this type of oncology experience a burning sensation in the chest and a bitter unpleasant taste in the mouth. Also, the disease is indicated by general discomfort in the abdomen extending to the back.Painful sensations can be constant or periodic, in the supine state, the patient’s well-being worsens. The unpleasant symptoms are also worse after eating, and in the case of pancreatic cancer, a person can lose weight dramatically. Patients also suffer from nausea, complain of loss of appetite, diarrhea or constipation. Experts strongly recommend that if these symptoms appear, seek medical advice, undergo an examination and start treatment.Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm originating from the epithelium of the glandular tissue or pancreatic ducts. The symptoms of this disease are often nonspecific and not pronounced, and therefore the tumor is found in many cases at the later stages of the process. Earlier, the Russian doctor and TV presenter Alexander Myasnikov said that the formation of blood clots may indicate the presence of cancer. According to him, if a blood clot occurs, the patient should undergo a full examination so that doctors can determine the cause of its occurrence as accurately as possible, as well as exclude other dangerous conditions.


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    oncology, the whole world

    MOSCOW, March 3 – RIA Novosti. Indigestion can be a sign of a deadly disease, writes Express, citing data from British doctors, about pancreatic cancer. As a rule, patients suffering from this type of oncology experience a burning sensation in the chest and a bitter unpleasant taste in the mouth.Also, the disease is indicated by general discomfort in the abdomen extending to the back. Painful sensations can be constant or periodic, in the supine state, the patient’s well-being worsens. The unpleasant symptoms are also worse after eating.

    In addition, in the event of pancreatic cancer, a person can dramatically lose weight. Patients also suffer from nausea, loss of appetite, diarrhea, or constipation.

    Experts strongly recommend that if the listed symptoms appear, seek medical advice, undergo an examination and start treatment.

    March 1, 01:41 Science An unexpected precursor of cancer has been named

    Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm originating from the epithelium of the glandular tissue or pancreatic ducts. The symptoms of this disease are often nonspecific and not pronounced, and therefore the tumor in many cases is found in the later stages of the process.

    Earlier, the Russian doctor and TV presenter Alexander Myasnikov said that the formation of blood clots may indicate the presence of cancer.