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Signs of a staph infection on skin: Staph infections – Symptoms and causes


Causes and Prevention Tips – Cleveland Clinic

The bacteria that causes a staph infection, staphylococcus aureus, is all around you all the time. It lives on surfaces and on the ground. You might also carry it on your skin and in your nose. So how does it go from harmless companion to troublesome foe?

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“Typically, we get along with staphylococcus just fine,” says family medicine physician Donald Ford, MD, MBA. But when staph enters your body through a nick or cut in your skin, it may result in an infection.

These infections are usually minor and can be treated with
antibiotics. Staph can become much more serious, though — even life-threatening
— if it somehow finds its way into your bloodstream, lungs, bones, joints or

Different types of staph infections

A staph infection might show up on your skin as:

  • Blisters: These look similar to whiteheads or pimples. Once they break open and the pus drains out, the infection’s threat goes away.
  • Boils: Boils are deeper than blisters and are often painful. The skin surrounding a boil appears red, swollen and sore.
  • Impetigo:  This is a contagious skin rash that sometimes secretes fluid that forms a yellow crust over the rash. Though impetigo is painful or itchy, it’s typically not serious. It’s most common in children.
  • Cellulitis: If your infection gets under the layers of your skin and spreads, it could cause skin inflammation called cellulitis. Your skin will look red and swollen and may be warm to the touch. You may even develop sores. Cellulitis can become more serious if it’s not treated immediately.

Most staph infections on the skin are easy to treat and
typically respond well to antibiotics or by draining the infected area, Dr.
Ford says.

“We treat more superficial skin infections such as impetigo
for a few days,” he says. “A deeper boil or an abscess may need to be drained
and can take up to a few weeks to heal.”

When staph is serious

If staph moves deeper into your body, it becomes dangerous
and may require a longer course of treatment — or even hospitalization.

Serious forms of a staph infection include:

  • Endocarditis: Endocarditis occurs when staph enters your bloodstream and attacks your heart. Doctors typically treat it with strong antibiotics. Surgery is sometimes necessary if the infection damages your heart valves.
  • Sepsis: If your infection is severe, it can enter your bloodstream. This is known as sepsis. It can cause fever and dangerously low blood pressure, and is especially dangerous to older adults.

Some staph bacteria have become resistant to the antibiotics used to treat them. This is known as MRSA, which stands for methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus.

Most MRSA infections are skin infections, but it can also
cause more serious infections. The infected wound may require surgical or local
drainage. Your doctor likely will prescribe a stronger antibiotic to treat it
as well.

How to avoid a staph

Since staph is all around us, it’s not uncommon for a
perfectly healthy person to get a staph infection. The best way to avoid it is
to maintain good hygiene, Dr. Ford says.

  • “Wash your hands, particularly after you’ve been working in the soil or working with food products,” he says.
  • “Make sure food is properly prepared, clean and fresh because if your food gets exposed to staph you can get staph-related food poisoning,” he says.
  • If you get a cut on your skin, treat it immediately. Wash it with soap and water, dry your skin and cover it with a bandage.

If you think you have a staph infection, Dr. Ford suggests
bringing it to your doctor’s attention or going to an emergency care center.

“Staph is sometimes a serious infection if left untreated.
So it’s always a good idea to go see your doctor or another health care
provider if you’re worried you might have a staph infection,” Dr. Ford says.

Staphylococcal skin infection | DermNet NZ

Author: Amy Stanway MBChB, Registrar, Department of Dermatology, Waikato Hospital, Hamilton, New Zealand, 2002. Updated by Dr Jannet Gomez, Postgraduate student in Clinical Dermatology, Queen Mary University London, United Kingdom; Chief Editor: Dr Amanda Oakley, Dermatologist, Hamilton, New Zealand, December 2015.

What is a staphylococcal infection?

A staphylococcal infection is a common bacterial skin infection. 

Staphylococci (‘staph’) are a common type of bacteria that live on the skin and mucous membranes (for example, in the nostrils) of humans. Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus) is the most important of these bacteria in human diseases. Other staphylococci, including S epidermidis, are considered commensals, or normal inhabitants of the skin surface.

About 15–40 per cent of healthy humans are carriers of S aureus, that is, they have the bacteria on their skin without any active infection or disease (colonisation). The carrier sites are usually the nostrils and flexures, where the bacteria may be found intermittently or every time they are looked for.

What causes staphylococcal infection?

Despite being harmless in most individuals, S aureus is capable of causing various infections of the skin and other organs. S aureus infection is common in people with frequent skin injury, particularly if the skin is dry. Staph skin infections are seen most commonly in pre-pubertal children and certain occupational groups such as healthcare workers. But they may occur for no obvious reason in otherwise healthy individuals.

Most staphylococcal infections occur in normal individuals, but underlying illness and certain skin diseases increase the risk of infection. These include:

  • Severe atopic dermatitis
  • Poorly controlled diabetes mellitus
  • Kidney failure, especially those on dialysis
  • Blood disorders such as leukaemia and lymphoma
  • Malnutrition
  • Iron deficiency
  • Alcoholism
  • Intravenous drug users
  • Presence of foreign body eg, prosthetic joint, pacemaker, indwelling catheter, haemodialysis, recent surgical procedure
  • Medication with systemic steroids, retinoids, cytotoxics or immunosuppressives
  • Immunoglobulin M deficiency
  • Chronic granulomatous disease
  • Chediak-Higashi syndrome
  • Job and Wiskott-Aldrich syndromes (associations of severe staphylococcal infection with eczema, raised immunoglobulin E, and abnormal white cell function)

Bacteriology of staphylococcal infection

S aureus bacteria are classified as Gram-positive cocci based on their appearance under a microscope. They may occur singly or grouped in pairs, short chains or grape-like clusters. They are usually facultative anaerobes, that is, they are capable of surviving at various levels of oxygenation, and are generally very hardy organisms.

They are only able to invade via broken skin or mucous membranes, hence intact skin is an excellent human defence. Once they have invaded they have various ways to avoid host defences. They:

  • Hide their antigens to avoid an immune response
  • Kill infection-fighting cells (phagocytes)
  • Survive within host infection-fighting cells.
  • Develop resistance to antibiotics
  • Release toxins (intoxication) – these do not require the presence of live bacteria to have an effect.

Skin diseases caused by staph infections

Staphylococcal skin infection can present in a variety of ways:

Examples of Staphylococcal skin infections

Skin disease due to toxins produced by the bacteria include:

  • Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), which usually affects children less than five years old or rarely, adults with kidney failure.
  • Toxic shock syndrome. This is a relatively uncommon illness usually resulting from the release of Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 (TSST-1) or enterotoxin B. These toxins are also known as superantigens as they are capable of generating a massive inflammatory response. Previous exposure makes a patient immune to these toxins, ie they will not have a second attack.
  • Staphylococcal scarlatina (scarlet fever).

Staphylococcal toxins can also cause food poisoning.

How is staphylococcal infection diagnosed?

The diagnosis of staphylococcal skin infection is often clinical. If there are difficulties in diagnosis, or first-line treatment fails, the diagnosis can be confirmed by a positive laboratory culture of a swab from the infected site or blood culture.

In staphylococcal intoxication, there may be no viable bacteria to culture and the diagnosis may be made retrospectively on the basis of a blood test demonstrating an immune response (seroconversion) to toxins following a compatible illness.

What is the treatment of staphylococcal infection?

The treatment of staphylococcal infection includes:

  • Appropriate antibiotics, including oral antibiotics cephalexin, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate
  • Drainage of pus from infection site
  • Surgical removal (debridement) of dead tissue (necrosis)
  • Removal of foreign bodies (eg stitches) that may be a focus of persisting infection
  • Treating the underlying skin disease (eg atopic eczema)

Antibiotic resistance

Staphylococci are becoming increasingly resistant to many commonly used antibiotics including penicillins, macrolides such as erythromycin, tetracyclines and aminoglycosides.

Penicillin resistance in S aureus is due to production of an enzyme called beta-lactamase or penicillinase. Methicillin (meticillin) and flucloxacillin are lactamase-resistant penicillins so are the antibiotics of choice in most staphylococcal skin infections. Unfortunately, there is now increasing methicillin resistance (MRSA).

Penicillins with a beta-lactamase-inhibitor such as amoxicillin + clavulonic acid may be used to treat S aureus infections and are sometimes effective against bacteria resistant to flucloxacillin. These antibiotics have a broad range of action against several bacteria and are best reserved for patients with mixed bacterial infections.

Patients who are allergic to penicillin are most reliably treated with vancomycin, although for minor infections macrolides such as erythromycin may be adequate. Macrolide resistance is also high among S aureus but macrolides may be taken by mouth whereas vancomycin requires intravenous administration. Other options include clindamycin and rifampicin.

Prevention of staphylococcal infection

Due to widespread antibiotic resistance, it is better to prevent staphylococcal infection where possible.

  • The most effective way is to wash hands often, and before and after touching broken skin.
  • It is also important to clear bacteria colonising the nostrils and under the fingernails with either antibiotic ointment (eg. fusidic acid or mupirocin) or petroleum jelly several times daily for one week of each month.
  • Twice weekly bleach baths are useful.

Could a Lump Be a Staph Infection?

In one word, yes. If you have a lump on the surface or even just below the surface of the skin, you may have a staph infection. These lumps tend to be full of pus and may resemble an abscess or a boil. The bacteria that causes this infection is called staphylococcus, and it tends to cause little to no problems. In fact, approximately 25 percent of people normally carry staph in their nose or mouth, without infection symptoms. When they do cause a problem, it tends to be a minor skin infection. There are cases, however, in which it turns into a staph infection, and those have the potential to turn quite deadly, as they may invade your lungs or heart, bones, joints, and blood. A staph infection can cause impetigo, cellulitis, food poisoning, and even toxic shock syndrome!

Signs of a Staph Infection

Staph infection generally begins as a small area of tenderness, redness, and swelling. A staph infection may cause low blood pressure, and may also cause diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, which will lead to dehydration. The more common symptoms are pus-filled lumps, oozing blisters, and boils in general. While it is rare, a staph infection does have the potential to turn deadly once the bacteria reach deeper into the body and enter the bloodstream. If the infection is at this level, you should expect fevers, as well as joint and muscle pain.

What are the Treatments for Staph?

Your healthcare provider can do a physical exam and evaluate your symptoms. They may also do a culture or other diagnostic tests. If you’re diagnosed with a staph infection, the first thing your doctor will want to do is drain the boils and remove as much of the infection as possible. Following that, most medical professionals prescribe antibiotics. However, some strains have become resistant to antibiotics, which have led to the use of stronger IV antibiotics such as vancomycin. If your infection involves a prosthetic, your doctor will make sure to remove it immediately. 

Is it Contagious?

Yes, a staph infection can be contagious. If you come directly in contact with an infected boil or wound, you will be at risk. The infection remains contagious as long as it is active. The good news is that casual contact, such as shaking hands, should not result in a transfer of the infection.

When Should You See Your Doctor?

If you develop an unusual lump, red area, irritated skin or pain, and sensitivity, you should consult your doctor. Blisters and boils oozing pus are definitely a sign you should consult your medical professional.

At UrgentMED, we have 18 clinics offering fast and affordable medical care. We are the largest comprehensive urgent care network in Southern California, offering a range of services in one location, including physical examinations, laboratory testing, and an in-house pharmacy. If you are concerned about an unusual lump, don’t wait for it to turn into a staph infection. Stop by one of our walk-in clinics today.

Staph Infection | Primary Care

Causes of staph infection

Staph infections are caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, which can live in your body for quite some time without causing harm. Occasionally, these bacteria may come into contact with a cut or other wound, causing an infection.

Staph infections spread easily to others via direct (skin-to-skin) infection or by touching objects and materials that have come into contact with the bacteria.

Staph infections affect more than 3 million Americans each year. Boils, food poisoning, cellulitis and toxic shock syndrome are diseases caused by Staphylococcus.

MRSA is a strain of staph most commonly found in hospital settings that is resistant to many antibiotics and more easily spreads to your bloodstream, joints and organs, causing serious health issues.

Risk factors for staph infection

Anyone can develop a staph infection. People at higher risk for developing staph include:

  • Children in daycare — children can transfer infections between each other, children in daycare are exposed to more germs and have lower immunity built up to fight the infections.
  • People with lowered immune systems — if you have cancer, diabetes or other chronic conditions that lower your immune system, you are at higher risk for developing a staph infection.
  • People who frequent communal environments — locker rooms and shared bathrooms increase the risk of coming into contact with staph bacteria.
  • Athletes — athletes who participate in sports with skin-to-skin contact (wrestling, basketball or football) are more at risk for developing a staph infection.
  • Healthcare workers or healthcare patients — people who work in a healthcare environment or patients receiving care in a hospital or other facility are at greater risk of developing staph and complications from the infection.

Symptoms of staph infection

Symptoms of staph vary from a mild skin infection to life-threatening if it gets into the blood and affects the lining of the heart. Symptoms will differ based on the severity of the infection.


Boils are the most common type of staph infection. Symptoms of staph infections caused by skin abscesses or boils include:

  • Pain and swelling at the affected area
  • Pocket of pus that develops over a hair follicle
  • Typically occurs in the groin or under the arms
  • Large blisters that could ooze fluid
  • Painful rash

Cellulitis is a skin infection in deeper layers of the skin typically caused by Staphlyococcus.

  • Redness and swelling on the surface of the skin
  • Sores or ulcers that ooze discharge (not in all cases)
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome

Staph infections can sometimes produce toxins that lead to staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. This condition occurs in children and babies.

Symptoms include:

  • Fever
  • Rash
  • Blisters — when the blisters break, the top layer of skin can peal to leave a surface looking like a burn
Food poisoning

Food poisoning is often caused by staph bacteria. Symptoms of staph bacteria-induced food poisoning include:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Low blood pressure
  • Dehydration
Septicemia (blood poisoning)

When staph enters the blood stream, it causes septicemia. Symptoms of septicemia include:

  • Fever
  • Low blood pressure
  • Bone and muscle aches
Toxic shock syndrome

Staph bacteria are linked to toxic shock syndrome through the use of tampons. Symptoms of toxic shock syndrome include:

  • High fever
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Muscle aches
  • Rash that resembles a sunburn

Diagnosis of staph infection

Mild staph infections can be diagnosed and treated by your primary care provider, who will ask you about your symptoms and examine any skin lesions.

In most cases, your provider will take a tissue sample and send it to a laboratory to confirm staph bacteria is present. If staph is suspected but there is no skin infection, blood work will be done to confirm diagnosis.

If the infection is severe, you may be sent to the emergency room. If staph is found in the bloodstream, you will be admitted to the hospital to be treated.

Treatments for staph infection

Staph requires an antibiotic treatment, varying based on the severity of the infection. Most cases of staph infection will be treated with oral antibiotics. Occasionally, an infected skin wound will need to be drained, which can be done in your primary care provider’s office.

Staph bacteria are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are challenging to treat and may need IV antibiotics and require hospitalization.

Recovery from staph infection

Each case of staph infection is different, but most often staph will resolve in 1-3 weeks. Once you complete your antibiotic treatment, you’ll no longer be contagious, but you should keep any skin infection clean and covered until it is completely gone.

Staphylococcus aureus – APIC

What is

S. aureus and how does it spread?

Staphylococcus aureus or “staph” is a type of bacteria found on human skin, in the nose, armpit, groin, and other areas. While these germs don’t always cause harm, they can make you sick under the right circumstances. S. aureus is the leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections, such as abscesses, boils, furuncles, and cellulitis (red, swollen, painful, warm skin). S. aureus germs can also cause more serious infections, such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, endocarditis (infection of the inner lining of the heart chambers and heart valves), and bone and joint infections.

S. aureus is spread by touching infected blood or body fluids, most often by contaminated hands.

Who gets

S. aureus infections?

Anyone can develop a S. aureus infection, although certain groups of people are more likely than others. This includes people with conditions such as: diabetes, cancer, vascular disease, eczema, lung disease, and people who inject drugs. Patients who are hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs), patients who have undergone certain types of surgeries, and patients with medical devices inserted in their bodies, such as central lines and catheters, are at greater risk of a more serious S. aureus infection. People who often visit healthcare facilities and nursing home residents are also at an increased risk.

What are the symptoms of

S. aureus infections?

S. aureus infections typically appear on the skin as a pocket of pus surrounded by red, painful skin, or cellulitis.

How is

S. aureus treated?

Treatment depends on the type of infection caused by the bacteria. When antibiotics are prescribed, they are selected based on laboratory testing of the bacteria and may involve more than one type.

Staph bacteria are very adaptable, and many varieties have become resistant to one or more antibiotics. The rise of antibiotic-resistant strains of staph bacteria—often described as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains—has led to the use of IV antibiotics, with the potential for more side effects.

How can you prevent

S. aureus Infections?

To prevent staph infections, practice proper hand hygiene, keep infected areas covered and clean, and avoid sharing personal items like razors, towels, and needles.




Additional resources


Staph Infection | Michigan Medicine

Topic Overview

Staphylococcus aureus (staph) is a type of bacteria that can cause infections. Staph bacteria normally live on the skin. They don’t usually cause problems. They only become a problem when they cause infection. In most cases, you can treat this infection with antibiotics.

For some people, especially those who are weak or ill, staph infections can become serious. Sometimes staph bacteria can cause a widespread infection in the body.

How is staph spread?

Staph bacteria can be spread by touching a person or object. It is often spread from the hands of someone who has a staph infection.

In the hospital, staph infections are more likely to occur in wounds, burns, or places where there is a break in the skin or where tubes enter the body. In the community, staph infections are more likely to occur among people who have cuts or wounds and who have close contact with one another.

What are the symptoms?

Symptoms of a staph infection depend on where the infection is. If the infection is:

  • In a wound, that area of your skin may be red or tender.
  • On your skin, you may get a red, tender boil or abscess.
  • In your blood or more widespread, you may have a fever and feel very ill.

How is a staph infection diagnosed?

Staph infection is diagnosed based on a medical history and a physical exam. Your doctor will ask you questions about your symptoms and your work and home environments.

The doctor will take a sample of your infected wound or a sample of blood, urine, or mucus (sputum) coughed up from the lungs. The sample is tested for staph bacteria. This test may take several days.

In some cases, imaging is done to look for signs of infection. For example, a chest X-ray can show a lung infection.

How is it treated?

If you have a staph infection, your doctor may:

  • Drain your wound.
  • Give you antibiotics as pills or through a needle put in your vein (IV).

You may have to stay in the hospital for treatment. In the hospital, you may be kept apart from others. This is to reduce the chances of spreading the bacteria.

How can you prevent a staph infection?

  • Practice good hygiene.
    • Wash your hands often with soap and clean, running water. You can also use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Hand-washing is the best way to avoid spreading the bacteria.
    • Keep cuts and scrapes clean. Cover them with a bandage. Avoid contact with other people’s wounds or bandages.
    • Don’t share personal items such as towels, washcloths, razors, or clothing.
    • Keep your environment clean by using a disinfectant to wipe surfaces you touch a lot. These include countertops, doorknobs, and light switches.
  • If you’re in the hospital, remind doctors and nurses to wash their hands before and after they touch you.


Current as of: September 23, 2020

Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review: E. Gregory Thompson MD – Internal Medicine
Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine
Elizabeth T. Russo MD – Internal Medicine

Current as of: September 23, 2020

Healthwise Staff

Medical Review:E. Gregory Thompson MD – Internal Medicine & Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine & Elizabeth T. Russo MD – Internal Medicine

Staph Infections in Dogs – Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Recovery, Management, Cost

If an owner notices their pet experiencing a fever and exhibiting weakness and confusion, they should immediately contact a veterinarian. Once a wound is infected, it is not always possible for it to heal on its own.

A veterinarian will suspect a Staph infection if your pet has an infected wound or abscess producing pus, with redness of the surrounding area and pain disproportionate to the size of the injury. Swabs of the wound can be sent to the lab for culturing to definitively identify the cause, but most often this is not necessary, as the treatment for nearly every skin infection is antibiotic ointment sometimes given in conjunction with oral antibiotics.

The Staph genus can also be responsible for infections of almost every major organ. Urinary tract infections are commonly caused by Staph, and present with pain on urination, bloody urine (hematuria) and cloudy, discolored or foul-smelling urine. A veterinarian may request a urine sample for culture, microscopic examination, or perform additional testing as needed. In rare cases, Staph can infect the disks between vertebra in the spinal column, and/or the bone itself. This causes significant pain along with fever, swelling and weight loss. If the inflammation is great enough to compress the spinal cord, tremors and lack of coordination may also appear. The veterinarian may order X-rays, a spinal tap, or blood cultures to definitively diagnose the illness.

The rarest, and most serious form of internal infection is necrotizing fasciitis. Occasionally caused by Staph pseudintermedius, this is a disease of the fascial tissue holding muscles and organs in their place, and quickly becomes systemic. Necrotizing fasciitis progresses rapidly and may require surgical debridement or amputation of affected limbs, and is often fatal. However, this disease is incredibly rare and unlikely to affect most dogs with Staph infections.

90,000 About staphylococcus and staphylococcal infection – Ministry of Health PMR

Staphylococci are a whole genus of microorganisms, today there are already 27 species known, with 14 species found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans. Most staphylococci are completely harmless. Of the 14 species mentioned, most often three are capable of causing disease: Staphylococcus aureus (the most common and harmful), Staphylococcus epidermidis (also pathogenic, but much less dangerous than Staphylococcus aureus) and Saprophytic Staphylococcus – practically harmless, however, also capable of causing disease …

Almost all medical problems associated with staphylococcus imply the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, which has amazing vitality: does not lose activity when dried, lives for 12 hours under the influence of direct sunlight, withstands temperatures of 80 0 C for 30 minutes , does not die in pure ethyl alcohol, is not afraid of hydrogen peroxide.

Staphylococci are ubiquitous, they can be found almost anywhere on the human body and surrounding objects.During the first week of life, 90% of newborns have Staphylococcus aureus in the nasal cavity. In the first two years of life, 20% of children have Staphylococcus aureus in the nasal cavity, and by 4-6 years they are found in 30-50%, in adults, the carriage ranges from 12-50%.

It is important to always distinguish between concepts such as staphylococcus and staphylococcal infection. Staphylococcus aureus is a conditionally pathogenic microorganism, a representative of normal human microflora.The term “opportunistic” means that staphylococcus aureus causes disease only under certain circumstances . It can be in the body for a long time (at least all life) without causing harm to a person and certain conditions must be created for it to cause illness. Namely, weakening of the immune system. If a person’s immune defense is working properly, staphylococcus aureus exists in the body without causing any concern to the “host”. If the immune system fails, staphylococcus aureus can attack the human body, which leads to the appearance of a wide variety of diseases (more than a hundred names): from relatively mild skin pustular infections to such severe processes as pneumonia (pneumonia), meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain), osteomyelitis ( damage to bones), sepsis (inflammation in all human organs or “blood poisoning”), toxic shock and others.The most common toxic staphylococcal disease is foodborne illness.

Of course, staphylococcal infections are treatable. This is done by doctors of various specialties. Treatment of staphylococcal diseases is a surprisingly difficult task, because there is no microbe that can compare with staphylococcus in its ability to develop resistance to antibiotics and other antibacterial agents. Therefore, treatment should be prescribed only after determining the sensitivity to antibacterial agents.All experts agree with this.

The situation is more complicated with a healthy carrier, when the microbe is present in the human body (for example, on the nasopharyngeal mucosa), but the disease does not develop due to the balance of the factors of aggression of the microbe and the defenses of the human immune system. However, the wearer can pose a serious danger to others. Such a person is especially dangerous if he works in the food industry (cook, distributor of ready-made meals), in medicine (nurse of the children’s department, surgeon or obstetrician-gynecologist, etc.)).

Questions of treatment of carriage of Staphylococcus aureus have been exciting the medical community for decades. When should this opportunistic bacterium be dealt with, and when not? What to do with a resistant strain? How to treat it?

Carriage without symptoms does not need to be treated! Nothing and never. Live in peace and forget about this analysis. If Staphylococcus aureus is suddenly sown in a perfectly healthy child or adult in the feces culture (breast milk, swab from the nasopharynx, pharynx, vagina, and so on), it makes no sense to treat it.

When carrying symptoms, you need to be completely sure that they are related to Staphylococcus aureus. Only in this case, after consulting a doctor, you can take a prescription and go to the pharmacy.

People who, being carriers of staphylococcus, in the performance of their professional duties can cause staphylococcal infection in other people, are subject to compulsory treatment. The list of professions whose representatives are subject to treatment in connection with the carriage of staphylococcus is stipulated by a special directive document.In addition to medical workers, it includes, for example, catering workers. The danger of staphylococcus carriage in this category also lies in the fact that staphylococci can get into cooked food and cause a massive foodborne disease. It also makes sense to undergo treatment for healthy carriers of staphylococcus living together with people who suffer from repeated staphylococcal infections (for example, furunculosis) or severe chronic diseases.

Treatment of carriage of Staphylococcus aureus with antibiotics is inappropriate.There are enough other means in the arsenal of specialists. Antibiotic treatment of dysbiosis with a high content of staphylococcus is completely contraindicated, since this will lead to the opposite result – more intensive reproduction of staphylococcus.

Prevention of staphylococcal infection includes: adherence to the rules of personal hygiene, rejection of bad habits, healthy eating and good sleep. It is necessary to avoid general hypothermia and overheating, timely treat microtraumas of the skin with antiseptics (iodine, brilliant green).It is necessary to identify and treat carriers of Staphylococcus aureus, especially those working in health care and public catering institutions, during the treatment, such persons are not allowed to perform their duties

Do not despair if you are diagnosed with staphylococcus aureus. You can defeat him, it will be easier to do this with timely access to a doctor and strict implementation of recommendations for treatment and prevention, however, this rule applies to any disease. Always check with your doctor.

Be healthy.

Doctor epidemiologist S. S. Pynzar

Sowing for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), quantitative result

Microbiological study to identify infection with Staphylococcus aureus and determine the amount of the pathogen. When pathogenic and / or opportunistic microorganisms are detected, their sensitivity to antimicrobial drugs (antibiotics and bacteriophages) will be determined.Otherwise, the sensitivity to antibiotics and bacteriophages is not determined, because has no diagnostic value.

Staphylococcus aureus culture, MRSA culture (Methicillin-resistant S. aureus culture), quantitative.

Microbiological method.

What biomaterial can be used for research?

Breast milk, feces, throat swab, conjunctival swab, nasal swab, urogenital swab (with prostate secretion), sputum, wound drainage, ear drainage, rectal swab, mid-morning urine.

How to properly prepare for the study?

Staphylococcus aureus (Staphylococcus aureus) are gram-positive opportunistic bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus, which are the most common cause of staphylococcal, in particular nosocomial, infections. Staphylococcus aureus can normally be located on the skin, nasal mucosa, and less often in the larynx, vagina, and intestines. They are found in 30% of healthy people.

If a person has a weak immune system or the normal composition of microflora is disturbed, then if the skin (mucous membranes) is damaged, Staphylococcus aureus can lead to a variety of local and systemic infectious and inflammatory lesions:

  • skin (carbuncles, impetigo, folliculitis),
  • mammary glands (mastitis),
  • respiratory tract and ENT organs (tonsillitis, sinusitis, otitis media, pharyngitis, laryngotracheitis, pneumonia),
  • urinary tract (urethritis, cystitis, pyelonephritis),
  • of the digestive system (enterocolitis, appendicitis, peritonitis, paraproctitis, cholecystitis),
  • osteoarticular system (osteomyelitis, arthritis).

In some cases, generalization of the infection with the development of septicopyemia is possible. The enterotoxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus causes food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome. The main sources of infection are healthy (carriers) and sick people, pets and farm animals, as well as food containing the causative agent of the infection (most often these are sugar-containing dairy products). Infection can occur by contact and airborne dust. Autoinfection is possible.

To identify Staphylococcus aureus, the clinical material is cultured on nutrient media, where, in the presence of S. aureus, growth of golden colonies is observed after 18-24 hours.

Determining the number of bacteria may be required, for example, to understand whether treatment is necessary: ​​in some cases, if the amount is small, treatment is not carried out. The decision on its need depends on the clinical manifestations, as well as on the amount of staphylococcus. With a low content of microbes and the absence of symptoms, treatment may not be needed at all, because.because and normally these microbes can be found on the mucous membrane. Staphylococcus aureus in the intestines is constantly detected, this is not a reason for treatment, but if its amount is exceeded, then measures are needed (the bacterium can cause colic and frustration). Staphylococcus aureus in a smear without vaginitis symptoms is also the norm, while large amounts of staphylococcus in a smear, along with an increase in white blood cells, require treatment.

The presence of staphylococcus does not necessarily mean an infection, it may be asymptomatic carriage, for example, when nasal and pharyngeal swabs are cultured, the number of bacteria up to 10 3 is considered a carrier.However, higher rates tell us about Staphylococcus aureus as the cause of the disease, and this is far from asymptomatic carriage.

Much depends on the age of the patient. For example, Staphylococcus aureus in the amount of 10 4 is a completely normal indicator for children over 1 year old, but in infants in such an amount it will already require treatment.

In any case, the presence of staphylococcus in the absence of symptoms of the disease is not yet a reason for prescribing drugs.

The number of staphylococcus can be determined before and after treatment. If it turns out that the growth of the pathogen is abundant, then the infection is gaining momentum, the previous therapy was unsuccessful and a new course of treatment is urgently required; moderate and meager growth of microorganisms according to the results of recent analyzes indicates the success of therapy. In addition, in the future, it is necessary to control the number of staphylococci within 1 or 2 months after the treatment.

It was also noted that after the stay of patients in the surgical clinic, staphylococcus was found in them twice as often as on admission.In patients admitted to hospitals, there is a replacement of antibiotic-sensitive staphylococci with antibiotic-resistant ones.

Treatment of patients with staphylococcal disease with penicillin preparations or other long-used antibiotics often remains unsuccessful, since such drugs often only aggravate the severity of the infection. Therefore, it is so important to establish which antibiotics will be effective in treating staphylococcus aureus.

What is the research used for?

  • To determine the appropriateness of treatment.
  • To differentiate between carriers of bacteria and dangerous infection.
  • To monitor the patient’s condition after treatment.
  • To confirm that Staphylococcus aureus is the cause of the disease (as evidenced by high culture rates).

Reference values: no growth.

Staphylococcus aureus in a smear in small quantities is part of the normal human microflora.A significant increase in staphylococcus in a smear can be a symptom of an inflammatory process, skin infections (acne, etc.) and very dangerous diseases (pneumonia, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, etc.). The seeding result is interpreted by the doctor based on the amount of microorganisms isolated.

Staphylococcal food intoxication | State Institution “Minsk City Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology”

Staphylococcal food intoxication is an acute disease arising from the consumption of foods containing staphylococcal enterotoxin, characterized by a predominant lesion of the stomach, a sudden onset, a combination of intoxication and gastroenteritis syndromes.

The causative agents of staphylococcal food intoxication belong to the genus Staphylococcus. Most often it is Staphylococcus aureus – Staphylococcus aureus. The causative agents of food intoxication themselves do not take part in the pathogenesis of the disease, i.e. the accumulation of microorganisms in a food product only ensures the production of toxins, which cause manifestations of the disease.

The pathogen itself is well preserved in the external environment, characterized by a relatively high resistance to drying, freezing, exposure to sunlight and chemicals.In a dried state, it can last up to 6 months, in dust – 50-100 days, it may not die for many hours under the influence of direct sunlight. Staphylococcus aureus can tolerate heating at 70-80 ° C for up to 20-30 minutes, at 150 ° C for 10 minutes, and when boiled, it dies instantly (some strains tolerate heating to 100 ° C for half an hour).

Staphylococcus is capable of multiplying in the range from 6.6 to 45 ° C.

Staphylococcal food poisoning is more often associated with the use of milk and dairy products (sour cream, cottage cheese, etc.)etc.), meat, fish and vegetable dishes, cakes, pastries, canned fish, meat semi-finished products and ready-made food products, especially “complex dishes”, meat, chickens and products made from them, as well as salads are of epidemiological importance. Staphylococcus aureus is able to multiply in food without changing its organoleptic properties (smell, taste).

The rate of enterotoxin production by staphylococci depends not only on the massiveness of the initial seeding and storage conditions of food products (time, temperature), but also on their chemical composition of products (content of carbohydrates, proteins, fats), acidity, etc.

Enterotoxins are resistant to heating (for the destruction of enterotoxin, boiling food is required for at least 2 hours, which is usually not done, since this deteriorates the organoleptic properties of the products).

The source of infection can be a person or an animal (sick and carriers). The danger is posed by persons with infectious diseases of the upper respiratory tract, since this can lead to contamination of food by aerogenic means, as well as persons with diseases and skin wounds (pyoderma, panaritium, suppurating cuts and burns, etc.).e). Animals (cows, goats, sheep, etc.) can be attributed to additional sources of infection (transmission factor – milk in the presence of mastitis and meat). Food products can be contaminated with staphylococcus aerogenically with nasopharyngeal discharge or by contact when the pathogen gets from the skin of a person to inventory, dishes, equipment or directly to food.

Main clinical manifestations. The incubation period for staphylococcal intoxication is short – from 30 minutes to 6 hours, more often – 2-4 hours.The disease begins acutely, the clinical picture is dominated by symptoms of gastritis in the form of repeated vomiting, there is a cutting pain in the abdomen (epigastric region or around the navel), reminiscent of stomach cramps, the nature of the stool may not change or diarrhea is noted, an increase in body temperature.

The main measures for the prevention of staphylococcal toxicosis are:

  • Timely identification of persons with inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract and pustular skin lesions and their removal from the conditions of cooking or contact with ready-made meals;
  • timely sanitary and veterinary control over the health of dairy and slaughter animals and the safety of animal food raw materials;
  • compliance with the rules of personal hygiene;
  • exclusion of contact and separation of flows of raw materials, semi-finished products and finished products
  • Compliance with food preparation technology (including heat treatment modes), as well as ensuring temperature storage conditions and the timing of the sale of products.

Staphylococcal infection – Humanitas

The causative agent of staphylococcal infections is staphylococcal bacteria, a type of microorganism often found on the skin or in the nasal cavity, even in healthy people. In most cases, these bacteria do not cause damage or cause relatively mild skin infections.

However, staphylococcal infections can be fatal if bacteria enter deeper parts of the body, such as the bloodstream, joints, bones, lungs, or heart.

Previously, deaths from staphylococcal infection were recorded in people hospitalized with a chronic illness or in people with a weakened immune system. There is an increasing number of otherwise healthy people developing life-threatening forms of staphylococcal infection. Many forms of staphylococcal infection do not respond to treatment with nonspecific antibiotics.


The manifestations of staphylococcal infection are varied: from minor skin disorders to endocarditis – a life-threatening infection of the lining of the heart valves.Therefore, the signs and symptoms of staphylococcal infections differ depending on the location and severity of the infection.

Skin infections

Skin infections caused by staphylococcal bacteria include the following:

Boils . A boil, a purulent sac that forms on a hair follicle or sebaceous gland, is the most common form of staphylococcal infection. The skin overlying the affected area usually becomes red and swollen.When a boil is opened, pus, blood, or an amber fluid may be released. Most often, boils form in the armpits or around the groin or buttocks.
Impetigo . It is a contagious, often painful rash that can develop in people of all ages, but is most common in infants and young children. The forms of impetigo caused by staphylococcal bacteria are characterized by the formation of large blisters, from which fluid can be released and on which a honey-colored crust can form.Most often, these ulcers are found around the nose and mouth.
Phlegmon . Phlegmon is an inflammation of the deep layers of the skin, characterized by redness and swelling of the surface layer of the skin. Ulcers or areas of fluid may also form. Most often, phlegmon occurs in the elderly and affects the legs and feet.
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome Toxins produced against the background of staphylococcal infection can cause the development of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome.This condition mainly affects infants and is characterized by fever, rash and, in some cases, blistering. When the blisters rupture, the top layer of the skin comes off, leaving a red, raw area that resembles a burn.
Bacteremia .

Also known as blood poisoning, bacteremia develops when staphylococcal bacteria enter the bloodstream. One of the signs of bacteremia is persistent fever. Bacteria can penetrate deeper parts of the body, causing damage.

  • Internal organs such as brain, heart or lungs
  • Bones and Muscles
  • Surgically implanted devices such as artificial joints and pacemakers.

Infectious toxic shock.

This life-threatening condition develops under the influence of toxins produced by certain strains of staphylococcal bacteria and is associated with the use of certain types of tampons, as well as with the presence of skin lesions and surgery.It usually develops suddenly and is accompanied by the following signs and symptoms:

  • High temperature
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Rash on the palms and soles of the feet, resembling a sunburn
  • Confusion of consciousness
  • Muscle pain
  • Convulsions
  • Headache

Septic arthritis

Staphylococcal infection often causes septic arthritis. Bacteria usually target the knee joints, but other joints can also be affected: ankle, hip, wrist, elbow, or shoulder.Signs and symptoms include:

  • Joint edema
  • Severe pain in the affected joint
  • Temperature rise
  • Shivering or chills

Conditions under which you need to see a doctor

If your child has any of the following symptoms, see a doctor:

  • Red, irritated or painful area on the skin
  • The appearance of pus-filled blisters
  • Temperature rise

You may need to consult a doctor on the following issues:

  • Skin infection spreads from one family member to another
  • A skin infection developed simultaneously in two or more family members


When staphylococcal bacteria enter the bloodstream, an infection can develop that affects the entire body.It is called “sepsis” and can lead to septic shock, a life-threatening condition with extremely low blood pressure.

90,000 Treatment of staphylococcal infection in children in Moscow: diagnostics, services, doctors

Moscow infectious disease specialists – latest reviews

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October 23, 2021

This is not the first time I have visited this doctor.This was a repeat appointment. I liked the doctor, so I did not change him and intend to contact this specialist again. At the reception, Irina Vladimirovna listened very attentively, understood everything, chose the right treatment. Has passed control tests. The treatment helped. I recommend this doctor.


October 20, 2021

Kirill Alexandrovich is a very good, young, attentive and wonderful doctor.My diagnosis sounds unspecified parasitic invasion. He explained something to me, examined, questioned, made assumptions, made recommendations, and I am being treated. There are no negative and no complaints. The appointment was on time. At the end of the treatment, I will apply again. I would recommend it to my friends.


October 15, 2021

The reception went well.Lyubov Anatolyevna is an excellent, good, sensitive and attentive doctor. At the reception, the specialist listened to me carefully, clarified everything according to my situation. From the consultation I got everything I expected.


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Everything went great.A good doctor. There is no infectious disease specialist in the clinic, but I needed a consultation. Tatyana Yurievna issued a referral for tests to clarify whether I had a virus. I was pleased with the reception.


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I visited this doctor twice.I did not see any vaunted attentiveness in the reviews.
At the first appointment, when I began to tell him my problems, he interrupted me, without listening to anything, wrote out a referral for tests, pills and sent me home.
The antispasmodic, which he prescribed for the first time, did not work, the pain intensified, I told him about it, to which I heard ‘understandable’ and not a word more.
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Decide for yourself to see such doctors or not.


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Show 10 reviews of 2,774 90,000 Canine Staphylococcosis | Veterinary and Life

Therefore, it is necessary to know how the signs of infection with certain microorganisms, in particular, pathogenic staphylococci, appear, and how to treat a particular infection.Staphylococcosis is especially common among dogs.

Staphylococcosis is a group of diseases caused by pathogenic staphylococci of the following species: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus epidermidis. Pathology can develop in two main ways. The first is that staphylococcus aureus independently causes the disease. In the event that he joins an already existing problem, we are talking about a secondary form.Thus, staphylococcus in dogs can affect various organs (skin, eyes, ears, mucous membranes of the nasal and oral cavities, genitourinary system, blood, etc.), but due to the fact that there are characteristic symptoms, you can notice the disease in time and start treatment.

Staphylococcus aureus belongs to gram-positive microorganisms. It has a spherical shape and is defined as clusters that resemble a bunch of grapes. The name of the bacteria originated from lat. Staphylococcus, from the Greek.σταφυλή – “bunch of grapes” and Greek. κόκκος – “grain, berry”.

Each dog has its own predisposition to the pathogen or, on the contrary, resistance.

When the body is highly resistant to infection, a huge dose of infection is required.

At the same time, the main predisposing factors contributing to the disease should be identified:

– high level of carbohydrates in the body of dogs;

– violation of immunity;

– vitamin deficiency, or rather a lack of vitamins A, E, group B;

– poisoning of the body;

– skin diseases, in particular, ticks, fleas, allergic reactions, etc.;

– the mood of the immune system in the form of a lack of resistance to this particular pathogen.

Almost all the symptoms that staphylococcus causes are associated with a skin condition. Perhaps this is due to the fact that in an animal, the skin is not capable of performing a protective function as effectively as, for example, human skin. The most commonly recorded pyoderma, which can cause: Staphylococcus aureus, hemolytic, pseudointermedius and intermediate, sometimes Staphylococcus epidermidis.This pathology is classified depending on the depth to which the pathological process extends. The superficial form is expressed in the form of the appearance of shallow erosions and not very pronounced itching. Touching them causes pain. This form can be with the appearance of wet erosion. They are provoked by skin trauma or constant scratching due to the presence of parasites on the dog’s skin. Most often, Staphylococcus aureus is detected in the tail area, on the neck, under the chest and on the legs, in those places where the skin is thinnest and, therefore, more vulnerable.An exacerbation of the disease can be in summer or spring, that is, in the warm season.

In addition, pyoderma with superficial skin lesions can occur in dogs with pronounced skin folds. In the process of life, various secretions and food residues accumulate in them. In the absence of ventilation, an infection joins, which, as a rule, is the pathogenic types of staphylococci.

In addition to the skin, in dogs, staphylococcus aureus can also affect the mucous membranes of the mouth, eyes, reproductive organs; ears.

There is another symptom that often occurs in dogs, and owners may not be aware that it is also caused by staphylococcus aureus. We are talking about otitis media. It can be a latent course or a violent disease. In some cases, the pathology even affects the tissues of the inner ear, which manifests itself in the form of ulcers and erosions. If this pathology is not cured in time, conjunctivitis and rhinitis may join.

To recognize staphylococcosis in a dog, you should see a doctor as soon as possible at the first symptoms.

The basis for the diagnosis of staphylococcosis is bacteriological analysis. As a pathological material, the following is sent to the laboratory: samples of pus, sputum, washings from the nose, mouth, gums, ears and conjunctiva, blood, stool, ear puncture, scrapings from the skin, food samples can also serve as material for bacteriological research.

Specialists of the Krasnodar MVL Federal State Budgetary Institution diagnose canine staphylococcosis using classical bacteriological methods, as well as imported test systems.The research period is 4-5 days.

A timely diagnosis will make it possible to correctly conduct treatment, taking into account the sensitivity of the isolated staphylococcus culture to antibacterial drugs, to obtain a therapeutic effect.

Source: press service of the Federal State Budgetary Institution Krasnodar MVL

Staphylococcus aureus (Latin – Staphylococcus aureus)

Staphylococcus aureus (Staphylococcus aureus) is a spherical, immobile and aerobic (airborne) bacterium, positively stained according to Gram, which causes various diseases in children and less often in adults.

Staphylococcus aureus got its name from the golden glow that it emits when sown on a nutrient medium. Translated from the Greek slaphyle – “bunch” and coccus – “spherical”, staphylococcus under the microscope resembles a bunch of grapes. Staphylococcus aureus is widespread in the environment, it can be sown from household items, from toys, from medical instruments, from breast milk and affected skin and mucous membranes of a sick and healthy person.

Why Staphylococcus aureus is dangerous

Normally, Staphylococcus aureus lives on the skin and mucous membranes of almost all people.But healthy people with good immunity do not get sick with staphylococcal infection, since normal microflora suppresses the growth of staphylococcus and does not allow its pathogenic nature to manifest. But when the body’s defenses are weakened, the microbe “raises its head” and causes various diseases, up to blood poisoning or sepsis.

The high pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus is associated with three factors.

  • Firstly, the microorganism is highly resistant to antiseptics and environmental factors (it can withstand boiling for 10 minutes, drying, freezing, ethyl alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, with the exception of green stuff).
  • Secondly, Staphylococcus aureus produces the enzymes penicillinase and lidase, which makes it protected from almost all antibiotics of the penicillin series and helps to melt the skin, including sweat glands, and penetrate deep into the body.
  • And thirdly, the microbe produces endotoxin, which leads to both food poisoning and a syndrome of general intoxication of the body, up to the development of an infectious-toxic shock.

And, of course, it should be noted that there is no immunity to Staphylococcus aureus, and a person who has had a staphylococcal infection may become infected with it again.

Staphylococcus aureus is especially dangerous for infants in the hospital. It is in hospitals that the concentration of this microbe in the environment is high, to which the violation of the rules of asepsis and sterilization of instruments and the carriage of staphylococcus among honey is of no small importance. staff.


It is indisputable that the cause of staphylococcal infection is, as a rule, Staphylococcus aureus. Infection occurs with a decrease in immunity, which is facilitated by a number of factors:

  • taking antibiotics and hormonal drugs;
  • stress;
  • improper nutrition;
  • hypo- and avitaminosis; 90,070
  • infections;
  • intestinal dysbiosis;
  • non-observance of personal hygiene rules;
  • prematurity;
  • Immaturity of the child at birth;
  • artificial feeding;
  • late attachment to the breast.

Types of staphylococcal infection

Distinguish between generalized and local forms of staphylococcal infection.

Generalized forms include sepsis (septicopyemia and septicocemia).

Local forms include diseases of the skin, mucous membranes, internal organs, bones, joints, mammary glands and umbilical cord. Also, a separate column is to highlight food poisoning with staphylococcal endotoxin.

In addition, staphylococcal infection can be primary and secondary (if there is a primary focus).Acute, protracted and chronic forms are distinguished along the course, and according to the severity of staphylococcal infections of mild, moderate and severe.

Symptoms depending on the affected organ

Symptoms of staphylococcal infection depend on the place of localization of staphylococcus in the child’s body and on the degree of decrease in the body’s defenses. The main signs of staphylococcal infection include

  • increased body temperature
  • pronounced intoxication syndrome (lethargy, weakness, lack of appetite, nausea).


Damage to the umbilical wound by the microbe, which is accompanied by edema of the umbilical ring, purulent discharge from the wound. When the umbilical vein is involved in the process, a thickened and thickened vein is felt. There is also hyperemia, which spreads upward towards the sternum.

Skin lesions

  • With pseudofurunculosis (damage to sweat glands, not sebaceous glands), dense, red nodules appear in the skin folds (accumulation of sweat glands), which then fester.
  • Vesiculopustulosis is characterized by the formation of bubbles with a liquid content, which spontaneously break open and a crust forms in their place.
  • Exfoliative dermatitis (Ritter’s disease), or scalded skin syndrome, is characterized by the formation of large blisters that resemble burns, then the skin sloughs off and unprotected wounds form.
  • Abscess – damage to the deep layers of the skin with visible redness and induration. A cavity containing pus is formed.
  • Panaritium – defeat of the extreme phalanx of the finger.
  • Phlegmon – in addition to the skin, the subcutaneous tissue is involved in the process, which festers.

Eye damage

With damage to the mucous membrane of the eyes, conjunctivitis develops (photophobia, lacrimation, eyelid edema, purulent discharge from the eyes).

Damage to the respiratory tract

Rhinitis – redness of the mucous membrane with profuse purulent discharge from the nose. With the penetration of the infection, angina develops below, characterized by a sore throat, pharyngitis, tracheitis with a dry and painful cough.

Infection of the bronchi and lungs leads to bronchitis and pneumonia. As a rule, bronchitis and pneumonia are combined with pharyngitis, rhinitis, tracheitis.

There is a significant increase in temperature (up to 39-40 ° C), dry cough, shortness of breath.

Development of airway stenosis is possible.

Damage to the central nervous system

Penetration of Staphylococcus aureus into the brain leads to the development of meningitis and brain abscess.Diseases in children are difficult, with high fever and symptoms of intoxication.

Characterized by “cerebral” vomiting, headaches, positive meningeal symptoms, episyndrome and skin rash. With a spinal puncture, the fluid flows out under pressure, has a greenish tint with an admixture of pus.

Damage to the urinary tract

Urethritis, cystitis, pyelonephritis develop. Typical symptoms: frequent and painful urination, pain in the lumbar region, high temperature.In urine tests, protein, a large number of leukocytes are determined, Staphylococcus aureus is sown.

Damage to bones and joints

When bones and joints become infected, arthritis and osteomyelitis develop.

Food toxicoinfection

It develops when eating contaminated or spoiled food and proceeds with symptoms of acute enterocolitis. Characterized by an increase in temperature, nausea, vomiting up to 10 or more times a day, loose stools with an admixture of greenery.


Blood infection or sepsis, occurs with severe immunodeficiency. The course of the disease is severe, with a very high fever, severe symptoms of intoxication, impaired consciousness (from excitement to lethargy).

With the development of an infectious-toxic shock, blood pressure drops sharply, the patient loses consciousness and may fall into a coma.

Septicopyemia – circulation of Staphylococcus aureus in the blood with the formation of purulent foci, both on the child’s skin and in internal organs.

Septicemia is characterized by the development of infectious toxicosis. Septicemia can be complicated by the addition of pneumonia, the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation and so on.


Differential diagnosis of staphylococcal infection should be carried out with streptococcal infection. In the diagnosis of diseases of staphylococcal etiology, the following serological methods are used, which are fast and highly accurate:

  • A standard coagulase test in a test tube, which lasts 4 hours, but if the result is negative, it is extended by a day.
  • Latex agglutination, which uses commercial sets of latex particles associated with antibodies to staphylococcus (A-protein, clumping factor and a number of surface antigens), which makes it also useful for species and strain identification of the pathogen

Also used:

  • General blood and urine tests (leukocytosis, neutrophilia, increased ESR are determined in the blood, and protein, leukocytes, staphylococci in the urine).
  • Sowing biological material on nutrient media.

Sowing on nutrient media is carried out in order to identify the causative agent of the disease and determine its sensitivity and resistance to antibiotics.

Feces culture should be performed no later than 3 hours after a bowel movement, swabs from the mucous membranes of the mouth and nasopharynx should be taken on an empty stomach, before brushing your teeth and before taking medications.

A swab for staphylococcal conjunctivitis is taken from the lower eyelid with a sterile swab dipped in distilled water and before washing.

In case of skin diseases, smears are taken after preliminary treatment of the skin around the wound with an antiseptic solution and removal of necrotic areas (crusts) from the wound.

  • Vidal agglutination reaction

Allows to determine the dynamics of the disease and the effectiveness of treatment. It is carried out 2 or more times with intervals of 7-10 days. An increase in the titer of antibodies in the blood of more than 1: 100 indicates the progression of the infection.

  • Phage typing of isolated staphylococci

Allows you to determine the sensitivity of the microbe to phage viruses for the appointment of appropriate treatment.


Antibiotics are not required for milder forms of staphylococcal infection.

For moderate and severe forms, semi-synthetic penicillins (amoxiclav) are prescribed, which are effective in the resistance of the microorganism to penicillins and cephalosporins (kefzol, ceftriaxone).

The duration of treatment depends on the severity of the disease and infection of the skin or internal organs (from 7 days to several months).

For purulent-inflammatory skin diseases (furunculosis, carbuncle, impetigo), local treatment is prescribed – mupirocin or pleuromutilin derivatives.In their absence, the wounds can be treated with antiseptic solutions: brilliant green, hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate and antibacterial ointments (synthomycin, oleandomycin ointments, bactroban).

With conjunctivitis, the eyes are washed daily with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, and a 30% solution of albucide is instilled 4-5 times a day.

In case of purulent skin lesions (abscesses, phlegmon), a surgical opening of the abscesses is performed for the outflow of pus.

In addition, the appointment of antistaphylococcal bacteriophage, antistaphylococcal plasma and immunoglobulin is shown (for sepsis and severe disease).

In case of staphylococcal food toxicoinfection, antibiotics are not prescribed, antistaphylococcal toxoid is used. Carry out gastric lavage and replenishment of the circulating blood volume by intravenous infusion of saline solutions (saline solution, glucose solution, rehydron and others).

For the prevention of intestinal dysbiosis, it is recommended to use antifungal drugs (diflucan, nystatin) in parallel with antibiotics.

At the same time, immunocorrective therapy is prescribed (vitamins of group B, C, levamisole, Taktivin and others).