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Signs of about to throw up: Hypokalemia (Low Potassium): Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment


Hypokalemia (Low Potassium): Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment

If you have hypokalemia, that means you have low levels of potassium in your blood. Potassium is a mineral your body needs to work normally. It helps muscles to move, cells to get the nutrients they need, and nerves to send their signals. It’s especially important for cells in your heart. It also helps keep your blood pressure from getting too high.


There are many different reasons you could have low potassium levels. It may be because too much potassium is leaving through your digestive tract. It’s usually a symptom of another problem. Most commonly, you get hypokalemia when:

It’s possible, but rare, to get hypokalemia from having too little potassium in your diet. Other things sometimes cause it, too, like:

Several syndromes can be associated with low potassium, such as:

Women tend to get hypokalemia more often than men.


If your problem is temporary, or you’re only slightly hypokalemic, you might not feel any symptoms. Once your potassium levels fall below a certain level, you might experience:

Hypokalemia can affect your kidneys. You may have to go to the bathroom more often. You may also feel thirsty.

You may notice muscle problems during exercise. In severe cases, muscle weakness can lead to paralysis and possibly respiratory failure.


You will need a blood test for your doctor to find out if you have hypokalemia. They will ask you about your health history. They’ll want to know if you’ve had any illness that involved vomiting or diarrhea. They’ll ask about any conditions you might have that could be causing it.

You may take a urine test so your doctor can find out if you’re losing potassium when you pee.

Since low potassium sometimes can affect your blood pressure, your doctor will check that, too. They also may want to do an electrocardiogram (EKG) if they think you may have arrhythmia. This is one of the more serious side effects, and might change the way your doctor chooses to treat the problem.


You can get more potassium by taking supplements. Most of these you can take by mouth. In some cases it’s necessary to get your potassium injected by IV. For example:

  • If your potassium level is dangerously low
  • If taking supplements don’t raise your potassium levels
  • If your low potassium levels cause abnormal heart rhythms

When your hypokalemia is a result of another medical condition, your doctor will help you treat that. If you have low potassium because of diuretics, they may take you off them. Sometimes that makes the condition go away.

Always check with your doctor before you stop any medicine. Also, ask them before you take any potassium supplements. This might cause too much potassium to build up in your system, which could lead to hyperkalemia.

Products to Avoid, Foods With Milk In Them and Tips

Use this list to check food labels for cow’s milk or milk products. Also, ask your doctor if sheep and goat’s milk are safe. For most people with a milk allergy, the answer is no — the proteins in sheep and goat’s milk are similar to those in cow’s milk and also cause a reaction.

Don’t get lactose intolerance confused with a milk allergy. They’re not the same thing. Lactose intolerance is when you can’t digest lactose, the sugar found in dairy products. You’ll often get symptoms like stomach pain, gas, and diarrhea. With a milk allergy, the symptoms affect more than just your digestive tract. A milk allergy is when your immune system thinks dairy is a foreign invader and attacks it by releasing chemicals called histamines. Symptoms can range from wheezing problems to vomiting and diarrhea.

Dairy Products to Avoid

  • Butter and butter fat
  • Cheese, including cottage cheese and cheese sauces
  • Cream, including sour cream
  • Custard
  • Milk, including buttermilk, powdered milk, and evaporated milk
  • Yogurt
  • Ice cream
  • Pudding

Foods With Milk in Them

These foods often contain cow’s milk protein. Check their labels before buying. If you’re eating out, ask if milk was used to make them.

  • Au gratin dishes and white sauces
  • Baked goods — bread, cookies, crackers, cakes
  • Battered and fried foods
  • Cake mix
  • Cereals
  • Chewing gum
  • Chocolate and cream candy
  • Coffee creamers
  • Creamed or scalloped foods
  • Donuts
  • Granola bars
  • Gravies
  • Indian food, in which ghee (a form of butter) is very common
  • Malted milk
  • Margarine
  • Mashed potatoes
  • Meats — canned and processed, including cold cuts and deli meats
  • Nougat, found in some candy
  • Salad dressings
  • Sherbet

Ingredients With Milk

If you see these listed on a label, the food has milk proteins in it: 

  • Artificial butter or cheese flavor
  • Casein or caseinates
  • Diacetyl
  • Curd
  • Ghee
  • Hydrolysates
  • Lactalbumin, lactalbumin phosphate
  • Lactose, lactoglobulin, lactoferrin, lactulose
  • Protein powders
  • Recaldent
  • Rennet
  • Tagatose
  • Whey or whey products

These lists may not be complete. Look up any ingredient that you are not familiar with.

Vomiting (for Parents) – Nemours KidsHealth

What Is Vomiting?

Vomiting is the forceful throwing up of stomach contents. Most kids vomit from time to time, but it usually doesn’t last long and often gets better on its own.

What Causes Vomiting?

Many different things can make kids throw up. Most of the time, it’s due to gastroenteritis, an infection of the stomach and intestines. Gastroenteritis, often called the “stomach flu,” is usually caused by viruses. Other germs, like bacteria and parasites, can also cause gastroenteritis. Besides vomiting, people with gastroenteritis also may have nausea, belly pain, and diarrhea. Vomiting due to gastroenteritis usually lasts less than 24 hours and other symptoms get better in a few days.

What Else Can Cause Vomiting?

People can sometimes vomit from:

Rarely, vomiting can be a sign of a serious problem, including:

What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Vomiting?

Kids often feel nauseous and have belly pain before throwing up. Other symptoms may include:

  • fever
  • loss of appetite
  • diarrhea

Frequent vomiting can lead to dehydration (not having enough water in the body). Signs of dehydration include peeing less often crying with few or no tears, having a dry mouth or cracked lips, feeling dizzy or lightheaded, acting very sleepy or less alert.

How Do Doctors Find the Cause of Vomiting?

Doctors usually can tell if vomiting if part of a stomach flu by hearing about the symptoms. Usually, no tests are needed. If a child is vomiting often or is very sick, the doctor may order a urine test, blood test, or other tests to check for dehydration and to find out what is causing the vomiting.

How Is Vomiting Treated?

Treatment for vomiting depends on the cause. Vomiting from gastroenteritis usually goes away on its own in less than 24 hours.

If your child has vomiting, help prevent dehydration by giving an oral rehydration solution (such as Pedialyte, Enfalyte, or a store brand). It has the right amounts of water, sugar, and salt to help with dehydration. You can buy it without a prescription at drugstores or supermarkets. If you can’t get oral rehydration solution, talk to your doctor.

If your child has mild dehydration and your doctor says it’s OK to start treatment at home:

  • Start with small sips of the oral rehydration solution, about 1 or 2 teaspoons every few minutes.
  • Babies can continue to breastfeed or take formula as long as they are not throwing up repeatedly.
  • Don’t give babies plain water instead of oral rehydration solution. It doesn’t have the right nutrients for babies with dehydration.
  • Older children can have frozen electrolyte popsicles.
  • Don’t give medicines for vomiting unless your doctor recommends it.
  • When your child stops vomiting, you can offer small amounts of solid foods, such as toast, crackers, rice, or mashed potatoes. Yogurt, fruits, vegetables, and lean meat, like chicken, are also OK.

Kids who continue to vomit or have more severe dehydration need treatment in the ER or hospital.  

When Should I Call the Doctor?

Call the doctor if your child:

  • can’t drink for several hours
  • has signs of dehydration, such as peeing less often, crying with few or no tears, having a dry mouth or cracked lips, feeling dizzy or lightheaded, acting very sleepy or less alert
  • has a high fever
  • is vomiting blood, or has green or brownish vomit
  • has severe stomach or back pain
  • has headache or stiff neck
  • is vomiting after a head injury
  • is vomiting for more than 24 hours 

Spewing 101: Why am I vomiting?

Everyone has experienced vomiting in their lives, but how much do you know about it?

Whether it was a bout of gastro, morning sickness, a migraine, the dreaded hangover, or something more serious, we have all experienced vomiting in our lives. Vomiting is a common symptom and can be caused by dietary or lifestyle factors, or the body’s reaction to infections, stomach irritations and medications. Vomiting can also be caused by long-term conditions such as diabetes or cancer-related treatments.

While vomiting can be relieving for the body, it may cause some adverse reactions. Let’s take a look at why you vomit and how it affects your body, what steps to take that will help get you back on your feet and when to seek medical help.

What is vomiting?

Vomiting is the body’s way of protecting you from threats. When it detects a harmful substance or something irritating, your body actually thinks you’re being poisoned. The body’s natural reaction is to rid the body of that threat, causing it to expel the contents of the stomach.

There are many causes of vomiting. From the effects of a rough night with your mates, to pregnancy, motion sickness, and all the infections, viruses and medications in between. Vomiting can be a one-off caused by something you ate or something you did, while acute vomiting for conditions like food poisoning or gastro can last a few hours to a few days. Vomiting for more than a few days, or experiencing other symptoms alongside the vomiting, could mean there is a serious underlying condition and you may need medical assistance.

How does vomiting affect my body?


When a vomit is looming, a signal is sent to an area of the brain called the chemoreceptor trigger zone, or CTZ. The CTZ receives this information and determines if the threat warrants vomiting. The CTZ then communicates to other areas of the body to start the domino effect for vomiting.

Before you vomit you may feel nauseous, become pale, have a cold sweat, and have an increased heart rate. Your mouth will also produce extra saliva to protect your teeth from the incoming stomach acid.


As your body prepares to vomit, the major muscles in between the neck and abdomen – the diaphragm, chest wall and the abdominal muscles – all contract at the same time. This puts pressure on the stomach, forcing the contents in the stomach up the throat and through your mouth.

Generally, a few contractions occur before vomiting, causing dry heaving. As the contractions continue, the stomach contents are up, up and away! To protect you from choking, the throat has a flap called the epiglottis which closes to stop any vomit getting into the windpipe and lungs.


Vomiting causes the body to lose fluids that contain salts and minerals called electrolytes. While one vomit alone is not likely to cause adverse reactions, multiple vomits in a short period of time can quickly lead to dehydration, particularly in babies and children, and an electrolyte imbalance. Electrolytes are vital for your body to perform normal functions like regulating your heartbeat, signalling your nerves, and moving your muscles. When the balance is disturbed, you’ll usually feel miserable until the electrolytes are replaced with fluids.

Prolonged vomiting can also cause damage to enamel on your teeth because the strength of stomach acid. Additionally, it can be difficult to replace essential nutrients when you’re continuously vomiting, which can cause malnourishment. Over time, this can lead to your body not functioning properly, lowered immunity and unintended weight loss.

What should I do to look after myself after vomiting?

There are some things you can do to help you feel better after vomiting:

  • neutralise any stomach acid left in your mouth – rinse with water or fluoridated mouth wash (don’t brush your teeth as this can damage enamel)
  • replace fluids and electrolytes at the first sign of vomiting – mixing oral rehydration solutions in water will help replace the lost electrolytes
  • try eating bland foods, like crackers, rice or dry toast
  • avoid sugary, alcoholic or caffeinated drinks – these will only make your symptoms worse
  • rest.

When should I seek help for vomiting?

Vomiting is a symptom so it’s important to treat the underlying condition that is causing it. For one-off and acute vomiting, the illness will usually resolve itself without medical treatment. If you have other symptoms with your vomiting, it could mean something more serious.

Call Triple Zero (000) if you are vomiting and also have:

  • chest pain
  • severe abdominal pain or cramping
  • high fever and stiff neck
  • blurred vision
  • confusion
  • poo in the vomit
  • bleeding from your rectum
  • swallowed something poisonous.

See your doctor if you have:

  • been vomiting for more than two days
  • a severe headache
  • dehydration
  • green or blood in the vomit
  • stomach pain
  • diabetes, especially if you take insulin.

Babies and children must be monitored closely while they are unwell as their condition can go downhill quickly if dehydration occurs.

If you are concerned about your health or the health of a loved one, call 13 HEALTH (13 43 25 84) to speak with a registered nurse or see your doctor.

Related information

How to look after your kids when gastro strikes

Vomiting Without Diarrhea

Is this your child’s symptom?

  • Vomiting (throwing up) stomach contents
  • It’s normal for nausea (upset stomach) to come before each bout of vomiting
  • Other names for vomiting are puking, barfing and heaving

Causes of Vomiting

  • Viral Gastritis. Stomach infection from a stomach virus is the most common cause. Also called stomach flu. A common cause is the Rotavirus. The illness starts with vomiting. Watery loose stools may follow within 12-24 hours.
  • Food Poisoning. This causes rapid vomiting within hours after eating the bad food. Diarrhea may follow. Caused by toxins from germs growing in foods left out too long. An example is Staph toxin in egg salad.
  • Ibuprofen. Ibuprofen products (such as Advil) can be a stomach irritant. If taken on an empty stomach, it can cause vomiting.
  • Food Allergy. Vomiting can be the only symptom of a food reaction. The vomiting comes on quickly after eating the food. Common foods are peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish (such as shrimp).
  • Coughing. Hard coughing can also cause your child to throw up. This is more common in children with reflux.
  • Motion Sickness. Vomiting and dizziness are triggered by motion. Sea sickness or fun-park ride sickness are the most common types. Strongly genetic.
  • Migraine Headaches. In children, most migraine headaches also have vomiting.
  • Serious Causes. Vomiting alone (without diarrhea) should stop within about 24 hours. If it lasts over 24 hours, you must think about more serious causes. Examples are appendicitis, a kidney infection, diabetes and head injury. A serious cause in young babies is pyloric stenosis. See below for more on this.
  • Cyclic Vomiting. Cyclic vomiting is the most common cause of recurrent attacks of vomiting. Attacks have a sudden onset and offset. Often occur in children who later develop migraine headaches.

Pyloric Stenosis (Serious Cause)

  • The most common cause of true vomiting in young babies.
  • Onset of vomiting is age 2 weeks to 2 months
  • Vomiting is forceful. It becomes projectile and shoots out.
  • Right after vomiting, the baby is hungry and wants to feed. (“hungry vomiter”)
  • Cause: the pylorus is the channel between the stomach and the gut. In these babies, it becomes narrow and tight.
  • Risk: weight loss or dehydration
  • Treatment: cured by surgery.

Vomiting Scale

  • Mild: 1 – 2 times/day
  • Moderate: 3 – 7 times/day
  • Severe: vomits everything, nearly everything or 8 or more times/day
  • Severity relates even more to how long the vomiting goes on for. At the start of the illness, it’s common for a child to vomit everything. This can last for 3 or 4 hours. Children then often become stable and change to mild vomiting.
  • The main risk of vomiting is dehydration. Dehydration means the body has lost too much fluid.
  • The younger the child, the greater the risk for dehydration.

Dehydration: How to Tell

  • The main risk of vomiting is dehydration. Dehydration means the body has lost too much water.
  • Vomiting with watery diarrhea is the most common cause of dehydration.
  • Dehydration is a reason to see a doctor right away.
  • Your child may have dehydration if not drinking much fluid and:
  • The urine is dark yellow and has not passed any in over 8 hours.
  • Inside of the mouth and tongue are very dry.
  • No tears if your child cries.
  • Slow blood refill test: longer than 2 seconds. First, press on the thumbnail and make it pale. Then let go. Count the seconds it takes for the nail to turn pink again. Ask your doctor to teach you how to do this test.
  • A child with severe dehydration becomes too weak to stand. They can also be very dizzy when trying to stand.

When to Call for Vomiting Without Diarrhea

Call 911 Now

  • Can’t wake up
  • Not moving or too weak to stand
  • You think your child has a life-threatening emergency

Call Doctor or Seek Care Now

  • Dehydration suspected. No urine in more than 8 hours, dark urine, very dry mouth and no tears.
  • Stomach pain when not vomiting. Exception: stomach pain or crying just before vomiting is quite common.
  • Severe headache
  • Diabetes suspected (drinking lots, frequent urine, weight loss)
  • Kidney infection suspected (side or back pain, fever, painful to pass urine)
  • Age less than 12 weeks old with vomiting 2 or more times. Exception: normal spitting up.
  • Severe vomiting (vomits everything) more than 8 hours while getting clear fluids
  • High-risk child (such as diabetes, stomach or head injury)
  • Weak immune system. Examples are: sickle cell disease, HIV, cancer, organ transplant, taking oral steroids.
  • Vomiting a prescription medicine
  • Fever over 104° F (40° C)
  • Fever in baby less than 12 weeks old. Caution: do NOT give your baby any fever medicine before being seen.
  • Your child looks or acts very sick
  • You think your child needs to be seen, and the problem is urgent

Contact Doctor Within 24 Hours

  • Age less than 1 year with vomiting
  • Vomits for more than 24 hours
  • Fever lasts more than 3 days
  • Fever returns after being gone more than 24 hours
  • You think your child needs to be seen, but the problem is not urgent

Contact Doctor During Office Hours

  • Vomiting is a frequent problem
  • You have other questions or concerns

Self Care at Home

  • Mild or moderate vomiting (most likely viral gastritis)

Seattle Children’s Urgent Care Locations

If your child’s illness or injury is life-threatening, call 911.

Care Advice for Vomiting without Diarrhea

  1. What You Should Know About Vomiting Without Diarrhea:
    • Most vomiting is caused by a viral infection of the stomach. Sometimes, mild food poisoning is the cause.
    • Vomiting is the body’s way of protecting the lower gut.
    • The good news is that stomach illnesses last only a short time.
    • The main risk of vomiting is dehydration. Dehydration means the body has lost too much fluid.
    • Here is some care advice that should help.
  2. Formula Fed Babies – Give Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) for 8 Hours:
    • If your child vomits more than once, offer ORS for 8 hours. If you don’t have ORS, use formula until you can get some.
    • ORS is a special fluid that can help your child stay hydrated. You can use Pedialyte or the store brand of ORS. It can be bought in food stores or drugstores.
    • Spoon or syringe feed small amounts. Give 1-2 teaspoons (5-10 mL) every 5 minutes.
    • After 4 hours without throwing up, double the amount.
    • Return to Formula. After 8 hours without throwing up, go back to regular formula.
  3. Breastfed Babies – Reduce the Amount Per Feeding:
    • If vomits more than once, nurse for 5 minutes every 30 to 60 minutes. After 4 hours without throwing up, return to regular nursing.
    • If continues to vomit, switch to pumped breastmilk. ORS is rarely needed in breastfed babies. It can be used if vomiting becomes worse.
    • Spoon or syringe feed small amounts of pumped milk. Give 1-2 teaspoons (5-10 mL) every 5 minutes.
    • After 4 hours without throwing up, return to regular feeding at the breast. Start with small feedings of 5 minutes every 30 minutes. As your baby keeps down the smaller amounts, slowly give more.
  4. Older Children (over 1 Year Old) – Offer Small Amounts of Clear Fluids For 8 Hours:
    • Water or ice chips are best for older children. Reason: Water is easily absorbed in the stomach.
    • Other clear fluids: Use half-strength Gatorade. Make it by mixing equal amounts of Gatorade and water. Can mix apple juice the same way. ORS (such as Pedialyte) is usually not needed in older children. Popsicles work great for some kids.
    • The key to success is giving small amounts of fluid. Offer 2-3 teaspoons (10-15 mL) every 5 minutes. Older kids can just slowly sip a clear fluid.
    • After 4 hours without throwing up, increase the amount.
    • After 8 hours without throwing up, return to regular fluids.
    • Caution: If vomits over 12 hours, switch to ORS or half-strength Gatorade.
  5. Stop All Solid Foods:
    • Avoid all solid foods and baby foods in kids who are vomiting.
    • After 8 hours without throwing up, gradually add them back.
    • Start with starchy foods that are easy to digest. Examples are cereals, crackers and bread.
  6. Do Not Give Medicines:
    • Stop using any drug that is over-the-counter for 8 hours. Reason: Some of these can make vomiting worse.
    • Fever. Mild fevers don’t need to be treated with any drugs. For higher fevers, you can use an acetaminophen suppository (such as FeverAll). This is a form of the drug you put in the rectum (bottom). Ask a pharmacist for help finding this product. Do not use ibuprofen. It can upset the stomach.
    • Call your doctor if: Your child vomits a drug ordered by your doctor.
  7. Try to Sleep:
    • Help your child go to sleep for a few hours.
    • Reason: Sleep often empties the stomach and removes the need to vomit.
    • Your child doesn’t have to drink anything if his stomach feels upset and he doesn’t have any diarrhea.
  8. Return to School:
    • Your child can return to school after the vomiting and fever are gone.
  9. What to Expect:
    • For the first 3 or 4 hours, your child may vomit everything. Then the stomach settles down.
    • Vomiting from a viral illness often stops in 12 to 24 hours.
    • Mild vomiting and nausea may last up to 3 days.
  10. Call Your Doctor If:
    • Vomits clear fluids for more than 8 hours
    • Vomiting lasts more than 24 hours
    • Blood or bile (green color) in the vomit
    • Stomach pain present even when not vomiting
    • Dehydration suspected (no urine in over 8 hours, dark urine, very dry mouth, and no tears)
    • You think your child needs to be seen
    • Your child becomes worse

And remember, contact your doctor if your child develops any of the ‘Call Your Doctor’ symptoms.

Disclaimer: this health information is for educational purposes only. You, the reader, assume full responsibility for how you choose to use it.

Last Reviewed: 11/26/2021

Last Revised: 10/21/2021

Copyright 2000-2021. Schmitt Pediatric Guidelines LLC.

Nausea or vomiting as a symptom of leukaemia

What is nausea or vomiting?

Nausea (the unpleasant sensation of feeling sick) and vomiting (the act of being sick) are experienced by everyone at some point, and most of the time the uneasy feeling will pass within 24 hours. Lots of things can cause you to feel sick, ranging anywhere from the flu, food poisoning and migraines, to pregnancy or motion sickness. In very rare cases, prolonged or recurring nausea can be a sign of something more serious such as leukaemia. According to our 2018 patient survey, 5% of leukaemia patients will experience nausea or vomiting as a symptom prior to their diagnosis.

“I started vomiting regularly and barely eating anything. Many days, I could barely move for the exhaustion and dizziness.”

What causes nausea in leukaemia?

  1. Leukaemia cells entering the Central Nervous System (CNS)

Leukaemia can cause your white blood cell count to rise to a dangerously high level. Excess levels of white blood cells can cause the blood to thicken and clog up the small vessels that supply the brain and spinal cord (cerebrospinal fluid). As well as nausea, this can also lead to symptoms such as headaches, double vision, vertigo, weakness, and sometimes seizures.

  1. Anaemia

In leukaemia, cancerous white blood cells can start to crowd out the healthy red blood cells in the bone marrow, causing anaemia. This means that a lower amount of oxygen is able to reach the tissues, including the brain. Low levels of oxygen in the brain can cause the surrounding arteries to swell, leading to headaches and dizziness which itself can result in feelings of nausea.

Other symptoms of leukaemia-related anaemia include weakness and fatigue, breathlessness, pale skin and poor concentration.

When should I be concerned?

If you are having constant or recurrent episodes of nausea or vomiting, it is a good idea to visit your GP, especially if you cannot explain the cause. Keeping a log of when you start to feel nauseous might give doctor a better idea of the underlying problem. For example, nausea or vomiting less than eight hours after a meal could indicate food poisoning. In leukaemia, symptoms are unlikely to correlate with when or what you have eaten.

Visit your GP if;

  • You aren’t feeling better after a few days –Visit your GP if symptoms last for over 48 hours (adults). Young children should be taken to their GP sooner than this.

“I started to vomit and made an appointment at the doctors to see if I had a stomach bug.”

  • The sickness feeling keeps returning –If you have had frequent periods of nausea, over the space of a month, make sure you visit your GP.

“Nearer to my diagnosis, I started feeling sick and vomiting regularly”

  • You are experiencing any of the other symptoms of leukaemia-   other symptoms of leukaemia can include weight loss, bruising and bleeding, frequent infections and pain in bones or joints.

“I was also out of breath and started being sick so much it broke blood vessels in my face.”

Knowing what other symptoms are typical of leukaemia is crucial for helping you to make the decision to visit your GP sooner for a blood test. Connect the dots between the symptoms of leukaemia and spot leukaemia sooner.

For information on the other symptoms of leukaemia, click here.


Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea Could Be First Symptoms

  • Almost half of COVID-19 patients in a recent study experienced nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.
  • Though the virus primarily causes fever or difficulty breathing, gastrointestinal symptoms sometimes appear first.
  • In one case, a coronavirus patient was placed in the wrong ward because they only showed abdominal symptoms. They spread the virus to 14 other people there.
  • Like SARS, the new coronavirus could spread through poop.
  • Visit Business Insider’s homepage for more stories.

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The new coronavirus is giving some patients nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea — symptoms that could be early signs of infection.

A study published earlier this month in The American Journal of Gastroenterology looked at 204 coronavirus patients who were hospitalized in China’s Hubei province between January 18 and February 28. More than 50% of them reported digestive symptoms like lack of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, or abdominal pain. Six of those patients had no respiratory symptoms whatsoever.

“We’re so focused on a cough and fever, but it’s possible there are people with digestive symptoms that are not being tested,” Dr. Brennan Spiegel, the journal’s editor in chief, told Ohio news channel Spectrum News 1.

“This new study from Wuhan, China found that actually these digestive symptoms are much more common than I think we thought they were,” he added.

As research about this set of potential symptoms has evolved, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention added a note about gastrointestinal symptoms to its official guidelines.

Other research has found similar trends. A study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association identified 14 coronavirus patients who had diarrhea and nausea before they showed any signs of fever or respiratory symptoms. That was 10% of the study’s 138-person sample size.

One of those patients was placed in a surgical ward because they only showed abdominal symptoms, so doctors didn’t suspect the new coronavirus. That patient then transmitted the virus to at least 10 healthcare workers and four other patients in the ward. 

It’s still not clear how common gastrointestinal symptoms are, though. A study published in the pre-print repository medRxiv (which has not been peer-reviewed) looked at data from 1,099 patients. Less than 4% of those people experienced diarrhea and about 5% experienced vomiting.

Researchers found the virus in poop

A medical worker in a protective suit inspects a CT scan at the Wuhan Red Cross Hospital during the  coronavirus outbreak in Hubei province, China.

China Daily/Reuters

The first US patient diagnosed with COVID-19 had diarrhea and reported abdominal discomfort the day after he arrived at the hospital, according to a report published in the New England Journal of Medicine. Researchers later detected the coronavirus’ RNA in his poop.

Another study, shared in the pre-publication repository biorXiv, detected an enzyme signature of the virus in cells from the small intestine and colon.

“If it’s coming out into the saliva, then you can swallow your saliva and naturally that can go into the stomach,” Spiegel said in a video he posted to Twitter. “The fact that we’re seeing so much in the stool samples means that it might be able to get past that acid layer.”

Spiegel added that, once the coronavirus gets into the gastrointestinal system, it can enter GI cells using a particular receptor called ACE2. Once inside those cells, the virus can thrive.

“It can replicate in the GI system,” he said.

Watching for nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea could help contain the outbreak

Health workers wear full protective clothing during a clean up operation at Amoy Gardens in Hong Kong, where over 200 residents were infected with SARS, April 4, 2003.

Christian Keenan/Getty Images

Research has indicated that SARS — also a coronavirus — traveled through a Hong Kong apartment’s sewage system to infect some residents after one sick person had diarrhea.

Dr. Susan Kline, a spokesperson for the Infectious Diseases Society of America, told MedPage Today that gastrointestinal symptoms were “not unusual” in SARS patients during the virus’s deadly 2003 outbreak.

Kline said that many illnesses cause nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting, even if those aren’t the primary symptoms. Looking for them can be crucial in the early stages of a new outbreak, as it was with SARS and Ebola.

“It was not recognized early on that [Ebola] patients had prominent diarrhea. Later, as [there were] reports of large numbers of patients, it became more obvious that it could be a predominant part of the illness,” Kline said.

She added that it’s important not to assume that all patients will have gastrointestinal problems, though looking for those symptoms could help catch more coronavirus cases. 

“We probably need to be testing the stool more commonly, thinking about testing more in people who have sever diarrhea and fever,” Spiegel said.

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90,000 childbirth preparation, signs, postpartum care – Dr. Hug

Cats are about 9 weeks pregnant. Most often, cats give birth well. Most cats tend to stay alone at this time, so you need to prepare a comfortable place in advance and during lambing only periodically visit the young mother to make sure everything goes well. But it may happen that the animal needs help. In this case, you need to be ready to provide it yourself or know exactly which veterinary clinic to contact.

How to prepare for lambing of a domestic cat? How to give birth to a cat?

In order for the cat to feel as comfortable as possible at the moment of the birth of kittens, prepare a cozy place for her, preferably where there is the least noise and fuss. It can be a small house, a basket, a box, located at a distance from the TV, draft and battery.

At the end of the pregnancy, it is important to visit your veterinarian to ensure that the pregnancy is proceeding normally. During this period, longhaired breeds are advised to trim their hair in the area of ​​the tail and nipples.

Particular attention should be paid to feeding the cat. In the last days before lambing, the cat’s stomach cannot stretch to its usual size, so it is important to reduce the serving size, but increase the number of meals.

Another important point – you need to prepare a set of tools and instruments, which includes surgical gloves, antiseptics, gauze napkins, diapers, pipette, disposable syringes, dental floss, toilet paper, garbage bags and scissors.

Harbingers of the onset of labor in a cat

The following changes in the cat’s behavior will be reported to the owner of the approaching lambing:

  • Irritability or anxiety appears.
  • The animal equips a bed or looks for a secluded place (hiding in cupboards, behind a sofa, in a closet, etc.).
  • The cat often and thoroughly licks the belly and the area under the tail.
  • A few days before lambing, most cats produce milk (check this by lightly pressing on the nipple).

Important! In case of any deviations from the norm during pregnancy, it is better to entrust the delivery to a specialist. In the veterinary clinic, your cat will be able to provide timely assistance in case of complications.

How does labor start in cats? How do cats give birth?

Approximately a day before lambing, a decrease in the body temperature of the animal by about 1-2 degrees is added to the above signs. It is best to train your cat to take regular temperature measurements in advance.

Immediately before the onset of labor, the cat develops rapid breathing. However, harbingers are often unreliable. They can not always be identified due to the behavioral characteristics of cats – the cat often hides from the owners in any stressful situations, may not allow probing the nipples and measuring rectal body temperature.

Most often, the owner notices the onset of labor in a cat in the phase of fetal expulsion, which normally takes 5 to 15 minutes. At this moment, the cat is actively pushing, a fetal bladder appears from the birth canal, or a kitten, which (normally) in the process of pushing, is completely born.

How is a cat giving birth?

There are different stages of labor in both cats and dogs: precursors, contractions of the uterus, expulsion of the fetus and expulsion of the placenta. The time of labor without complications is on average 20-25 hours. The duration depends on the number of kittens. A cat’s first birth is usually longer. The second birth and subsequent ones are faster.

Many cats tear apart the membranes on their own, bite the umbilical cord, lick the kitten, and put the newborn to the belly.If the cat does not have time or cannot handle each kitten, you need to arm yourself with a rescue kit and help the young mother:

  • remove the film from the kitten;
  • wipe gently with a sterile cloth;
  • Tie up the umbilical cord with dental floss, then cut off and treat with an antiseptic;
  • check the kitten’s breathing and put it to mom.

If you are not breathing, clear the airway with a syringe. If breathing does not appear, the kitten must be carefully turned upside down and slightly bent, holding the head.These actions stimulate the outflow of fluid.

Complications during childbirth in cats

The saying “only cats give birth quickly” is usually true. But even in cats, the course of labor can be difficult for various reasons:

  1. Some cats, due to poor health or a violation of parental instinct, completely ignore the newborn, and in this case, the removal of the membranes, cleansing the oral cavity of amniotic fluid, cutting and ligation of the umbilical cord must be carried out by the owners.
  2. Prolonged labor. If the ejection phase is prolonged (the cat struggles fruitlessly for half an hour or more), a mechanical problem is most likely. This can be large fruits, congenital narrowness of the pelvic opening in the mother, abnormal position of the fetus (for example, the fetal head thrown back, limb bend, transverse presentation, etc. ).
  3. Generic weakness. Primary birth weakness can be congenital, secondary is more often caused by external causes: exhaustion, systemic disease of the mother, lack of calcium or glucose in the cat’s body.If this is the case, stimulation infusions can lead to successful spontaneous childbirth.
  4. Weakness of uterine contractions. In a cat, no signs of labor are observed 60 or even 70 days after mating, or labor begins and after a short time completely stops. In the case of overmaturity, it is important to control the viability of the fetus, because over time, the placenta through which the kittens receive nutrients wears out and begins to function worse, leading to intrauterine death and decomposition of the fetus.

What to do in case of complications during childbirth in a cat?

If you notice any deviations from the normal course of labor, the cat should be taken to the veterinary clinic as soon as possible. Due to the peculiarities of the temperament of cats, almost all cases of dystocia (abnormalities in labor) associated with mechanical causes end in cesarean section. The fetus, which is in the birth canal and does not have the ability to go outside, is experiencing acute oxygen starvation, therefore, a cesarean section in such a case must be carried out as quickly as possible.

90,000 Symptoms of the Indian strain of coronavirus in adults and children in Russia

Despite universal vaccination and a huge number of patients who have recovered, COVID still does not give up its positions, not recognizing either seasonality or high temperatures during a hot period.

What is the reason for such a high incidence? The virus mutates. According to the WHO, the Indian strain “Delta” is more contagious, that is, twice as infectious as the Wuhan strain. Now this virus has been detected in nearly a hundred countries, and it is still a long way from the end of the pandemic.

Signs of the Indian strain of coronavirus in humans

It is already clear today that the course of COVID-19 caused by Delta is more severe than previous diseases. Experts more and more often note that such a virus is transmitted faster, and the incubation period of this strain is shorter than that of its predecessors.

The characteristic features of the Indian variant coronavirus include:

  • loss of appetite;
  • 90,023 joint pain;

  • hearing loss;
  • pain in the stomach and intestines;
  • nausea and diarrhea.

That is, its characteristic feature is the intestinal form of the disease. But high fever and loss of smell in this form are rare.

As a complication, with this disease, microthrombosis of the lower extremities is not uncommon, sometimes leading to gangrene.

Symptoms of the Indian strain of coronavirus in adults

Mild forms of this type of coronavirus disease occur in adults like a common ARVI, with sore throat, runny nose, and headache.They can be joined by fever and cough, without loss of smell .

As the symptoms increase gradually, it can be mistaken for a common cold. Signs of a gastrointestinal tract disorder appear later, usually in moderate to severe illnesses. It is important to remember that a number of symptoms may depend on the state of health of a particular person, in this regard, the manifestation of certain signs may differ.

The prevalence of coronavirus has increased significantly, the virus has mutated, new strains have appeared – the notorious “Indian” strain or “Delta strain”, said Oksana Drapkina, medical scientist, chief freelance therapist of the Russian Federation, noted earlier:

“Another clinical picture, which affects not only the elderly, but also young people – from 20 to 30 years old, is growing very quickly.”If an adult has no contraindications, it is better to get vaccinated as soon as possible.

Signs of the Indian strain of coronavirus in children

In children, as has been repeatedly noted by experts, “Delta” can be mistaken for ARVI, the symptoms are similar. After infection, the disease often begins with the characteristic signs of a cold:

Some experts note that the symptoms of this disease in children of different ages manifest themselves in different ways:

  • 1 – 3 years: There are no characteristic signs of this disease in young children.The infection can be judged by the loss of appetite in the child, which disappears after 2-3 days.
  • 3 – 7 years: In this age group, coronavirus infection can manifest itself as mild nasal congestion and hoarseness, sneezing, and no coughing.
  • 7 – 17 years old: At this age, the body of children to infection can react with mild malaise, fever and headache. A dry cough may appear.

Symptoms of the disease with the Indian strain of coronavirus by day

The disease develops gradually, with an increase in symptoms, often a significant improvement and apparent recovery is replaced by a sharp deterioration in well-being, requiring immediate hospitalization.

1-3 days. The temperature rises slightly, the person feels a slight malaise, nasal congestion. Flu-like pain in the calf muscles may appear.

3-5 days. A superficial cough joins, the body temperature rises slightly. There may be nausea and vomiting, pain along the intestines, change in taste. Diarrhea may appear on the fourth to fifth day.

5-10th day. This is a critical period for COVID. In 80% of patients, the state of health improves, in a few days the person completely recovers.

With a complicated course of the disease, the condition worsens, the symptoms increase.Pain in the intestines may increase, severe cough, shortness of breath, chills, body aches may occur.

10-12th day. This stage is characterized by severe chest pains, increasing weakness, severe shortness of breath. The disease is complicated by pneumonia. Pneumonia develops more rapidly than with other strains of the coronavirus. Saturation falls, and artificial ventilation is often necessary.

12-30th day. Cure may occur two weeks after the critical point in the course of the disease.But shortness of breath and malaise can persist for a long time (several months).

Indian strain of coronavirus in Russia

In the summer of 2021, most of the new cases of this disease in Russia are of the Indian strain. To date, three subtypes of the pathogen have already been identified.

Pulmonologist at the Moscow Regional Research Institute named after N.I. M.F. Vladimirsky Aleksey Nikishenkov notes the emergence of a new strain: “Recently, after the delta strain began to spread, coronavirus patients are increasingly complaining of gastrointestinal upset – diarrhea, abdominal pain.”

In this regard, experts once again urge everyone to hurry up with immunization, the name of the vaccine does not play a role: Anna Popova, head of Rospotrebnadzor, on July 2, 2021, announced the appearance in Russia of the 1. 617.2.1 or AY.1 strain – the so-called variant of the Delta Plus coronavirus … The main difference from the previous one is almost instant infection, an order of magnitude higher than the usual “Delta”.

The reports of the New York strain Iota, capable of increasing the mortality rate to 82%, although they turned out to be erroneous (it was a mathematical model), but excluding the worsening of the situation would be an even greater mistake.

Treatment for infection with the Indian strain of coronavirus

As with other viral infections, in the first days of the disease it is necessary to “remove” the virus from the body. Therefore, it is so important to drink a warm plentiful drink, you need to drink at least 8-10 cups of 240 ml per day. It can be drinking water, fruit drinks, juices, tea.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can help cope with inflammation. Small doses of aspirin can be taken.Antihistamines will help eliminate swelling and relieve nasal congestion. Antibiotics will not help against COVID-19, they can be prescribed by a doctor when a bacterial infection has joined.

If symptoms worsen and the illness lasts more than a week, you should call your doctor. You also need to go to an ambulance when the temperature is at or above 38.9 ° C for more than 24 hours, if there are signs of pulmonary insufficiency (shortness of breath at rest, chest pain).

In the hospital, the doctor conducts symptomatic treatment, the basis of which is oxygen therapy.To reduce the viral load, a combination of lopinavir / ritonavir and other drugs is used, but a doctor’s recommendation is mandatory in each case, it is not safe to self-medicate.

90,000 Why people get seasick in transport and how to deal with it: advice from the Science Department of Gazeta.Ru

For those who are going to travel during the New Year holidays, the Science Department of Gazeta.Ru tells why people get seasick in transport, and gives advice on how to avoid it and how to deal with it.

Failed program

There are unhappy people who get sick on the road. Most often, traveling in a car or by bus is not well tolerated at a young age: it is believed that 58% of children from 2 to 12 years old are seasick.But about 5-10% of the population suffers from it all their lives.

Motion sickness in transport is the same as motion sickness, in medical language it is called kinetosis or motion sickness. Kinetosis was called motion sickness because for the first time people encountered this phenomenon during sea travel.

It can occur in any conditions when a person is exposed to monotonous vibrations: during a cruise, in a car, train, plane, on a swing, carousel.

The symptoms of motion sickness victims are known to all: dizziness, nausea and vomiting, loss of sleep and appetite. The sufferers whom she overtook during the cruise can only hang on the deck handrails and “plunge” into the water or lie in a layer in the cabin – no pleasure from the trip.

All troubles arise from a malfunction of the vestibular apparatus . This organ is responsible for the fact that we are firmly on our feet, it reacts to changes in the position of the head and body in space, as well as to acceleration.And the vestibular apparatus is located in the cochlea of ​​the inner ear, in the semicircular canals filled with fluid – endolymph. Sensitive hairs on the canal walls react to the vibrations of this fluid and the movement of microscopic otolith crystals. When you change the position of the body and when moving, these crystals irritate the hairs, and the signal goes to the brain.

17 September 13:08

So, when the human body moves and sways in a car or on a ship, the brain receives conflicting information from different senses.

The receptors of the vestibular apparatus say that the body is motionless, and the eyes see that everything around moves and vibrates. This failure leads to dizziness and nausea.

In most people, the vestibular apparatus is sufficiently trained to tolerate these disruptions calmly and not to react so violently, for example, in ground transport or on an airplane. People who get seasick in transport, apparently, have some genetic characteristics, due to which the vestibular apparatus cannot cope with malfunctions.Although there may be provoking external factors: heat, stuffiness, smell of tobacco, alcohol consumption, overwork, emotional stress, pregnancy.

Another thing is on the ship. There are many more suffering here, especially during a long cruise. And when a ship leaves for a voyage, sometimes even sailors suffer from rolling.

Rules of survival

In order to make your life easier, you need to follow simple recommendations.

– It is better not to eat, drink alcohol and carbonated drinks two hours before going to sea.

– On board the transport you need to be distracted and entertained, at least just talking with your fellow traveler.

– If we are talking about traveling on a ship, then it is better to be at the stern and at the same time look not at the waves, but at the horizon line, which is motionless.

– It is strongly not recommended to stay against the movement – either on the ship or on the bus.

– It is worth taking a drug for an hour or half an hour before a sea trip, since now there is no shortage of them (dramin, bonin, aminalon, etc.).

– A dose of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) helps with nausea. Its action is explained by blocking the release of histamines. You can take a vitamin C pill, eat a green apple, a lemon wedge, or drink mint lemon tea.

– Ginger helps in any form – powder, lozenges, candies, gingerbread cookies.

– According to some reports, pickles can also ease nausea when chewed a little.

– To “deceive” the vestibular apparatus, you can move your legs or shift from heel to toe. This will reduce the disparity of signals from different senses to the brain: the vestibular apparatus will think that you are walking on the ground.

– If nothing helps and is really bad, then you need to lie down, close your eyes (in a bus and a car this is unlikely to work, rather on board a ship) and try to fall asleep.

There are also quite exotic and incomprehensible at first glance recommendations, but sailors assure that it helps.

– Before sailing, tighten your wrists with an elastic bandage. According to the theory of Chinese medicine, this is where the point is located, the effect on which relieves nausea.

– Clamp a couple of matches or toothpicks in your teeth and suck on them. It probably acts as a red herring. However, you can try to suck on something else, for example, the same mint or ginger candy.

In general, the “vestibular” can be purposefully trained, at least on a swing-carousel – the body gets used to it. It is known that many newcomers suffer severely from pitching immediately after going to sea, but then bounce back.

As for the car, many passengers who are unbearably swayed, bounce back if they get behind the wheel.

90,000 Russian and European approaches – Rossiyskaya Gazeta

“I know that piroplasmosis (babesiosis) is a very common disease in Russia, and recently I encountered inappropriate treatment for dogs that are very dear to my heart. And I was not able to help at a distance.

Thank God, the dogs recovered, but I decided to thoroughly study this issue after consulting with European veterinarians.

Piroplasmosis is a canine disease with symptoms of severe fever, yellowing of visible mucous membranes, and blood in the urine.Carriers are ixodid ticks. Most of them are in spring, in April-May, and August-September, before the onset of cold weather. They love moisture, and the rainy summer actively promotes their spread. Not every dog ​​has become infected if you find a sucking parasite on it. Problems are caused not so much by the tick itself – only a slight inflammation develops at the site of its bite – as the pyroplasmas living in it. And therefore, even after removing a dozen ticks from an animal that are not affected by pyroplasmas, there is no need to fear that the dog will get sick.But, unfortunately, the tick does not say whether it can infect or not. Therefore, prevention is initially necessary, i.e. after each walk, you need to check the dog for ticks. In addition, treat the dog with anti-tick drugs.

The only active ingredient that protects against them is methoprene. Therefore, when buying a particular drug for ticks, check if it contains methoprene.

If you do find a tick sucking on the dog, watch it. If she changes her behavior and this is quite clearly striking, becomes lethargic, loses interest in the life around her, moves reluctantly, refuses to walk, food, the temperature is more than 39.5, this is already a cause for alarm.

If you did not pay attention to this, the following symptoms will be: urine becomes reddish-brown in color, from beet to dark beer color, mucous membranes are pale or yellowish.

And now there is a very big difference in treatment.

The difference is that with the European approach, piroplasmosis is not a life-threatening disease in which the dog is cured within 24 hours and has no consequences for the liver, kidneys and all other internal organs.

With the Russian approach, piroplasmosis is a life-threatening disease, in addition, the dog has a damaged liver and kidneys for months and recovers for weeks, or even months, and, in principle, then has a sick liver throughout its life.

In the case of Russian treatment, the dog is taken to a veterinarian who will do a blitz analysis for the presence of babesia in the blood, put the dog on an IV, which is detrimental to health and is completely unnecessary, and will also give an injection of one or another antipyroplasmic drug.The dog will lie on the dropper for 3 days in a row, after which it will be treated for a long time, persistently and drearily, the liver, kidneys and, in principle, restore the body for months due to the fact that this dropper has ruined many functions of the body.

In Europe, the approach is different: if there is a suspicion of piroplasmosis, you saw the initial symptoms described by me, then the dog is given a single injection of a drug containing imidocarb as an active ingredient.

The weight dosage shown on the package is used.After that, the dog goes home, and if you do the injections yourself, then you just give the injection and don’t go anywhere with the dog, so as not to “heal”. After 2 weeks, a second injection is made, in the same dosage, of the same drug.

Preparations with the active ingredient imidocarb are completely harmless if used correctly, i.e. according to the dosage indicated on the package + when using two injections (1 – when symptoms occur, the second – after 2 weeks). No drips, no body restorations, no liver treatments.I would also like to add that after the injection, the dog has full immunity from ixodid ticks for 30 days.

If you missed the onset of the disease and the dog’s urine has already darkened, then in addition to imidocarb, a course of the antibiotic doxycycline is prescribed for 14 days at a dosage according to weight.

If you were away from home all day and, having come home, found a dog with porcelain mucous membranes, temperature practically immobilized, then you need to urgently go to the veterinarian and do an ultrasound of the spleen.

If you saw signs of a problem before the mucous membranes became porcelain, then piroplasmosis is treated with 2 simple injections. Unfortunately, if the case is neglected and the dog already has porcelain mucous membranes, the Russian system for the treatment of piroplasmosis is also likely to be ineffective. I wish all dogs not to pick up ticks, but if they have already picked up, I really hope that you will think well before putting them on a dropper, which is detrimental to health, instead of just two injections. “


Every spring, dog owners actively discuss how to protect their animals from tick-borne diseases.Due to warming, the season of their activity begins in April-May, and sometimes ends in December.

Doctors warn: the level of piroplasmosis is growing from year to year. A lot of companies make money on our love for dogs and fear for their health: they offer all kinds of anti-mite agents (collars, sprays, drops on the scruff of the neck), preventive vaccinations, treatment of the garden plot, and even the entire territory of the partnership against ticks. These are all very expensive activities. If the dog gets sick, the treatment is complex: along with antiparasitic drugs, we are given droppers, hepatoprotectors are administered, a course of antibiotics is administered, and immunity stimulants are used.An animal often takes more than one month to recover.

View from Russia

“To understand what happens after infection, you need to at least learn about the pathophysiology of piroplasmosis (babesiosis),” said one of the Moscow veterinary clinics. Babesia (or Piroplasma) is the simplest unicellular parasite in erythrocytes (red blood cells). When a tick infected with babesia bites a dog, they enter the animal’s bloodstream and begin to multiply in red blood cells, destroying them.

The so-called free hemoglobin begins to enter the dog’s blood from the destroyed erythrocytes, and due to this, intoxication begins. Clinically, this is expressed in a rise in temperature, lethargy, refusal to feed. The liver is unable to cope with the utilization of such an amount of hemoglobin; the animal develops “hemolytic jaundice” and inflammation of the liver (hepatitis).

Hemoglobin is an oxygen carrier, but in a free state, outside of red blood cells, it is unable to perform its function.As a result, hypoxia (lack of oxygen) develops in organs and tissues. This is manifested by shortness of breath, increased heart rate. Anemia develops (mucous membranes – the dog’s throat – become pale).

So, in case of a disease with piroplasmosis, the liver suffers first of all. And the main mistake in treatment is when the animal receives too many drugs that the affected liver is simply not able to cope with.

The main thing in the treatment of piroplasmosis is the use of antiparasitic drugs.There are many of them, they are divided into two large groups: preparations containing diminazene aceturate, and preparations based on imidocarb.

The first group is effective but toxic. Your dog may have symptoms of arsenic poisoning (convulsions). Therefore, when starting treatment, it is important to accurately observe the dosage, taking into account the weight of the dog. According to the instructions, the course of treatment consists of two injections, but there is no need to rush with the second injection. If after the first injection the animal’s condition has improved, the second can be omitted.

A common mistake: having not received the effect after the double administration of the drug prescribed by the instructions, the doctor prescribes the continuation of the injections.This can lead to severe intoxication and death of the dog. If there is no improvement, then most often the diagnosis was erroneous and the dog is not sick with pyroplasmosis.

The second, more modern group – drugs based on imidocarb. They are less toxic and, moreover, can be used for prophylaxis. True, it is not worth getting too carried away with chemoprophylaxis, because the long-term effects of the drug are unknown. It is better to treat after the fact of the disease. The main guarantee of success is an early start of treatment and a correct diagnosis.

With regard to symptomatic treatment, all kinds of “additional” drugs, this is a very controversial issue. In our clinic, systems (droppers) are not used for all animals in a row, but only according to indications. The dog’s body, if it is not overloaded with unnecessary medications, most often copes with the elimination of free hemoglobin by itself. Drinking without restriction is usually sufficient. If jaundice appears, saline solutions and isotonic glucose solution can be dripped.No plasma substitution solutions are needed. Frequently prescribed diuretics are not needed either – they remove potassium, which is necessary for the normal functioning of the heart. Any antibiotic is also an additional burden on the liver; their unmotivated prescription should be avoided.

Finally, an important question is how to recover from pyroplasmosis. A protein-rich diet is often advised. The question is again ambiguous. The liver is affected, and in case of hepatitis, a diet with a reduced protein content is always recommended.Therefore, it is better to use medicated food. If the dog is on a natural diet, the amount of meat and meat products in the diet should be reduced during the recovery period.

Prepared by Irina Yurieva

Signs of impending death – Vera Hospice Charitable Foundation

Sooner or later, a person thinks about the death of loved ones or his own. But when death is already on the threshold, we are not always ready to meet it “fully armed”.

The anxiety caused by the proximity of death often stems from a lack of knowledge, so we recommend that you read this text. Some typical features of the dying process are described here. You may have some questions answered and hopefully want to ask for more information and help. It is easier for loved ones to support each other in this difficult, responsible time, if you know what to expect.

What changes occur to a person before death?

The process of a person’s departure from life is unique, but there are still a number of common signs indicating that a person is dying.Any of these signs individually does not necessarily mean the approach of death, so you need to remember that in our case we are talking about dying people.

There are three categories of changes in a person’s condition, which indicate that his life is nearing the end:

  • Reduced food and water requirements:
  • changes in breathing patterns;
  • withdrawal into oneself.

1. Reducing food and water requirements

We all know that a sick person who stops eating and drinking is unlikely to recover.Of course, this knowledge is not at all easier for close people. As a person weakens, drinking and eating on their own becomes simply beyond his power. During this period, he, perhaps, will be grateful if he is fed. However, then the time comes when the desire, and indeed the need, to eat and drink disappears. Refusal of the patient from food and water can cause despair in his loved ones, since they closely associate feeding with caring for him. However, there are other important ways to continue leaving: being close, indulging in shared memories, and sharing news from the lives of family and friends.Do not despair if the patient reacts poorly: this is most likely due to fatigue, and not because he is indifferent. Just being together – in this both you and the patient can find great comfort. Most importantly, such communication makes the dying person feel that his life has not been lived in vain, that he will be remembered.

2. Characteristic changes in breathing

People with shortness of breath are often afraid of dying from lack of oxygen. However, closer to death, the less actively the processes in the body proceed: the need for oxygen is reduced to a minimum.Perhaps this will serve as a consolation for patients with breathing disorders, since people who had to care for the dying noticed that when a person dies, his breathing becomes more calm. Difficulty breathing can also be caused by fear, therefore, when someone close to the dying person is not only consoling him, but also evens his breathing, interrupted by a feeling of anxiety.

Sometimes in the last hours of life, breathing becomes noisy, bubbling, this is due to the accumulation of phlegm in the patient’s chest, which he is unable to cough up.Then it is better to turn the patient over, if at all possible. Noisy breathing, however, no matter how oppressive it may be to the person sitting with the patient, hardly bothers the dying person himself. If the big one breathes through the mouth, the lips and oral cavity dry out. This can be helped by moistening the patient’s mouth with a sponge and applying a moisturizer to the lips. You can use an oxygen concentrator, oxygen cushion, try to find a position in which the patient can breathe more easily.

Minutes or hours before death, the breathing pattern can change again.Sometimes it becomes intermittent, with the pauses between inhalation and exhalation being quite long. Sometimes pulmonary breathing is replaced by abdominal breathing, then the patient seems to breathe not with the lungs, but with the stomach. Remember: if breathing is difficult, then he probably suffers from it less than the one who observes it. Shortly before death, the patient’s skin turns pale, covered with perspiration and slightly chills. Most of the dying leave quietly and calmly, without waking up.

3. Self-care

Disconnecting from life is a delicate process that takes place gradually.The closer to the end, the more time a person spends in a dream, and when he is awake, he feels sleepy. This external lack of interest in the world around us is part of the natural process of dying, which can even be accompanied by a feeling of peace (of course, in relation to relatives there is nothing offensive). Finally, a person can fall into unconsciousness and remain in this state for as long as he pleases – sometimes for whole days.

It is difficult to survive the death of a loved one, because you are losing the one you loved.Sometimes you don’t know what to say to each other at such moments. Doctors and nurses in the hospice will help you overcome your grief, give you attention and support.

For more useful information about caring for a seriously ill person, see on the Pro Palliative portal .

Please also read our leaflets “ Share this Path ” and “ Experiencing Grief ”.

How to support hospice patients?

It is very easy to support hospice patients.You can subscribe to monthly donations (by checking the box in front of “I want to donate monthly” ) or make a one-time donation :

Thank you always.

90,000 Vomiting in dogs – causes, treatment

If your pet suddenly starts vomiting, urgently take it to the Vetostrov veterinary clinic on Vasilievsky Island or near the Parnas metro station. Our specialists will carry out a complete diagnosis of the animal, determine the causes and prescribe the correct and most effective treatment.We work around the clock.

Our advantages:

  • Prompt diagnosis and prescription of prevention and treatment
  • high qualification of veterinarians
  • individual approach to each patient.

Vomiting in dogs is a complex unconditioned reflex , carried out by the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, diaphragmatic and abdominal muscles. She, almost always, is preceded by nausea, which is expressed in anxiety, the animal moves around the house, as if “looking for a place for itself,” there is salivation, licking, repeated swallowing, sometimes unreasonable barking, possibly to hoarseness, as the dog tries to “muffle discomfort in the oropharynx. “For this reason, the owners often regard the urge to nausea as a cough, or vice versa – a cough is mistaken for vomiting. Then the dog seems to gag, stretches its neck, bends its head, breathing becomes hysterical and deeper, after which rhythmic contractions of the abdominal muscles begin, and with gurgling sounds, the contents of the stomach, and sometimes the duodenum, burp out.

As a rule, the animal enters the clinic after repeated seizures (since it is no secret that the owners often hope that “it will pass by itself”), and this act is absent at the reception, therefore it is an ideal option for quick diagnosis and correct diagnosis. and, therefore, the appointment of treatment will be the owner’s assessment of the contents of the vomit (quantity and properties – color, smell, the presence of mucus, bile, foreign objects).

There are several types due to different reasons

Vomiting happens:

1. Central origin (can be caused by emotions, overexcitation of the vestibular apparatus, increased intracranial pressure or trauma). This nature – in 90% of cases, occurs in dwarf dog breeds against the background of falling from a height (even if we mean short distances – a stool, bed, sofa, children’s hands, etc.). In this case, an immediate visit to the veterinarian will help to avoid consequences in the form of irreversible changes in the brain.
2. The most common type is caused by the effect of chemicals on the chemoreceptor zones. In common people – “poisoning”.

But poisoning is essentially a pathology of the gastrointestinal tract, but its consequence and concurrently – an important clinical sign is nausea and vomiting. As a rule, they cannot be stopped without the appointment of appropriate drugs and the elimination of toxins by setting a dropper. It is important to remember that without eliminating the cause, namely the so-called “blood washing” with physiological solutions, poisoning can lead to irreversible consequences in the form of damage to important internal organs, in particular – the liver, kidneys, pancreas.

Possible causes

Also, we must not forget that vomiting may indicate the presence of foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract (hereinafter GIT) (toys, bones, socks, ropes, threads, etc.). A pathognomonic sign of complete obstruction or partial obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract is the preservation of the animal’s appetite and thirst, activity, but the inability to take food and water. Roughly speaking, the dog wants to eat and drink, but everything that enters the stomach, after a while, and sometimes immediately, is thrown out undigested.In this case, it is necessary to urgently apply for an appointment with a specialist and conduct X-ray diagnostics. Remember that if a foreign object is still in the stomach and its size is small, there are no sharp edges, then it can be removed not by an operative method, but by gastroscopy, which in essence is a less painful and problematic method for both the pet and the owner , since a laparotomy is not performed, that is, an opening of the abdominal cavity and a violation of the integrity of the stomach and intestines.Therefore, the sooner you see a doctor, the less time and money you will spend on eliminating the disease. In addition, we must not forget that if an object swallowed by a dog has sharp edges (for example, if we are talking about a banal chicken bone), then constant vomiting, reverse peristalsis and pendulum bowel movements can cause perforation of the gastrointestinal tract wall and, as a result, peritonitis …

Small dog breeds are prone to eating the owner’s hair from the combs or their fur, which leads to the formation of hairballs, just like cats.

Vomiting in dogs, accompanied by diarrhea, bloating, more common in unvaccinated puppies, may be a sign of a developing infection of bacterial or viral etiology, as well as the presence of parasites in the body – worms or protozoa. If an infection is suspected, it is necessary to pass a CBC for the appointment of timely antibiotic therapy.

Particular attention should be paid to helminthic invasion. If you found “worms” in the masses, do not rush to give your pet antihelminthic drugs, as this can worsen his condition.To begin with, it is necessary to carry out antiemetic and dehydration therapy, especially if vomiting with worms in a dog is accompanied by profuse diarrhea.

Well, speaking of vomiting in elderly dogs, one cannot fail to mention that it may indicate a tumor in the gastrointestinal tract or metabolic disorders (for example, uremia in renal failure), which are also detected by X-ray and biochemical blood tests.

Before visiting the veterinary clinic, it is not advisable to give the animal any food, so as not to provoke new attacks.If this is caused by the intake of water in an animal, they also stop giving water to such an animal. with this dehydration develops very quickly. In this case, the animal should get to the doctor for an appointment as quickly as possible, and not “tomorrow”, “next week”, “how we will come from the dacha” because severe dehydration can lead to the death of the animal.

Thus, from all of the above, it follows that a timely and quick appeal to a specialist will reduce the risk of consequences, shorten the treatment process, reduce the owner’s financial expenses and prolong the life of the four-legged friend.

Why did the cat lose weight – what to do if the cat is losing weight?

Cat parasites

Certain internal parasites can cause a cat to lose weight. Giardia (a parasite of the genus Giardia) and Coccidia cause severe diarrhea, resulting in dehydration and weight loss. If you suspect a cat is infected with parasites, be sure to see your veterinarian to determine which parasites are in question and how to protect your cat (and you) from them.

Hairballs in cats

Cats spend a lot of time grooming their coat, which helps them regulate their body temperature and keep their coat and skin clean. However, if swallowed wool is not properly excreted through the digestive system, it can build up and form hairballs. These matted hairballs can lead to regurgitation, constipation, esophageal obstruction, loss of appetite and weight loss.

Vitamin deficiency in cats

Weight loss, combined with dermatological problems such as flaky skin, hair loss and itching, can be indicators of a deficiency in one of the B vitamins that occurs with gastrointestinal conditions or an unbalanced diet.They are water-soluble vitamins that do not accumulate in the body, so your cat must receive a B-complex in the feed on a regular basis to maintain healthy skin and coat.

If the animal’s diet is not complete and balanced, there may be a risk of vitamin and other nutrient deficiencies. If your cat is losing weight and you are worried it might be due to a vitamin deficiency, see your veterinarian.

If you have any concerns about your cat losing weight, be sure to visit your veterinarian.He will conduct a complete examination and determine the cause of the problem. The best way to maintain a healthy weight in your cat is to visit your veterinarian regularly and weigh your food accurately.