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Sinus Headaches – Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment
Your sinuses are air-filled spaces inside your forehead, cheekbones, and behind the bridge of your nose. When they get inflamed — usually because of an allergic reaction or an infection — they swell, make more mucus, and the channels that drain them can get blocked.
The build-up of pressure in your sinuses causes pain that feels like a headache.
You’ll feel a deep and constant pain in your cheekbones, forehead, or the bridge of your nose. The pain usually gets stronger when you move your head suddenly or strain. At the same time, you might have other sinus symptoms, such as:
- A runny nose
- Feeling of fullness in your ears
- Swelling in your face
Other kinds of recurring headaches, like migraines or tension headaches, are often mistaken for sinus headaches. Because the treatment you need depends on what kind of headache you have, it’s important to figure out if your symptoms are caused by your sinuses. If a sinus blockage, such as an infection, really is the cause, you’ll likely have a fever.
Usually your doctor can tell if your sinuses are blocked based on the symptoms you describe and a physical exam, but in some cases, you may need CT or MRI scans.
The goal is usually to relieve your symptoms and treat an infection if you have one. You might take antibiotics, as well as antihistamines or decongestants for a short time. You can also use inhaled nasal decongestants, but only for up to 3 days. Longer use can make your symptoms worse.
You can also take pain relievers, or if they don’t help, your doctor can prescribe corticosteroids to ease the inflammation in your sinuses. If an allergic reaction causes your sinus flare-ups, you might need a preventive allergy treatment.
You can also feel better with simple at-home tricks, such as drinking more fluids, using a humidifier, or saltwater nasal spray.
If you take decongestant and pain-relieving medicines too often, you might get medication overuse headaches. It’s important to touch base with your doctor if you’re using any medication for a long time to relieve your headaches. Decongestants also can raise your blood pressure, so if you have high blood pressure, talk to your doctor before you take one.
In rare cases, they may recommend sinus surgery to remove polyps or open up small or constantly swollen sinuses.
Allergies and Sinus Headaches
Ever heard that allergies cause sinus headaches? It’s not quite that simple.
Allergies can cause sinus congestion, which can make your head hurt. Treatment for your allergies can ease that congestion, but it won’t relieve your headache pain. You usually have to treat the two conditions separately. See your doctor to make sure you get the right help.
Sinus headaches – Symptoms and causes
Sinus headaches are headaches that may feel like an infection in the sinuses (sinusitis). You may feel pressure around your eyes, cheeks and forehead. Perhaps your head throbs.
However, many people who assume they have headaches from sinusitis, including many who have received such a diagnosis, actually have migraines.
Signs and symptoms of sinus headaches may include:
- Pain, pressure and fullness in your cheeks, brow or forehead
- Worsening pain if you bend forward or lie down
- Stuffy nose
- Achy feeling in your upper teeth
Sinusitis or migraine?
Migraines and headaches from sinusitis are easy to confuse because the signs and symptoms of the two types of headaches may overlap.
Both migraine and sinusitis headache pain often gets worse when you bend forward. Migraine can also be accompanied by various nasal signs and symptoms — including congestion, facial pressure and a clear, watery nasal discharge. These are due to involvement of the autonomic nervous system in a migraine attack. In fact, studies have shown that approximately 90% of people who see a doctor for sinus headaches are found to have migraines instead.
Sinusitis, however, usually isn’t associated with nausea or vomiting or aggravated by noise or bright light — all common features of migraines.
Sinusitis usually occurs after a viral upper respiratory infection or cold and includes thick, discolored nasal mucus, decreased sense of smell, and pain in one cheek or upper teeth. Headaches due to sinus disease often last days or longer, and migraines most commonly last hours to a day or two.
When to see a doctor
Consult your doctor if:
- Your headache symptoms occur more than 15 days a month or require frequent over-the-counter pain medicine
- You have a severe headache, and over-the-counter pain medicine doesn’t help
- You miss school or work because of frequent headaches or the headaches interfere with your daily life
Sinus headaches are usually associated with migraines or other forms of headaches.
Sinus headaches are associated with pain and pressure in the face and sinuses and can cause nasal symptoms. Most of these headaches are not caused by sinus infections and should not be treated with antibiotics.
Sinus headaches can affect anyone but may be more likely if you have:
- A previous history of migraines or headaches
- A family history of migraines or headaches
- Hormonal changes associated with headaches
Whether or not you take preventive medications, you may benefit from lifestyle changes that can help reduce the number and severity of headaches. One or more of these suggestions may be helpful for you:
Avoid triggers. If certain foods or odors seem to have triggered your headaches in the past, avoid them. Your doctor may recommend you reduce your caffeine and alcohol intake and avoid tobacco.
In general, establish a daily routine with regular sleep patterns and regular meals. In addition, try to control stress.
Exercise regularly. Regular aerobic exercise reduces tension and can help prevent headaches. If your doctor agrees, choose any aerobic exercise you enjoy, including walking, swimming and cycling.
Warm up slowly, however, because sudden, intense exercise can cause headaches.
Obesity is also thought to be a factor in headaches, and regular exercise can help you maintain a healthy weight or lose weight.
Reduce the effects of estrogen. If you’re a woman who has headaches and estrogen seems to trigger or make your headaches worse, you may want to avoid or reduce the medications you take that contain estrogen.
These medications include birth control pills and hormone replacement therapy. Talk with your doctor about the appropriate alternatives or dosages for you.
Sinus Headache vs. Migraine | MHNI Migraine Headache and Head Pain Treatment
What distinguishes migraine from a sinus-related headache?
The initial presentation of sinus infection is so similar to migraine that it is often mistakenly diagnosed and treated like just another headache. However, despite overlapping symptoms, differences between the two entities can be distinguished through a careful evaluation.
Migraine is a familiar event, with or without warning symptoms (aura or prodrome). It may be gradual or abrupt in onset, moderate or severe in intensity, is often accompanied by a sensitivity to light and sound, and by nausea and vomiting. The pain may be one-sided or diffuse, limited to the front, top, or back of the head, and may often reach into the neck. It may hurt in the face area as well. Migraine may be provoked by other illnesses that affect the head or neck, such as a dental problem or respiratory or sinus infection. Migraine often subsides after several hours with the assistance of an effective rescue medication (abortive). For most, migraine is a distinct and familiar event with a predictable duration and resolution.
Sinus headache typically occurs in the area of the sinuses (see Figure 1)—in the area of the cheeks (maxillary sinus), bridge of the nose (ethmoid sinus), or above the eyes (frontal sinus). Less often it may refer pain to the top or back of the head (sphenoid sinus—see Figure 2 ). Sinus headache may occur on one side or both sides of the head and the neck is typically not involved. The symptoms are frequently worsened by bending over or coughing (as with migraine), and examination of the facial area may reveal local tenderness, redness, swelling, and possibly the presence of clear or discolored nasal discharge. Sinus disease can happen to people who suffer from migraine or to those who do not and may lead to increased migraine activity in migraine sufferers, often confusing the diagnosis.
What causes sinus headache?
Sinus headache may arise from an allergy reaction, an infection, or other obstruction. When due to allergy, it may be referred to as “rhinitis,” which is often seasonal or chronic-lasting for long periods. Infectious sinusitis is due to an infection. It may be bacterial, viral, or fungal in origin, acute or chronic in duration, and with or without other symptoms such as a cough, sore throat, or fever.
Chronic allergic sinusitis may result in an infection due to the accumulation of secretions.
It is often possible to distinguish one type of sinusitis from another. For instance, allergic rhinitis often occurs seasonally and may relate to the pollen count in the spring and fall, or occurs when a dusty or contaminated home heating system starts up in the autumn. Both allergic sinusitis and viral sinusitis are characterized by a thin, watery nasal or postnasal discharge. The associated sinus congestion may impede adequate aeration of the sinuses, ultimately leading to a bacterial infection, characterized by yellowish or greenish nasal discharge, fever, malaise, etc.
What can happen if sinus infections are left untreated?
If not adequately recognized and treated, some types of sinusitis can be especially serious. For example, due to its close proximity to the brain, infection in the sphenoid sinus may easily lead to a serious central nervous system infection, injuring important nerves to the eyes and face (see Figure 2).
How are sinus-related headaches treated?
The treatment of sinusitis begins with a careful history and detailed physical examination. A review of imaging studies of the head or neck (x-rays, CT or MRI scans) may be required to make an accurate diagnosis. Direct visualization of the tissues by inserting a scope device up the nasal passages may also be necessary.
Upon determining that a headache’s origin is a sinus infection, short-term antibiotics (typically less than 2 weeks) and decongestants (several days only) may be prescribed. Allergic sinusitis may respond to simple antihistamine and steroid-based nasal sprays. A chronic sinus infection may require weeks of therapy, various antibiotic regimens, or the judicious use of supportive steroid preparations. Sometimes nasal surgery is indicated to correct underlying anatomical factors.
Treatment failure may be attributed to poor compliance, e.g., skipping or prematurely stopping antibiotics or steroid nasal sprays, overusing analgesics or decongestants, and/or inappropriate self-treatments. The overuse of analgesics or decongestants may result in daily rebound headache. When related to sinus pathology this is termed rhinitis medicamentosa, though its migraine counterpart is referred to as analgesic rebound headache.
One reason confusion arises in the diagnosis of this condition is that tests are often normal. Additionally, even true sinus headaches may respond to the same medications that treat migraine, such as analgesics, over-the-counter nasal decongestants and antihistamines. The effectiveness of these medications may be due to the involvement of common pain pathways and peripheral vascular reactivity in both migraine and sinusitis.
Given the nonspecific and often overlapping features of sinusitis and migraine, treatment failure may suggest either an alternative diagnosis or multiple conditions occurring at the same time, such as migraine aggravated by sinusitis. Resistant cases of sinusitis often require the assistance of an ear, nose, and throat specialist. In addition, migraineurs may never receive an accurate diagnosis of migraine until their sinus condition has been addressed.
Types, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
What is sinusitis?
Sinusitis is an inflammation, or swelling, of the tissue lining the sinuses. The sinuses are four paired cavities (spaces) in the head. They are connected by narrow channels. The sinuses make thin mucus that drains out of the channels of the nose. This drainage helps keep the nose clean and free of bacteria. Normally filled with air, the sinuses can get blocked and filled with fluid. When that happens, bacteria can grow and cause an infection (bacterial sinusitis).
This is also called rhinosinusitis, with “rhino” meaning “nose.” The nasal tissue is almost always swollen if sinus tissue is inflamed.
What are the different types of sinuses near the nose and eyes?
The paranasal sinuses are located in your head near your nose and eyes. They are named after the bones that provide their structure.
- The ethmoidal sinuses are located between your eyes.
- The maxillary sinuses are located below your eyes.
- The sphenoidal sinuses are located behind your eyes.
- The frontal sinuses are located above your eyes.
The biggest sinus cavity is the maxillary cavity, and it is one of the cavities that most often becomes infected.
There are different types of sinusitis:
- Acute bacterial sinusitis: This term refers to a sudden onset of cold symptoms such as runny nose, stuffy nose, and facial pain that does not go away after 10 days, or symptoms that seem to improve but then return and are worse than the initial symptoms (termed “double sickening”). It responds well to antibiotics and decongestants.
- Chronic sinusitis: This term refers to a condition defined by nasal congestion, drainage, facial pain/pressure, and decreased sense of smell for at least 12 weeks.
- Subacute sinusitis: This term is used when the symptoms last four to twelve weeks.
- Recurrent acute sinusitis: This term is used when the symptoms come back four or more times in one year and last less than two weeks each time.
Who gets sinusitis?
A sinus infection can happen to anyone. However, people with nasal allergies, nasal polyps, asthma and abnormal nose structures are all more likely to get sinusitis. Smoking can also increase how often you get a sinus infection.
There are an estimated 31 million people in the United States with sinusitis.
How can I tell if I have a sinus infection, cold, or nasal allergy?
It can be difficult to tell the difference between a cold, allergies, and a sinus infection. The common cold typically builds, peaks, and slowly disappears. It lasts a few days to a week. A cold can transform into a sinus infection. Nasal allergy is inflammation of the nose due to irritating particles (dust, pollen, and dander). Symptoms of a nasal allergy can include sneezing, itchy nose and eyes, congestion, runny nose, and post nasal drip (mucus in the throat). Sinusitis and allergy symptoms can happen at the same time as a common cold.
If you are fighting off a cold and develop symptoms of a sinus infection or nasal allergy, see your healthcare provider. You will be asked to describe your symptoms and medical history.
Symptoms and Causes
What causes sinusitis?
Sinusitis can be caused by a virus, bacteria, or fungus that swells and blocks the sinuses. A few specific causes include:
- The common cold.
- Nasal and seasonal allergies, including allergies to mold.
- Polyps (growths).
- A deviated septum. The septum is the line of cartilage that divides your nose. A deviated septum means that it isn’t straight, so that it is closer to the nasal passage on one side of your nose, causing a blockage.
- A weak immune system from illness or medications.
For infants and young children, spending time in day cares, using pacifiers or drinking bottles while lying down could increase the chances of getting sinusitis.
For adults, smoking increases the risks for sinus infections. If you smoke, you should stop. Smoking is harmful to you and to the people around you.
Is sinusitis contagious?
You can’t spread bacterial sinusitis, but you can spread viruses that lead to sinusitis. Remember to follow good hand washing practices, to avoid people if you are sick and to sneeze or cough into your elbow if you have to sneeze or cough.
What are the signs and symptoms of sinusitis?
Common signs and symptoms of sinusitis include:
- Post nasal drip (mucus drips down the throat).
- Nasal discharge (thick yellow or green discharge from nose) or stuffy nose
- Facial pressure (particularly around the nose, eyes, and forehead), headache and or pain in your teeth or ears.
- Halitosis (bad breath)
Diagnosis and Tests
How is sinusitis diagnosed?
Your healthcare provider will ask you a lot of questions in order to develop a detailed medical history and find out about your symptoms. They will also do a physical examination. During the exam, your care provider will check your ears, nose and throat for any swelling, draining or blockage. An endoscope (a small lighted/optical instrument) may be used to look inside the nose. In some cases, you might be referred to an ear, nose and throat (ENT) specialist. If you needed an imaging exam, your provider would order a computed tomography (CT) scan.
Management and Treatment
How is sinusitis treated?
Sinusitis is treated in several ways, each depending on how severe the case of sinusitis is.
A simple sinusitis infection is treated with:
- Over-the-counter cold and allergy medications.
- Nasal saline irrigation.
- Drinking fluids (sinusitis is a viral infection and fluids will help).
If symptoms of sinusitis don’t improve after 10 days, your doctor may prescribe:
- Antibiotics (for seven days in adults and 10 days in children).
- Oral or topical decongestants.
- Prescription intranasal steroid sprays. (Don’t use non-prescription sprays or drops for longer than three to five days — they may actually increase congestion).
Long-term (chronic) sinusitis may be treated by focusing on the underlying condition (typically allergies). This is usually treated with:
- Intranasal steroid sprays.
- Topical antihistamine sprays or oral pills.
- Leukotriene antagonists to reduce swelling and allergy symptoms.
- Rinsing the nose with saline solutions that might also contain other types of medication.
When sinusitis isn’t controlled by one of the above treatments, a CT scan is used to take a better look at your sinuses. Depending on the results, surgery may be needed to correct structural problems in your sinuses. This is most likely to happen if you have polyps and/or a fungal infection.
What complications are associated with sinus infection?
Although it does not happen very often, untreated sinus infections can become life-threatening by causing meningitis or infecting the brain, eyes, or nearby bone. Meningitis is an infection of the membranes (meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord.
Do I need antibiotics for every sinus infection?
Many sinus infections are caused by viruses, the ones that cause the common cold. These types of infections are not cured by antibiotics. Taking an antibiotic for a viral infection unnecessarily puts you at risk for side effects related to the antibiotic. In addition, the overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which may make future infections more difficult to treat.
Are complementary and alternative therapies useful for treating sinusitis?
You might find acupressure, acupuncture or facial massage helpful in reducing symptoms of sinusitis, including pressure and pain. They might also help you to relax. These treatments do not usually have unwanted side effects.
Is there a right way to blow your nose?
If you have a stuffy nose, trying to force yourself to blow your nose could make it worse. The best thing to do is to blow one side of your nose at a time gently into a tissue. You might want to first use some type of nasal rinse to loosen any material in your nose before blowing. Make sure you dispose of the tissue and then clean your hands with soap and water or an antimicrobial sanitizer.
How can I prevent sinusitis?
Some of the home remedies used to treat sinus infections symptoms may help prevent sinusitis. These include rinsing your nose out with salt water and using medications that your provider might suggest, such as allergy medications or steroid nasal sprays.
You should avoid things you are allergic to, like dust, pollen or smoke, and try to avoid sick people. Wash your hands to reduce your chance of getting a cold or flu.
Will I need to make lifestyle changes to deal with sinus infections?
If you have indoor allergies it is recommended that you avoid triggers—animal dander and dust mites, for example—as well as take medications. Smoking is never recommended, but if you do smoke, strongly consider a program to help you quit. Smoke can also trigger allergies and prevent removal of mucous by the nose. No special diet is required, but drinking extra fluids helps to thin nasal secretions.
When should I go see the doctor about a sinus infection?
It is pretty easy to care for most sinus conditions on your own. However, if you continue to have symptoms that concern you or if your infections continue to happen, your primary care doctor might suggest you see a specialist. This could also happen if your CT scan shows something that does not look right.
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Sinusitis, or swelling of the tissues of the sinus cavities, is a common condition with many causes, including viruses and bacteria, nasal polyps or allergies. Signs and symptoms may including facial pressure, fever and tiredness. You can treat symptoms at home by resting, taking over-the-counter products and increasing your fluid intake. Make sure you contact your healthcare provider if symptoms do not improve, if sinusitis happens often or if you have any symptom that worries you.
Sinus Headaches: Treatment, Symptoms & Causes
Location of frontal and maxillary sinuses shown on face
What are sinuses?
Sinuses are a series of connected, hollow spaces behind your cheekbones, forehead and nose
(see illustration). The sinuses produce thin mucus. As air travels through the sinuses to your lungs, the mucus traps harmful particles like dust, pollutants and bacteria. The mucus drains out through your nose.
What is a sinus headache?
About 80% of the time, what people call a sinus headache is actually a migraine with nasal symptoms. A true sinus headache develops because of a sinus infection (sinusitis). The infection causes pain and pressure in the sinuses.
How common are sinus headaches?
Sinus headaches are very common with an infection. You can also feel like you have a sinus headache when you have migraines, which affect 12% of people.
Symptoms and Causes
What causes sinus headaches?
Sinus infections cause sinus headaches. Anything that makes mucus buildup in the sinuses can lead to a sinus infection, such as:
- The common cold is most often to blame.
- Seasonal allergies trigger mucus production.
- Nasal polyps, abnormal growths in the nose or sinuses. Nasal polyps can block mucus from draining.
- Deviated septum, which is when the line of cartilage and bone down the center of the nose isn’t straight. A deviated septum can prevent mucus from properly draining.
Too much mucus gives germs an opportunity to grow. As germs build up, they irritate the sinuses. In response, sinus tissue swells, blocking the passage of mucus. Swollen, irritated sinuses filled with liquid make your face feel tender and achy.
Do allergies cause sinus headaches (allergy headaches)?
Allergies themselves don’t cause headaches. However, allergies can cause sinus congestion (stuffy nose), which can lead to sinus pressure, pain and infection. If you have seasonal allergies (allergic rhinitis), you’re 10 times more likely to suffer from migraines, too.
What does a sinus headache feel like?
When you have a sinus headache, your face hurts. Typically, pain gets worse when you move your head suddenly. Depending on the sinus affected, you may feel a constant dull ache behind the eyes or in your:
- Bridge of the nose.
What are the other symptoms of sinus headaches?
Besides facial pain, sinus headaches cause other symptoms, including:
- Stuffy nose.
- Thick, colored mucus discharge from the nose.
- Feeling of fullness in the ears.
- Swollen or puffy face.
Can you have a sinus headache without being congested?
If you don’t have congestion, it’s probably not a sinus headache. The pain in your face is more likely due to a migraine (severe headache) or tension headache.
What’s the difference between a sinus headache and a migraine?
It’s easy to confuse the two, since migraines can also cause facial pain, nasal congestion and a runny nose. With a migraine, nasal discharge is clear. If you have a real sinus headache — caused by a sinus infection — you’ll also have a fever and thick, discolored nasal mucus.
Diagnosis and Tests
How are sinus headaches diagnosed?
Most of the time when people diagnose themselves with a sinus headache, it’s really a migraine. So, it’s important to see your healthcare provider to get an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Your healthcare provider will perform a physical exam and ask about your symptoms. If your symptoms are severe or ongoing, you may also need imaging tests. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) test can rule out serious brain conditions. Multiple imaging tests can reveal sinus blockages and include:
- Computed tomography (CT) scan.
- Nasal endoscopy (a thin, flexible tube with a tiny camera that views inside your nose and sinus).
Management and Treatment
How do I get rid of a sinus headache?
To get rid of a sinus headache, you have to treat the underlying cause. But you can take steps to ease sinus pressure and pain at home:
- Apply a warm compress to painful areas of the face.
- Use a decongestant to reduce sinus swelling and allow mucus to drain.
- Try a saline nasal spray or drops to thin mucus.
- Use a vaporizer or inhale steam from a pan of boiled water. Warm, moist air may help relieve sinus congestion.
Viruses, bacteria and sometimes fungi cause sinus infections. Viral infections often go away on their own. But if your infection is bacterial or fungal, you need antibiotics or antifungal medications. Your healthcare provider may also recommend other medications to ease discomfort, such as:
- Antihistamines to prevent allergy symptoms.
- Decongestants to reduce swelling in the nose and sinuses.
- Pain relievers to ease headache pain.
- Steroids to reduce inflammation.
Migraines with sinus symptoms
Sinus headaches that are actually migraines need a different type of treatment. The first step is to relieve your pain. You should know that frequently using over-the-counter medications when you have a headache can cause even more headaches (rebound or medication overuse headaches).
Your provider may recommend prescription medication for migraine pain. You may also need a preventive medication that helps you have fewer migraine attacks.
How can I prevent a sinus headache?
You can prevent recurring sinus infections (chronic sinusitis) by treating the root cause. For allergies, seeing an allergy specialist for treatment can help. For a deviated septum, your healthcare provider may need to perform surgery. If you have nasal polyps, you may need a procedure to remove them.
Outlook / Prognosis
How long do sinus headaches last?
Viruses cause most sinus infections. A viral sinus infection typically resolves on its own. Similar to how the common cold clears up by itself, your sinus headache should feel better within about a week. If it doesn’t go away, see your healthcare provider. You may have a bacterial or fungal sinus infection that requires medication.
What can I do about recurring sinus headaches?
Many sinus headaches, especially those that recur, are actually migraines. But it’s smart to see your healthcare provider to figure out the cause of your headaches.
You may find that the best long-term solution is figuring out what triggers your migraine headaches so you can avoid them. It’s helpful to keep a headache diary to track potential triggers. Triggers you can control include:
- Specific foods, such as chocolate, red wine or strong cheese.
- Lack of sleep.
A note from Cleveland Clinic
People often mistake migraines for sinus headaches. But treatment for those two conditions is very different, so it’s important to pinpoint the real problem. If you’ve had more than one sinus infection or get frequent sinus headaches, seek medical care. Getting to the bottom of what’s going on will help you find a successful treatment.
Why Does My Whole Head Hurt When My Sinuses Are Congested?
As we breathe, air flows into our nose up through our sinuses and down into the lungs. The sinuses are a system of cavities lined with soft tissue and a light coating of mucus to help moisten and filter the air we breathe. In order to understand why your whole head might hurt when you have a sinus issue, you need to understand the different sinus cavities people have. They are:
- Maxillary sinuses – These are the largest sinus cavities and they are situated near the cheekbones on both sides of the nose.
- Frontal sinuses – Above the bridge of the nose in the forehead are the frontal sinuses—one on each side above a good portion of each eyebrow.
- Ethmoid sinuses – These sinuses sit behind the bone at the inside corner of each eye.
- Sphenoid sinuses – This last group sits a good bit behind the ethmoid sinuses.
No doubt you’re already recognizing how the pain you feel with sinus congestion or an infection matches up with the different sinus locations described above.
In order to function properly, the sinuses need to be able to drain freely. Allergies, infection and other irritation can inflame the sinus tissue and narrow air passageways. This inflammation is what causes pain. Inflammation in the frontal sinuses often causes us to shut our eyes and press our fingers around the bridge of our nose. Now you know that when you have this sort of headache, it’s most likely due to a problem in your sinuses.
The maxillary sinuses in the cheeks can drive pain into your teeth and jaw bone. Pain in the frontal sinuses, especially when combined with congestion or inflammation in the ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses, can send pain across your forehead, behind your eyes and nose and back toward your ears.
If you have inflammation in more than one or all of your sinus cavities, you can see how your entire head might be in pain.
Relieving the sinus headache pain
Some sinus problems can be prevented with regular use of a Neti pot or other rinsing agent to keep your nasal and sinus passages moist.
Once you have that sinus pain, you can relieve the headache with acetaminophen-based products, like BC® Sinus Pain & Congestion powder, that contain acetaminophen as well as an antihistamine and nasal decongestant to help relieve congestion, runny nose and sinus pain.
If your symptoms don’t respond to over-the-counter remedies, you think you have a sinus infection or you have other chronic health conditions, be sure to talk to your doctor to get the treatment you need.
Symptoms, treatments, and home remedies
Sinus headaches affect the area around the nose. They usually follow an infection and cause pain across the bridge of the nose and the cheeks. They can also be the result of allergies.
Sinuses are spaces in the bones of the face. There are four pairs across the cheeks, bridge of the nose, and above the eyes. Scientists are not entirely sure what role the sinuses play in the body. It is possible that they make the skull lighter, prevent heat from escaping the head, or help make the voice louder.
Treatment for a sinus headache depends on the underlying cause. A mild sinus headache can often be treated at home.
Fast facts on sinus headache:
- The primary symptom of a sinus headache is a pain in the sinuses.
- Treatment for a sinus headache will usually target the underlying cause.
- Sinus headaches are usually caused by an infection or an allergy.
The sinuses are lined with a membrane similar to the lining of the nose. If a person has an infection or allergy, this membrane can swell up and cause a sinus headache.
A person may feel this pain in their cheeks, the bridge of their nose, and in the area above the nose.
Sometimes, these areas might look swollen. A sinus headache might affect one or both sides of the face.
Sinus headaches are usually caused by an infection, such as sinusitis. A person who develops sinusitis is likely to have other symptoms, including:
- a blocked nose
- a lessened sense of smell
- green or yellow mucus when a person blows their nose
Some people find that the pain feels worse after coughing, leaning over, or bending down.
If a sinus headache is not causing too much pain, a person may be able to manage it at home. A person should rest, drink plenty of fluids, and take painkillers.
However, anyone experiencing severe pain from a sinus headache should see a doctor. A person may also need to seek medical advice if:
- the pain worsens
- symptoms do not get better after a week
- painkillers do not help
For a sinus headache caused by sinusitis, a doctor may prescribe decongestants or antibiotics.
A sinus headache caused by an allergy will usually be treated with a nasal spray that contains antihistamines or steroids.
If a person repeatedly gets a sinus headache or has sinusitis for 3 months, a doctor may refer them to an ear, nose, and throat specialist.
The specialist will likely ask about symptoms, take a medical history, and examine the person’s head, nose, and face. They may also take images of the head with an X-ray or MRI scan.
Some people may require surgery to widen the sinuses. The procedure might involve removing a small amount of tissue from the sinuses or inflating a tiny balloon device within the sinuses to widen the sinus passages.
A person who has a sinus headache caused by sinusitis might be able to treat it with home remedies. These treatments may not work if the pain is very severe, or symptoms last for over a week, however.
Breathing in steam
Breathing in steam can help to open up the nasal passages and sinuses, which may help to relieve pressure and pain:
- boil some water and allow it to cool slightly
- pour the water into a large heatproof bowl
- lean the face over the bowl
- cover the head with a small towel
- breathe slowly in and out through the nose
Cleaning the nose with a salt water solution
Using a salt water solution can help to decongest the nose:
- boil roughly 1 pint of water and allow to cool
- dissolve 1 teaspoon (tsp) of salt and 1 tsp of baking soda in the water
- wash hands with soap and water
- pour a small amount of the solution into a cupped palm
- sniff the water into the nostril, one at a time
- repeat until the nose feels clearer
A warm washcloth
Holding a warm washcloth to the face can ease pain and pressure:
- run a clean washcloth under hot water and wring out
- apply across the bridge of the nose and cheeks
- hold the washcloth in place for a few minutes
- repeat several times per day
Research by the American Migraine Foundation found that a migraine is often mistaken for a sinus headache.
A sinus headache and a migraine have some symptoms in common, including:
- feeling pressure in the face and forehead
- pain that worsens when moving the head
- a blocked nose
There are different treatments for a migraine and sinus headaches, so it is important to get the correct diagnosis.
If a person has symptoms of sinusitis followed by pain and pressure in the face, this is probably a sinus headache. If a headache lasts for more than a week or is not cured by antibiotics, it may be a migraine.
A person who has a migraine is likely to experience other symptoms that do not appear with a sinus headache.
- being sensitive to light
- a pulsing or a throbbing headache
Share on PinterestPeople with hay fever may feel pain in the same area as a sinus headache.
Allergies, particularly hay fever, can cause headaches.
A person experiencing a headache caused by an allergy will probably experience pain in the same area of the face as a sinus headache.
This is because allergies can cause a blocked or inflamed nose.
A person who has a headache caused by an allergy may experience other symptoms, such as:
A doctor or allergist should be able to find the cause of the allergy and suggest ways to manage and treat it.
A person who experiences headaches regularly may have a medication headache. This can happen when someone takes too many painkillers or uses pain relief medication for an extended period.
Sinusitis is a primary cause of a sinus headache. Some forms of the condition can be severe if left untreated. This is because the sinuses are close to the brain and any infection could pass to the central nervous system.
If a sinus headache does not improve within a week, a person should seek medical advice. Sinus headaches are usually not serious and can often be treated at home.
It is common for a person to mistake a migraine for a sinus headache. The two conditions require different treatment, so a person should consult a doctor if they have questions about their symptoms.
90,000 symptoms, causes, treatment – news and articles in the Udmurtia region – Pharmacy
29 october 2019
Sinusitis is an infectious disease that affects the maxillary sinuses. Despite the fact that this ailment can go away on its own in 10-14 days, this does not mean at all that there is no need to be treated. It is important at the first suspicion to consult a doctor so that the disease does not become severe and does not become chronic.
What is sinusitis?
Sinusitis can be caused by getting on the nasal mucosa of various infections – pneumococcal, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcal and streptococcal.
Often this disease is masked against the background of a runny nose and low immunity, manifested in the form of a stuffy nose, unpleasant painful sensations in the forehead and sinuses, edema, purulent discharge with an unpleasant odor and general malaise. Distinguish between chronic and acute forms of the disease.
The main objectives of the treatment are: elimination of infectious agents and restoration of the microflora balance in the nasal mucosa, normalization of immunity.
Causes of the onset and exacerbation of sinusitis:
- Long-term disturbance of mucus outflow due to trauma, lingering rhinitis, allergies, polyps, tumors.
- Inflammatory processes in the oral cavity, caries.
Signs of illness
- Headache felt in the forehead, cheekbones, temples, eyes and upper teeth.
- Increasing pain with pressure at the base of the nose, near the inner corner of the eye, in the projection area of the sinuses.
- stuffy nose.
- Severe mucous or mucopurulent nasal discharge.
- When bending forward, a feeling of heaviness in the head.
- Smell disorder.
- Swelling of the cheek or eyelid (with bilateral sinusitis, it may be invisible due to symmetry).
- Memory impairment, irritability, insomnia.
- Increase in body temperature (up to a maximum of 38 ° C).
- Discomfort, general weakness.
How to recognize sinusitis
Since most of the symptoms of sinusitis are similar to the common cold, it is important to pay attention to the following details and contact an otolaryngologist in a timely manner.
- If the treatment prescribed by the doctor does not help and the state of health has deteriorated, this may mean that the infection has penetrated into the maxillary sinus. Therefore, a correction of treatment is required.
- With sinusitis, the headache often subsides during inhalation with menthol and eucalyptus preparations, instillation of vasodilators and warm drinks.If you notice temporary improvement, this is a reason to see a doctor.
- Sinusitis is characterized by an uneven headache (cheekbones, temples, crown), with a cold, the whole head hurts.
- Unpleasant pressure on the inside of the face, most likely caused by the pressure of pus in the paranasal sinuses.
- Purulent nasal discharge must be removed to avoid complications such as thrombosis of the venous sinuses, meningitis, encephalitis, etc.
Diagnostics and examinations
To diagnose sinusitis, specialists resort to the patient’s complaints, his observations of his well-being, etc.Thus, the doctor may suspect sinusitis and prescribe an examination.
- During the appointment, the otolaryngologist examines the nasal cavity for the subject and nature of the discharge.
When sinusitis is detected, hardware examinations can be prescribed:
- Radiography (to detect the accumulation of fluid in the sinuses, in what quantity, whether the mucous membrane is thickened).
- Panoramic tomography of the upper jaw (if there is a suspicion of a connection between sinusitis and dental diseases).
- Computed tomography (the shape of the sinuses, which sinuses are affected, how much content there is).
- Allergic examination (if allergic sinusitis is suspected).
- In rare (difficult) cases, thermal imaging and ultrasonic location are performed.
The main directions in the treatment of sinusitis are to remove the contents of the sinuses, eliminate the infection and stop the inflammation. If the disease is not started, you can be treated at home on your own, following the doctor’s recommendations.
To reduce inflammation of the maxillary sinuses, the main thing is to get rid of the infection.
As a rule, appropriate drugs (antibiotics, antiviral or antifungal) are prescribed.
Since sinusitis of a bacterial nature is considered the most common, antibiotics are prescribed. They can only be taken as prescribed by a doctor, because these drugs do not help with viral and fungal sinusitis.
The course of antibiotics (in moderate or severe form) lasts at least a week.With a chronic course and in a neglected case, at least 14 days are required. The drug is selected individually by the doctor, so the patient should listen to the opinion of a specialist.
In parallel with antibiotic therapy:
- Removal of nasal discharge.
- Expansion of the mouth of the maxillary sinuses.
- Vasoconstrictor agents ( naphthyzin , sanorin , galazolin ), which reduce swelling of the nasal mucosa.However, they cannot be used for a long time, because there is addiction and the threat of atrophy of the nasal mucosa.
- Anti-inflammatory drugs ( ibuprofen , nimesulide ).
- Antihistamines ( suprastin , tavegil , diazolin ).
- Mucus thinning agents: acetylcysteine ( ACC ), sinupret .
- Enzyme preparations ( crystalline trypsin ) – topically, as part of solutions when washing the sinuses.
- For sinusitis, it is recommended to drink plenty of warm drink (milk), carbonated mineral water, decoctions of plantain and coltsfoot.
- Inhalation of warm humid air (vapor) is indicated. Hot air is contraindicated, as it increases the swelling of the mucous membrane.
- Rinsing the nasal cavity and throat works well with the following composition: 1 liter of warm water (38–39 ° C) – 1 tsp.spoon of salt, ¼ teaspoon of soda and 5 drops of iodine. The solution is drawn in alternately with the left and right nostrils, pouring out through the mouth or nose (do not allow it to enter the larynx). Rinsing of the nasal cavity is performed at least 2-4 times a day for 1-2 weeks. The solution temperature should be between 38–40 ° C. For this procedure, solutions based on a wide variety of agents and drugs can be used.
Other effective rinsing recipes:
- 1 teaspoon of sea salt in a glass of boiled water.
- Green tea infusion.
- Infusion of St. John’s wort, black currant leaves, string, calendula (1 tablespoon per glass of boiling water, infused for 20-30 minutes).
- Decoction of chamomile / oak bark with honey (for a glass of decoction 1 tablespoon of honey).
- Collection of herbs elekasol.
- Solution of furacilin or potassium permanganate.
- Thermal procedures (application of bags with heated salt or warm boiled eggs to the area of the nasal sinuses).
- Compresses for the area under the eyes.They can be used only during the healing process, and not at the initial stage, when this procedure will promote inflammation.
Treatment in a medical institution
- A method of moving fluids (or “cuckoo”) using special catheters.
Through one of them, a furacilin solution is passed under pressure, and through the second, fluid is sucked out from the nasal sinuses. Thus, the accumulated purulent discharge is removed into the reservoir, and the patient is relieved.As a rule, 5–7 procedures are enough.
- Yamik catheter works similarly to the “cuckoo” and in combination with laser warming contributes to effective treatment of acute or chronic sinusitis.
- Puncture is indicated: if drug treatment does not help, acute pain in the maxillary sinus area (aggravated by tilting the head forward), an unpleasant odor in the nose, body temperature above 38 ° C, no outflow from the sinuses, the presence of pus based on an X-ray.
In conclusion, I would like to add that sinusitis is a serious disease that requires mandatory and immediate consultation with an otolaryngologist.
Source: Milovanova Sophia, journalist
90,000 What are sinusitis? Sinusitis treatment
Every year, with the onset of autumn, doctors note a seasonal outbreak of not only acute respiratory diseases, but also ENT diseases. This is due to the weakening of immunity during this period of the year, as a result of which the infection easily penetrates into the paranasal sinuses and causes inflammation there.This process is called sinusitis.
– an inflammatory process in one or more paranasal sinuses. Sinusitis is diagnosed in 0.02% of the adult population; in children, upper respiratory tract infections are complicated by the development of sinusitis in 0.5% of cases. In otolaryngology, sinusitis includes inflammation of the maxillary sinus – sinusitis, frontal sinuses – frontal sinusitis, sphenoid sinus – sphenoiditis, ethmoiditis labyrinth of the ethmoid bone. Acute and chronic sinusitis are isolated downstream.Fever, headache, nasal congestion and purulent discharge, swelling of the face in the area of the inflamed sinus are noted. If untreated, serious complications develop: inflammation of the optic nerve and the membranes of the eye, osteomyelitis, brain abscess, meningitis.
Causes of sinusitis
The nasal cavity communicates with seven paranasal (paranasal) sinuses: two frontal, two maxillary, two ethmoid and one wedge-shaped.The sinuses are connected to the nasal cavity by narrow passages. Through these passages (natural fistulas), constant drainage (cleansing) of the sinuses is carried out. If the sinuses for some reason stop clearing, a secret stagnates in them and favorable conditions are created for the development of sinusitis.
The fistulas of the nasal sinuses can be blocked (closed or narrowed) with various deformations of the intranasal structures (chronic rhinitis, curvature of the nasal septum, anomalies in the structure of the ethmoid labyrinth and turbinates, polyps, foreign bodies).
Viral infection is another risk factor for sinusitis. As a result of inflammation, the mucous membrane of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity swells. The mucous glands begin to secrete a large amount of secretion. The fistulas of the sinuses narrow even more due to edema of the mucous membrane and are clogged with a thick pathological secretion.
Violation of ventilation, stagnation of secretions and oxygen deficiency in the tissues of the sinuses become an impetus for the intensive development of opportunistic flora.A bacterial one joins the viral infection.
The severity of the manifestations of sinusitis depends on the virulence of the microbes that caused the inflammation. The widespread use of antibiotics leads to the fact that the bacterial flora that caused the development of sinusitis is often characterized by increased resistance (resistance) to most antibiotics.
In recent years, sinusitis has been increasingly caused by fungi. The reason for this trend also lies in the unjustified use of antibiotic therapy, which negatively affects the state of the immune system, disrupts the normal composition of microflora and creates favorable conditions for the development of mycotic (fungal) infection.
Initial sinusitis is not necessarily caused by microbes. Swelling of the mucous membrane, leading to the closure of the sinuses, can be caused by inhalation of cold air and a number of chemicals. However, the most common cause of sinusitis is immunodeficiency and allergic reactions. Allergy causes vasomotor rhinitis, one of the manifestations of which is swelling of the nasal mucosa. The process is repeated several times. As a result, chronic sinusitis develops in about 80% of patients with vasomotor rhinitis.
Classification of sinusitis
Depending on the localization of the process, the following types of sinusitis are distinguished:
sinusitis – the inflammatory process affects the maxillary (maxillary) sinus,
ethmoiditis – inflammation develops in the ethmoid labyrinth,
frontal sinusitis – the pathological process covers the frontal sinus,
sphenoiditis – inflammation occurs in the sphenoid sinus.
The first place in prevalence is occupied by sinusitis, the second is ethmoiditis, the third is frontal sinusitis and the fourth is sphenoiditis. One or two-sided defeat is possible. One or more sinuses may be involved. If the inflammation covers all the paranasal sinuses, the disease is called pansinusitis.
All sinusitis can be acute, subacute or chronic. Acute sinusitis is usually triggered by the common cold, flu, scarlet fever, measles, and other infectious diseases.The disease lasts 2-4 weeks. Subacute sinusitis is most often the result of improper or inadequate treatment of acute sinusitis. Symptoms of the disease in the subacute course of sinusitis persist from 4 to 12 weeks. Chronic sinusitis becomes the outcome of repeated acute sinusitis of infectious etiology or develops as a complication of allergic rhinitis. The criterion for the chronicity of the process is the presence of symptoms of sinusitis for 12 or more weeks.
Depending on the nature of the inflammation, there are three forms of sinusitis:
Edematous-catarrhal: only the mucous membrane of the paranasal sinuses is affected, the process is accompanied by the release of serous discharge.
Purulent: inflammation spreads to the deep layers of the tissues of the paranasal sinuses, the discharge becomes purulent.
Mixed: there are signs of edematous catarrhal and purulent sinusitis.
Symptoms of sinusitis
Sinusitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the maxillary cavity, which is located in the bone of the upper jaw.The causes of sinusitis are an infection coming from the tops of the roots of the upper large molars (molars) in acute and chronic periodontitis. Infection can also enter the maxillary sinus with rhinitis; with acute respiratory infections, the virus spreads to the sinuses. A common causative agent of sinusitis is the influenza virus.
With sinusitis, there will be significant pain in the area of the diseased maxillary sinus, nasal congestion, a feeling of heaviness in the jaw. The pain and feeling of heaviness are worse when the head is tilted down.Periodically, pus is released from the maxillary sinus.
Infection from the maxillary cavity can spread to the skull region, affecting the lining of the brain and brain tissue; there are known cases of infection in the lungs. A prolonged purulent process in the sinus of the jaw without release from pus and serious treatment of the focus causes fatty degeneration of the kidneys, the development of nephritis, pyelonephritis, joint damage in the form of arthritis, and the development of gout.
Symptoms of ethmoiditis
As a rule, the inflammatory process in the anterior regions of the ethmoid labyrinth develops simultaneously with frontal sinusitis or sinusitis.Inflammation of the posterior regions of the ethmoid labyrinth is often accompanied by sphenoiditis.
A patient with ethmoiditis complains of headaches, pressing pain in the region of the bridge of the nose and root of the nose. In children, pain is often accompanied by conjunctival hyperemia, edema of the inner parts of the lower and upper eyelids. Some patients experience neurological pain.
The body temperature usually rises. The discharge in the first days of the disease is serous, then it becomes purulent.The sense of smell is sharply reduced, nasal breathing is difficult. With a violent course of sinusitis, inflammation can spread to the orbit, causing protrusion of the eyeball and pronounced swelling of the eyelids.
Symptoms of frontal sinusitis
Frontitis is usually more severe than other sinusitis. Characterized by hyperthermia, difficulty in nasal breathing, discharge from half of the nose on the side of the lesion. Patients are worried about intense pain in the forehead area, more pronounced in the morning.Some patients develop a decrease in sense of smell and photophobia, and pain in the eyes appears.
The intensity of headaches decreases after emptying the affected sinus and increases with difficulty in the outflow of the contents. In some cases (usually with influenza frontitis), a change in skin color in the forehead, edema of the brow region and upper eyelid on the affected side is revealed.
Chronic frontal sinusitis is often accompanied by hypertrophy of the mucous membrane of the middle nasal passage.The appearance of polyps is possible. Sometimes inflammation spreads to bone structures, leading to their necrosis and fistula formation.
Symptoms of sphenoiditis
Sphenoiditis rarely occurs in isolation. It usually develops simultaneously with inflammation of the ethmoid sinus. Patients complain of a headache in the orbit, the region of the crown and occiput, or the depth of the head. In chronic sphenoiditis, inflammation sometimes spreads to the optic junction, leading to progressive loss of vision.Often, chronic sphenoiditis is accompanied by erased clinical symptoms.
Complications of sinusitis
With sinusitis, the orbit and intracranial structures can be involved in the pathological process. The spread of inflammation inward can lead to bone damage and the development of osteomyelitis. The most common complication of sinusitis is meningitis. The disease often occurs with inflammation of the ethmoid labyrinth and the sphenoid sinus.With frontalitis, an epidural abscess or a subdural (less commonly) brain abscess may develop.
Timely diagnosis of complications in sinusitis is sometimes difficult due to mild clinical symptoms. Launched intracranial complications of sinusitis are prognostically unfavorable and can be fatal.
Diagnosis of sinusitis
The diagnosis of sinusitis is made on the basis of a characteristic clinical picture, physical examination and additional research data.In the diagnostic process, X-ray of the paranasal sinuses, ultrasound examination, nuclear magnetic resonance and CT of the paranasal sinuses are used. According to indications, CT or MRI of the brain is performed to exclude complications.
Therapy for acute sinusitis is aimed at relieving pain, eliminating the cause of the inflammatory process and restoring sinus drainage. To normalize the outflow, otolaryngologists use vasoconstrictor drugs (naphthyzin, nasol, sanorin, galazolin, etc.)that eliminate edema of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity and sinus cavity. For sinusitis of a bacterial nature, antibiotics are used.
To free the maxillary sinus from pus, punctures (punctures) of the maxillary sinuses are performed. This puncture is intended for mechanical drainage of the sinus. Despite the relative simplicity of this operation, many patients perceive with horror the information about the need for the procedure. Many, having heard the “verdict”, start looking for other doctors who will agree to continue conservative treatment.In fact, a puncture, or puncture of the maxillary sinus, is a technique accepted all over the world. In addition, there are situations when the patient’s condition can be alleviated only by “violent” means, providing drainage and flushing the sinus.
A puncture of the maxillary sinus is indicated for:
Lack of effect from the full course of conservative treatment. If all the efforts of drug, physiotherapy and medical procedures have not brought the desired result in restoring the outflow of nasal secretions, only a puncture can help the patient.Moreover, help very quickly and without consequences, which are often talked about on Internet forums and in queues for an ENT doctor.
The grave condition of the patient. Under a serious condition, doctors, as a rule, mean severe headaches or pain in the maxillary sinus area, which do not stop or weaken in the course of treatment.
Revealing in the process of X-ray examination or CT scan of the level of fluid or accumulation of blood in the maxillary sinus.
Obstruction of the anastomosis of the maxillary sinus.
In such cases, outflow can only be ensured mechanically, and sinus puncture is the procedure of choice. If you have direct indications for a puncture of the maxillary sinus, it is much more effective and useful to come to terms with the need for the procedure and prepare mentally for it. Moreover, in practice, a puncture does not carry any mortal danger, or even pain.
It is possible and even necessary to avoid puncture and cure sinusitis in a conservative way, without a puncture. To do this, at the first signs of inflammation in the maxillary sinuses, consult a doctor and begin treatment.
Timely started adequate therapy leads to a positive result, that is, to recovery, in 97% of cases of acute sinusitis, regardless of the reasons for its development.
In viral sinusitis, antibiotic therapy is not indicated, since antibiotics are ineffective in this case, they can aggravate the violation of the immune status, disrupt the normal composition of microflora in the ENT organs and cause the process to become chronic.
Patients with acute sinusitis are prescribed antihistamines and absorbable drugs (to prevent the formation of adhesions in the inflamed sinuses). Antiallergic therapy is indicated for patients with sinusitis of allergic etiology.
Treatment of exacerbation of chronic sinusitis is carried out according to the principles similar to the treatment of acute inflammation. During the treatment, physiotherapeutic procedures are used (diadynamic currents, UHF, etc.).
If conservative therapy for chronic sinusitis is ineffective, surgical treatment is recommended.Surgeries performed on patients with chronic sinusitis are aimed at removing obstacles to the normal drainage of the paranasal sinuses. Removal of polyps in the nose with a laser, elimination of the curvature of the nasal septum, etc. Sinus operations are performed both according to the traditional method and using endoscopic equipment.
S.V. Khodyakova, ENT specialist
Sinusitis, diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis in Moscow
To identify the location of the inflammatory process of the paranasal sinuses, the most informational and high-precision radiation diagnostics is carried out:
- magnetic resonance imaging;
- computed tomography.
Philips digital equipment, which is used in the hospital laboratory, allows:
- Increase the accuracy of the information received by 40–50%;
- to reduce the radiation exposure of the patient by 50%.
In the hospital laboratory, whose cleanliness standards exceed government requirements, the following are carried out:
- general blood test;
- bacteriological study for antibiotic susceptibility;
- analysis of the mucosa.
When diagnosing sinusitis and other sinusitis, examination of the nasopharynx using an endoscope with a miniature video camera gives 100% accuracy. At the same time, mucosal biopsy and sinus puncture can be performed.
Treatment of sinusitis (sinusitis, etc.)
At the Yauza Clinical Hospital, the treatment of sinusitis and other types of sinusitis is carried out according to an individually developed plan for each patient using conservative or surgical methods of therapy.
With a conservative method of treatment, the following is used:
- the whole range of medications: mucolytic, vasoconstrictor, antibacterial, drugs;
- local therapy – cavity catheterization, lavage.
Treatment of sinusitis without a puncture (puncture of the sinus wall) is possible when seeking medical help at an early stage of the disease, provided that the outflow of the sinus contents is maintained.
Treatment with a sinus catheter is the most effective method of treating sinusitis without a puncture. A thin, very soft latex catheter is inserted into the nose with two inflatable balloons that shape the patient’s nasal passages. Then, pathological contents (pus, exudate) are evacuated from the nasal sinuses by creating controlled pressure in the nasal cavity. After cleansing the sinuses, the medicine is injected directly into the sinus.
Advantage of sinus catheter sinusitis treatment:
- non-invasive and painless;
- the effect of the drug immediately on all sinuses located on one side;
- fast healing effect;
- safety of the method, the possibility of its use for the treatment of pregnant women and children.
For the treatment of sinusitis and other types of sinusitis, the hospital surgeons use the method of endoscopic polysinusotomy according to the FESS technique. The method is used in case of proliferation of the mucous membrane due to chronic inflammation, in the presence of cysts, polyps, fungal or foreign (for example, filling material) bodies in the sinus.
Benefits of this operation:
- minimally invasive;
- conducting under the control of vision;
- targeted removal of only pathological formations without scraping the entire mucosa;
- preservation of anatomical structures;
- Restoration of natural drainage of the paranasal sinus.
The hospital uses innovative postoperative rehabilitation: silicone stents, breathable tampons, etc. facilitate the patient’s postoperative period, preserving nasal breathing, and shorten the recovery process.
Contact the Clinical Hospital on Yauza if you suspect acute or chronic sinusitis, including sinusitis, through the website by filling out the appointment form.
90,000 Sinusitis – diagnosis and treatment
Sinusitis is an inflammatory process in the paranasal sinuses that is caused by an infection. Sinus sinuses are located in the bones of the skull and communicate with the nasal cavities, forming a single system. With inflammation, mucus accumulates in these airway cavities, they become isolated, which prevents the normal outflow of secretions. This leads to the rapid development of a bacterial infection, which provokes various complications.Sinusitis can be extremely dangerous due to the high likelihood of developing meningitis.
Causes of sinusitis, classification
Most often, sinusitis is a complication of the common cold. But there may be other causes of sinus inflammation:
- Injuries leading to the curvature of the nasal septum
- Polyps and tumors
- Injuries of the face and upper jaw
- Diseases of the upper jaw, caries of teeth bordering the maxillary sinuses
- Mucosal edema associated with allergic reactions, as well as constant use of vasoconstrictor drugs
- Acute – inflammation with pronounced symptoms, which has arisen as a complication after the flu, acute respiratory viral infection.
- Chronic – an inflammatory process with less pronounced symptoms, which has a cyclical course with exacerbation and remission. It often appears after the next cold.
- Polypoid sinusitis is the formation of polyps in the ducts that connect the sinuses to the nasal cavity. In this case, the accumulated secret is not evacuated and inflammation develops. This type of sinusitis is a complication of chronic rhinosinusitis.
- Traumatic – after an injury to the face or nose
- Allergic – with constant inflammation of the sinuses as a result of exposure to an allergen
- Viral – when a viral infection occurs
- Fungal – as a result of the development of a fungal disease
- Bacterial – formed during the development of a bacterial infection, most often with difficult evacuation of secretions from the sinuses
- Mixed – with the simultaneous ingress of different microorganisms
- Frontitis – inflammation of the frontal sinuses
- Sphenoiditis – an inflammatory process that occurs in the sphenoid sinuses
- Ethmoiditis – affection of ethmoid sinuses
- Sinusitis – inflammation of the maxillary (maxillary) sinuses
By the nature of the inflammatory process:
- Catarrhal – accompanied by edema, secretion of serous mucus.In this form, inflammation of the mucous membrane of the paranasal sinuses occurs
- Purulent – damage to the deep layers of the tissues of the sinuses. The discharge will be purulent, with a characteristic viscosity and odor of
- Mixed – when symptoms of catarrhal and purulent sinusitis are present
Sinusitis also occurs:
- Unilateral – sinus inflammation on the right or left side
- Bilateral – when the inflammatory process spreads to the paired sinuses
- Monosinusitis – when only one sinus is affected
- Polysinusitis – affection of several sinuses
- Pansinusitis – when all sinuses are involved in the pathological process
- Pain and bloating in the eyes, forehead, cheeks and nose
- General impairment of well-being
- Headache and toothache, dizziness and weakness
- Fever, profuse nasal discharge
- Cough, hyperemia of the pharyngeal mucosa, sore throat
When polyposis sinusitis appears:
- The appearance of purulent discharge, symptoms of intoxication due to the development of infection in the sinuses
- Intense headache that increases with accumulation of mucus
- Dizziness, apathy and lack of appetite
- Sensation of a foreign body in the nose, leading to irritability and severe discomfort
- Violation of the sense of smell, up to a complete absence, due to which the taste also changes
- Voice Change
- Violation of the activity of the heart and blood vessels, shortness of breath, manifestations of hypoxia
- Permanent fatigue
Odontogenic sinusitis is an inflammation of the maxillary sinus caused by infection from the oral cavity.This type of sinusitis has the following symptoms:
- Feeling of distention of the gums, which is especially pronounced when chewing
- Pain, weakness, dizziness
- Discharge appears on the side of inflammation
- Bad breath
- Swelling of the cheeks, especially in the morning
- Unpleasant pain sensations that radiate to the bridge of the nose, upper teeth, as well as to the temporal region and eyes
Diagnostics and treatment
The main diagnostic method is sinus x-ray.General laboratory tests are mandatory, computed tomography can be prescribed, as well as MRI, orthopantomogram – a panoramic image of the teeth, bacterial culture of the contents of the sinuses from the biomaterial obtained during a diagnostic puncture.
To eliminate it, antibacterial drugs are prescribed, washing with special solutions. To reduce the manifestations of allergies, antihistamines are prescribed. To improve the outflow of secretion from the sinuses, vasoconstrictors are used. To get rid of the inflammation, hormonal nasal medications are prescribed.
Surgical methods are prescribed when conservative treatment is not effective and the disease has already started. To achieve maximum effect, operative and conservative methods are combined.
The specialists of “My Clinic” have extensive experience in the treatment of sinusitis, conduct a thorough diagnosis, select an effective treatment. Make an appointment with us and get a consultation at a convenient time for you.
Cystitis is an inflammatory disease of the bladder. It occurs mainly in women, which is associated with anatomical features – short and wide …
X-ray of the paranasal sinuses is an informative and accessible diagnostic study that is used in the diagnosis of injuries of the facial skeleton and diseases of the paranasal sinuses, which are isolated anatomical formations (cavities) filled with air.In 80% of cases, diseases are acute and chronic sinusitis, that is, inflammatory changes in the paranasal sinuses (sinusitis, frontal sinusitis, etc.). In other cases, tumors, osteomas, and foreign bodies may occur.
Sinusitis (sinusitis) ›Diseases› Dr.Peter.ru
They say that if a runny nose is treated, it goes away in 7 days, and if not treated, it takes a week. So is it worth the time and money? Definitely – it is worth it to avoid complications – sinusitis, or, as it is called in everyday life, sinusitis.
This disease is characterized by severe difficulty in nasal breathing, the nose is usually obstructed on both sides, but alternating congestion of the right and left nostrils also occurs. In most cases, the patient has mucous (transparent) or purulent discharge from the nose.However, if the nose is very stuffy, there may be no runny nose, since the outflow of mucus from the sinus is difficult.
Unpleasant sensations in the nose and paranasal region, and sometimes pain in sinusitis, gradually increase: in the evening they are more pronounced than in the morning. With acute sinusitis, the body temperature can rise to 38 C and above. In a chronic process, it rarely rises. General malaise is manifested by fatigue, weakness, sleep disturbance associated, including with difficulty breathing.
The manifestations of the disease depend on which sinus is affected. With inflammation of the frontal sinus – frontitis – dull pains in the forehead, more often in the morning, when a person wakes up. With inflammation of the maxillary sinus (sinusitis), pain occurs in the area of the upper jaw and teeth, pain is felt when touched on the cheek on the affected side. Due to the close location of the sinuses to the lacrimal duct in the corner of the eye, inflammation can be accompanied by swelling of the eyelid, pain in the area between the eyes.In addition, sometimes the sense of smell is impaired, pain appears when touching the nose and the edematous area. Inflammation of the sphenoid sinus (sphenoiditis) is rare.
Then the localization disappears and the whole head begins to ache, if both halves of the nose are blocked, but if the inflammatory process is one-sided, then the headaches are one-sided, there is pain in the ears and neck.
Sinusitis (sinusitis, frontal sinusitis, ethmoiditis, sphenonditis) is an infectious inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, in which swelling of the mucous membrane occurs and blocks the fistula between the nasal cavity and the maxillary sinus.A person has several of them: these are the maxillary sinuses (maxillary), which are located in the thickness of the upper jaw; latticed, located behind the bridge of the nose; sphenoidal, located at the base of the skull, and frontal sinuses. Each of them opens into the nasal passages. Through the openings (fistulas) of these sinuses, air is exchanged and mucus is secreted. The mucous membrane of the paranasal sinuses passes into the nasal cavity. Therefore, any inflammatory process in the nasal cavity, in which swelling of the mucous membrane occurs, causes an inflammatory process in the sinuses.It happens in the following sequence: swelling of the mucous membrane – closure of the anastomosis – accumulation of mucus in the sinus cavity. It puts pressure on the sinus wall, which causes pain. In the sinus, the production of mucus continues, which, due to a violation of the outflow, stagnates and gradually the process becomes inflammatory. This exudate is a breeding ground for the introduction of new and development of bacteria and viruses already present in the body. In the process of life, they produce toxins that are carried with the bloodstream throughout the body and cause general malaise.
Gradually, the mucus turns into pus of a viscous consistency, so it is poorly evacuated from the sinus, even when the fistulas are open, it can fill the entire sinus. If treatment is not started in a timely manner, purulent contents can break through into the surrounding structures. For example, in the eyes: a gradually increasing swelling of the eyelids appears, they turn red, there may even be a protrusion of the eyeball forward (exophthalmos).
There are many reasons for the occurrence of sinusitis. But the main one is an infection: bacteria or viruses penetrate into the maxillary sinus through the nasal cavity (mouth, pharynx) or through the blood and cause an inflammatory process.Conditions that disturb nasal breathing predispose to the development of sinusitis: congenital disorders in the development of the anatomical structures of the nasal cavity, curvature of the nasal septum, vasomotor rhinitis, hypertrophic rhinitis (enlargement of the turbinates), in children – adenoids, hay fever.
Immunity disorders and untimely or incorrect treatment of ARVI, rhinitis create almost a 100% guarantee of the development of this disease.
A bacterium called “staphylococcus” can live in the nasopharynx for a long time and not manifest itself in any way, but in unfavorable conditions, for example, with a cold, it causes inflammation in the sinuses.
But most often sinusitis is provoked by ARVI, influenza, parainfluenza, infections that penetrate from diseased teeth (odontogenic sinusitis), allergies (allergic sinusitis) … Almost all viruses that affect the upper respiratory tract (causative agents of ARVI) can cause sinusitis, since the epithelium of the paranasal sinuses is very similar to the epithelium of the respiratory tract and viruses infect this part of the respiratory tract. Fortunately, viral infections such as influenza, parainfluenza, adenovirus provoke only acute forms of sinusitis, they cannot cause chronic sinusitis.Despite the fact that the main role in the development of chronic sinusitis is played by bacteria (streptococci, staphylococci), as well as protozoa – chlamydia and mycoplasma (often cause sinusitis in children), it is important to treat viral diseases with high quality, otherwise the viral infection may be replaced by a bacterial one.
Diseases of ENT organs are no less common cause of the development of sinusitis than infections. Acute and chronic rhinitis can lead to the development of sinusitis due to blockage of the outlet of the maxillary sinus (connects the maxillary sinus cavity with the nasal cavity) through which drainage and cleansing of the sinus is carried out.Chronic tonsillitis can serve as a source of infection, which is brought into the maxillary sinus when you blow your nose. Chronic pharyngitis, as well as chronic tonsillitis, can play the role of a source of infection in the development of sinusitis. Curvature of the nasal septum can cause sinusitis due to pathological narrowing of the new course and impaired drainage and ventilation of the maxillary sinus.
The doctor can assume that the patient suffers from sinusitis by the symptomatology.However, it is not always possible to accurately localize the affected sinus. To clarify the diagnosis, to identify the main focus of the inflammatory process, radiography or a more informative diagnostic method is prescribed – computed tomography (CT) of the paranasal sinuses.
Even theoretically, sinusitis, unlike acute rhinitis, will not go away on its own, and self-medication can end very badly. Therefore, at the first suspicion of sinusitis, an otolaryngologist should be urgently consulted.
The basis of treatment is the fight against swelling of the nasal mucosa. This means that you need to ensure a good drainage of the discharge from the sinus.
Prescribed drugs for local therapy – drops (vasoconstrictor), sprays, inhalers that can eliminate swelling of the mucous membrane. They should be used like this: lie on your side, drip vasoconstrictor drops into the nostril that is closer to the pillow, so that the medicine gets on the side wall of the nose, and lie down without moving for 5 minutes. Then you need to turn over to the other side and do the same with the other nostril.After another 5 minutes, blow your nose. Then you need to instill antibacterial, anti-inflammatory or pain-relieving drops prescribed by your doctor.
The treatment uses antibacterial drugs, antihistamines. A method of rinsing the nose with antiseptic (furacillin) solutions is often prescribed. Many are familiar with the method of moving fluid known as “cuckoo”. The patient lies on his back on a couch. The doctor asks the patient to say: “Ku-ku-ku-ku” to overlap the message of the nasopharynx with the oropharynx.At this time, the drug solution is slowly infused into one nostril, while it is sucked out from the other nostril using a vacuum device. Negative pressure promotes the evacuation of pus from the sinuses, and the medicinal solution, moving intensively through the nasal cavity, flushes the sinuses. Additionally, physiotherapy is prescribed: UFO, UHF.
Many, just hearing the diagnosis “sinusitis” or “sinusitis” fall into panic and are afraid to make a puncture of the maxillary sinus. It is believed that if you do this once, you will have to prick it endlessly.But without indications, doctors do not prescribe a sinus puncture. In some situations, you simply cannot do without it. For example, if the anastomosis cannot be opened by other methods and pus does not come out of the sinus, there is a risk of its breakthrough into the surrounding tissues. In the process of puncture, pus is pumped out, the sinus cavity is washed, and then antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs are injected into it. Of course, the procedure is not the most pleasant one, but it is very effective. And a relapse (repeated inflammation of the sinuses), if it occurs, is either due to the fact that the treatment of sinusitis has not been completed, or other factors predispose to its development.For example, sinusitis, occurring against the background of curvature of the nasal septum, is characterized by a long course and treatment, as well as frequent relapses. But this problem can be solved with surgery to restore the nasal septum.
Prevention of sinusitis is to get rid of the factors that provoke conditions that disrupt nasal breathing: curvature of the nasal septum, vasomotor rhinitis, hypertrophic rhinitis (enlargement of the turbinates), polyps, bacterial carriers.In children, these are adenoids or allergic diseases.
It is necessary to treat the chewing teeth of the upper jaw in a timely manner – in 10 percent of cases of sinusitis, inflammation developing at the tops of the teeth is to blame.
Be sure to take a responsible attitude to the treatment of influenza, acute respiratory viral infections, rhinitis and support the body’s immune defenses.
© Dr. Peter
Treatment of sinusitis without puncture | Rinos Clinic
What is sinusitis?
Sinusitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the maxillary (maxillary) sinus.It can occur due to infection, reaction to allergens, trauma. Due to the structural features of the maxillary sinus, the mucus formed as a result of the disease is not excreted from the sinus naturally, but stagnates.
Maxillary sinuses are air cavities in the thickness of the maxillary bone. They perform a number of functions – barofunction (equalize pressure between the cavities of the skull and atmospheric), resonator functions (voice formation), air conditioning, and others.The excretory ducts of the maxillary sinuses open into the nasal cavity. The maxillary sinus is lined with a mucous membrane from the inside, which is adjacent to the bone.
Sinusitis can be acute or chronic.
In acute sinusitis, the inflammatory process captures the layer of the mucous membrane, as well as the loose tissue and blood vessels underlying it. In chronic sinusitis, the submucosa and the bony walls of the sinus are affected.
The chronic form develops as a result of untreated acute sinusitis.
According to the method of penetration of pathogens, rhinogenous (from the nasal cavity) is distinguished, more often found in adults, hematogenous (through the blood), odontogenic (from inflammation of the teeth of the upper jaw) and traumatic sinusitis.
Types of sinusitis
By localization, sinusitis is one- and two-sided, depending on the presence of inflammation in one maxillary sinus or in both.
In addition, sinusitis is subdivided into types depending on the origin.
- Infectious (viral, bacterial, fungal).
- Vasomotor variant due to dysfunction of vasomotor.
- Exudative variant: the formation of pus predominates.
- Productive option: the formation of polyps and other growths of the mucous membrane inside the sinus.
- Necrotic: tissue necrosis in the sinus during an aggressive course of infection.
- Atrophic – atrophy of the mucous membrane of the sinuses with prolonged chronic course.
Who and how is sick with sinusitis?
In humans, mucus is produced in all paranasal sinuses, which is excreted from the sinus into the nasal cavity. If the outlet of the maxillary sinus closes, mucus accumulates in its cavity, inflammation develops, sinusitis occurs.
Causes of sinusitis:
- Immunity disorders.
- Incorrect or untimely treatment of colds, acute respiratory infections, rhinitis, sick teeth.
- Difficulty in nasal breathing: vasomotor rhinitis, hypertrophic rhinitis (enlargement of the turbinates), in children – adenoids, allergic diseases of the nose.
- Congenital malformations of the nasal cavity.
- Regular hypothermia, especially with high humidity.
- Curvature of the nasal septum (congenital or acquired).
- Infectious diseases (influenza, measles, scarlet fever, etc.).
Chronic foci of infection in the mouth and nose (chronic tonsillitis, chronic pharyngitis, adenoids, chronic rhinitis).
The risk of getting sinusitis is highest in the autumn-winter period.Usually, young people suffer from sinusitis more often than the elderly.
Symptoms of sinusitis
The classic symptoms of sinusitis are nasal congestion, purulent nasal discharge, a feeling of heaviness on both sides of the wings of the nose, pain, decreased sense of smell, increased body temperature (usually within 37-38 degrees), headache, weakness.
Symptoms of chronic sinusitis are most often represented by headache, increased dullness, nasal congestion.
Pain with sinusitis is less pronounced in the morning, increases in the evening.In this case, there is an unpleasant feeling of heaviness or pain in the cheeks, in the nose. Sometimes there is swelling of the cheeks, swelling and redness of the eyelids on the affected side. Photophobia and lacrimation sometimes join.
In addition, chills, weakness, fatigue, insomnia, decreased sense of smell, congestion, mucous (clear) or purulent discharge (yellow, green) from the nose, a feeling of heaviness and pain on both sides of the wings of the nose, loss of appetite are present.
The course of acute sinusitis, depending on the severity, takes from two weeks to two months.
In chronic sinusitis, the most pronounced symptom of the disease is a persistent dry night cough that does not respond to traditional treatment. It appears due to the drainage of pus from the affected sinus along the back of the pharynx.
The ENT doctor is engaged in the diagnosis of sinusitis.
What can sinusitis lead to?
Pus can get from the maxillary sinuses directly into the surrounding tissues, while affecting the orbit, teeth, nerves passing nearby, in severe cases – even the meninges.
Sometimes in acute, but most often in chronic form, there are intracranial complications – edema of the meninges, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, phlebitis of the dura mater sinuses with the development of rhinogenic sepsis, pachymeningitis, rhinogenic brain abscess.
Complications such as reactive edema of the tissue of the orbit and eyelids, retrobulbar abscess, osteoperiostitis of the orbit, thrombosis of the veins of the orbit, periostitis or osteomyelitis of the upper jaw, otitis media or eustacheitis – inflammation of the middle and inner ear, etc.
Chronic sinusitis can cause frequent relapses of tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, tonsillitis, cause dental disease, osteomyelitis of the upper jaw. In acute sinusitis, there is a high risk of developing trigeminal neuritis. With proper and timely treatment, the risk of such complications is small.
How to protect yourself from sinusitis?
To avoid complications, a runny nose must be fought from the very first days of its appearance. Prevention consists in increasing immunity and hardening, doing physical education and sports, walking in the fresh air.Try not to overcool.
An important role is played by the treatment of diseases of the nose, which are accompanied by impaired nasal breathing: curvature of the nasal septum, chronic rhinitis. Patients with acute rhinitis should not blow their nose too much – this contributes to the entry of nasal mucus into the maxillary sinuses.
Treatment of sinusitis
Methods for treating sinusitis depend on many factors: the patient’s condition, the severity of the disease, the structural features of the nasal cavity, etc.They are subdivided into non-puncture treatment and puncture treatment, and surgery. In complex therapy, systemic antibiotic therapy, local antibiotic therapy, unloading, antihistamine, anti-inflammatory therapy are also used.
Method of washing the nasal cavity according to Proetz, or “cuckoo”
A non-puncture method of treating sinusitis is a nasal lavage by the method of moving fluid (the well-known “cuckoo” or the method according to Proetz). It is important to know that this form of treatment can be used only if the functions of the anastomosis are not impaired and the local mucosal immunity is strong enough, and the disease is not in a too severe stage.Sometimes this treatment is combined with laser therapy: washing helps to remove pus and mucus from the nasal cavity, and the laser reduces inflammation and stops the inflammatory process.
“Cuckoo” is most often prescribed for milder forms of the disease. The method is painless enough, therefore it is performed without anesthesia.
During the procedure, you lie on your back, then the doctor or nurse inserts special flexible catheters into your nostrils. Through one catheter, a medicinal solution is gradually poured into the nasal cavity, through the second, the contents are sucked out by suction under vacuum.
The method was named “Cuckoo” because during the procedure the patient must say “cuckoo”. This is done in order to prevent the drug from entering the lower respiratory tract.
The therapeutic effect is achieved by washing, moving the medication in the sinuses and creating pressure to facilitate the discharge of pus from the sinuses. Usually 5-7 cuckoo sessions are required for recovery. By removing pus and relieving inflammation, improvement occurs after the first session: the headache passes, it becomes easier to breathe.
Systemic antibiotic therapy
Antibiotics in the form of tablets or a course of injections are often prescribed for prolonged sinusitis. Usually, a course of antibiotic treatment effectively helps to overcome the infection, stop the multiplication of microbes. Sometimes systemic antibiotic therapy can act as an alternative to puncture.
The following groups of drugs are usually used for these purposes: betalactams (penicillins, cephalosporins), azalides, macrolides and modern fluoroquinolones.”It is these drugs that are recommended by the Commission on Antibiotic Policy at the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation and the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences for the empirical treatment of acute sinusitis.” www. consilium-medicum.com
Antibiotics are prescribed by a doctor taking into account the most common pathogens of the disease (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus Viridans). If no improvement is observed within 2-3 days, this indicates the resistance of the microflora to a specific antibiotic.Today, antibiotic resistance of various strains is one of the most serious problems in systemic antibiotic therapy. In case of resistance to one antibiotic, the doctor may prescribe another drug or choose a different treatment regimen.
There is a widespread belief that antibiotics are very harmful, and some patients refuse systemic antibiotic therapy. But meanwhile, the potential benefit in most cases exceeds the potential harm of antibiotics, which is taken into account by the doctor when prescribing a treatment regimen.“In cases where there is a high probability of viral and bacterial etiology of upper respiratory tract infections or a high risk of complications, antibiotics are indicated.