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Skin Disorders: Pictures, symptoms, causes and help

What’s wrong with my skin? Identifying skin conditions, skin disorders, skin cancer and more

Is it acne, a rash — or maybe something more serious? Skin disorders can vary in both symptoms and severity. Some skin conditions are minor, some are serious but treatable, and others, like skin cancer, can be life-threatening. Here are 18 common (and a few less common) skin conditions — with photos to help you ID them. Remember to always reach out to your physician for a proper diagnosis and treatment.

Acne | Actinic keratosis | Basal cell carcinoma | Blisters | Carbuncle | Cellulitis | Chicken pox | Cold sores | Contact dermatitis | Eczema | Hives | Latex allergy | Lupus | Measles | Melanoma | Psoriasis | Rosacea | Squamous cell carcinoma


Suffering from acne? You’re not alone. Acne is the most common condition dermatologists treat — 40 to 50 million Americans struggle with acne at any given time.

Photos of acne

People think of acne as a teenage problem, but I see it primarily in adult women,” said Dr. Amy McMichael.Boy_Anupong / Getty Images stockAcne can show up as different types of blemishes on the skin, typically on the face, neck, chest, back and shoulders.

Getty Images

Acne symptoms and signs

Acne can show up almost anywhere on the skin — as blackheads, papules and pustules or pimples, cysts and nodules

Causes of acne

Acne starts when dead skin cells don’t shed properly and clog your pores.

Acne treatments

Some acne can be treated with over-the-counter products, while others require professional help, including prescription medication and treatments.

Read more about acne and how to treat it.

Actinic keratosis

These precancerous lesions often appear as rough spots on the skin. Actinic keratosis is common, but if left untreated it can turn into squamous cell carcinoma.

Photos of actinic keratosis

“We see [actinic keratoses] more frequently on chronically sun-exposed areas like the face, forearms and the backs of the hands,” said Dr. Laura Ferris.Steven Love / Alamy Stock Photo

Actinic keratosis symptoms and signs

The appearance of actinic keratosis can vary from bumps that look like pimples or acne to rough lesions that are red, pink or gray.

Causes of actinic keratosis

When cells in the skin called keratinocytes are damaged by UV rays, it can cause actinic keratosis.

Actinic keratosis treatments

While not always necessary, treatments may include removal of the actinic keratosis with liquid nitrogen, chemical peels, scraping or other therapies.

Read more about actinic keratosis and how to treat it.

Basal cell carcinoma

Basal cell carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer. It affects approximately 2.6 million people in the U.S. each year. Do you know how to spot it?

Photos of basal cell carcinoma

The top cause of basal cell carcinoma is exposure to ultraviolet rays from indoor tanning or from the sun. jax10289 / Getty Images stock

Basal cell carcinoma symptoms and signs

Basal cell carcinoma is much more common in people who have light skin. Symptoms tend to be the same color as the skin — or pink. It’s important to look for any changes in your skin.

Causes of basal cell carcinoma

Exposure from ultraviolet rays (UV) from the sun or indoor tanning is a primary cause of basal cell carcinoma.

Basal cell carcinoma treatments

Your dermatologist may be able to remove a basal cell carcinoma tumor when doing a biopsy. Sometimes a Mohs surgery is recommended.

Read more about basal cell carcinoma and how to spot it.


A common skin condition, most people develop blisters once in a while.

Photos of blisters

“The best Band-Aid for the skin is the skin,” said Dr. Jenny Murase. “We usually do not recommend removing the skin of the blister.”Getty Images

Blisters symptoms and signs

Blisters are small, painful sacs of fluid.

Causes of blisters

Blisters can be caused by friction, such as by a shoe rubbing against the skin, or by sunburns, heat or skin diseases.

Blisters treatments

Blisters tend to heal on their own, but a blister can be drained if it’s too painful.

Read more about blisters and how to treat them.


Sometimes confused with a spider bite, a carbuncle is a group of boils that stem from an infection of the skin and are connected to each other.

Photos of carbuncles

“It’s pretty common for people to come in thinking they have a spider bite when they have an abscess or carbuncle,” said Dr. Allison Arthur.andriano_cz / Getty Images stock

Carbuncle symptoms and signs

Red, tender bumps, or boils, that contain pus are signs of a carbuncle. Carbuncles can eventually rupture, and pus will leak out of them.

Causes of carbuncles

A bacterial infection, such as Staphylococcus aureus, is often the cause of a carbuncle.

Carbuncle treatments

If a carbuncle is small, you may be able to treat it at home with warm compresses and bandages. Otherwise, your dermatologist can make an incision to drain the pus.

Read more about carbuncles and how to treat them.


Cellulitis is an infection of the skin in which the skin becomes red and swollen. It typically occurs after you get a cut or wound.

Photos of cellulitis

“Cellulitis sometimes can happen following a cut or wound, and it can happen after surgery as well, around an incision,” said Dr. Allison Arthur.Wendy Townrow / Getty Images stockCellulitis in the legs usually shows up on just one leg. “If you think you have it in both legs, chances are something else is going on,” said Dr. Laura Ferris.Casa nayafana / Shutterstock

Cellulitis symptoms and signs

When you have cellulitis, an area of your skin — often on one of your legs — becomes red, swollen, warm and possibly painful.

Causes of cellulitis

Cellulitis can be caused by two different types of bacteria: streptococcus (aka strep) or staphylococcus (aka staph).

Cellulitis treatments

Antibiotics like penicillin, cephalosporin or erythromycin are normally used to treat cellulitis.

Read more about cellulitis and how to treat it.

Chicken pox

Also called varicella, this highly contagious disease mostly strikes children.

Photos of chicken pox

“The blisters look like dew drops scattered on skin. They are in a lot of different phases. Some are just coming on, others are more fully formed and others are crusted and drying up,” said Dr. Jenny Murase.Petko Ninov / Getty Images stockIf it’s diagnosed early, you can treat chicken pox with antiviral medications, Dr. Melissa Piliang. And you can alleviate the chicken pox symptoms with calamine lotion, cool baths with baking soda or oatmeal, and acetaminophen.CDC

Chicken pox symptoms and signs

A fever may precede it, but the unique chicken pox rash appears on the skin with itchy blisters that look like lots of little dew drops.

Causes of chicken pox

The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chicken pox — as well as shingles. It’s unlikely to get chicken pox if you’ve had the chicken pox vaccine.

Chicken pox treatments

The best treatment for chicken pox is prevention through vaccination. An early case of chicken pox may be treated with antiviral drugs. Other remedies can be used to ease symptoms.

Read more about chicken pox and how to treat it.

Cold sores

Also known as fever blisters, cold sores are blisters, or clusters of blisters, that appear on your lips or near your mouth.

Photos of cold sores

Herpes simplex virus causes cold sores — it’s a common, highly contagious virus.ancoay / Getty Images stock

Cold sores symptoms and signs

Symptoms of cold sores can vary. The sores may start with a tingling, burning or other sensation, then break open and scab over.

Causes of cold sores

Cold sores are caused by the herpes simplex virus. Outbreaks are triggered by stress, fatigue, illness and other factors.

Cold sores treatments

Read more about cold sores and how to treat them.

Contact dermatitis

Almost everyone gets contact dermatitis at some point. There are two main types of contact dermatitis — allergic and irritant. Both trigger a rash.

Photos of contact dermatitis

“Makeup, skincare products and shampoo can cause contact dermatitis,” said Dr. Laura Ferris, “but they are more insidious and not as dramatic.”-aniaostudio- / Getty ImagesSubtle redness that develops from contact dermatitis can be harder to detect in people with darker skin tones, said Dr. Laura Ferris.American Academy of Dermatology National Library of Dermatologic Teaching Slides

Contact dermatitis symptoms and signs

Symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis may include itching, rash, dryness and other symptoms. Cracked, itchy, chapped skin with sores may be signs of irritant contact dermatitis.

Causes of contact dermatitis

Contact dermatitis is caused by something that touches your skin — like poison ivy, nickel, fragrances, latex or other irritants — and triggers a rash.

Contact dermatitis treatments

The best treatment for contact dermatitis is to avoid whatever it is that triggers your rash. Beyond that, your dermatologist may also recommend antihistamine pills, moisturizers or topical steroids.

Read more about contact dermatitis and how to treat it.


Eczema is a condition that causes red, itchy patches on the skin. It often starts at a young age — often people with eczema get it when they’re babies.

Photos of eczema

“Scratching can develop the rash,” said Dr. Carolyn Jacob.gokhanilgaz / Getty Images

Eczema symptoms and signs

Eczema is almost always itchy, but otherwise symptoms can vary from person to person. Skin infected with eczema can be dry, dark, scaly, swollen or oozing.

Causes of eczema

Eczema may be caused by an overactive immune system, but it’s not entirely clear what causes the condition.

Eczema treatments

There is no cure for eczema, but symptoms can be managed with medications and other therapies.

Read more about eczema and how to treat it


The onset of hives can be mysterious, and though hives usually go away in less than 24 hours, new ones can repeatedly appear.

Photos of hives

If you don’t get good results with antihistamines your doctor might recommend steroids or other medications. chokja / Getty Images stock

Hives symptoms and signs

Hives appear on the skin as slightly swollen, raised pink or red patches. You may have one hive, a group of hives that may be separate or connected together.

Causes of hives

It’s difficult to pinpoint the cause of hives, but there are many triggers that can cause hives, from insect bites and allergic reactions to medication, stress and heat.

Hives treatments

The go-to treatment for hives is usually antihistamines.

Read more about hives and how to treat them.

Latex allergy

People with an allergy to latex are allergic to a protein found in the sap of the Brazilian rubber tree.

Photos of latex allergy

Different types of latex allergies cause different symptoms. A contact allergy causes a latex allergy rash when your skin touches latex. Alamy Stock Photo

Latex allergy symptoms and signs

Different symptoms appear with different types of latex allergies. One type causes a rash on the skin; another can cause anaphylaxis, which can result in a swelling of the airways and difficulty breathing.

Causes of latex allergy

When your immune system reacts as though latex is a harmful substance, it causes an allergic reaction to latex.

Latex allergy treatments

Since there’s no cure for latex allergies, your best bet is to avoid coming into contact with latex.

Read more about latex allergy and how to treat it.


An autoimmune disease that causes pain and inflammation, lupus can affect your skin, as well as your kidneys, heart, joints and lungs.

Photos of lupus

A red butterfly-shaped rash that appears on the nose and cheeks is one common sign of lupus. American Academy of Dermatology National Library of Dermatologic Teaching SlidesLupus is an autoimmune disease that can affect different parts of your body, including your skin, kidneys, heart, joints and lungs.American Academy of Dermatology National Library of Dermatologic Teaching Slides

Lupus symptoms and signs

A red butterfly-shaped rash that appears on the nose and cheeks is one common sign of lupus, but symptoms of lupus will vary, depending on the type of lupus you have.

Causes of lupus

There are a number of factors that may play a role in whether you develop rosacea, but experts don’t know for certain what causes the skin condition.

Lupus treatments

There is no cure for rosacea, but the condition can be managed to help keep symptoms from worsening.

Read more about lupus and how to treat it.


Also known as rubeola, measles is a contagious — and potentially deadly — disease that usually strikes children.

Photos of measles

Measles is hard to diagnose early, because the initial symptoms could be caused by a lot of different conditions. It’s usually not diagnosed until the rash appears.Bilanol / Getty Images stock

Measles symptoms and signs

Beyond the signifying red, spotted rash, measles may also be accompanied by a fever, cough, runny nose and other symptoms.

Causes of measles

A virus that infects the respiratory tract and spreads throughout the body causes measles. It’s one of the most contagious diseases.

Measles treatments

The best treatment is prevention through a vaccine. Otherwise, high doses of vitamin A, bed rest and medications to reduce pain and fever may help.

Read more about measles and how to treat it.


It’s one of the less common skin cancers, but melanoma is the most dangerous because it can easily spread to other parts of your body.

Photos of melanoma

The Skin Cancer Foundation (SCF) predicts that 196,060 people in the U.S. will be diagnosed with melanoma in 2020 — and 6,850 people will die from it.Callista Images / Getty Images stock

Melanoma symptoms and signs

Melanoma tumors tend to be black or brown, but can sometimes be pink, tan or white. Anyone can get melanoma, but people with light skin are at greater risk.

Causes of melanoma

UV light exposure from ultraviolet rays from the sun or indoor tanning causes most melanomas.

Melanoma treatments

Treatments depend on how advanced the melanoma is and where the tumor is located. It may include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy or other therapies.

Read more about melanoma and how to treat it.


Psoriasis affects more than 8 million people in the U.S. It typically starts in the teen years or early 20s, though it can occur at any age.

Photos of psoriasis

Not every trigger causes flare-ups in every person with psoriasis, so it’s important to watch your symptoms and try to determine what could be causing them.Getty Images“There may be less erythema (redness) in the lesions, so the lesions often look violaceous or hyperpigmented (in darker skin),” said McMichael.American Academy of Dermatology National Library of Dermatologic Teaching Slides

Psoriasis symptoms and signs

When you have psoriasis, your body makes new skin cells quickly, and the cells typically build up in thick, scaly patches on the skin called plaques.

Causes of psoriasis

There are a number of factors that may contribute to causing psoriasis. The immune system and genetics may play a role. Certain triggers can also cause the onset of psoriasis and psoriasis flare-ups.

Psoriasis treatments

Psoriasis doesn’t have a cure, there are medications and treatments that can help manage the condition.

Read more about psoriasis and how to treat it.


This common inflammatory skin condition causes redness of the face.

Photos of rosacea

“Once you figure out the triggers and get a reasonable regimen, [rosacea] is pretty easy to control,” said Dr. McMichael.Getty Images stock

Rosacea symptoms and signs

In addition to causing facial redness, if rosacea is not treated, it can cause visible blood vessels, breakouts like acne and other symptoms.

Causes of rosacea

There are a number of factors that may play a role in whether you develop rosacea, but experts don’t know for certain what causes the skin condition.

Rosacea treatments

There is no cure for rosacea, but the condition can be managed to help keep symptoms from worsening.

Read more about rosacea and how to treat it.

Squamous cell carcinoma

Also known as cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, this cancer develops when the squamous cells in the top layer of your skin grow out of control.

Photos of squamous cell carcinoma

With early detection, squamous cell carcinomas are highly treatable. But, said Dr. Amy McMichael, “they can grow extremely quickly and be very dangerous.”Alamy

Squamous cell carcinoma symptoms and signs

Though it’s linked with exposure to ultraviolet rays, squamous cell carcinoma can crop up in areas that don’t get much sun. Watch out for rough, scaly patches, sores that don’t heal or anything else that looks suspicious.

Causes of squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma is mainly caused by UV rays from the sun or indoor tanning.

Squamous cell carcinoma treatments

Treatments for squamous cell carcinoma may include surgery, radiation or other therapies. Catching it early is key.

Read more about squamous cell carcinoma and how to treat it.

List of rare skin diseases: Pictures, symptoms, and treatments

The skin is the largest organ of the human body. There are a number of conditions that can affect the skin. Some of them are common, while others are rare.

Many people may have experienced eczema or hives, for instance. However, some skin diseases affect far fewer people. Many of these are inherited conditions.

Below, we list 11 rare skin diseases along with their symptoms and possible treatments.

This rare skin condition usually affects children under 4 years old. It is a genetic disorder and has similar symptoms to sarcoidosis.

Symptoms include:

  • joint pain and swelling
  • skin reddening
  • patchy, dark spots on the skin
  • eye inflammation and irritation

There is no cure for Blau syndrome, but it is possible to treat and manage its symptoms. For instance, corticosteroids may help with inflammation.

Actinic prurigo (AP) is a skin condition that causes extreme itching in response to sunlight exposure.

Symptoms include:

  • itchy rash
  • small red papules, plaques, or nodules on the skin
  • weeping and crusting, in some cases

Skin exposed to sunlight frequently exhibits the most severe rash.

AP most often crops up on the face, lips, neck, chest, arms, and hands. It can also cause eye irritation. The condition can also affect places on the body that do not get direct sunlight exposure.

There is no cure for AP. However, people can manage symptoms by limiting their exposure to the sun and protecting themselves when they go outside on very sunny days.

During flare-ups, people can use:

  • topical corticosteroids
  • anti-itch creams
  • antimalarial drugs to help with inflammation

Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare genetic skin disorder where skin shedding happens at an accelerated rate. The condition can start at birth or early on in childhood.

Factors such as heat and friction may worsen the peeling, which can affect only the extremities or the entire body.

Possible symptoms of PSS include:

  • skin shedding or peeling, usually painless
  • blistering
  • itching
  • skin reddening

Treatment for PSS involves adequate moisturizing of the skin. There is no way to stop skin shedding.

People with argyria experience skin color changes because of a buildup of silver salts in the body. The skin takes on a blue-gray appearance.

It can happen when a person self-medicates with supplements or other substances that contain silver. It can also occur because of occupational exposure to silver, such as in metal alloy manufacturing.

Signs of argyria include:

  • blue-gray skin tone, mostly on parts of the skin that get a lot of exposure
  • hyperpigmented nails
  • whites of the eyes taking on a blue-gray tinge

Argyria is a permanent condition. However, a scientific literature review from 2020 suggests that laser treatment may reduce pigmentation in people with argyria.

Erythropoietic protoporphyria is a metabolic disorder. It happens because of an inherited deficiency of an enzyme called ferrochelatase.

People with this disorder have photosensitive skin — skin that is sensitive to sunlight.

Some symptoms of this skin condition include:

  • skin pain upon exposure to the sun
  • with prolonged exposure, redness and swelling of the skin

Blistering and crusting can also occur, but these symptoms are less common. Over time, the condition can lead to scarring and thickening of the skin.

There is no cure for erythropoietic protoporphyria. People must limit sun exposure to prevent a painful reaction.

Infants born with this rare genetic disease have a waxy skin layer that they shed within a few weeks. Once they shed this layer, the skin beneath is red and scaly.

Other symptoms of the condition are:

  • outward-turning lips and eyelids
  • hair loss
  • lack of eyebrows
  • nail abnormalities
  • breathing problems
  • dry skin
  • thickened skin on the palms and the soles of the feet

There is no cure for the condition. Treatment involves managing symptoms, which may vary from person to person. Moisture and humidity can help keep the skin hydrated.

Infants born with this rare condition have thick, hard plates covering their skin. Harlequin ichthyosis affects only one in 300,000 newborns.

Features of the disease include:

  • skin abnormalities at birth
  • very thick, shiny patches or plates of skin
  • fissures separating these thick plates
  • eyelids turned outward
  • nose, ear, and lip abnormalities
  • extra digits on the hands or feet
  • difficulty regulating body temperature
  • dehydration

There is no cure for this rare disease. Treatment revolves around preventing infection and protecting the delicate skin. Doctors may prescribe antibiotics to prevent and treat infection in the few weeks after birth.

Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are a rare condition that usually occurs after a person takes a certain medication. Anyone can develop it, but it is much more common in people with HIV.

Medications most often linked to SJS and TEN include:

Scientists do not fully understand the reason for this kind of spontaneous reaction to medication.

Some of the signs of SJS and TEN include:

  • fever
  • sore throat
  • problems swallowing
  • cough and runny nose
  • irritated, red eyes
  • aches and pains
  • painful rash that may appear as:
    • flat red or purple spots
    • blisters
    • target-like
    • diffuse reddening
  • mouth ulcers
  • crusted, red lips
  • diarrhea

The first line of treatment is to stop taking the drug that may have caused the reaction.

People who suspect they have this condition should seek emergency medical treatment.

Epidermolysis bullosa refers to a group of inherited skin conditions that cause blisters and lesions on the skin and mucous membranes.

The blistering usually occurs in places where there is friction. It also appears in response to minor trauma.

There is no cure for epidermolysis bullosa, but people can manage the condition by protecting the skin and avoiding blister formation.

People with chromhidrosis produce colored sweat. It typically starts after a person goes through puberty.

Symptoms include:

  • colored sweat that may be black, green, brown, yellow, or blue
  • a warm feeling of the skin right before producing colored sweat
  • a prickly sensation of the skin

This condition is rare but benign. Doctors can treat it with topical capsaicin cream or botox injections.

Necrobiosis lipoidica is a rash that affects the lower legs and is more common in females. It usually affects people with diabetes but can affect others as well.

The rash may be:

  • localized to the shin area
  • painful or tender
  • oval, round, or irregular in shape

The rash often has a center with prominent blood vessels. It can ulcerate because of minor trauma. Ulcers may lead to infection.

Some treatment options involve topical steroids, steroid injections, or niacinamide. Sometimes, no treatment is necessary.

Some of these conditions are hereditary, which means that people have them from birth or develop them early on in childhood.

People whose skin is bothering them because of a rash or other ailment should consult a dermatologist. Most rashes are not a serious cause for concern.

The American Academy of Dermatology Association recommend that people contact a doctor for a rash if:

  • it affects the entire body
  • they also have a fever
  • the rash happened suddenly and is spreading
  • there is blistering or open sores
  • it is painful
  • there is an infection

Most rare skin conditions have a genetic link, and people inherit them in some way. However, sometimes people may develop a rare skin condition later in life.

People who are worried about their skin health should talk with a dermatologist. If a person feels bothered by something on their skin, it is worth speaking with a healthcare professional to get a proper diagnosis.

10 of the Most Common Skin Conditions: Photos and Treatments

  1. Health & Medication Slideshows
  2. 10 of the Most Common Skin Conditions: Photos and Treatments

Medically reviewed by Leigh Ann Anderson, PharmD. Last updated on Sep 13, 2020.

1. Acne (Acne vulgaris)

Acne, the most common skin disorder in the U.S., can be a source of anxiety for every teen. Plus, the incidence of acne is growing in adults, too.

Acne is caused by blocked hair follicles and oil (sebaceous) glands of the skin, often triggered by hormonal changes. The term acne refers to not only pimples on the face, but blackheads, cysts, and nodules as well. Some people get acne on other parts of their body too, such as the back and chest.

Acne treatment by a dermatologist is important because acne left unchecked can often lead to permanent scars and dark facial spots. For more moderate or severe acne, these options may be used:

  • Adapalene topical (Differin) cream is now available over-the-counter without a prescription.
  • In severe acne cases, oral isotretinoin (Amnesteem, Claravis, other brands and generics) may be used, but comes with serious pregnancy warnings. This drug should not be used by female patients who are or may become pregnant. There is an extremely high risk that severe birth defects will result if pregnancy occurs while taking this drug.
  • Tretinoin topical (Retin-A, Avita, Altreno, other brands and generics) is also available in creams, gels and lotions. Discuss the use of this drug with your doctor: tretinoin should not be used during pregnancy unless clearly needed and the benefit outweighs the risk to the fetus.
  • In October 2018, sarecycline (Seysara) tablets were FDA-approved for the treatment of non-nodular moderate to severe acne vulgaris.
  • Tazarotene topical (Arazlo, Fabior, Tazorac) and clascoterone (Winlevi) are other topical cream acne prescription options.

See managing and treating acne for other treatment options.

2. Atopic dermatitis (Eczema)

Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common forms of eczema seen in children. The exact cause of atopic dermatitis is not known, but researchers believe it may involve genetics, the environment, and/or the immune system.

Atopic dermatitis can appear on the face (especially in infants), hands, feet or in the creases and folds of the skin. Dry, scaly and itchy skin are the norm, and constant scratching may lead to a thickened area. While eczema often occurs in people with allergies, allergies do not cause eczema. Topical steroids are often used to lessen symptoms.


  • In March 2017, the FDA cleared Regeneron’s Dupixent (dupilumab) injection to paptients with moderate-to-severe eczema who cannot use or have failed topical therapy.
  • Clinical trials of Dupixent in over 2,100 adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis led to clear or almost clear skin as compared to placebo, with a reduction in itching, after 16 weeks of therapy.
  • Dupixent is now also approved for use in pediatric patients 6 to 17 years of age and is available in a prefilled syringe for more convenient self-administration.
  • Dupixent can be used with or without topical corticosteroids.


  • Eucrisa (crisaborole), from Pfizer, is a topical ointment first approved in Dec. 2016.
  • It is classified as a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor and used for mild to moderate eczema in adults and children 3 months of age and older.
  • It is applied a thin layer to the affected areas 2 times each day.

Other forms of eczema include contact dermatitis and seborrheic dermatitis.

3. Shingles (Herpes Zoster)

Shingles virus (herpes zoster) results in a red, blistered rash that may wrap around your torso or appear anywhere on your body. A fever, fatigue and headache may occur, too.

Two preventive shingles vaccines are approved in the United States:

  • Zostavax (zoster vaccine live) is available as a subcutaneous injection to prevent shingles and is recommended for use in people 50 years or older.
  • Shingrix (herpes zoster subunit vaccine) is approved for the prevention of shingles (herpes zoster) in adults aged 50 years and older.
    • Shingrix is a non-live (inactivated), recombinant subunit vaccine given intramuscularly in two doses, with the second dose given 2 to 6 months after the first.
    • Shingrix is now the preferred vaccine over Zostavax due to a higher rate of effectiveness (>90% effective).

Shingles is caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox – the varicella-zoster virus. If you’ve had chickenpox, you’re at risk for shingles as the chickenpox virus lies dormant (not active) in your nervous system for years.

Seniors and people with an impaired immune system are at highest risk. Shingles can be painful, but early treatment with antivirals like oral valacyclovir (Valtrex) can lessen symptoms.

4. Hives (Urticaria)

Hives are the familiar welts (raised, red, itchy areas) that can occur on the skin. Common causes of hives include medication, food, and bug bites or stings.

Seek urgent treatment or call 911 if your hives cover a large area of your body, your throat or facial area is swelling, or they affect your breathing. Hives usually go away in 2 to 4 hours; however, in some people hives may persist for months or years; this is known as chronic urticaria.

Avoiding the trigger, whatever it may be, is the best tactic to prevent hives. When that is not possible, OTC antihistamines like loratadine (Claritin) or fexofenadine (Allegra) can be used to control itching.

A drug used to treat allergic asthma, omalizumab (Xolair injection), was approved in 2014 to treat chronic urticaria in those with no response to antihistamines.

In October 2019, Quzyttir (cetrizine injection) was approved by the FDA to treat acute urticaria (hives) in adults and children 6 months of age and older. Quzyttir is not recommended in children less than 6 years of age with impaired kidney or liver function.

5. Sunburn

There’s no doubt – it’s easier to prevent a sunburn than to treat one.

Sunburns occur when there is too much exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun or sunlamps. The skin turns red, painful, hot to the touch, and may even peel away.

It’s hard to know how much time is safe in the sun, though, even with sunscreen protection. Repeated sunburns, especially as a child, can boost the risk for skin cancer later in life. Usually sunscreen needs to be reapplied every 2 hours, but you may just need to stay out of the sun, too.

The first step in treating a sunburn is to seek shade, get inside if possible, and cool the skin down.

  • Take a cool bath or shower with a mild soap.
  • Drink plenty of fluids and moisturize the skin with a light, oil-free moisturizer or aloe vera while the skin is still damp.
  • In some cases, an OTC topical product with lidocaine might be needed.
  • Taking an NSAID, such as ibuprofen, can help with any discomfort or swelling.

See a doctor if you have a fever, chills or severe blistering over a large portion of your body. Don’t scratch or pop any blisters – this could lead to infection.

6. Contact Dermatitis

Most of us have had contact dermatitis – when we touch something that evolves into a skin reaction.

  • Contact dermatitis is a type of eczema, and may come from plants (poison ivy, sumac, oak), jewelry, latex gloves, and irritants like bleach or soaps.
  • To prevent contact dermatitis, avoid the object when possible.
  • To control symptoms, antihistamines, oral or topical steroids, and colloidal oatmeal baths are often helpful.

If your doctor suspects you have contact dermatitis, and the cause is unknown, they may suggest patch testing. In patch testing, allergic substances are applied to your skin. In a few days, your doctor will check for a reaction.

7. Diaper Rash

Anyone who has a child knows about the common problem of diaper rash.

  • A wet or soiled diaper left on too long can lead to red bumps and rash in the diaper area, the buttocks, genitals, and skin folds.
  • Urine and stool can break down skin, and chemicals in a disposable diaper can dissolve out and irritate the skin.
  • Candida (yeast) or bacteria can also take advantage of the inflammed, broken, skin and complicate the rash.

To help prevent diaper rash, change diapers as needed to keep the area dry and expose the baby’s bottom to fresh air when possible.

You can use an ointment like Desitin (zinc oxide topical) to form a protective barrier on the baby’s bottom. If the rash still persists after 2 to 3 days, consult with your pediatrician.

8. Rosacea

Rosacea is a chronic swelling of the face, with redness, prominent blood vessels, and pimples.

Rosacea is most common in women over 30, but men can be affected too. Problems with the immune system, vein problems and/or environmental issues can cause the condition.

Depending upon the symptoms, there are several effective treatments.

  • Antibiotics, such as metronidazole cream or oral doxycycline can be used.
  • Azelaic acid gel (Finacea), a naturally-occurring saturated dicarboxylic acid, can be used for the inflammed pimples.
  • For more severe cases, your doctor might suggest the acne drug isotretinoin.
  • Beta blockers (to reduce flushing), the smallest dose of estrogen possible, or laser or surgical treatments may also reduce redness.
  • In January 2017, the FDA approved Rhofade (oxymetazoline) cream, a topical vasoconstrictor agent applied to the face once a day to shrink vessels and lessen the facial redness of rosacea in adults. Other prescription items include Soolantra (ivermectin) and Mirvaso (brimonidine).

9. Athlete’s Foot (Tinea Pedis)

It’s an unfortunate fact, but your feet are prone to fungal infections. Athlete’s foot can lead to extreme itching, redness, and cracked skin on the feet and in between the toes. A type of fungi called dermatophytes are commonly found in warm, moist areas like pool decks, shower stalls, and locker rooms.

Luckily, over-the-counter, topical antifungal treatments are readily available, such as:

It can take weeks for the infection to clear; check with your doctor if symptoms do not improve as you may need a prescription strength product.

You can help prevent athlete’s foot by keeping your feet clean and dry, changing wet socks and shoes, and wearing sandals in public pool or shower areas.

If fungus creeps under your toe nails, which can appear as a white, yellow or brown color with crumbly texture to your nail, be sure to see a podiatrist as more intensive treatment may be needed.

10. Basal Cell Carcinoma

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common type of skin cancer in the U.S. BCC grows in the upper basal cells of your skin but rarely spreads and is curable. You may be prone to BCCs if you spend lots of time in the sun or use a tanning bed frequently.

Growths commonly occur on the head, ears, nose, and neck. They can look shiny, red and scaly, or like an open sore.

Treatment for BCC may involve:

  • surgery
  • skin medicines for smaller areas
  • radiation for larger ones.

Medications include creams like:

Sonidegib (Odomzo) and vismodegib (Erivedge) are oral formualtions that may be used for locally advanced BCC that has recurred following surgery or radiation therapy, or for patients who cannot have surgery or radiation therapy.

To prevent BCC, avoid long periods of sun exposure, use sunscreen, protective clothing, and visit your dermatologist annually for a full body skin checks. Learn to perform skin self-checks, too. Those with a strong personal or family history of skins cancer may need to visit more frequently. If you notice something unusual, don’t wait to see your doctor.

Finished: 10 of the Most Common Skin Conditions: Photos and Treatments


  • Shingrix. Product Labeling. GlaxoSmithkline. Research Triangle Park, NC. 2017. Accessed Sept. 13, 2020 at https://www.shingrix.com/index.html
  • Shingles Vaccination. What Everyone Should Know about Shingles Vaccine (Shingrix). US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Accessed Sept. 13, 2020 at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/shingles/public/shingrix/index.html
  • American Academy of Dermatology. Disease and Treatments. Acne. Accessed Sept. 13, 2020 at https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/acne-and-rosacea/acne
  • American Academy of Dermatology. Disease and Treatments. Atopic Dermatitis. Signs and Symptoms. Accessed Sept. 13, 2020 at https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/eczema/atopic-dermatitis
  • Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. Hives (urticaria). Accessed Sept. 13, 2020 at http://www.aafa.org/page/hives.aspx
  • Skin Cancer Foundation. Sunburn and Your Skin. Accessed Sept. 13, 2020 at http://www.skincancer.org/prevention/sunburn/five-ways-to-treat-a-sunburn
  • American Academy of Dermatology. Contact dermatitis. Accessed Sept. 13, 2020 at http://www.aad.org/dermatology-a-to-z/diseases-and-treatments/a—d/contact-dermatitis
  • Healthy Children.org. Ages and Stages. Diaper Rash. Accessed August 4, 2019 at http://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/diapers-clothing/Pages/Diaper-Rash.aspx
  • American Academy of Dermatology. Disease and Treatments. Basal Cell Carcinoma: Overview. Accessed Sept. 13, 2020 at https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/skin-cancer/basal-cell-carcinoma
  • Rhofade (oxymetazoline hydrochloride) cream for topical use. Product Information. Allergan. Accessed August 4, 2019 at https://www.allergan.com/assets/pdf/rhofade_pi

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Medical Disclaimer

18 Common Skin Rash Pictures

Your skin is your body’s largest organ, so it’s not surprising that plenty can (and does) go wrong with it. Skin rashes are a common issue that can impact pretty much anyone, no matter your age, hygiene, or medical history.

“A rash is essentially inflammation in the skin that can be caused by either an external exposure or an internal factor,” says Joshua Zeichner, M.D., director of cosmetic and clinical research in dermatology at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. Basically, a rash is your skin’s way of telling you something is up, whether you’ve been exposed to an irritant or you have an underlying medical condition.

The unifying feature of all rashes is inflammation, Dr. Zeichner explains. That inflammation could be minor or could greatly impact the color, texture, or feeling of your skin—it all depends on the type and severity of your rash. (Note: Some of the chronic skin conditions listed below, like acne and rosacea, might not be considered rashes by all dermatologists, but their symptoms and treatments are similar enough to other rashes to include them.)

What causes skin rashes?

Again, when it comes to the root causes of rashes, they tend to fall into two main categories: outside-in and inside-out, explains Dr. Zeichner. A few distinct features make their identification and treatment unique.

Outside-in rashes, like contact dermatitis and ringworm, are due to direct exposure to an outside irritant, allergen, or organism. Irritants (substances like household cleaners and chemicals that can affect anyone) and allergens (substances like latex and poison ivy that only affect those with specific allergies) can both trigger rashes such as contact dermatitis. Organisms living on the skin, meanwhile, cause conditions like ringworm and scabies.

Inside-out rashes stem from genetics, allergies, or infections. Genetic rashes, like eczema or psoriasis, appear because your skin or immune system is triggered to produce them. Allergic rashes, like a drug rash, occur when you ingest an allergen, including certain foods or medications. And viral infections, like measles, can also result in rashes.

Many of these rashes can be resolved with proper treatment, except in the case of inside-out rashes caused by genetics. “Our bodies are genetically programmed to work a certain way, and while we can keep symptoms under control, we don’t necessarily have a permanent cure,” Dr. Zeichner explains.

How to identify common skin rashes and their symptoms

Size and location are the first things to notice when trying to identify a rash. “Something that’s localized with distinct borders will typically be an outside-in job,” Dr. Zeichner says, while inside-out ones “can lead to red, angry rashes throughout the entire body.” The next clues to look for are the shape, color, and texture of the rash.

“If your over-the-counter products aren’t working, you’re suffering from a rash for a week or so, and it’s not improving, you should touch base with a board-certified dermatologist,” Dr. Zeichner says. “This is what we are trained to do, and treatment depends on proper diagnosis.” Be sure to tell your doctor how long you’ve had the rash and any other symptoms you’ve been experiencing (such as a fever or difficulty breathing).

Ahead, you’ll find pictures of common skin rashes, plus symptoms to lookout for. It’s important to note that rashes can look different depending on your skin tone. Some conditions might not cause discoloration on darker skin so if you’re unsure, see a dermatologist who can make the proper diagnosis.



What it looks like: Medically known as atopic dermatitis, eczema is an umbrella term for a range of skin conditions characterized by red, splotchy, flaky, dry, cracked, or crusty skin that can emit clear fluid when scratched. It’s usually clustered around the insides of elbows and knees, but can appear anywhere on the skin.

Other symptoms to note: Eczema is usually itchy and most common in young people, although many adults also have eczema-prone skin. An estimated 30% of Americans, mostly children and adolescents, suffer from eczema, per the National Institutes of Health. Cold, dry weather and overexposure to water can exacerbate the condition, according to Dr. Zeichner.


Contact Dermatitis

What it looks like: Contact dermatitis has the same symptoms mentioned above, and can be a red rash that appears scaly or blistered, depending on its cause and severity. This rash often has a distinct border.

Other symptoms to note: Contact dermatitis appears following exposure to an irritant or allergen, and it’s the most common rash caused by external factors, Dr. Zeichner says. (This can include certain chemicals, acids, botanicals, metals, and more.) Allergens usually cause a shiny, blistered, itchy rash, while irritants tend to cause a dry, scaly, less itchy rash. It can appear hours to days after exposure.



What it looks like: Ringworm is a common skin infection caused by a fungus. It gets its name from its circular rash, which is often red, swollen, and cracked.

Other symptoms to note: This rash is itchy and can cause hair loss when it occurs on the scalp. The same fungus also causes athlete’s foot and jock itch. Ringworm is contagious, so avoid touching people and pets or sharing objects like towels with others during flareups.



What it looks like: Rosacea causes redness and thick skin on the face, usually clustered in the center. Easy flushing, a stinging sensation, and small, pus-filled pimples are other common signs of the condition, which is often confused with acne breakouts.

Other symptoms to note: With rosacea, skin might feel rough, bumpy, or warm to the touch. Redness usually appears on the forehead, nose, cheeks, and chin. Red, itchy, sensitive eyes are also associated with the condition. Triggers include “spicy food, hot beverages, alcohol, extremes in temperature, and physical and emotional stress,” Dr. Zeichner explains.



What it looks like: Psoriasis causes patches of thickened skin, most often with silver, scaly flakes. It’s usually found around the elbows, feet, knees, palms, and scalp.

Other symptoms to note: Telltale scales set psoriasis apart from other rashes. Per the CDC, up to 20% of people with psoriasis also experience psoriatic arthritis. Psoriasis is not contagious; it’s due to “overactivity of the immune system resulting in skin inflammation,” Dr. Zeichner explains.

Right image credit: Tim Kubacki



What it looks like: Also called urticaria, hives are raised welts in the skin that appear red or discolored. They range in size from small bumps to larger patches.

Other symptoms to note: Hives are most of often the result of exposure to allergens, and they could be a sign of a serious allergic reaction. Hives might not cause any discoloration on darker skin, so be alert for raised patches or welts—those could be a sign of urticaria.



What it looks like: Acne causes red, discolored bumps on the skin, along with whiteheads, blackheads, and cysts.

Other symptoms to note: Acne is the most common skin condition affecting Americans, Dr. Zeichner says, so you likely have experience with pimples already. The causes vary, but are often rooted in excess oil and bacteria on the face, chest, or back, which can be triggered by hormonal issues, stress, certain foods, and irritating products.



What it looks like: Also known as herpes zoster, shingles is a blistering rash. It often appears in a stripe or in the top quadrant of the head, but only on one side of the body.

Other symptoms to note: Blisters are painful and are sometimes accompanied by fever, headache, and chills. Local tingling or pain is common before the blisters appear. Shingles can affect the eye and even cause vision loss. The condition is caused by the same virus as chickenpox.

Bottom image credit: Preston Hunt


Seborrheic Dermatitis

What it looks like: Seborrheic dermatitis is a form of eczema that is characterized by scaly, oily or greasy patches of skin, usually on the scalp.

Other symptoms to note: This condition is itchy and can cause dandruff and buildup on the scalp. It’s also common on other oily areas, like the face and chest, and can be difficult to treat. Dr. Zeichner explains that although the exact cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown, the body overreacts to yeast on oily parts of the skin, causing the thick, flaky buildup.

Top image credit: Amras666


Perioral Dermatitis

What it looks like: Like seborrheic dermatitis, perioral dermatitis causes red, inflamed skin and small pustules around the nose and mouth.

Other symptoms to note: Flareups can be itchy and uncomfortable, and are often confused with acne. There is no known cause of perioral dermatitis, but overuse of topical corticosteroids is associated with the condition.



What it looks like: Scabies is a discolored, splotchy rash that can appear pimple-like on any affected parts of the skin. Patients might also notice tiny lines on the skin where the mites have burrowed.

Other symptoms to note: Scabies is very itchy, and usually more intense at night. Unlike the other rashes on this list, this one is caused by an infestation of mites. It’s very contagious and spreads easily through skin-to-skin contact in crowded spaces.

Top image credit: Cixia

Bottom image credit: Tim Kubacki


Drug Rash

What it looks like: Drug rashes are usually speckled, itchy, and red, and can cover large areas of skin. They can appear days to weeks after taking a medication.

Other symptoms to note: Drug rashes can be a side effect of or a reaction to a new medication; almost any medication can cause a drug rash, but antibiotics and NSAIDs are the most common culprits. The rash might not be anything to worry about, but it could be a sign of a serious allergic reaction, especially if combined with difficulty breathing. Contact your doctor immediately if you experience these symptoms.


Lichen Planus

What it looks like: Purplish legions on the inner arms, legs, wrists, or ankles can signify lichen planus, a skin rash triggered by an overreaction of the immune system.

Other symptoms to note: The legions are usually itchy and may cause skin discoloration as they heal. Lichen planus does not have one single cause—illnesses, allergies, and stress can all trigger breakouts. It is not contagious.

Right image credit: James Heilman, M.D.



What it looks like: Measles causes flat, red spots that cover huge swaths of skin. The rash often appears on the face near the hairline, then spreads down to the feet.

Other symptoms to note: The rash is accompanied by flu-like symptoms, including high fever, cough, and runny nose. Conjunctivitis (pink eye) is also common. Young people could face severe complications from measles, so contact your healthcare provider if you suspect exposure to the illness. Measles is spread when an infected person coughs or sneezes, and it’s one of the most contagious diseases, per the CDC.

Top image credit: Mike Blyth


Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

What it looks like: Hand, foot, and mouth disease is named for its characteristic flat, red spots that appear on the palms, soles of the feet, and around the mouth.

Other symptoms to note: Spots may blister over time. Cold-like symptoms, including fever and loss of appetite, might also appear. It’s usually not serious, but it’s very contagious and can spread quickly through skin contact or respiratory transmission among people of any age, especially in schools.


Tick Bite

What it looks like: The most recognizable reaction on this list is the bullseye rash—a large, red, target-like rash that signals the early stages of Lyme disease from the bite of an infected blacklegged tick. However, many tick bites do not cause a bullseye rash; it appears in about 70 to 80% of Lyme patients.

Other symptoms to note: You might actually find a tick attached to you before a rash appears, which is usually itchy. The bullseye rash in particular is a telltale sign of Lyme disease, even though some patients never get one, so monitor your symptoms and let your doctor know as soon as you notice one.



What it looks like: Lupus, a chronic autoimmune disease that causes inflammation throughout the body, often presents with a red, butterfly-shaped rash across the cheeks and nose. It is usually worsened by exposure to the sun.

Other symptoms to note: Although the rash does not leave scarring, it could cause discoloration after it disappears. The butterfly rash is distinct from the sores and scaly lesions also caused by lupus. Each case varies, but topical treatments and lifestyle changes can help the rash fade.

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The most common skin lesions (benign)

Seborrheic Keratosis

Seborrheic Keratosis, sometimes called senile wart, is a non-cancerous condition that occurs as a light brown, black or tan growth on the surface of the skin. These are usually harmless but may sometimes get irritated or be aesthetically unappealing. They can be removed, if necessary.

Common characteristics:

·  These lesions are slightly elevated
·  They are waxy and scaly
·  They can appear in all areas of the body except for the palms and soles
·  They often occur later in life and usually in multiples
·  Many times, it has a stuck, “pasted on” appearance

Dermatosis papulosa nigra

Example picture of dermatosis papulosa nigra

Dermatosis paulosa nigra is a condition that occurs mainly in darker skin types and usually starts to form in adolescence. The lesions are small, darkly pigmented papules that are harmless and generally don’t require treatment. 

Common characteristics:

·  It appears mainly on cheeks and foreheads
·  It often occurs in multiples
·  This lesion has a smooth surface
·  It appears most likely in an old age

Stucco keratosis

Example picture of stucco keratosis

Stucco keratosis is another harmless skin condition among common skin lesions with the following characteristics:

·  It consists of small, white-gray papules
·  It appears mostly on the ankles or feet
·  Men are more likely to have it
·  It is more common among fair-skinned individuals

Skin tags (acrochordons)

Example pictures of skin tags

Skin tags or acrochordons are soft skin growths where a narrow papule sticks out of the skin from a short piece of flesh like a tag.

Common characteristics:

·  They are fleshy
·  They often occur on the eyelids, neck, groin or armpit
·  They can become irritated if twisted or rubbed a lot
·  They are harmless but can be removed for cosmetic reasons

Cherry angiomas

Cherry angiomas are red papules filled with blood vessels made up of capillaries at the surface of the skin.

Common characteristics:

·  They usually develop after the age of 40 and increase in number over time.
·  They occur in higher concentrations on the trunk of the body.
·  They may resemble melanoma when they bleed or clot.
·  They do not require treatment, unless for cosmetic reasons.


Example picture of dermatofibroma

Dermatofibroma is a benign skin tumor that appears as a firm, round, brownish to red-purple growth usually found on the legs.

Common characteristics:

·  It feels like a hard lump under the skin
·  When squeezed, it dimples since the lesion is tethered to lower layers of the epidermis.
·  It initially has a red color, later changing to brown
·  It is dome-shaped
·  It usually has a darker peripheral rim
·  It is often a result of a prior injury

Solar lentigo

Solar lentigos, also known as “sun spots” or “age spots,” are marks on the skin from sun damage that are not cancerous. Although no treatment is required, patients are often at an increased risk for skin cancer and need to exercise precaution.

Sebaceous hyperplasia

Example picture of sebaceous hyperplasia

Sebaceous hyperplasia is a skin condition that occurs when sebaceous gland on the skin is enlarged.

Common characteristics:

·  It appears as small, skin-colored to yellow papules with a central indent
·  These papules often occur on the forehead and central face
·  They can often resemble basal cell carcinoma, but they rarely bleed or crust
·  Removal is not necessary, unless for cosmetic reasons

Epidermal inclusion cyst (EIC)

An epidermal inclusion cyst is a common skin cyst, sometimes called sebaceous cyst, even though it arises from hair follicles, not oil glands. The cyst contains a foul-smelling, cheese-like substance formed from degenerating keratinocytes.

They can become red and aggravated if the substance enters the dermis, an occurrence which is often mistaken for an infection. Asymptomatic cysts don’t require treatment. Excision can be used to remove a cyst if desired.

Milia or tiny epidermoid cysts

Example picture of milia or tiny epidermoid cysts

Milia or tiny epidermoid cysts is a condition where small 1-2 mm white to yellow papules occur underneath the surface of the skin.

Common characteristics:

·  These cysts can occur in all ages
·  They can be extracted without scarring
·  They are fixed and long-lasting
·  They often occur on the cheeks, eyelids, forehead, and genitalia.


Example picture of lipoma

Lipomas are collections of fat under the skin. These common skin lesions are soft and mobile benign tumors that usually stop growing when they reach a few centimeters in diameter. Treatment is surgical and considered elective.

Common characteristics:

· They often appear on the trunk, arms, or thighs
· They tend to occur in multiples in early adulthood

What does a normal mole look like?

Types of skin moles and how to know if they’re safe

Skin cancer pictures

Images courtesy of the American Academy of Dermatology

Skin Problems Image Gallery | HowStuffWorks

You’ve probably had to deal with some common skin problems before, such as the cold sores pictured above. But some skin conditions are rare and serious. Take a look at different types of skin problems on the next pages.

This man’s hand is affected by vitiligo, or depigmentation of skin. It’s caused by the body’s failure to produce melanin, which gives skin its color.

Christine is a young American college student with albinism. With insufficient melanin, the skin not only looks lighter but lacks natural protection against the sun.

Blisters are pockets of fluid near the surface of the skin. They’re often caused by friction, rubbing and pressure (like when you’re breaking in new shoes). Like blisters, warts can also form on the hands and feet. See a close-up of a wart next.

Common warts are typically found on the back of the hand, around fingernails and on the fingers. They are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). One easy way to reduce your chances of developing common warts is by cleaning cuts or scratches on your skin.

Filiform warts are also caused by HPV and have skin-colored fingerlike projections that most typically form on the face, neck, eyelids and lips.

Do you have an itch that you can’t quite scratch? Or an itch that seems to spread whenever you scratch it? If so, you may have impetigo, a bacterial skin infection characterized by red sores, blisters and an itchy rash.

A rash from poison ivy is a common type of contact dermatitis, which is caused by an allergic reaction.

Hives can be triggered by nuts, shellfish, medications, cold/heat and countless other factors. While most hives will go away on their own, some do not.

Eczema is a chronic skin disorder characterized by scaly and itching rashes. People with eczema often have a family history of allergic conditions like asthma and hay fever.

Rosacea is a chronic inflammation of the skin that causes redness in the face and produces small, red, pus-filled bumps or pustules.

Ringworm is a contagious fungal skin infection that can affect the body, scalp, groin and feet. It will most likely be itchy, scaly and have very clear edges. Don’t confuse the next skin condition with ringworm.

Pityriasis rosea is a skin rash that starts off as a single, circular patch of dry, flaky skin. It will usually show up on the back, chest, upper arms or thighs. It’s uncertain what exactly causes the condition, but it’s not a result of a fungus or bacterial infection.

Rhinophyma is a severe skin condition characterized by a red, inflamed and bulbous nose. In people with rhinophyma, the skin on the nose gets thicker, becomes bumpy and may take on a yellowish tone. It is the last stage in the progression of acne rosacea.

Although adults older than age 40 are more likely to have age spots than younger folks, it’s usually sun exposure over many years, rather than aging itself, that’s the primary cause.

Chicken pox is caused by a herpes virus. Symptoms include a blistery rash and fever.

Argyria is a condition in which your skin turns blue-grey. It’s caused by overexposure to silver, and fortunately it is rare and not life-threatening.

Harlequin ichthyosis is a genetic disorder that causes infants to be born with hard, thick skin all over their bodies. This skin abnormality restricts movement, causes dehydration, and makes those affected more susceptible to infection.

Keloids are scars that outgrow the size of the original wound, and they can occur with very minor skin damage.

Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, more commonly called Sweet Syndrome, is a disorder that causes fever and tender, lumpy skin. The good news is that it is not contagious. Possible causes of Sweet Syndrome include medication, pregnancy, upper respiratory tract infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Bowen’s Disease occurs when a growth of cancerous cells is confined to the outer layer of the skin. Though not a serious condition, it can progress into squamous cell carcinoma, an invasive skin cancer.

Skin Picture Quiz – Identify These Common Skin Conditions on RxList.com

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1.1: Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

1.2: Medscape.com, Aasi SZ. Dermatologic Diseases and Disorders. In: Pompei P, Murphy JB, eds. Geriatrics Review Syllabus: A Core Curriculum in Geriatric Medicine. 6th edition. New York, NY: American Geriatrics Society; 2006:314. Reprinted with permission.

2.1: Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

2.2: CDC / James Gathany

3.1: iStockPhoto / Ken Roberts

3.2: Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

4.1: Fitzpatrick’s Color Atlas & Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology Klaus Wolff, Richard Allen Johnson, Dick Suurmond Copyright 2005, 2001, 1997, 1993 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved.

4.2: Interactive Medical Media LLC

5.1: “Fitzpatrick’s Color Atlas & Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology”; Klaus Wolff, Richard Allen Johnson, Dick Suurmond; Copyright 2005, 2001, 1997, 1993 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved.

5.2: Color Atlas of Pediatric Dermatology Samuel Weinberg, Neil S. Prose, Leonard Kristal Copyright 2008, 1998, 1990, 1975, by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

6.1: Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

6.2: &copy 1996-2021 MedicineNet, Inc. All rights reserved.

7.1: Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

7.2: © 2007 Interactive Medical Media LLC. All rights reserved.

8.1: Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

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9.1: Image reprinted with permission from eMedicine.com, 2010

9.2: Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

10.1: Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

10.2: “Fitzpatrick’s Color Atlas & Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology”; Klaus Wolff, Richard Allen Johnson, Dick Suurmond; Copyright 2005, 2001, 1997, 1993 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved.

11.1: Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

11.2: Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

12.1: Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

12.2: © Interactive Media LLC

13.1: Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

13.2: Color Atlas of Pediatric Dermatology Samuel Weinberg, Neil S. Prose, Leonard Kristal Copyright 2008, 1998, 1990, 1975, by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

14.1: Medscape.com

14.2: Color Atlas of Pediatric Dermatology Samuel Weinberg, Neil S. Prose, Leonard Kristal Copyright 2008, 1998, 1990, 1975, by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

15.1: “Fitzpatrick’s Color Atlas & Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology”; Klaus Wolff, Richard Allen Johnson, Dick Suurmond Copyright 2005, 2001, 1997, 1993 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved.

15.2: “Fitzpatrick’s Color Atlas & Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology”; Klaus Wolff, Richard Allen Johnson, Dick Suurmond Copyright 2005, 2001, 1997, 1993 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved.


MedicineNet: Head Lice <https://www.medicinenet.com/head_lice/article.htm>

MedicineNet: MedTerms <https://www.medicinenet.com/medterms-medical-dictionary/article.htm>

MedicineNet: Shingles <https://www.medicinenet.com/shingles/article.htm>

eMedicine: Spitz Nevus

WebMD: “Understanding Dandruff – the Basics”, WebMD Medical Reference

WebMD: Gianotti Crosti Syndrome

WebMD: “Understanding Skin Cancer – the Basics”, WebMD Medical Reference

WebMD: Skin Problems & Treatments Health Center Ichthyosis, X Linked

WebMD: Sweet’s Syndrome

WebMD Health Tool, “Bug Bites Pictures Slideshow: Identifying Bugs and Bug Bites

WebMD Health Tool: “Precancerous Skin Lesions and Skin Cancer Picture Slideshow”

“Arthritis: Lyme Disease”, WebMD Medical Reference provided in collaboration with the Cleveland Clinic

“Understanding Skin Cancer – the Basics”, WebMD Medical Reference

Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology, Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Baden, Alexander Stratigos Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved

90,000 Skin diseases – treatment of fungal diseases of the scalp, face, feet


The largest human organ is the skin. It not only protects and covers muscles, bones and internal organs, but also regulates body temperature, participates in water-salt metabolism, blood deposition. The condition of the body can affect the skin, hair and nails. If you suspect a skin disease, it is necessary to quickly do all the studies in order to start treatment in a timely manner.

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Etc.Marshal Zhukov 28k2
Kirovsky district

  • Avtovo
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You can get detailed information and make an appointment by calling
+7 (812) 640-55-25

Skin structure:

  1. Epidermis .It is the topmost layer and contains melanin, which is responsible for skin color.
  2. Derma . It contains collagen and elastin fibers.
  3. Subcutaneous fat includes fatty tissue and connective tissue. Its physiological function is to store and store nutrients.

The cause of skin diseases can be viral infections, skin damage, STDs, heredity and metabolic disorders.

Types of skin diseases

Warts are mainly benign skin neoplasms in the form of a nodule or papilla.

Furuncle or boil – purulent-necrotic inflammation of the hair follicle. The cause of the occurrence is pollution, microtrauma of the skin.

Herpes is a viral disease with characteristic rashes of blisters on the skin.

Lichen includes in its concept a group of skin diseases of various etiologies.With it, small itchy nodules appear on the skin. The following types of disease are distinguished:

  • Shingles is a viral disease with rashes and severe pain syndrome. The causative agent is the varicella-zoster virus. It can hide in nerve cells and after a long time after getting into them, it can be activated, causing inflammation. After 2-4 weeks, the body heals itself.
  • Versicolor versicolor – fungal infection of the epidermis. Symptoms: small spots on the body with clear boundaries, increased sweating, itching.It can develop in the presence of predisposing factors: excessive sweating; non-observance of personal hygiene and maceration (soaking with liquid and swelling of the skin) of wet areas of the body; individual predisposition; violation of the processes of death of the stratum corneum of the epithelium; decreased general immunity; the presence of chronic pathology (tuberculosis, diabetes mellitus, vegetative dystonia, etc.
  • Pink lichen is an infectious, non-transmissible skin disease belonging to the infectious-allergic group.At risk are people with low immunity.
  • Ringworm is an infectious disease transmitted by direct contact with a sick person or animal. The symptoms of the disease are multiple red and pink spots all over the body. After treatment in the room where the sick person lived, it is necessary to carry out cleaning with a special solution, often wash the body and head, change underwear and socks.
  • Psoriasis is a chronic non-communicable disease.The disease causes the formation of large, red, dry patches raised above the surface of the skin. It is accompanied by pain and severe itching of the skin. This type of skin disease is often found in people with HIV infection or AIDS. The diagnosis from a specialist does not cause difficulties, since it is based on the appearance characteristic of the disease. In severe, progressive psoriasis, abnormalities in the blood test may be detected, due to the occurrence of an inflammatory autoimmune disease.
  • Microsporia is primarily a contagious animal disease, but it can also be transmitted to humans. Causes damage not only to the skin, but also to the scalp.

Scabies is a contagious scabies disease caused by a microscopic parasite. Scabies is characterized by itching, rashes and pustules from scratching. As a rule, the disease is seasonal in nature, and its peak occurs in autumn and winter.Scabies is transmitted during direct contact with the patient (skin-skin), mainly through sexual contact.

Urticaria is a skin disease characterized by the appearance of severely itchy, raised, pale pink blisters. It can manifest itself as a reaction to a stimulus, or be a symptom of a more serious illness. Has acute and chronic forms.

Eczema is a chronic or acute inflammatory skin disease. It is not contagious, but it has a neuro-allergic nature.It is characterized by rash, itching, and is prone to recurrence. The disease can occur under the influence of both external and internal (various diseases) factors.

Demodex – iron tick. It lives in the ducts of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles, and leads to loss of hair, eyebrows, eyelashes, and the development of acne. It is considered a conditionally pathogenic microorganism due to the fact that it lives on the skin of the face and in healthy people. Under the influence of various diseases, activation and increase in quantity occurs.Signs of the multiplication of iron mites are itching of the skin, heaviness in the eyes, inflammation of the eyelids.

Methods of research of skin diseases

When diagnosing skin diseases, in addition to external examination, various methods can be used to make an accurate diagnosis:

  1. Inspection under a Wood lamp . The study uses ultraviolet rays passed through a special glass. Hair affected by various types of skin diseases will show up differently.
  2. Cytological examination is carried out in order to identify acantholytic cells that can cause the development of true pemphigus (pemphigus).
  3. Swabs are submitted to detect the pathogen.
  4. Skin biopsy .

In addition to all this, a blood test is performed for tumor markers and the identification of infections of various origins. The sooner the cause of the skin disease is identified, the faster treatment will begin, and as a result, recovery will come.


Treatment of skin diseases is carried out in several stages:

  • Balanced health food;
  • Saturation of the body with vitamins and antibiotics;
  • Strengthening the general immunity of the body;
  • Powders, ointments, compresses;
  • Thermal procedures;
  • Ultraviolet blood irradiation;
  • Cryotherapy;
  • Phytotherapy.

When the first symptoms of skin diseases appear, consult a dermatologist immediately.





Today I put an implant at Dr. Arabi Sari.
Everything went just fine!
The doctor has golden hands! He does everything painlessly, knows how to tune in to the positive and gives confidence!
I definitely recommend it !!!

Kolynina E.ABOUT.



Valeria Dmitrievna Sultanga is a wonderful therapist, attentive and sensitive to the patient’s problems. He quickly understands the problem, makes the correct diagnosis and prescribes adequate treatment.

Failed while taking blood. The girl-laboratory assistant reacted very quickly and correctly, brought her to her senses, encouraged me.It’s nice when they treat you carefully)

Nikolaev Arseny Vitalievich



Good afternoon! I would like to thank the traumatologist Riahi Aymena for his professionalism and high responsibility in his work! Damaged ligaments, for the first time in my life, I was very worried.At the very first visit, I received qualified help and recommendations for a speedy recovery. I am a very curious person and I was pleasantly pleased by the fact that I was able to get answers to all my questions related to stretching (like an injury), materials for fixing a leg, etc. This is a very important quality of a doctor when he can explain processes from his sphere in a professional, but at the same time understandable language for a simple layman.
Thanks to MediCenter for your attitude towards recruiting!

Good afternoon! I would like to thank the cardiologist Dmitry Borisovich Sakhartov.We have been going with our son for more than one year to this specialist. Qualified doctor, friendly and welcoming. He knows how to delicately communicate with his patients, he is very attentive. He explains everything properly and gives the necessary recommendations. I really liked that you can quickly go through an ECG and an ultrasound of the heart, after which the doctor immediately decrypts and gives a detailed, understandable statement on his hands. If you are looking for a good cardiologist, you will find him in the “Medical Center” at 6 Polikarpov Alley, k2. Sakhartov Dmitry Borisovich is a wonderful doctor, I recommend and advise everyone!

I would like to express my deep gratitude to the Medical Center on Okhtinskaya Alley for the fast and high-quality provision of services.The staff are very pleasant and highly qualified. I would like to express special gratitude to Inessa and Alexander, the guys quickly and efficiently took blood, while not forgetting to morally support me, because I have been afraid of injections since childhood, but everything went at the highest level.

90,000 what are, types, signs, description of common skin diseases

The skin is the largest, hardy and at the same time fragile human organ. Like the heart, liver or stomach, it has a complex structure, performs vital functions, and its health is a prerequisite for the well-being of a person as a whole.And just like other organs, the skin is extremely vulnerable to pathological processes.

The peculiarity of skin diseases is that they usually become evident from the earliest stages. In part, this helps the patient to begin treatment immediately. On the other hand, skin diseases cause severe psychological discomfort to people, especially when it is not possible to quickly eliminate the symptoms. Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment of any dermatological diseases is a necessary condition for returning to a full life.

This is interesting!

The skin is indeed the largest human organ in terms of length. It occupies almost 2 m 2 , contains more than three million sweat glands throughout the body, and the skin microbiome is several thousand times larger than the number of all mankind [1].

Types of skin diseases

There are many reasons for skin diseases. These can be both external factors – this includes the traumatic influence of the environment, and internal ones, when the skin is affected by problems of the immune and endocrine systems, the gastrointestinal tract, and so on.


The skin consists of three layers. The upper one is called the epidermis. It is constantly renewed (every three to four weeks) and changes color when exposed to ultraviolet rays. Under the epidermis is the dermis – the main layer of the skin, which contains the receptors of nerve cells, glands and hair follicles. When the dermis loses its elasticity, wrinkles appear. Under the dermis is the third layer, the most “heavy” – subcutaneous fat, which helps to keep warm, is a source of fluid and nutrients.Skin weight – 4-6% of the total body weight, and with subcutaneous fat – about 16-17% [2].

Each layer of the skin is prone to specific diseases. So, the pathologies of the epidermis include scabies and psoriasis, diseases of the dermis – furunculosis and hydradenitis, and subcutaneous fat can suffer from cellulite and lipoma. Some painful conditions, such as burns, can affect all layers of the skin at once.

Skin pathologies can be divided into infectious and non-infectious, but this division is not always true.For example, seborrheic dermatitis causes a fungus that lives on the surface of the epidermis in absolutely all people, but manifests itself only when immunity is impaired. In addition, infections often join already in the midst of the pathological process: in patients with atopic dermatitis, purulent lesions often occur, which are a consequence of the attachment of a secondary bacterial infection.

Chronic skin diseases are of particular importance in dermatology. Unlike acute infectious processes, they accompany a person for long periods of life and require consistent therapy.Most often they develop under the influence of a variety of external and internal factors: from parasitic invasion to stress.

A predisposition to certain skin diseases can be inherited: many people note that problems like juvenile acne are similar in children and their parents. Statistically, the most common group of skin diseases that become a reason for going to a doctor are dermatoses and dermatitis – diseases of a non-infectious nature, accompanied by itching, peeling, rashes and discoloration of the skin.They are observed in both children and adults who suffer from allergies and immune disorders.

Signs of skin diseases: how to distinguish one from the other

It is easy to suspect a skin disease in oneself or in a child. Normally, the integuments of the body have a uniform color, moderate humidity and a smooth surface, and a violation of any of these criteria or the appearance of unpleasant sensations, itching and pain is already a cause for alarm. Even before visiting the doctor, I want to find out how dangerous this condition is and how to protect yourself and your loved ones.

Non-infectious dermatitis and dermatoses, such as psoriasis or eczema, are not contagious, but can significantly worsen the physical and psychological state of a person, so at the first signs of an illness, you should see a dermatologist.


  • Atopic dermatitis, or neurodermatitis , is a pathology of an allergic nature, which is manifested by bouts of itching, dryness, peeling, redness and rashes localized on the face and neck, on the scalp and in natural skin folds – in the armpits, elbow and knee fossa, groin, buttocks, and so on.Allocate infant – from two months, children – from two years, and teenagers and adults – over 13 years old, atopic dermatitis. It can be mild or severe, causing severe distress. In the treatment of atopic dermatitis, an integrated approach is important: restoration of the skin barrier, normalization of digestion, diet therapy, elimination of provoking factors (from the diet and from the external environment), external therapy to eliminate visible symptoms, and in some cases, systemic pharmacotherapy.If atopic dermatitis cannot be cured in infancy, then it can accompany a person throughout his life in a mild, moderate or severe form with periodic relapses.
  • Allergic dermatitis often occurs in both adults and children as a reaction to food or contact irritants. Food allergy manifests itself in the form of itching, swelling, small and large blisters filled with liquid, and occurs within 24 hours from the moment the allergen enters the body. Sometimes the blisters burst, forming extensive weeping foci, which can fester due to the addition of a secondary infection.Localization of an allergic rash can be individual, but usually the rash appears in the same places, with the same intensity and area of ​​the rash.
  • With contact allergy , a similar inflammatory reaction and changes in the skin are observed only in the part of the body that has been in direct contact with the allergen. For example, if you react to hair dye, redness, itching and swelling will appear on the head, and if you are intolerant of certain metals, on the neck where the person wears the chain, or in the abdomen that was in contact with the belt buckle.Also, an allergen can be drugs, cosmetics and perfumery, soap, plants, rubber products, glue. Some substances cause an increase in the sensitivity of the skin to exposure to sunlight – photosensitization, and thus photodermatitis, which is a type of allergic, occurs. In this case, the rash occurs on open areas of the skin that are not protected from the sun by clothing [3]. A key factor in the treatment of allergic dermatitis is the identification and elimination of the allergen, as well as topical therapy to relieve itching, inflammation, infection, and repair of damaged skin.
  • Seborrheic dermatitis manifests itself as a result of excessive secretion of the sebaceous glands, which is accompanied by the release of an increased amount of sebum and active reproduction of the fungus from the genus Malassezia in the epidermis. The disease occurs against the background of psychoemotional overstrain, stress, hormonal, immune and neuroendocrine disorders, taking certain medications. Seborrheic dermatitis develops on areas of the body rich in sebaceous glands – this is the scalp, face, behind the ear, sternum and navel, the area of ​​the back between the shoulder blades, armpits, buttocks.Small whitish scales form on the surface of the skin, which easily peel off, exposing a slightly inflamed surface. Therapy for seborrheic dermatitis should be aimed primarily at eliminating the cause (fungus) and inflammation, as well as restoring the damaged skin structure – in order to reduce excessive flaking. There are two age peaks in the incidence of seborrheic dermatitis – in the first months of life and after 40 years [4].


  • Eczema is an acute or chronic recurrent skin disease accompanied by inflammation, rash and itching on symmetrical parts of the trunk and flexor surfaces of the joints.The disease develops as a result of the complex effects of neuroendocrine, metabolic, infectious-allergic, vegetative-vascular factors. The trigger can be bacterial and fungal infections, chemicals, drugs, food, and more. Eczema is inherited: with a disease of one of the parents, the probability of developing eczema in a child is about 40%, in the presence of the disease in both parents – 50-60% [5]. Distinctive features of eczema are itching in the affected areas and the inconsistent nature of the rash: first, inflammation appears on the skin, after which it becomes covered with small bubbles, which, bursting, form a moist wound.Over time, erosion on the skin dries up and becomes crusted, after which a period of remission begins. The disease can worsen from year to year, and the final cure, even with proper treatment, may never come.
  • Polymorphic photodermatosis is the most common type of photodermatosis, which is characterized by the appearance of itchy macular, papular, plaque rashes after exposure to the sun (therefore its other name is spring-summer photodermatitis).Lesions appear on the skin after a few hours or days – on the neck, chest, shoulders, forearms, legs, less often on the face and trunk. They do not leave behind scars and disappear within a few days or weeks after stopping exposure to active sun. The pathogenesis of the disease is based on a violation of the immune response, presumably due to exposure to sunlight. Adaptation is characteristic of polymorphic photodermatosis: symptoms decrease after repeated exposure of the patient to the sun for a short period of time, as the skin develops a tolerance to sunlight [6].


Severe chronic skin disease, which is characterized by an unpredictable course and a vague mechanism of occurrence. This disease occurs in 1–2% of the population of developed countries, regardless of age, gender, social status and lifestyle (although it is noted that psoriasis often occurs against a background of severe stress) [7]. Psoriatic plaques appear almost everywhere – on the elbow and knee bends, scalp, soles and palms, in the region of the sacrum and lower back.The marks range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters and often merge into single spots. Plaques in psoriasis have a scaly structure, when the scales separate, the skin under them shines and sometimes bleeds. In addition to ordinary (vulgar) psoriasis, seborrheic psoriasis is common, in which the scales have a yellowish tint. The disease can affect not only the skin, but also the nails and joints, causing psoriatic arthritis.

Peculiarities of treatment

There are many skin diseases, but the therapeutic principles for each of them are similar: a combination of systemic and local therapy is required to overcome the disease.The first involves taking pills and injections aimed at eliminating internal pathological mechanisms: inflammatory and allergic reactions are suppressed, the work of the endocrine and nervous systems is normalized, and so on. Systemic treatment of each of the above diseases has its own characteristics and, as a rule, is prescribed during periods of severe exacerbations.

Local therapy is aimed directly at eliminating the symptoms of the disease, reducing the frequency of relapses and improving the patient’s quality of life – eliminating itching, peeling, painful sensations and cosmetic defects.Its advantage lies in the almost complete absence of systemic side effects, as well as in targeted action. Topically applied agents are divided into medicinal and care .

External therapy is used primarily in order to eliminate the skin manifestations of the disease as soon as possible. Some of the substances used for this purpose are also suitable for people with healthy but dry and sensitive skin suffering from cracks and flaking. Products with emollients are considered the best option.Emollients are the fat-like constituent of cosmetics, substances capable of creating a protective lipid layer on the skin’s surface. Traditionally, jojoba oil, castor oil, beeswax, lanolin and many others are used for this purpose.

Emollients hold the horny scales of the epidermis together, making the skin smooth, soft and “radiant”. Also, emollients reduce moisture evaporation and restore the water-lipid balance, while maintaining a sufficient level of moisture [8]. However, they should be used with caution if you have oily skin with enlarged pores and acne.

External medications are used to treat skin diseases. They can be divided into several categories: aimed at eliminating inflammation and itching (for example, topical glucocorticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors), preventing the violation of keratinization processes (retinoids, azelaic acid) and aimed at fighting infections (antibiotics, antifungal and antiviral drugs).

Inflammation and itching, as well as the resulting scratching, violate the protective properties of the skin, often a bacterial or fungal infection joins the underlying disease, worsening the course of the disease and complicating treatment.

Since it can be difficult to figure out if there is an infection before a visit to the doctor, in the first-aid kit it is worth having a combination drug that can affect inflammation, itching, and infection.

On the pharmacy counters today there are many products that can help relieve itching and reduce inflammation on the skin. However, do not forget that it is better to start treatment with a consultation with a specialist, this will help to establish the exact cause of the skin disease and develop a course of therapy aimed at a speedy recovery.

*** The material is not a public offer. Information on the cost is provided for reference and is current for December 2020.

All information related to health and medicine is presented for informational purposes only and is not a reason for self-diagnosis or self-medication.

What you need to know about leather

Maymasov Igor Gennadievich
Doctor of the Consultative and Diagnostic Department,
Dermatologist of the highest qualification category

What you need to know about leather

Being the outer protective cover of the human body, in addition to its main function (barrier), the skin also performs a number of others, including:

  • Touch and analysis – on the skin there are many receptors (nerve endings), with the help of which the state of the environment – pressure, temperature, pain sensations – is determined and an adequate response to its change is triggered.On one square centimeter of the skin there is approximately the same number of receptors: pain – up to 100, tactile sensitivity – 25, cold – up to 15 and heat – 2.
  • Thermoregulation – up to 80% of heat transfer falls on the skin, the pores on the skin can expand or narrow, regulating the process of heat exchange with the environment, the same happens with the capillaries.
  • Excretion, or excretion – along with sweat, the skin removes not only excess heat, but also harmful or excess metabolic products, for example, urea, free radicals in toxic poisoning and other compounds, and also produces gas exchange, emitting carbon dioxide and absorbing oxygen.
  • Metabolism and metabolism – maintenance of water-salt, carbon, protein, enzymatic balance, synthesis of vitamin D3 and some hormones, as well as their accumulation.
  • Protection of immunity – antigens are captured, processed and transformed through the skin, after which an immune reaction develops on them.
  • Blood accumulation – more than a liter of blood can be (deposited) in the capillaries and small vessels of the skin of an adult.

Considering such a variety of important functions performed by the largest human organ – skin, the area of ​​which can exceed 2 meters squared, and the weight – one sixth of the body weight – one can imagine how dangerous its lesions can be, both by themselves and and in relation to diseases of other organs. So, a violation of skin excretion aggravates the course of renal failure, stopping the excretion of excess urea through the pores.

On the other hand, skin is a mirror of human health , since it reflects various autoimmune diseases, metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal tract disorders and many others.

But human skin itself is susceptible to diseases and various mechanical, chemical, thermal, electrical and radiation damage, some of which can go away on its own (with minor household influences, the epidermis is completely renewed or regenerated in 20 days), but in all other cases, the services of a qualified dermatologist will be required.

One of the possible causes of dermatoses are disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system.It has long been known that diseases such as eczema, urticaria, pruritus and others arise as a result of primary functional changes in the central nervous system, developing under the influence of mental and emotional factors.

An important role in the development of a number of skin diseases is played by infection, most often in the form of chronic tonsillitis, sinusitis, and carious teeth. The role of focal infection in the development of diseases such as urticaria, exudative erythema multiforme, psoriasis, lupus erythematosus, etc. has been established.

A genetic factor is of some importance in the occurrence of a number of skin diseases. The role of heredity is especially clearly manifested in diseases such as ichthyosis, pigmented xeroderma, epidermolysis bullosa, keratoderma, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis.

Skin diseases can be the result of tumor metastasis into the skin or the penetration of infection, and also result from a direct transition to the skin of the pathological process from the affected underlying organs or tissues.

Skin diseases are complex and varied in their development. In addition to nervous and hereditary mechanisms, changes in the body’s natural reactivity and disorders in the immune system play an important role in the development of many dermatoses. So in the development of a large group of dermatoses, such as eczema, allergic dermatitis, urticaria, allergy is of primary importance, with lupus erythematosus and pemphigus – autoimmune processes, a number of dermatoses are caused by secondary cellular immunodeficiency.

As for the allergic development of dermatoses, in some cases, the body is allergic due to allergens acting directly on the skin upon contact with it, or ingested with food, or drugs, in others, infectious agents cause allergies (infectious or bacterial allergies) , existing in humans in foci of chronic infection or with general infectious diseases, mycoses.

Treatment of dermatoses includes general and local therapy, with general therapy being the main one in most cases. In order to choose methods of treating skin diseases, it is necessary to first conduct a deep and comprehensive examination of the patient, which will reveal the factors that caused the disease, as well as factors that allow and predispose to the development of the disease in each case.

The division of treatment into general and local conditionally, since the local use of certain methods of therapy or drugs has a more or less pronounced effect on the general condition of the body.Treatment should be carried out strictly individually, taking into account the sex and age of the patient, anamnestic data, the results of previous treatment, drug tolerance. The form, stage and prevalence of dermatoses should also be taken into account.

The effectiveness of treatment of patients with dermatoses largely depends on their relationship with a doctor of ethical order. Modern medicine equips the doctor with a large stock of versatile knowledge. And the doctor must be able to use them correctly in the interests of the patient.The patient entrusts the doctor with the most precious thing a person has – his own health, so he must trust the doctor and be confident in him. The authority of the doctor is ensured, first of all, by his competence, conscientious work and humane attitude towards the patient. The general laws of the course and treatment of any disease should be correlated with the peculiarities of its manifestation in a given patient and the specific circumstances of its development. The correct, individual, psychotherapeutic approach to the patient, to a certain extent, ensures the positive results of drug therapy for most dermatoses.

90,000 Microsporia in children – causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of microsporia in children in Moscow in the children’s clinic “SM-Doctor”


Description of the disease
Microsporia (lichen) is an infectious disease of the skin of a fungal nature caused by fungi of the genus Microspirum.The disease is treated by a dermatologist.

Description of the disease

Microsporia is recognized as the most common fungal disease among children. The peak incidence occurs in late summer and early autumn. Sources of infection are sick people and animals (usually cats). There are 2 types of microsporia pathogens – anthroponous and zooanthroponous strains. The former are dangerous only for humans, the latter – infect humans and animals.

Children have a natural tendency to microsporia.This is due to the fact that in childhood the composition of the secretions of the sweat and sebaceous glands differs. In adults, there are many fatty acids in secretion that are harmful to the fungus. In children, the protective function of the skin is weak, so they are more prone to dermatophytosis.

Microsporum fungus is capable of infecting smooth skin, hair, rarely grows into nails. The products of its vital activity have toxic properties, therefore they provoke inflammation on the skin, peeling, itching. When the hairy parts of the body are affected, the fungus invades the bulbs, then affects the hair along the entire length, provoking fragility, loss.

Disease prevention is carried out at the state level. The sick person must be isolated from healthy people for 35 days. The fungus spreads along with the flakes that have exfoliated from the skin. The risk of developing microsporia is higher for children of the following categories:

  • weak immunity;
  • abrasions, scratches, wounds on the skin;
  • vitamin deficiency;
  • pathology of the endocrine system;
  • a dysfunctional family environment.

Symptoms of microsporia

The main symptom of microsporia is characteristic skin rashes. In the zone of penetration of the fungus into the skin, a red spot with raised edges appears. As the pathogen multiplies, it expands, outwardly resembles a ring. Inside the rash, the skin is normal or pale pink in color, covered with a powdery coating or peeling with peeling crusts. There may be reddish blisters or nodules around the perimeter of the spot. Mild itching of the skin in the area of ​​the rash is possible.With massive seeding, several spots appear at once, which eventually merge with each other. Most often, rashes appear on the arms, forearms, shoulders, neck, legs.

Infection from animals affects the hairy areas of the scalp. Affected hair breaks off at a distance of 3-5 mm from the skin surface, leaving behind “hemp”. As the fungus spreads, rounded patches of baldness form on the child’s head. The area affected by the fungus may itch. Local immunity is impaired here, therefore, secondary infection of foci with the development of inflammation is possible, incl.h. purulent. Often, children scratch the affected areas, causing the skin to ooze.

Causes of microsporia

A child can encounter a pathogen anywhere. Infection with zooanthroponous strains occurs through contact with stray animals. Cats tolerate microsporia more often than dogs. Rashes appear in the area of ​​direct contact with a sick animal (where the cat is rubbed). Anthroponous strains are carried by humans. It is enough for the infected scales to get on the skin of a healthy baby.You can get infected in kindergarten, public transport. The fungus is transmitted through household items. Most often, children become infected from adults, when using a shared towel.

Diagnosis of microsporia

Doctors-dermatologists “CM-Doctor” have vast experience in the diagnosis and treatment of microsporia in children. Specialists pay a lot of attention to the general state of health of a small patient in order to identify factors predisposing to the disease. With an integrated approach, you can quickly get rid of microsporia.

The diagnosis is made by a dermatologist based on the data of the clinical picture. As a rule, there are reports of a history of being in the village or contact with a stray animal on the street. The diagnosis can be confirmed by examination with a Wood lamp (the lesions glow green). To assess the general condition of the body, general and biochemical blood tests are prescribed. To clarify the type of fungus, a study of scraping and sowing on a nutrient medium is carried out.

Treatment of microsporia

Microsporia in one child can lead to a real outbreak of the disease within a family or children’s collective, since the pathology is very contagious.Treatment should be started immediately. It is important that it is selected by a doctor as therapy differs from case to case. Doctors “CM-Doctor” select treatment on an individual basis, taking into account the general condition of the little patient and his comorbidities.

Treatment of smooth skin microsporia involves the external use of antifungal agents. With severe inflammation, ointments and creams with a combined composition (antifungal + anti-inflammatory component) are prescribed.Treatment with external antimycotics is alternated with lubrication with iodine solution.

In case of damage to vellus or long hair, only external means cannot be dispensed with. Antifungal drugs of systemic action (in the form of tablets or capsules) are prescribed. Treatment is supplemented with ointments. Shown shaving hair and washing the head with antifungal shampoos. Treatment lasts 2 to 6 weeks.

The child must be isolated during treatment. All personal and household items are subject to disinfection.After recovery, the patient should undergo dispensary observation, since microsporia can recur.

Prevention of microsporia

To prevent microsporia in children, it is necessary from early childhood to teach them to wash their hands upon coming home, after using the toilet, after visiting public places, before eating, after contact with animals. It is necessary to limit contacts of the baby with stray animals. If you have cats and dogs at home, you should regularly consult your veterinarian.If a patient with microsporia appears at home, you need to disinfect daily (wash clothes, towels, bedspreads, wipe the surfaces with a solution of laundry soap and soda).

Doctors “CM-Doctor” specialize in the treatment of children’s pathologies. A caring attitude, an integrated approach and professional control of all stages of treatment will allow your baby to recover as soon as possible!


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90,000 Skin hyperkeratosis: symptoms, treatment, diagnosis of the disease

Hyperkeratosis is a general name for a group of pathologies, the main symptom of which is excessive keratinization of the skin. The cells of the outer, stratum corneum, under the influence of a certain factor, activate the process of division, while the sloughing of dead cells slows down. As a result, the skin becomes covered with a stratum corneum, the thickness of which varies from fractions of a millimeter to several centimeters.Any parts of the body can undergo keratinization, depending on the causes of the pathology.

Varieties of the keratinization process

Distinguish between hereditary and acquired skin hyperkeratosis. Depending on the clinical manifestations, pathology can take various forms:

  • follicular – flakes of peeling skin clog the ducts of the follicles, which is why numerous small bumps appear on the skin, similar to pimples;
  • lenticular – horny papules appear on the hair follicles of the lower extremities; when they are removed, small depressions remain on the skin;
  • disseminated – formations appear on the skin that resemble short and thickened hairs;
  • seborrheic – on the scalp, sometimes peeling areas are formed on the skin of the face in the form of a greasy, easily removable crust, under which reddish spots of the skin are found;
  • diffuse – large areas of the skin on any part of the body are affected, sometimes even the entire skin is completely, the sebaceous glands stop working, the skin dries up and flakes;
  • warty – formations appear on the skin that resemble warts, but without the participation of papillomavirus, and sometimes they degenerate into tumors;
  • senile – dark keratinized spots appear on the skin of older people.

Disseminated and lenticular forms usually develop in older men. They rarely affect women and young people.


The main symptom of hyperkeratosis is the appearance on some parts of the body of thickening of the skin with reduced sensitivity, often with a changed color that differs from the main shade. At the initial stage, the skin gives the impression of coarsening, then the thickness of the stratum corneum increases, sometimes to such an extent that it begins to cause discomfort.In particular, advanced foot hyperkeratosis can lead to a change in gait. Keratinous skin peels off or partially exfoliates, painful cracks may appear on the most thickened and dry areas, which heal for a long time and become sites of infection. Often the pathology is accompanied by dry skin, a decrease in the function of the sebaceous glands.

Do you have symptoms of hyperkeratosis?

Only a doctor can accurately diagnose the disease.
Do not delay the consultation – call by phone

+7 (495) 775-73-60

The reasons for the development of pathology

All causes of the development of keratosis can be divided into two groups.The first includes external influences – tight shoes or clothes rubbing on certain areas of the skin, intense physical labor, constant contact with chemicals or other substances that negatively affect the skin, non-observance of hygiene rules, etc.

The second group includes diseases and pathological conditions that lead to excessive formation of the stratum corneum:

  • systemic disorders, congenital or acquired – ichthyosis, diabetes mellitus, psoriasis, keratoderma, etc.;
  • circulatory disorders, most often occurring in the lower extremities – varicose veins, obliterating atherosclerosis;
  • lack of vitamins;
  • fungal diseases of the skin (lichen) and feet;
  • gastrointestinal diseases;
  • stress;
  • overweight, foot pathology, lameness.

Under the influence of certain factors in the upper layer of the skin, the capillary blood supply is disturbed, innervation worsens.Because of this, the process of cell division of the stratum corneum is activated with a simultaneous slowdown of their desquamation and the formation of thickened keratinized areas.

Diagnostic Methods

As a rule, with hyperkeratosis, diagnosis consists in identifying the disease that led to the formation of keratinized areas. The dermatologist conducts an external examination and interviews the patient, checks for signs of skin diseases. As a rule, a qualified specialist can recognize the disease by its external signs.For clarification, differential diagnosis may be needed, which is necessary when the manifestations of pathology are similar to other skin diseases, which are also characterized by peeling and dry skin. If it is difficult to determine the diagnosis, a biopsy of the affected skin area is performed with a histological examination of the tissue.


The method of treating hyperkeratosis depends on the form of the disease and on the cause that caused it. As a rule, during periods of exacerbation, topical application of corticosteroid ointments is indicated, which relieve inflammation and exfoliate keratinized skin.A mild acid peel with special creams helps to loosen hardened skin layers. Mechanical removal of hardened areas is not recommended, as it may increase the formation of the stratum corneum. Warm baths with the addition of salt, baking soda or starch give a good effect, after which a moisturizer is applied to the skin.

Scalp hyperkeratosis is treated with emollient compresses, for which castor oil, petroleum jelly or glycerin, fish oil, etc. are used.e. If necessary, ointments containing hormones may be prescribed. With the follicular form of the disease, external treatment of the stump is of great benefit, therefore, therapy is aimed at eliminating disturbances in the functioning of the body.

With hyperkeratosis of the skin of the feet, it is first necessary to eliminate the factor causing the pathology. Often, skin fungus acts as a pathological factor, which is eliminated with the help of special antifungal ointments. A good effect is given by warm foot baths with table salt, after which the steamed stratum corneum is removed with a pumice stone, and the skin is lubricated with an emollient cream.It is necessary to choose comfortable shoes that do not squeeze or rub the foot. If the patient suffers from clubfoot or flat feet, care should be taken to choose special shoes.


In order to prevent the re-development of hyperkeratosis, it is necessary to take care of the skin, ensure its nutrition and hygiene. To prevent relapses of the disease will help:

  • normalization of nutrition, provision of a varied balanced diet;
  • refusal from prolonged exposure to the sun or hypothermia of the skin;
  • hygiene, skin care;
  • the use of protective equipment when working with chemicals.

Some forms of the disease are extremely difficult to treat and remain with a person throughout their lives. In this case, it is especially important to pay attention to preventive measures that reduce the risk of relapse.

Questions and answers

Which doctor treats hyperkeratosis?

For the diagnosis and treatment of hyperkeratosis, you should consult a dermatologist. If we are talking about a disease of the feet, then it is advisable to consult a podiatrist.During treatment, you may have to consult a phlebologist, endocrinologist or other specialists, depending on the identified diseases.

How to treat hyperkeratosis with folk methods?

Homemade recipes for traditional medicine for hyperkeratosis help only in the initial stages and with a mild form of the disease. A good effect is given by skin softening applications with aloe leaves, compresses with propolis or with a decoction of onion peels.You can use birch tar, an effective anti-inflammatory agent, and badger oil to soften chapped skin.

Why is hyperkeratosis dangerous?

If left untreated, complications can develop. So, with keratinization of the skin of the feet, the patient often has cracks and corns, and there is also a high risk of infection with a fungus. The warty form of pathology may turn out to be a precancerous skin condition.The follicular form is often accompanied by pyoderma.


newborns and babies
age suffering from skin
diseases, requires
dermatovekerologist exact
decisions and operational actions,
whose effectiveness is largely
depend on correct and
timely diagnosis. Children
dermatovenerology at present
time was for
dermatovenerologists not only
extremely responsible, but also
the most difficult area.Despite
what is in the treatment of children with cutaneous
pathology involved doctors
different specialties, fails
achieve satisfactory
results in terms of
disease rate and increase
efficacy of medical
preventive care. Special
a large number of diagnostic
mistakes. Pediatric dermatology closely
related to prevention
hereditary pathology, since
the birth of a sick child
encourages relatives
consult a doctor to determine
genetic prognosis. Enhancement
professional level
nosological diagnostics
is the initial and necessary
a condition for the development of medicinal,
preventive and
medical genetic assistance.Brief overviews on
issues of diagnosis, treatment,
prevention and rehabilitation of children,
suffering from cutaneous and venereal

newborns and babies
age suffering from skin
diseases, requires
dermatovekerologist exact
decisions and operational actions,
whose effectiveness is largely
depend on correct and
timely diagnosis. Children
dermatovenerology at present
time was for
dermatovenerologists not only
extremely responsible, but also
the most difficult area.Despite
what is in the treatment of children with cutaneous
pathology involved doctors
different specialties, fails
achieve satisfactory
results in terms of
disease rate and increase
efficacy of medical
preventive care. Special
a large number of diagnostic
mistakes. Pediatric dermatology closely
related to prevention
hereditary pathology, since
the birth of a sick child
encourages relatives
consult a doctor to determine
genetic prognosis. Enhancement
professional level
nosological diagnostics
is the initial and necessary
a condition for the development of medicinal,
preventive and
medical genetic assistance.Brief overviews on
issues of diagnosis, treatment,
prevention and rehabilitation of children,
suffering from cutaneous and venereal

To cure neonates and babies who suffer from
skin diseases requires that dermatovenerologist should take
accurate decisions and make prompt actions whose efficiency
largely depends on correct and timely diagnosis. Pediatric
dermatovenereology has proved to be not only a highly crucial but
the most chalenging area for dermatovenereologysts.Despite rhe
fact that physicians of various disciplines participate in the
treatment of infants with skin abnormalities, there are no
saticfactory results in reducing incidence rates and enhancing
therapeutical and preventive care.
There are a great deal of diagnostic errors. Pediatric
dermatovenereology is closely associated with the prevention of
hereditary pathology as the birth of an ill baby makes his
relatives to visit a doctor to determine a genetic prognosis. To
enhance the level of professional nosological diagnosis is a
primary and essential condition for the development of
therapeutical, prophylactic, and medical and genetic care.
Brief reviews on 1) diagnosis, 2) treatment, prevention,
rehabilitation of infants, with skin and venereal diseases are

dermatovenerology (head – doctor
honey. sciences prof. K.N.Suvorova)
Russian Medical Academy
postgraduate education.
Prof. K.N. Suvorova, MD, Head of the Department of
Dermatovenerology, Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate


In children of the first
years of life various defeats
skin are found more often than in
other age groups.Skin pathology during this period
has a pronounced specificity
nosological profile and
unusual clinical
manifestations of dermatoses, known and
in adults, but manifesting
otherwise. Dermatovenereologist
must be aware of special conditions
skin in newborns, oh
specific treatment approaches
dermatoses, body characteristics
an infant,
determining his reactions to
medicines or promoting
aggravation and chronicity of dermatoses
and the development of typical
age of complications.For the first time
months of life may occur
suddenly heavy and acute
flowing dermatoses when
an urgent need to establish
accurate diagnosis and urgent
help you can only give
joint efforts of pediatricians and
dermatologists. May meet
secondary skin lesions with
birth defects of metabolism and
other multiple organ syndromes with
debut in infancy;
dermatologist, having adequate
understanding of such diseases,
should send in a timely manner
child to a pediatrician and other specialist
according to their
diagnostic assumptions.On the other hand, often the most
usual skin lesions for the first time
discovered by a pediatrician,
constantly observing the child. IN
in such cases, he should be able to
suspect a skin disease and
refer the child to a dermatologist.
The task of the pediatrician is to identify and
treatment of internal diseases,
contributing to exacerbation or
torpid course of dermatosis, and
dermatovenerologist is obliged to correctly
diagnose skin and
sexually transmitted diseases, in whatever
age they never met, at
based on professional knowledge
semiotics of dermatoses and diseases,
sexually transmitted infections, and
ability to use special
methods of nosological
recognition.Knowing the main etiological and
pathogenetic methods of treatment
dermatoses, dermatovenerologist
should determine the stages
therapy, use different
special treatment options
various topical
means to carry out
rehabilitation. According to
requirements for a specialist nursery
dermatovenerology should know
every dermatovenerologist, since
a separate specialty in this
discipline is not. In practice, this
section, especially skin pathology in
children of the first year of life,
turns out to be the most difficult for
dermatovenerologist.Based on experience
Department of Dermatovenereology
Russian Medical Academy
postgraduate education and
children’s department of the Moscow
dermatovenerologic hospital no.
14 we propose to discuss some
related questions.

1. Diagnosis of dermatoses in children
infancy and
auxiliary research

and clinical and morphological
analysis of pouring elements and
skin biopsy examination:
under a Wood lamp
Other Immunofluorescent
anamnesis: interviews with relatives

and persons
caring for a child
fingerprint analysis
blood relatives
examination of contacts
and cultural research
material from lesions
serological reactions to
general condition assessment
bones with congenital
syphilis, developmental defects,
proliferative diseases
For scatology
For helminths
For dysbacteriosis
blood tests
and their subpopulations,
IRI, B cells, lgG,
lgM, lgA; circulating immune
complex complementary
blood activity, activity
Total lgE level and
antibodies (RAST; definition
precipitating lgG antibodies)
Special biochemical,
immunological tests for
suspicious clinical
dermopathic syndromes
Determination of sensitivity
flora from skin lesions to
antimicrobial agents


Main reason
diagnostic errors –
underestimation of the information content of the data,
which can be obtained with
clinical and morphological analysis
skin lesions that are
specific diagnostic
by the method of dermatology.
Dermatological examination

consists primarily of visual
inspection from
interpretation of primary and
secondary pouring elements,
supplemented by simple tests for
identifying a number of symptoms
(Nikolsky, Unny – Daria, symptoms
psoriatic triad, zones
loose hair, etc.) and such
simple technical techniques,
as scratchboard, diascopy, inspection under
Wood lamp, hair microscopy,
study of the functions of the skin glands,
analysis of the pattern of scallop skin and
t.e. Under a Wood lamp, you can not only
see the green glow of hair when
microsporia, which
found in some children
already at 3 months of age, or
cystic red fluorescence
fluid with congenital
erythropoietic porphyria, but also
consider inconspicuous in the usual
lighting weak inflammatory and
dyschromic spots,
whose identification is extremely
important for early diagnosis
phakomatoses, since white spots and
pigmentation in the first year of life
may be the only ones visible
signs of these formidable
there may be sample results
on sweating,
anhidrosis, which without
appropriate correction
will lead to serious violations
thermoregulation, febrile
convulsions and even more sad
consequences of undetected vices
development accompanied by
hypoplasia or impairment
function of the sweat glands. Microscopic
hair shaft study

allows you to reliably
diagnose Netherton syndrome
and many other diseases,
characterized by congenital
hair abnormalities, some of which
associated with immune and
mental disorders.

2. Changes and lesions of the skin in
newborn infants

and transition states at
grease *
erythema of newborns *
cap “(grease residues on
head) *
edema *
skin qatar *
color change harlequin type *
peeling *
Skleredema *
ichthyosis *
Sklerema *
hair *
newborn *
belly line *
seborrheic dermatitis
newborn *
newborn *
Diaper rash
Ritter’s dermatitis

for the neontanal period
conditions and diseases skin

3. Manifestation of a hormonal crisis.

Dermal Others
sebum department
mammary glands
Gneiss Desquamative
sebaceous cysts
lipophilic resistance
and swelling of the external skin

In the absence of such structural
anomalies in differential
diagnostics should not be forgotten about
syphilitic alopecia.Additional information for
early diagnosis
dysplastic geno-dermatoses and
hereditary disorders
keratinization will give an examination
scallop skin of palms and soles.
In this case, not
only flexor fold anomalies
in the form of dysmorphogenetic stigmas,
but also pathogenetic signs
formation disturbances
papillary patterns included in
the core of the syndrome in some
developmental defects. Characteristic
high intensity
additional folds on
scallop skin in the first months
is often the only
a sign of vulgar
autosomal dominant ichthyosis,
whereas obvious peeling
occurs towards the end of the year or later.Symptom of lacquered pillows on
fingertips, almost devoid of
epidermal ridges that
is especially pronounced in the first
months of life, typical for
lamellar ichthyosis, rough
flexor fold deformations
are typical for diseases
accompanied by intrauterine
the formation of rough and constricting
hyperkeratotic layers. Already in
second half of the first year of life
can be clearly observed
disappearance of papillary patterns
after resolving the bubbles that
is an important sign
allowing differentiation
dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa from others
types and determine the forecast.In a number of
cases have to resort to
vi-tropression and use
bulbous probe, as on
the first year in children who fall ill
tuberculosis, may not occur
only erythema nodosum, but also in
rare cases of acute
disseminated miliary tuberculosis
skin. By means of vitroresia
one can find characteristic
yellowish brown small spots
in the case of sarcoidosis, differences in
diascopy color will allow
differentiate vascular spots
and hemorrhages,
dipigmented spots and
anemic nevus.Reception
dermatologist should
use constantly for
identifying not only phenomena
Auspitz, but also hidden peeling
with various dermatoses, as well as
purpura, serous wells,
acantholysis. Collecting anamnesis and
examination of relatives
make up
the next stage of the survey.
Anamnesis is often uninformative,
the patient cannot yet present
complaints, and parents are not always
carefully record the dynamics
diseases. It is all the more important in
this age fullness
clinico-morphological analysis
and family examination.On examination
blood relatives can
get the necessary data for
confirmation or exclusion
Mendelian dermatosis. what
concerns multifactorial
dermatoses, genealogical
information is important for their scientific
study, but have no practical
diagnostic value, since in
moment of examination at a relative
there may be remission, but
anamnestic indications are inaccurate,
moreover, there is no such
alternative sign, as different
type of inheritance in monogenic
diseases. Examination of relatives and
other persons in close contact with
child, to a greater extent
necessary when identifying
infectious or parasitic
dermatosis as for
confirmation of the diagnosis and for
prescribing effective
activities, but special
the need for examination of the mother
arises when you suspect
blennorrhea, syphilitic
pemphigus, diffuse infiltration
Gochsinger, osteochondritis,
coriza or others
lesions that may be
associated with diseases transmitted
sexually.Out of laboratory
to establish
diagnosis for suspicious
clinical picture are required
tests confirming candidiasis
or other fungal infections,
scabies, venereal diseases.
Pyoderma is usually diagnosed
clinically, but keep in mind
and other bacterial dermatoses.
For example, if impetigo with
adequate treatment does not heal in
during the week, it is necessary
carry out research for
exclusion of skin diphtheria. Pathological
skin examination is carried out in
exceptional cases, it
indicated for tumors, sarcoidosis,
lymphomas, spikelist
ichthyosis Kurt-McLean,
for differential diagnosis
nosological forms of bullous
Simple can be performed cytological
analysis of
smear-prints with
erosion and the bottom of the bubble. In children with
content incontinence
bubble is detected 50%
eosinophils. There are few other indications
since dermatitis herpetiformis with
early debut at the end of the first year
life is extremely rare, and
juvenile pemphigoid
and Hailey-Hailey familial pemphigus
develop later. Can identify
differences between staphylococcal
scalded skin syndrome and
Lyell’s syndrome: at the first
bubbles appear in the granular layer
epidermis, with the second – in
basal layer, although the diagnosis
usually based on
clinical picture.Should
emphasize the importance of X-ray
long tubular
bones in the first 3 months of life, when
osteochondritis can be detected,
relating (at 11-111 degrees) to
reliable evidence of early
congenital syphilis, which is especially
significant when others of his
signs – visceral lesions,
even multiple foci of diffuse
skin infiltration –
misinterpreted and not
serological tests were done.
Bone x-rays should be
assign on appearance
clinical signs of mastocytosis
or Abt-Letterterer-Siwe disease
to establish the shape or
the prevalence of lesions.Important diagnostic value
has an x-ray of the jaws with
suspected Christ’s syndrome –

4. Especially dangerous dermatoses or their
episodes in newborns and

Infections Epidemic
pemphigus of newborn
burned syndrome
skin (exfoliative dermatitis
newborn ritter background
chronic candidiasis
Kaposi’s eczema
acrodermatitis (syndrome
diseases and toxic reactions
Lyell’s toxic
epidermal necrolysis
phagocytosis defect
(desquamative erythroderma
erytoderma any
etiology (toxic,
Hill’s erytoderma
monogenic dermatoses with
inflammatory, bullous,
keratotic lesions
unknown etiology
systemic (skin-visceral)

Practically listed
the range of basic
research required for
establishing nosological
diagnosis.However, to assess the severity
state, presence of background
violations and intercurrent
diseases require a number
laboratory analyzes,

the minimum list of which
is given in table. 1.
For additional
research includes
some etiologically significant
activities (biopsy study
skin, special analyzes for
secondary dermopathies)
due to
rare need or
inaccessibility in conditions
dermatovenerologic hospital
or clinics. Should be drawn
attention to the need for frequent
repetition of urine tests with
microbial dermatoses and atopic
dermatitis due to hazard
development of acute pi-fired
nephritis and membrane-destructive
processes, immunogram control
when conducting
immunocorrective therapy,
determination of peptide molecules
average weight and other indicators
endogenous intoxication in children with
complicated atopic
dermatitis and other severe
dermatoses.High level
endotoxicosis is also reflected in
mesenchymal, hepatic and
paracoagulation tests,
protein and hemogram. Can
research is urgently needed
blood sugar during treatment
glucocorticosteroid patients
severe dermatoses, possible
hypoglycemia and hypothalamic
deficiency in
seriously ill children, including those with
early congenital syphilis.

5. Diseases with bullous eruptions.

and intoxication
dermatoses and diseases
unknown etiology
ichthyosiform erythroderma
burnt skin syndrome
erythropoietic porphyria

and other options)

epidermolysis bullosa
drug rash
forms of mastocytosis


on this issue can help in
diagnosis of dermatoses in
newborns and babies
age.It is customary to talk about
atypicality of rashes in children
first year with psoriasis,
atonic dermatitis, scabies,
mycoses, etc. In reality
they seem atypical only
a doctor accustomed to adults
patients. More pronounced
exudative component of lesions,
small pouring elements,
localization features,
due to the properties of the skin in
this age and endogenous
factors – this is typical for
small patients, as well as
age dynamics of the picture
disease and nosological profile
pathology.Great diagnostic
age at the moment matters
the onset of the disease and the appearance
age-related symptoms. Not
just the beginning, but also
duration, as well as in general
possibility of occurrence
some dermatoses are limited
certain terms. For example,
Leiner’s disease and infant
seborrheic dermatitis are observed
only in the first quarter of the year,
whereas the beginning of the atonic
dermatitis is more common in
age 3 months At birth on the skin
there can only be manifestations like this
called congenital diseases,
which begin to form in
period of intrauterine development.TO
these include some
genodermatosis and rare cases
transplacentally obtained
infections. Other diseases
appear later, after a few
hours, days, weeks, and sometimes during
the second half or at the end of the first
years of life. It is customary to share
pathology and special conditions
neonatal period. Row
listed in table. 2 changes observed
only at this time, sometimes during
just a few days (toxic
erythema) or weeks (scleradema,
skle-rema), others are allowed
longer (adiponecrod,
te-leangiectasias), the third will
last a lifetime
(genodermatoses), infectious,
irritative, traumatic
defeats can occur in
any age, but often at another
At the 1st – 2nd week of life,
newborn start
manifestations of a hormonal crisis (Table 3), which can
continue up to 3 months until
metabolites are eliminated
fetoplacental hormones.
With proper care and elimination
baby and nursing mother medication
and products, the metabolism of which
associated with a glucuronidation reaction
(sulfa-nylamide preparations,
chloral hydrate, caffeine, alcohol),
manifestations of a hormonal crisis
gradually disappear without treatment.
Sometimes complications arise in
mostly associated with inadequate
therapeutic effects and rejection
from bathing a child that
promotes the development of microbial
skin lesions.At the end of the 1st month
many children have manifestations
infant seborrheic
dermatitis on skin areas with
increased sebum secretion, in
primarily on the head in the area
gneiss, behind and in front of them, on
brow ridges, where the background
erythema visible accumulations of fatty
yellow scales.
Erythema-squamous foci
may also appear in the groin,
femoral folds, on the neck. FROM
the end of the hormonal crisis all
seborrheic manifestations disappear, but
microbial complications.
In newborns and young children
infancy are not uncommon
defeats named
staphylococcal and candidal
flora colonizing coverslips
tissues not yet populated with protective
flora. They are especially dangerous when
lack of immunity and
the presence of an entrance gate, first of all
infected umbilical wound. Have
newborns often have
yeast stomatitis, sometimes
intertriginous candidiasis of folds,
smooth skin candidiasis,
pseudopustular dermatitis
torso, candidal
vulvova-ginitis, balanoposthitis.Sweat ducts often
become infected with staphylococcal
flora, periporite arises
(vesiculopustulosis), why
promote hyperhidrosis
newborns and prickly heat,
overheating, poor care. When
deeper sweat inflammation
glands develop multiple
abscesses (pseudofurunculosis), they
rarely appear in neonatal
period and more typical for children 3
– 7 months Specific form
staphyloderma in neonatal
period is epidemic
pemphigus of newborns,
arising on the 3rd – 5th day after
birth or in the first 2 weeks as
multiple conflicts leaving
erosion with scraps of beh tires
crusts.Unlike syphilitic
pemphigus, which can
appear at the same time
mostly on the palms and
soles, pyococcal pemphigoid
newborns are mainly affected
the skin of the torso and very rarely the palms
and soles. Less common at an early age
streptococcal infection in the form
spread mainly from
navel and leaking heavily, or in
papular-erosive form
streptoderma (syphilis-like
papular impetigo). Similarity with
syphilitic eruptions
see the emergence of large
dense papules, which, however,
after opening on their surface
conflict eroded faster and
surrounded by a rim of the exfoliated
epithelium, and most importantly – not
accompanied by other
clinical and laboratory
signs of syphilis.Insofar as
papular-erosive streptoderma
affects the skin of the buttocks and adjacent
sites, many identify it with
diaper dermatitis.
Others consider diaper dermatitis
and diaper rash traumatic
defeat, which is often
becomes infected with streptococcal,
candidiasis and other flora
(streptococcal and candidal
diaper rash). A characteristic feature
diaper dermatitis is
smell of ammonia (ammonia dermatitis).
Newborn diaper
dermatitis is rare, most
often found at 2 months
age, although it can be observed in
children from 2 weeks to 8-9 months and be treated
to typical diseases of the chest
age.With diaper and seborrheic
dermatitis is often combined
perianal dermatitis, which
may occur in the first days of life
or from the 2nd week and, according to
literature data, continues 7
– 8 weeks (however, we observed him and
later, even in children over 1 year old,
suffering from atopic dermatitis
and intestinal dysbiosis).
In the second half of the first year
lives are more often observed
other forms of streptoderma:
bullous and periungual
impetigo, interginous
streptoderma in behind the ear and others
folds later
streptoderma, and in weakened
sick children with poor care –
diseases, most often
contagious mollusk, less often –
herpes infections. All kinds
microbial skin lesions can
complicate the course of atopic
dermatitis, the most common
diseases of the second half
first year of life. Allergic
dermatitis is rare, but
simple contact
dermatitis arising in
irritating effect
care products containing
detergents and disinfectants, saliva,
diapers. More visible
skin lesions become after
insolation in patients with pigmented
xeroderma, erythropoietic
porphyria, congenital
telangiectatic erythema with
nanism (Blum’s syndrome).
poikiloderm and
telangiectatic syndromes and
fakomato-zy, hereditary
palmar-plantar kerato-dermis,
atrophying hair keratosis,
which is often mistaken for
“diathesis”, rod dystrophy
hair, congenital pachyonychia,
variable erythrokeratoderma.
When the baby starts to crawl and
stand, appear for the first time or
cystic lesions intensify with
some epidermolytic
types of epidermolysis bullosa. In
second half of the first year more
damage with bullous
epidermolysis (mi-lium-like
epidermal cysts, scars,
changes in nails), the presence or
the intensity of which allows with
certain credibility
differentiate it
numerous nosological
forms (more than 20 diseases).When
some diseases during the year
age dependent signs and
stage of development of clinical
For Bloch-Suliberger syndrome
linear bullous lesions,
occurring in the first days and weeks
against the background of erythematous and urticarial
exanthema, already in the first months
are replaced by hypertrophic
stage with warty and
lichenoid rashes, and after 6
months symptoms are formed
pigment and atrophic stages.
Between the 6th and 7th month becomes
pathognomonic picture
herpetiformis bullous
Dowling’s epidermolysis – Measure, often
emerging, but rarely
recognizable nosological
forms.In the early days of
newborn are found
blisters on fingers and toes, then
on the palms and soles, from the 2nd month
– outbreaks of vesicle rash on the face
and in the submandibular region, between the 2nd and
The 6th month marks the appearance of
bubbles are somewhat proxy
palms and soles, and after 6 months,
spreading to the skin
limbs, bubbles form
distinct herpetiform
grouping with a central
healing, which is important
differential diagnostic
a sign that is very striking and in
subsequent years when
a herpetiform rash appears and
on the torso.
High diagnostic value
age-related symptoms and
appearance dynamics and frequency
different groups of diseases due to
the fact that they not only complement
picture of disease and number
positively accounted for
signs, but can also play a role
negative signs,
reliably exclude one or
other suspected diagnosis.


Always needed
remember that breastfeeding children
age, severe
skin diseases, sometimes with
lightning dynamics, forecast
which for life at
untimely medical
aid is rendered uncertain.
They are associated with infection or
intoxication, unusual reaction
organism, immune disorders
or genetic defects.
The most famous and significant
diseases are presented in table. 4.
Skleredema and sclerema,
developing in the 1st week of life,
sometimes from the 2nd – 3rd day, and
manifested by subcutaneous edema
fiber, have some
similarity, but their forecast
different. Sclere deme
considered as cold
trauma of newborns on the background of a row
disorders and diseases of the child
or mother, among the complex
treatment interventions important
is rewarming.Sklerema,
developing in premature babies,
weakened, emaciated and
dehydrated children can cause
to death, in her treatment
glucocorticosteroid hormones and
symptomatic remedies.
Pyococcal pemphigoid and erysipelas
occur in newborns especially
hard against the background of omphalitis, umbilical
sepsis. Malignant variant
pemphigoid was considered exfoliative
dermatitis of newborns, described
Ritter in 1878. Now his
identified with staphylococcal
burned skin syndrome, which
may occur in older
age, but in newborns at the 1st
week of life is especially
hard, accompanied by a high
temperature and intoxication.Starting with cracks and redness
skin around the navel and mouth, sudden
rashes of large superficial
bubbles, defeat in a few
hours takes on character
generalized hyperemia with
swelling, erosion, exfoliation
the epidermis, resembling a burn, with
positive symptom
Nikolsky. The reason for this acute
toxic skin lesions
associated with exposure
epidermis-molysins secreted
Staphylococcus aureus II
phage group, and the presence of an active
focal infection in the upper
parts of the respiratory tract or
in other organs.Skin lesions
quickly stopped by systemic
the introduction of antibiotics. Disease
Leiner starts after
3 weeks of age, leaking
sharp and hard, manifesting
widespread erythema and
desquamation, diarrhea, severe
hypotrophy. The cause of the disease
consider an innate immune
failure accompanied by
decreased opsonic activity
anti yeast serum
fungi, impaired phagocytosis,
deficiency of component 5 complement.
In the analysis of feces in patients
detect staphylococci,
gram-negative flora,
yeast-like mushrooms.After the 3rd
months of life this disease is not
meets. Toxic
epi-dermal necrolysis and
Stevens-Johnson syndrome
observed at any age, but, at
difference from staphylococcal
scalded skin syndrome, in children
the first year of life are less often than
in adults, although cases have been described
Lyell’s syndrome even in
newborns. It can develop
already in 2 days
after taking the medication that caused
specific autoimmune
reaction against epidermal cells, although
average terms are around 2
week The danger and the severity of this
diseases are associated not only with
internal multisystem
defeat, widespread involvement
mucous membranes (with
staphylococcal syndrome
burnt skin, they are not affected), but
and with the possibility of sepsis, since
erosion is populated with golden
staphylococcus and gram-negative
Tend to get complicated
secondary infection and others
bullous diseases, while
there is a risk of pyogenic lesions
kidney or other organs, however
frequency and severity of complications
are different. To evaluate the forecast and
early onset of adequate
activities must have
clear understanding of
diseases listed in Table 5.


nosological recognition
skin diseases in newborns and
infants need
carry out in the shortest
terms.This opportunity
provides visual
organ availability subject to
professional execution
clinical and morphological analysis
pouring elements, correct
age-dependent assessment
symptomatology specific
differential diagnosis in
within the nosological profile
each age segment,
knowledge of age evolutionary
dynamics of skin pathology.


1. F. Zverkova.
Diseases of the skin of early children
age. St. Petersburg. – Sothis.-1994 – 235 p.
2. K.N. Suvorov, A.A.
Antoniev, N.P. Kuznetsova, I.O. Malova.
Skin and venereal diseases in
children. . Irkutsk, – Publishing house of Irkutsk
university. -1995.
3. Yu.K. Skripkin, G. Ya.
Sharapova. Dermal and venereal
disease. – M .: – Medicine. -1972.
4. Yu.K. Skripkin, F.A.
Zverkova, G. Ya. Sharapova, A.A.
Studnitsin. Nursery Guide
dermatovenerology. – BUT.; Medicine.-

Features of the skin in children: its functions, physiological characteristics

Diaper rash

Diaper rash is a common problem in a newborn baby.They are areas of inflammation caused by friction and contact with moisture, and therefore appear in the skin folds (groin, gluteal, axillary) and behind the ears. Mild diaper rash does not affect the general condition of the baby and go away with proper skin care and the use of special medications-ointments containing components that stimulate natural healing and form a breathable protective layer on the skin. Without treatment, infectious complications of diaper rash caused by bacteria or fungi of the genus Candida are possible.They are difficult: itching, ulcers, pustules appear, the child’s well-being worsens – he sleeps badly, is capricious.

Prickly heat

Miliaria is a small, non-purulent rash, sometimes small blisters that arise due to defects in care, most often in folds and places of friction, and sometimes throughout the body. Miliaria is accompanied by itching, but does not affect the overall well-being of the child and goes away with proper care.


Urticaria is an allergic skin reaction with redness, swelling, sometimes blisters.Changes appear on the body, face, limbs, elements of the rash can merge, especially in the skin folds and places of friction with tissue. Urticaria in babies is usually acute, it appears quickly, and symptoms rapidly increase and disappear with the use of antiallergic drugs. There are no marks on the skin after urticaria.


Neonatal acne is acne that occurs in the first 3 weeks after birth. Its cause is hormonal changes associated with an excess in the mother’s body before childbirth of testosterone or corticosteroids produced by the adrenal glands.Acne does not require treatment and goes away on its own in a maximum of 2 weeks, more often within a few days.

Epidermolysis bullosa

Congenital epidermolysis bullosa is a hereditary disease associated with a defect in certain skin proteins. The main symptom is the appearance of bubbles in the place of minor mechanical impact.


Pyoderma is the name of all purulent skin diseases. In newborns, they are more likely to be associated with Staphylococcus aureus, but other microbes are also the cause.Pyoderma in children of the first months is due to the weak protective properties of the skin, aggravates the situation of alkaline pH and the slight appearance of microdamages. Inflammation develops around the hair follicles: an area of ​​redness and thickening of the skin appears, soon it turns into a bubble with transparent contents, which later becomes cloudy purulent. After 2-3 days, a dry crust forms, under which healing gradually occurs.


In newborns with malnutrition (dystrophy) or severe diseases, that is, with severe immunity deficiency, pseudofurunculosis or multiple abscesses of newborns is possible.On the back of the body, legs, on the back of the head, large subcutaneous nodules with purulent contents are formed. Antibiotics are needed to treat pseudofurunculosis, and sometimes surgery is required.
Each disease is treated differently, which is why it is so important to make the right diagnosis and find the right drugs.