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Skin peeling off roof of mouth: Why is the inside of your mouth peeling?

Why is the inside of your mouth peeling?

Quite a common symptom of many conditions, peeling in the mouth can be a painful and inconvenient experience. Peeling inside of the mouth, on the roof and back of the throat, as well as the skin in the inner lips can be indicative of an auto-immune condition, a nutrient deficiency, bad eating habits and even an allergic reaction.

Others have experienced peeling of the skin inside the mouth after taking certain oral medications.

Which auto-immune diseases can cause this?

The phrase ‘auto-immune’ describes the condition where the body’s immune system attacks its own host, i.e. your own body. It can mistake part of your body, like your joints or skin, as foreign. It releases proteins called autoantibodies that attack healthy cells, explains Health Line.

Auto-immune diseases that can cause peeling skin inside of the mouth are Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (also referred to as DLE, Rheumatic Skin Disease, and Oral Lichen Planus. All these diseases are known to cause oral lesions.


Malnutrition happens when humans do not consume enough healthy, nutrient dense food. We all have a daily recommended allowance for the vitamins, minerals and calories we take. If we consistently fall short of these needed nutrients, we run the risk of becoming malnourished, which can be devastating to one’s health.

According to the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: “Malnutrition may alter the homeostasis, which can lead to disease progression of the oral cavity, reduce the resistance to the microbial biofilm and reduce the capacity of tissue healing. It may even affect the development of the oral cavity.”


Mouth sores and oral skin peeling can also be a result of poor dental hygiene. The mouth is wet and warm enough to be the perfect breeding ground for germs. Make a habit of brushing, flossing and rinsing your mouth with warm salt water three or four times a day, preferably a few minutes after meals.

Questions to Ask If You Find Loose Skin in Your Mouth

When you notice that some skin appears to be peeling off inside your mouth, you may wonder if it’s a big deal or not.

If the damage doesn’t have a simple cause, such as a burn from hot coffee, you may have to go into detective mode to gather information about the situation. Additional information can help you and your dentist get to the bottom of the issue. Here are some questions to ask yourself if you notice loose, shedding, or peeling skin in your mouth.

1. Does the Problem Coincide With a New Oral Health Product?

Some dental patients show visible reactions to some ingredient in an oral health product. If you’ve recently started using a new toothpaste, mouthwash, or even dental floss, consider switching back to your previous routine for a couple of weeks to see if the problem clears up.

Be sure you consult your dentist before making any changes in your dental health routine though. And if you suspect you’re currently experiencing an allergic reaction, don’t take it lightly; some allergies can be life-threatening, so be sure to seek medical help right away.

2. Do You Have Food Allergies?

Your oral health products aren’t the only thing you could be sensitive to. Another possible cause of a reaction in the mouth could be an allergy to food you ate. If you have known allergies, the problem could coincide with an allergic reaction. Or, you may have allergies that you don’t know about yet.

If your dentist can’t find any other reason for the peeling skin in your mouth, consider asking about allergy testing.

3. Are You at Risk for Thrush?

A Candida yeast overgrowth can sometimes result in oral thrush. The typical symptom is white patches, which could look like peeling, loose skin, especially on your tongue. Yeast can also make lips and skin at the corners of your mouth peel and crack. If this sounds at all similar to what you’re experiencing, be sure to go to your dentist for a diagnosis and treatment. Oral thrush can be simple to treat.

You’re more likely to get oral thrush if you have a pre-existing condition such as diabetes or if you’ve recently taken antibiotics. If this doesn’t apply to you and you still end up with oral thrush, talk to your doctor about getting some tests done to see if you have any immune system problems.

4. Do You Have Additional Symptoms?

If your skin isn’t just peeling but also hurts and looks different than it used to, you should definitely see your dentist. Oral thrush isn’t the only option that could cause white spots on the inside of your mouth; alternatively, you could be developing a condition such as oral lichen planus.

Oral lichen planus, unlike candida, is a chronic condition that affects the skin inside your mouth. This condition requires a skin biopsy for diagnosis. The condition often comes with symptoms such as swelling, pain, lacy-looking dots or lines, and blisters. Peeling doesn’t always occur, but it can be a symptom of this condition.

5. Do You Bite Your Cheeks?

Some people may chew on the insides of their lips or even cheeks and damage the skin, either inadvertently or consciously. This habit could be due to bruxism, a condition where you grind your teeth in your sleep. Or the habit could be considered a body-focused repetitive disorder if it occurs while awake.

As you may know, once you’ve developed a habit, stopping can be difficult. Talk to your dentist about treatments for bruxism if you suspect you bite your cheeks at night or treatments for the habit of biting your cheeks during the day if you do so consciously. Since stress can be a trigger, try to lower your stress levels as well if possible.

As you can see, a problem with peeling or loose skin in your mouth can result from a variety of problems. So if you do experience an unusual amount of peeling skin inside your mouth or any other concerning symptom with your mouth or tongue skin, be sure to consult your dentist. Contact the office of Scott W. Murphy Dentistry
today to schedule an appointment.

Leukoplakia Patches: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

What Is Leukoplakia?

Leukoplakia is a white or gray patch that shows up on your tongue, the inside of your cheek, or on the floor of your mouth. It’s the mouth’s reaction to ongoing (chronic) irritation of the mucous membranes of the mouth. Leukoplakia patches can also develop on the female genital area; however, the cause of this is unknown.

Leukoplakia patches can occur at any time in your life, but it is most common in senior adults.

“Hairy” leukoplakia of the mouth is an unusual form of leukoplakia (caused by the Epstein-Barr virus) that only happens in people who are infected with HIV, have AIDS, or AIDS-related complex. White, fuzzy patches show up on the tongue and sometimes elsewhere in the mouth. It can look like thrush, an infection caused by the fungus Candida which, in adults, usually happens if your immune system is not isn’t working the way it should.

Leukoplakia Symptoms

Leukoplakia patches on your tongue, gums, roof of your mouth, or the inside of the cheeks of your mouth may be:

  • White or gray in color
  • Thick or slightly raised
  • Hardened and rough in texture

These patches may develop and change slowly over weeks to months. They’re usually painless, but they may be sensitive to touch, heat, spicy foods, or other irritation.

Leukoplakia Causes

Causes of leukoplakia include:

Leukoplakia Diagnosis

See your dentist or doctor if you have:

  • White patches or sores that don’t go away in 2 weeks
  • Lumps or white, red, or darkened patches
  • Changing mouth tissue
  • Ear pain when you swallow
  • Trouble opening your jaw

Your dentist may suspect leukoplakia upon examination; but they may take a biopsy to rule out other causes, including oral cancer. During the biopsy, a small piece of tissue from the area will be removed to be examined in a lab. You’ll be given something to numb the area so you won’t feel any pain.

Leukoplakia Treatment

Treatment for leukoplakia, if needed, involves removing the source of irritation. For example, if leukoplakia is caused by a rough tooth or an irregular surface on a denture or a filling, the tooth will be smoothed and dental appliances repaired. If leukoplakia is caused by smoking, you’ll be encouraged to minimize or stop smoking or using other tobacco products.

Leukoplakia is usually harmless, and lesions usually clear in a few weeks or months after the source of irritation is removed. If eliminating the source of irritation is ineffective in reducing leukoplakia, the lesion may need to be surgically removed. The lesion can be removed either by your general dentist or by an oral surgeon.

Hairy leukoplakia needs treatment with an antiviral medication.

Leukoplakia Prevention

The best way to prevent leukoplakia is to avoid the things that may cause it. Try these lifestyle changes:

  • Stop smoking or using tobacco in other ways.
  • Limit your alcohol.
  • Eat a healthy diet with lots of fruits and vegetables.
  • Vitamin A and beta-carotene supplements may help.

White Film in Your Mouth? Your Dentist in Lincoln Has Answers

You wake up with an all too familiar feeling in your mouth. You quickly walk to the bathroom and look in the mirror. It is coated with a white, sticky film just like it is every morning.

You start brushing your teeth to get the taste out of your mouth. In word, it’s disgusting, and you want it to stop happening. What is it? What is causing this to happen? More importantly, how can you stop it? Your dentist in Lincoln at Williamsburg Dental can tell you everything you need to know to prevent this from happening again.

What Is It?

The white film in your mouth is a condition known as oral thrush. It is an infection caused by the candida fungus, which is a naturally occurring yeast in your body. Usually, this fungus is kept under control by other bacteria, but sometimes mitigating factors can lead it to grow out of control. Some common causes of oral thrush are:

  • Lack of oral hygiene
  • Stress
  • HIV
  • Cancer
  • Diabetes
  • Dry Mouth
  • Hormonal changes from pregnancy

Basically, a change in your immune system can allow the yeast to grow. Your mouth, being a dark and damp environment, provides the ideal conditions for it. The fungus can often spread to the other parts of the body in cancer and HIV patients if it is not treated quickly. Fortunately, your Lincoln dentist at Williamsburg Dental can help you diagnose and treat your oral thrush.

How To Stop It

The simplest way you can prevent oral thrush is by brushing and flossing consistently. This will help clean your mouth and make it harder for the fungus to thrive. It is also important for you to have regular check-ups with your dentist so that they can professionally clean your mouth and treat any underlying causes that could lead you to have oral thrush. They may also prescribe you an antifungal medication to treat it further.

Be sure to treat any chronic health issues you might be experiencing. If you are suffering from HIV, cancer, or diabetes, following your recommended treatment regimen can prevent oral thrush.

Some other every day tips that may help is to limit the use of antibacterial mouthwashes or sprays. If you use them more than twice a day or keep them in your mouth for too long, they can upset the natural balance of bacteria in your mouth. If you are currently experiencing oral thrush, try to limit foods that contain sugar or yeast, such as bread, beer, or wine.

Have More Questions?

Oral thrush may be very uncomfortable and unpleasant, but it is very treatable with your dentist in Lincoln at Williamsburg Dental. If you are consistently experiencing oral thrush, please make an appointment with us today. We can help make your next morning one that you can look forward to.


Dry mouth – Better Health Channel

About 10% of the general population and 25% of older people experience dry mouth (not enough saliva in the mouth). A dry mouth is a symptom of an underlying problem, rather than a condition in itself.

A number of things may cause a persistently dry mouth, including prescription medications, medical treatments and certain autoimmune diseases such as Sjogren’s syndrome.

Treatment includes products that help to moisten the mouth. The feeling of a dry mouth is also called xerostomia.

Salivary glands

The salivary glands are located around the mouth and throat. These glands make saliva which is pumped into the mouth along tiny channels called salivary ducts. The salivary glands include: 

  • Parotid – located in the cheek between the front of the ear and the last tooth.
  • Submandibular – located beneath the tongue on both sides of the jaw (mandible).
  • Sublingual – located in the floor of the mouth.
  • Minor salivary glands – found in various locations around the mouth, including the inner cheeks and throat.

A steady flow of saliva keeps the mouth moist at all times. Chewing and swallowing food increases the flow of saliva. Simply looking at and thinking about appetising food can also cause an increased saliva flow.

Protective role of saliva

A dry mouth significantly increases the risk of tooth decay and other oral diseases. Having enough saliva keeps your mouth healthy as it: 

  • has components that can directly attack the bacteria that cause decay
  • has anti-fungal properties
  • helps to destroy viruses
  • neutralises the harmful acids produced by bacteria in plaque
  • contains calcium and phosphate which are important for preventing and healing damage caused by tooth decay
  • moistens food which allows you to swallow comfortably
  • helps with the formation of particular sounds when you speak
  • boosts sensation inside the mouth and allows the experience of food texture, taste and also pain if something is wrong.

Symptoms of dry mouth

Dry mouth symptoms may include: 

  • saliva that feels thick or stringy
  • a rough, dry tongue
  • the tongue tending to stick against the roof of the mouth
  • problems with chewing or swallowing (particularly dry foods such as biscuits)
  • bad breath
  • mouth ulcers
  • dry and cracked lips
  • susceptibility to oral thrush infections
  • a high rate of tooth decay
  • a prickly, burning sensation in the mouth 
  • loose acrylic (non-metal) dentures as saliva helps to create the suction between the gum tissues and the acrylic base of the denture.

Related symptoms in the rest of the body

Depending on the cause, dry mouth may relate to symptoms outside the mouth, including: 

  • dry and itchy eyes
  • dry nose or throat
  • frequent coughing
  • reduced sense of smell
  • constipation
  • joint pains or stiffness
  • generally feeling unwell
  • unexplained weight loss
  • in women, frequent vaginal thrush infections.

Speak to your doctor if you’re experiencing some of these issues so that they can look into what might be causing them.

Dry mouth and tooth decay

Poor oral hygiene (not brushing and flossing your teeth every day) and a sugary diet tend to cause tooth decay on the biting surfaces and in between teeth. People with dry mouth are more likely to get tooth decay, and may also get decay along the gum line (tooth root surface). 

Unlike enamel (the outer tooth layer), dentine (the inner tooth layer) is less resistance to acids and can decay quickly, especially without enough saliva to protect it. People with dry mouth may also develop decay on the lower front teeth, which are normally well protected by saliva produced from beneath the tongue. 

While people with dry mouth are more prone to decay, it is still preventable with the right diet and lifestyle. Thorough teeth cleaning with a suitable fluoride toothpaste is extremely important.

Causes of dry mouth

Many different conditions, some short term and others long term, can disrupt the production of saliva. These conditions may include: 

  • Drugs and medications – about 600 drugs and medications, both legal and illegal, are known to cause dry mouth. These include antihistamines, high blood pressure medications, sedatives, decongestants, analgesics (pain relief), antidepressants and illegal drugs such as cocaine.
  • Infection – a bacterial or viral infection of the salivary glands (such as mumps) can cause inflammation and restrict saliva production.
  • Sjogren’s syndrome – is a common autoimmune disease that mainly affects the eyes and salivary glands, but can also affect the sweat glands.
  • Salivary duct blockages – for example, tiny stones made from saliva minerals may lodge in the salivary ducts and restrict saliva flow.
  • Certain medical conditions – including AIDS, amyloidosis, cerebral palsy, diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, primary biliary cirrhosis and lupus.
  • Nerve problems – the function of the salivary glands is controlled by facial nerves. Injury, illness or surgical damage to these nerves, for example, may reduce saliva production.
  • Some cancer treatments – such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy (if directed at the head or neck), may temporarily reduce the ability of salivary glands to make saliva.
  • Other causes – including mostly breathing through the mouth, for example, in the case of a persistently stuffy nose or blocked sinuses, or hormone changes from pregnancy or menopause.
  • Dehydration – not drinking enough fluid can cause thick saliva and a dry mouth. Other causes of dehydration include medical conditions such as blood loss, chronic diarrhoea or kidney failure.

Diagnosis of dry mouth

Diagnosis of dry mouth may include: 

  • Examination of the mouth and teeth – the inner cheeks appear dry and rough, rather than moist and shiny. Your dentist may check the pattern of tooth decay.
  • Saliva tests – for example, a typical saliva test involves rolling out the lower lip and patting it dry. Normally, saliva should re-moisten the lower lip within half a minute or so.
  • Reviewing medical history – to check for conditions or medicines that could be drying out your mouth.
  • Reviewing your symptoms.

Treatment of dry mouth

Treatment depends on the cause, but may include: 

  • Changes to medicines – if you are taking a medicine that causes dry mouth as a side effect, the doctor who prescribed it may be able to change the dose or prescribe something different.
  • Saliva substitutes – your doctor or dentist can prescribe an artificial saliva substitute. Use strictly as directed.
  • Dry mouth products – these products contain ingredients such as lubricants that may help treat your dry mouth. The product range includes toothpaste, mouthwash, gums and topical gels. Speak to your dentist for recommendations.
  • Dental products – these products may contain high fluoride or calcium to help prevent tooth decay. Speak to your dentist for recommendations.
  • Antibiotics and anti-fungal drugs – may be used to treat an infection.
  • Surgery – salivary gland blockages, such as stones, are usually treated with minor surgery.
  • Other treatments, if required – any underlying condition, such as Sjogren’s syndrome or diabetes, needs appropriate medical treatment.

Tips for living with dry mouth

Be guided by your doctor and dentist, but general suggestions for your diet include: 

  • Avoid any substance that increases mouth dryness. These include cigarettes, alcohol, caffeinated drinks and spicy foods.
  • Eat chewy foods to stimulate the flow of saliva.
  • Chew food thoroughly before swallowing.
  • Include watery foods in your daily diet. 
  • Avoid crunchy foods that could injure the mouth, such as crackers or potato crisps.
  • Avoid sugary foods and drinks.
  • Avoid acidic foods and beverages, such as soft drinks, energy drinks, sports drinks, cordials, citrus fruits and fruit juices. These drinks are damaging to enamel and may also be high in sugar.
  • Avoid lollies (especially fruit-flavoured and sour lollies) and alcohol-containing mouthwashes, as these products tend to aggravate dry mouth tissue.
  • Chew sugar-free gum between meals to promote the flow of saliva.
  • Drink plenty of water, but avoid sipping slowly as this can wash away any saliva. It may help to carry a drink bottle.
  • Ask your dentist for other dietary suggestions, including a complete list of foods and drinks to limit or avoid.

Self-care suggestions for dry mouth

Be guided by your doctor and dentist, but general self-care suggestions include: 

  • Brush your teeth at least twice a day and floss once a day.
  • Regularly use fluoride-containing products such as toothpaste. Ask your dentist about which ones are best for dry mouth.
  • Treat dry lips with Vaseline or some other type of greasy balm, such as lanolin.
  • An air humidifier used in your bedroom at night may help. 
  • Ask your dentist for more information if you wear dentures – adhesive dental products may be recommended.
  • Take out partial or full dentures while you sleep.
  • Visit your dentist every 6 to 12 months for check-ups, teeth cleaning and treatment if necessary.
  • Continue to take your medication, even if your medicine is to blame. Your doctor may not be able to change it or change the dose. Do not stop taking your medicine without speaking to your doctor.

Where to get help

Oral Concerns in People With Lupus

Dr. Freedman, whose expertise is related to diseases involving the mouth, including autoimmune processes, presented a lecture on the effects of lupus and oral health. He began by informing the audience that there are three major categories of lesions that occur in the oral cavity of people with lupus:

  • Direct Involvement of the Oral Cavity by Lesions of Lupus in the Mouth


    There are two types of these lesions:

    1. those that do not correlate with active disease (more frequent)
    2. those associated with active disease.

    Therefore, the direct involvement of the oral cavity by lesions of lupus in the mouth may indicate active disease. The only way to reliably distinguish whether or not an oral lesion is associated with active disease is by means of a biopsy.

    Oral lesions not associated with active disease occur in up to 40% of people with lupus and are usually a result of a reaction to a drug being used to treat lupus or another condition. They have a non-characteristic coloring of red or white – or both red and white – and are painless.

    Oral lesions associated with active disease are usually red ulcers surrounded by a white halo and white radiating lines. These are the more typical “discoid” lesions and are only seen in people with active disease, and you should tell your physician as soon as you notice them. These types of lesions, which may or may not be painful, most often occur inside the cheeks, on the hard palate (roof of the mouth), and on the lower lip.

    It is essential that you see your dentist and have an oral soft tissue exam regularly. This type of exam takes no longer than three minutes, and you should insist on receiving it during your routine cleaning. This way, your dentist can check for any lesions you may not even be aware you have (particularly if they are painless). Because the only way to reliably determine the true nature of oral lesions is to examine them under a microscope, you should—as mentioned earlier—get biopsies done for any lesions that your dentist may find.

    Oral lesions may respond to treatment with topical or intralesional steroids, but antimalarial drugs may be necessary to treat resistant lesions. The control of active systemic disease will usually aid in the control of oral lesions, as well.

  • Sjogren’s Syndrome (SS)


    Sjogren’s Syndrome is a chronic, systemic autoimmune disease that targets the salivary glands (in the mouth) and lacrimal glands (in the eye). The involvement of these two glands results in dry mouth and dry eyes (sicca complex). There are two forms of SS:

    1. the primary disease, which occurs when you experience dry eyes and a dry mouth
    2. the secondary disease, which occurs when you experience dry eyes, a dry mouth, and another associated autoimmune disease.

    People who have both lupus and SS tend to exhibit fewer systemic manifestations, particularly kidney involvement.

    SS occurs in approximately 1-3% of the general population, but 20-30% of people with lupus. It is a multifaceted syndrome that is difficult to diagnose, and as a result, SS commonly remains either undiagnosed or is diagnosed years after the onset of symptoms. Early recognition is pivotal to prevent this delay in diagnosis, enable appropriate evaluation, and optimize therapeutic intervention. SS may precede lupus by many years; however, it most often occurs late in the course of lupus.

    There are several laboratory findings that can detect SS:

    • Rheumatoid factor
    • Anti-nuclear antibodies
    • Hypergammaglobulinemia
    • Elevated ESR
    • Anti-Ro/ SSA and La/ SSB antibodies (60% of patients with SS)  (These are antinuclear antibodies, each of which are directed against a different component of the cellular RNA. They are very common in SS and SLE but are also found in other autoimmune diseases.)

    About one-third to one-half of people with SS will experience a painless enlargement of a major salivary gland, and this manifestation of the disease is usually bilateral (will occur on both sides). The destruction of the salivary glands by antibodies causes profound oral dryness (xerostomia), which is the most debilitating oral symptom. Loss of saliva results in the loss of the antibacterial and antifungal capacities of saliva. Saliva keeps the oral soft tissue moist and healthy, and buffers the oral environment, helping to neutralize acids that cause dental caries (cavities). Destruction of the salivary glands inhibits that buffering effect. This causes multiple consequences for oral health, such as susceptibility to caries (decay) and oral fungal infections.

    A normal tongue is covered by numerous tiny bumps (papillae) – everyone has those – but be aware of any white, red, or otherwise discolored spots or lesions. Also, the incidence of a shiny, red tongue is abnormal. Another consequence of dry mouth is angular cheilitis, which is the occurrence of sores in the corners of your mouth. These sores are actually caused by a fungal infection and need to be treated with an anti-fungal medication (usually in the form of a topical cream). It is important to note that there can be several other causes of angular cheilitis, such as iron deficiency and over closure of the mouth due to the loss of teeth.

    There are several diagnostic tests used to detect SS in individuals.

    The presence of dry eyes can be determined by:

    • the Schermer test, which is an objective measurement of how many tears are produced
    • the Rose Bengal dye test, which is the administration of a dye on the conjunctiva (the mucous membrane lining the outside of the eye), to check for scarring

    To test for dry mouth you can:

    • measure simulated salivary flow rate (3cc or greater per five minutes is considered normal, and anything less usually indicates damage to salivary glands)
    • sialography, which consists of injecting a dye in your salivary gland followed by an x-ray that will show the appearance of a “branchless fruit tree” if there is destruction
    • take a biopsy of the salivary gland from the lower lip (Note: Dr. Freedman does not feel that the oral biopsy is always valid and does not suggest it for this purpose.)

    SS cannot be cured, nor can the damage it causes be reversed, but it can be controlled. Dryness is treated symptomatically with sugar-free sialogogues (salivation stimulators like sugar-free gum or sucking candy), artificial saliva, and systematic pilocarpine or cevimeline, which are used to stimulate salivary flow. Treatment with systematic pilocarpine or cevimeline can have several side effects including sweating, urinary frequency, flushing, and gastrointestinal cramps. Additionally, topical antifungals are used to treat candidiasis.

    Routine and preventative dental care and the use of fluoride treatments to prevent caries is crucial in people with SS; otherwise they may develop rampant decay requiring root canal therapy and crown placement on teeth. Patients who wear dentures may have difficulty keeping their dentures in place due to the poor suction caused by inadequate saliva.  Dentures should be cleaned with 2% chlorhexidine (Peridex) and should not be worn overnight in order to prevent fungal infection. People with SS should try to avoid drugs that dry your mouth – such as anti-histamines, anti-depressants, and decongestants – when possible.

  • Oral Effects of Medications Used in the Treatment of Lupus


    There are five common categories of drugs used to treat lupus:

    1. NSAIDs and COX2 inhibitors
    2. Antimalarial drugs—hydroxychloroquine or quinacrine
    3. Corticosteroids—prednisone
    4. Immunosuppressive drugs—azathioprine (Imuran), methotrexate, cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan), cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetal (cellcept)
    5. Rituximab (rituxan)

    Each of these treatments has the potential to cause oral complications; therefore, such problems should not automatically be assumed to be a direct result of lupus. There are three main categories of reactions to drugs:

    1. changes in pigment of the lining of the mouth
    2. drug reaction to medication
    3. opportunistic oral infection (affecting persons with a compromised immune system) secondary to effect of immunosuppressive medications

    Alteration in pigmentation of the lining of the mouth is a common side effect of antimalarial drugs. It manifests itself as an increase in pigmentation, and its most commonly occurs on the palate.

    The following drugs most commonly cause oral reaction: NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors, antimalarial drugs, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, cholesterol lowering agents, rituximab, and cyclosporine. These reactions to medication can be classified in four categories:

    Erythema multiforme (also known as “Stevens-Johnson Syndrome”) can occur as a reaction to any of the drugs listed above. This is a serious drug reaction, and experienced in a full-blown state can even be life-threatening. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome is an explosive disease, which can develop overnight. It reveals itself as crusting of the lips (usually symmetrical) and as painful ulcerations of the gums, lips, cheeks, tongue. Swollen glands, fever, and genital lesions may also occur. You should contact a doctor as soon as you realize you are having this reaction, or go straight to the emergency room.

    Lichenoid drug reactions can be caused by NSAIDS, COX2-inhibitors, antimalarial drugs, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, or cholesterol lowering agents.

    Drug induced gingival hyperplasia can be caused by cyclosporine and calcium channel blockers. Angioedema of the lip can be a secondary reaction to ACE-inhibitors. ACE-inhibitors are used to treat hypertension. This reaction can also be a result of anti-seizure medications and immune-suppressants. It is important to note that you are more susceptible to gingival hyperplasia when your mouth is not clean; therefore, it is very important to have good oral hygiene.

    Tongue swelling and lip swelling (angioedema) can be caused by rituximab and ACE- inhibitors. Swelling of the tongue is dangerous because it can compromise the airway, whereas swelling of the lip is rather common and not dangerous. Steroids can help moderate both of these reactions.

    An opportunistic oral infection can express itself as a secondary effect of immunosuppressive medications (such as azathioprine, Cytoxan, methotrexate, and cyclosporine) and corticosteroids (such as prednisone). This secondary effect only occurs when the body’s immune system is suppressed in such a way that usually harmless organisms cause problems. Anyone taking steroids is susceptible, and there are two ways in which this kind of infection can be expressed. Herpes simplex virus infection occurs in 80-90% of the general public. Most people are unaware that they are infected with Herpes, which is a lifetime infection. Secondary herpetic eruptions occur in 20% of those who have been infected and are most commonly seen as fever blisters, sun sores, etc. Candidiasis—a fungal infection—can develop secondary to dry mouth, diabetes, and dentures. You should see an oral pathologist (a specialist in dental and cavity diseases, i.e., not a regular dentist), internist, or dermatologist – as appropriate – to evaluate and treat these oral complications.

  • In Dr. Freedman’s opinion, the literature appears split on preventive antibiotic medication before dental treatment to prevent bacterial endocarditis. Although, approximately half the people with lupus have heart valve abnormalities. In this light, patients should consult their physician about whether antibiotics should be taken before any dental treatment that can cause bleeding. This includes regular cleanings, scaling, periodontal procedures, dental implant placement, root canal treatment, and extractions.

    Learn more about the SLE Workshop, a free support and education group held monthly as HSS.

    Disorders of the Mouth in Dogs – Dog Owners

    Lip fold dermatitis is a chronic skin inflammation that occurs in breeds with drooping upper lips and lower lip folds (such as spaniels, English Bulldogs, and Saint Bernards). These lips often accumulate moisture, causing inflammation to develop. The condition may be worsened when poor oral hygiene results in high salivary bacterial counts. The lower lip folds can become very bad-smelling, inflamed, uncomfortable, and swollen.

    Treatment of lip fold dermatitis includes clipping the hair, cleaning the folds 1 to 2 times a day with benzoyl peroxide or a mild skin cleanser, and keeping the area dry. Your veterinarian may prescribe a daily application of a topical diaper rash cream. Surgical correction of deep lip folds is a more long-lasting remedy for severe cases.

    Lip wounds, resulting from fights or chewing on sharp objects, are common and vary widely in severity. Thorns, grass awns, plant burrs, and fishhooks may embed in the lips and cause severe irritation or wounds. Irritants such as plastic or plant material may produce inflammation of the lips. Lip infections may develop. Wounds of the lips should be cleaned and sutured by your veterinarian, if necessary.

    Direct extension of severe gum disease or inflammation inside the mouth can produce inflammation of the lips (cheilitis). Licking areas of bacterial dermatitis or infected wounds may spread the infection to the lips and lip folds. Inflammation of the lips also can be associated with parasitic infections, autoimmune skin diseases, and tumors.

    Inflammation of the lips and lip folds can be short- or longterm. Animals may paw, scratch, or rub at their mouth or lip; have a foul odor on the breath; and occasionally salivate excessively or refuse to eat. With chronic infection of the lip margins or folds, the hair in these areas is discolored, moist, and matted with a thick, yellowish or brown, foul-smelling discharge overlying red skin that may have open sores. Sometimes the infection extends from another area of the body; this is easily diagnosed because of the infection that causes it.

    Inflammation of the lips that is unrelated to lip folds usually resolves with minimal cleansing, appropriate antibiotics (if a bacterial infection is present), and specific treatment of the cause. Treatment of periodontal disease or mouth inflammation may be necessary to prevent recurrence.

    Infectious cheilitis that has spread from a location away from the mouth usually improves with treatment of the primary spot, but treatment of the lip area also is necessary. With severe infection, care includes clipping the hair from the infected area. The area will then be gently cleaned and dried. Antibiotics may be prescribed if the infection is severe or spreads to other locations.

    90,000 Peeling skin. The main reasons and the algorithm of action – BIOSPHERE

    A fairly frequent reason for contacting cosmetologists and dermatologists is skin peeling on the face. Let’s try to understand the reasons for its occurrence, on which the appointment of adequate therapy depends.

    The natural process of renewal of the surface layer of the skin occurs due to the rejection of keratinized cells. In the epidermis, division, differentiation
    and migration of keratinocytes from the deep layers to the outer ones are constantly taking place.Normally, the stages of keratinization
    and desquamation of epidermal cells occur imperceptibly. A certain balance is maintained between mitosis (division) of basal cells and the strength of adhesion (cohesion) of corneocytes, depending on the state of the “intercellular cement”. Under the influence of various exogenous and endogenous factors, this process can be disrupted, and peeling appears on the skin.

    Peeling mechanism:

    1. Impaired hydration (dehydration). Any skin type
    and condition can be dehydrated.The following factors play a role in the development of dehydration:

    – Deficiency of natural moisturizing factor (NMF) components. In this situation, it is impossible to form a full-fledged hydrolipidic mantle of the skin.

    – Inconsistency of the lipid layer of the stratum corneum, which causes a violation of the barrier function and an increase in transdermal water loss.

    – Disruption of the transport of water from the dermis to the epidermis.

    2. Disturbance of differentiation and proliferation of epidermal cells.These changes can occur during various pathological processes, during skin aging
    or during peelings.

    3. Change in the rate of destruction of corneodesmosomes (connections between horny cells).
    This process is controlled by many factors, including skin pH, the activity of protease inhibitors, metal ions, including zinc, etc.

    Thus, the mechanism of peeling is rather complicated and its appearance is influenced by a huge number of factors.Nevertheless, in cosmetology practice, we most often come across the following reasons:

    – Adverse environmental factors: cold, insolation, dry air, chlorinated water, industrial air pollution.

    – Improper care: frequent use of scrubs, peels, washing with alkaline soap,
    cosmetics that are not suitable for skin type.

    – Lack of vitamins (especially B group) and minerals (zinc, selenium).

    – Hormonal disorders (hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, decrease in estrogen levels
    in the postmenopausal period, etc.).

    – Long-term use of certain medications (corticosteroids, retinoids, etc.).

    – Dermatological diseases: seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, neurodermatitis, mycoses, etc.

    – Diseases of internal organs (hepatitis, bowel disease).

    Therefore, when contacting a client with complaints of peeling of the skin, it is very important to find out the possible cause of its occurrence. If the cause of peeling is physiological, the main recommendations will be as follows:

    1.Eliminate adverse effects of environmental factors (use a protective cream, when using detergents and cleaning agents, wear gloves, humidify the air in rooms, etc.).

    2. Observe the drinking regime (consume at least 30 ml of water per kg of body weight).

    3. Balance nutrition, take targeted vitamin and mineral complexes (vitamins B, A, E, C, zinc, selenium).

    4. Organize proper skin care:

    – use only mild cleansers, refuse scrubs, do not injure the skin mechanically (try not to touch or rub your face)

    – apply moisturizing and nourishing products, selected for the type of skin, restoring the hydrolipid mantle

    – be sure to use protective equipment when going outside

    5.As professional procedures, you can offer superficial light peels
    based on lactic acid in combination with moisturizing and nourishing masks, biorevitalization, alginate masks with moisturizing serums, microcurrent therapy.

    Skin peeling and tightness – turnkey solution from EGIA:

    Step 1 – cleaning

    Gentle cleansing mousse

    Step 2 – humidification

    Serum with hyaluronic acid

    Step 3 – restoration of the hydrolipid mantle

    Delicate nourishing cream

    Step 4 – protection

    Moisturizing sunscreen SPF 30

    Step 5 – strengthening and consolidating the effect

    Balancing mask with fruit extracts

    90,000 Their Royal Majesty – Acids.My working remedies to combat imperfections of the skin of the face | Review from Aronofsky

    Greetings to all! Summer is slowly saying goodbye to us, the aggressive sun is already waning, which means that soon the very time for using acid products in the beauty routine will come, without fear of getting the ill-fated pigmentation. I decided that the current flash mob was a great opportunity to talk about my “acid” favorites, and therefore I ask you to love and favor!

    I think it’s best to start in order.I note right away that I consider all the means to be the most effective, although I have relatively little experience with acids.

    We have developed a long-term friendship with Arabian products, and multi-acid peeling for all skin types is an extra plus for that. At first I was afraid to use it, believing that I could just inadvertently burn the skin, but having gotten used to it, I realized that this tiger can be tamed. By the way, this is one of the few products that I still keep with the box and in a cool dark place.

    The bottle is made of dark glass with a screw cap. The peeling is fully consistent with the name, it is really gel in texture. There is no smell as such, but if you inhale a little, something sharp, vaguely reminiscent of alcohol, will hit your nose. The peeling is distributed over the face with little difficulty, because it is quite liquid and it takes very little to draw on a brush (I have a rare fan, similar to the one applied by a highlighter). If you overdo it, you may get burned.

    For me personally, the effect is noticeable even after one application after a long break.Despite the manufacturer’s assurances that the peel is safe for use in the sunny season, I still use a sunscreen with at least SPF50. The skin after use becomes smoother, after the course (once a week for 4-6 weeks) the pigmentation is lightened. In the first couple of days, peeling is possible, but it goes away by itself. There is a slight tingling sensation during the application. I wash off the peeling with plain cool water without neutralization, although if you wish, you can purchase it separately.This is a professional product, but specifically ANY-Time Control has been approved for home use. The composition is extremely simple, yet very effective. The consumption is scanty and, taking into account the fact that the peeling is good after opening within 24 months, it will be enough for a very long time.

    1050RUB price

    9 / 10evaluation

    1 year, 4p / month use

    Skin type: Combination skin, without any problems

    Composition: Aqua, Ethoxydiglycol, Salicy acid, Mandelicatelicate , Hydroxyethylcellulose

    Oh, how long I thought about this purchase and how glad I was when he met all my expectations placed on him! I didn’t immediately take 250 ml, I decided to stop at 100 ml for a start, in the end I repeat it in the second round.And such a bottle does not take up much shelf space, which is always insufficient.

    I think that a lot has been said about Glow Tonic, and in general about Pixie tonics, so I will not dwell on the packaging description. The smell is a little pungent, so sensitive noses can react a little negatively. When applied to the face with a cotton pad, there is a slight tingling sensation, especially if the tonic gets on damaged areas of the skin (some sore that has not healed, for example, or a pimple).It dries acne quite well, and also perfectly removes peeling. This is my real must-have in the winter season, when you need to quickly prepare your face for makeup, so that the tone is even and beautiful.

    750RUB price

    10 / 10evaluation

    2 years, 2p / week use

    Skin type: Combination skin, no problem

    This is, in principle, one of my favorite face masks in general. Sometimes it seems that I would even give her the palm among the cleansers, if not for a couple of shortcomings: it dries quickly on the face, pulling it down and treacherously dries up in a jar, becoming a frozen clay stone.I even have a whole post about Supermud, where I described its properties in more detail, but here I will briefly explain:

    • texture, as I said, clay, which dries quickly on the face, which is why you constantly have to spray it with thermal water …
    • can pinch so robustly during and after rinsing, leaving behind a redness that disappears within 40 minutes. Therefore, it is better to do the mask in the evening, and not on the eve of an important event and a hike somewhere.
    • consumption is relatively small, but the price is too biting.I bought a mask several times, first in miniature, then I decided on a full-size one (though as part of a gift set, which was as expensive as one mask of 50 g).
    • copes with cleansing properties with a bang. Firstly, the pores are visually much cleaner even after one use; secondly, the tone of the face is leveled, the pigmentation is slightly lightened. For me, she completely removed freckles, for example.
    • Will I buy more? Definitely yes!

    2500RUB price

    8 / 10evaluation

    2 years, 1r / per week use

    Skin type: Combination leather, without any problems

    I took this little thing to a heap at random, when I suddenly felt the urge try something spotty.In general, an SOS tool. Running a little ahead, I note that I made the right decision, however, this cream has its own nuances in use.

    The first is that it tingles the damaged skin a little when used (some kind of pimple, for example). The second is that it seemed to me a little oily, so you need to apply it in a thin layer, after waiting until it is absorbed. Both I and the manufacturer recommend using it mainly at night.

    The composition here is also as simple as possible.Nevertheless, I noticed the effect of the cream. It really dries up pimples that are just starting to appear. It will not save from those that have already appeared – I want to note this right away, so that miracles, which are a priori unrealizable, are not imposed.

    550RUB price

    9 / 10evaluation

    1 year, 1r / week use

    Skin type: Combination skin, without any problems

    This is my modest list of products with acids that I personally identified for myself like workers.Not to say that I have tried a lot of similar products, nevertheless I have already burned myself in the wrong selection and now I approach the purchase of acid care with the utmost responsibility and after reading the reviews.

    What are your favorites with acids? Share in the comments, discuss 😊

    Kerastase – hair and scalp care

    Women’s club. https: // kratko-news.com

    High-quality hair and scalp care is a priority for all women. The condition of the hair is the hallmark of the girl. It is on the hair that all attention is first of all focused at the first meeting and by their appearance the personality of a person, his attitude towards himself and towards people is determined.

    Therefore, every effort should be made to ensure that the hair always remains healthy, their color is saturated, and the shine shines with life.

    Desire is not enough to have healthy hair.Special chemistry is needed to take care of them.

    Kerastase – hair care

    Kerastase – special cosmetics for hair and scalp care. It helps to forget for a long time a lot of problems associated with hair and skin: flaking of the skin, increased oiliness of the hair and scalp, dandruff, dryness and others. The entire list of cosmetics is on the website http://magbeauty.ru/kerastase, where you can choose your own line of care and also place an order.

    Kerastas components nourish the hair roots, restore the hair structure, restore its shape and splendor. The whole secret lies in the formulas of Kerastase cosmetics, which were developed by François Dal, who created this brand.

    Initially, Kerastas cosmetics were used exclusively in expensive salons in France, of which there were not so many in the 60s and it was available only to a select circle of people from high society.

    Now every girl who wants to have a luxurious appearance can purchase François Dahl’s cosmetics.

    Kerastase cosmetics has several lines for hair care:

    • Nutritive – care for dry and brittle hair, lifeless curls;
    • Reflection – chemistry for colored hair;
    • Specifique – a program to quickly get rid of dandruff;
    • Noctogenis – for night care of curls;
    • Resistance – revival of fine hair, damaged hair;
    • Dermo-calm Kerastase – preparations for sensitive scalp;
    • Biotic – Provides healthy shine to hair.

    The Kerastase brand has been known for over half a century and is now part of L’Oreal.

    Types of cosmetics offered by the brand:

    1. Hair shampoos;
    2. Ampoules;
    3. Balms;
    4. Boosters;
    5. Gels;
    6. Jelly;
    7. Creams;
    8. Varnishes;
    9. Air conditioners;
    10. Concentrates;
    11. Masks;
    12. Milk;
    13. Mousses;
    14. Pastes;
    15. Sprays.