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Splinting fracture: Splinting – StatPearls – NCBI Bookshelf

First Aid – Splint

What is splint? 

A splint is a supportive device used to keep in place any suspected fracture in one’s arm or leg.

Splint is used to:

  • Provide pain relief of the fractured limb.
  • Support bone ends of the fracture site. Bones ends of the fracture site are very sharp. A splint helps prevent bone protruding through the skin, soft skin and tissue damage, as well as bleeding.
  • Facilitate safe and seamless causality transport.

 What is Splint? 

In emergency cases, anything can be used for splinting, yet there are two types of splints:

  1. Flexible
  2. Rigid 

Rigid Splint: Any rigid object, such as wood or plastic boards, broomstick, book or a rolled-out newspapers, which can be used to splint a fractured arm or leg.

Flexible Splint: Any flexible object, like a pillow or a bed sheet with several folds. This type is used for foot, ankle and joint fractures.

 What are Medical Sling and Bandage?

 A Medical Sling is a piece of cloth used to immobilize the fractured arm to the rigid splint, in 90° of elbow flexion. The sling usually takes the shape of a big triangle. It can be used along with or instead of a rigid splint. If used alone, the sling should be supported with an additional bandage which is actually a folded drape of 5-6 inches width.

General Principles of Splinting: 

Several ways are adopted for splinting, which may seem highly complicated – at first sight – yet they are very simple. Here are some general principles to be applied when splinting as follows:

  • Identify the fracture site.
  • Stop the bleeding using bandages, but avoid pressing on the fractured painful and deformed site.
  • In case of bone fractures where bone ends protrude through the skin, do not push these ends back in place as this will cause inflammation and acute bleeding.
  • Keep the fractured bone (including the joints above and below the fracture site) motionless as indicated hereunder:
    • If the lower-arm is fractured, keep the wrist and elbow joints motionless.
    • If the upper-arm is fractured, keep the shoulder and elbow joints motionless.
    • If the lower-leg is fractured, keep the knee and ankle joints motionless.
    • If the upper-leg is fractured, keep the knee and femoral joints motionless.
  • Splint should be tied firmly to immobilize the fractured limb, then check for blood circulation to ensure the splinting is not too tight. Correct splinting provides pain relief.
  • If the fractured limb is bent with a sharp bone end protruding through the skin, keep it motionless. Splint a limb as you find it to make it as comfortable to the patient as you possible.
  • If an ambulance is called and is on its way, do not splint the fractured limb and wait for the ambulance team to use their specialized medical splints.

Why keep upper and lower joints motionless?

Each bone end in limbs is connected to a joint. Moving that joint dislocates the fractured bone. So, joints should remain motionless to immobilize fractured bones.

 What if the joint itself is broken?

This is the most difficult fracture to handle. Yet, follow the same instructions of applying a splint. Make sure to maintain joints, upper and lower bones as well as the fracture site motionless. For example, the elbow joint connects both upper- and lower-arms. If broken, the joint and bones should be immobilized. Hence, both shoulder and wrist joints should remain motionless. 

In most cases, joint fractures are very painful. In this case, never try to relocate the joint least you should damage the nerves and blood vessels around the joint, let alone the acute pain resulting.

You should have an overactive imagination when dealing with such injury. You can splint the joint as you find it.

What Materials are Needed for Splinting?

You will need:

  • A splint (rigid or flexible).
  • A thick bandage to apply under the splint for maximum comfort. (Optional).
  • Robe – or the like – to wrap the splint to the fractured limb.

 What if these materials are not available?

No worries. You can use the patient’s body as a splint as follows:

  • You can tie the fractured arm to the patient’s body using a dressing.
  • You can tie the fractured leg to the patient’s other leg using a dressing.
  • You can tie the fractured finger to the patient’s other fingers using a dressing. 

Splinting – StatPearls – NCBI Bookshelf

Continuing Education Activity

Injuries that result in instability require immobilization, decreasing the likelihood of further damage, protecting soft tissues, alleviating pain, and accelerating healing. Instability may result from direct injury to the bones (fracture), joints (dislocation), or the soft tissues such as the muscles (strain) or ligaments (sprain). Following the diagnosis of an unstable injury, a splint may be the best treatment option and is loosely defined as an external device used to immobilize an injury or joint and is most often made out of plaster. A splint must be differentiated from a cast, to determine the best form of immobilization based on the clinical scenario. This activity remains the role of the healthcare team in assessing and applying splinting immobilization to injuries that will benefit from such a strategy.


  • Identify the indications, and contraindications of splinting in the acute setting.

  • Describe the equipment, personnel, preparation, and technique in regards to splinting common musculoskeletal injuries such as sprains, fractures, and soft tissue injuries.

  • Review the potential complications of splinting for musculoskeletal injuries.

  • Outline the interprofessional team strategies for improving care coordination and communication to improve splinting outcomes.

Access free multiple choice questions on this topic.


Patients commonly present to emergency departments, primary care offices, or specialty clinics with musculoskeletal injuries. The initial management of an acute traumatic limb injury involves a thorough history and physical evaluation of the injury, which includes a motor, sensory, and neurovascular examination. Injuries that result in instability require immobilization, decreasing the likelihood of further damage, protecting soft tissues, alleviating pain, and accelerating healing. Instability may result from direct injury to the bones (fracture), joints (dislocation), or the soft tissues such as the muscles (strain) or ligaments (sprain). Following the diagnosis of an unstable injury, a splint may be the best treatment option and is loosely defined as an external device used to immobilize an injury or joint and is most often made out of plaster. A splint must be differentiated from a cast, to determine the best form of immobilization based on the clinical scenario. Contrary to a splint, a cast is a circumferential application of plaster that rigidly immobilizes a particular joint or fracture. Because of their circumferential restrictive nature, casts are not placed in the acute post-injury setting as they do not accommodate for soft tissue swelling. [1]

Different forms of splints may be fashioned depending on injury location and position of immobilization needed. The goal of splinting is to correct and restore anatomic length, rotation, and angulation of a patient-specific injury. Splints are treatments utilized by a variety of medical personnel as either a temporizing or definitive management strategy for stable fractures.[2][1][3] Proper splint placement is essential since malpositioning can cause undue pain, malreduction, and skin breakdown. Improper splinting not only necessitates replacement, but splint-related soft tissue complications are the second most common iatrogenic cause for referral to plastic surgery.[4] Poor splinting techniques are common, with one study demonstrating inappropriate splinting on 93% of patients.[5] As such, a thorough understanding of the indications, contraindications, and approach to proper splint placement is essential for practitioners that treat patients with acute musculoskeletal injuries.

Anatomy and Physiology

Fashioning a splint takes patient-specific anatomy into account. The splint should be fashioned such that it restores anatomic resting joint position to minimize adverse outcomes. Plaster or fiberglass splints are the mainstays of acute immobilization. Plaster is the preferred malleable material to maintain a position-specific reduction, but it is limited by drying time, user experience, and provider-placed mold. Fiberglass splints are lighter, easier to apply, and more porous, but are more expensive and provide a less-reliable mold. Pre-fabricated splints (such as foam splints or braces) may play a role in chronic injuries necessitating immobilization for structural support or pain control but are less commonly used in the acute fracture setting.

Upper extremity splints crossing the wrist should maintain neutral wrist dorsiflexion, and vascular status should be assessed before and after application to reduce the risk of subsequent complications. In pediatric patients with supracondylar elbow fractures, the arm should never be splinted with the elbow flexed more than 90 degrees, as this increases the risk of Volkman’s ischemic contracture.[6] Lower extremity splints crossing the ankle joint should place the ankle in a resting neutral position without excessive ankle plantarflexion to prevent resultant Achilles flexion contractures. Excess pressure on the soft tissues may decrease the blood flow to the skin surface; this is of particular importance in areas with bony prominences, such as the elbow, knee, and calcaneus, as excess pressure may cause skin irritation and necrosis. Additional layers of protection during the splinting process is of great importance in these regions.

Conversely, excessive splint laxity may permit excessive movement of the injury, and, in cases of fractures, this may result in loss of bony reduction. If a splint is a definitive therapy, there must be a stable injury pattern. Fractures that are difficult to reduce, excessively shortened, or comminuted are not candidates for definitive splinting, as they usually will need operative intervention by an orthopedic surgeon. However, unstable injuries may still benefit from temporary splinting if the patient is not an immediate candidate for surgery due to concurrent medical issues or if there is an anticipated delay before definitive operative fixation. In these cases, temporary splinting is necessary to avoid further injuries, immobilize the fracture, and promote healing.[7]


Splints are placed to immobilize musculoskeletal injuries, support healing, and to prevent further damage. The indications for splinting are broad, but commonly include:

  • Temporary stabilization of acute fractures, sprains, or strains before further evaluation or definitive operative management

  • Immobilization of a suspected occult fracture (such as a scaphoid fracture)

  • Severe soft tissue injuries requiring immobilization and protection from further injury

  • Definitive management of specific stable fracture patterns

  • Peripheral neuropathy requiring extremity protection

  • Partial immobilization for minor soft tissue injuries

  • Treatment of joint instability, including dislocation


No specific contraindications to splinting exist. However, certain injuries and patient-specific comorbidities require special attention:

  • Injuries that violate the skin or open wounds. Antibiotic administration should be considered for these patients depending on the severity of the lesion.[8] These patients also require additional soft tissue care, which may necessitate tissue debridement and skin closure before splint application. 

  • Injuries that result in sensory or neurologic deficits. The complications of splint placement such as compartment syndrome, pressure injuries, or malreduction may go unnoticed if the patient has a concurrent nerve injury. These patients should undergo evaluation by a surgeon before splint application as neurologic findings may be a sign of a surgical emergency.

  • Injuries to the vasculature require special attention by vascular surgeons, as these may require urgent operative intervention. Furthermore, evaluation of the vasculature is essential both before and after splint application, as the reduction of some fractures may result in acute arterial injury or obstruction if trapped between the fracture fragments.  

  • Patients with peripheral vascular disease or neuropathy. Special care should be taken when applying lower extremity splints in these patients since their baseline sensation may be altered. These patients have difficulty detecting pressure sores, skin irritation, and possible vascular compromise.


Obtain and organize all equipment before splint application. The necessary equipment for a plaster or fiberglass splint includes:

  • Sheet or towel to protect patient clothing

  • Stockinette (a soft, loosely knitted stretch fabric) or fabric underpadding

  • Undercast padding, which is typically made out of cotton.

  • Plaster (8-10 sheets thick) or padded fiberglass. In general, forearm splints require smaller width, and upper arm and leg splints require larger width rolls of material.

  • Water bucket filled with cool water.

  • Elastic bandage

  • Sling for upper extremity injuries

  • If fracture reduction is attempted, a C-arm X-ray should be used for the evaluation of the fracture reduction.


Splints may be applied by physicians, physician assistants, first-responders, medical assistants, and technicians with the proper training. Although a sole individual may apply a splint, assistance is commonly needed for ease of application. A second provider can gather materials, aid in reduction, and secure the injured limb in position so that the primary provider can adequately place and mold the splint.


All materials should be obtained before splint application to avoid the premature setup of the plaster/fiberglass. A careful history and physical exam, including a motor, sensory, and neurovascular exams, should be performed before treatment. Open wounds or soft tissue injuries should be addressed during the preparation phase. Depending on the clinical circumstances., wounds may require antibiotics, wound irrigation, debridement, or tissue closure. The patient’s clothing should be covered with a sheet or pad to prevent plaster or fiberglass from being deposited onto them.  A bucket of water must be obtained to activate the plaster or fiberglass. The splint materials should be measured to fit the desired area, precut, and laid out in the order of use; specifically, a stockinette should be cut to a size that is 8-10cm longer than necessary to cover the splinted area. The plaster or fiberglass should also be measured and cut to an appropriate length, spanning the entire injured area and then stacked 8-10 sheets thick to ensure adequate strength. Additional layers may be necessary for larger joints or larger body habitus, and similarly, fewer may be required in the setting of pediatric cases. Analgesia may be required either by oral or intravenous (IV) routes. Conscious sedation may be needed for pediatric patients.

Technique or Treatment

General steps may be applied when placing a splint

  • Ensure adequate analgesia before splint application. This will ensure muscle relaxation and facilitate fracture reduction, if necessary.

  • Ensure that any soft-tissue injuries are addressed before splint placement.

  • Apply a stockinette circumferentially to the injured area. This should span both proximally and distal to the injured area, protecting the skin from irritation by the plaster or fiberglass.

  • Pad bony prominences such as the elbow, knee, or calcaneus with at least 1 cm to 2 cm of soft cast padding. Soft tissue protection is essential to prevent future skin irritation or necrosis. The thickness of this padding will depend on body habitus. 

  • Apply 2-3 layers of cast padding (0.25 cm to 0.5 cm) circumferentially to the remaining area of immobilization.

  • Reduce any fracture by restoring the bone length, rotation, and alignment. This may require radiographic confirmation before support material application.

  • Activate the supportive plaster or fiberglass layers by saturating them in the water bucket. Laminate the sheets by pressing them together before application, as this increases the strength and adhesion between the layers.

  • Mold the supportive material around the area of injury. The specific molding approach will depend on the type of injury; however, as a general rule, the splint should be molded to resist any deforming angulation.

  • Ensure the supportive material does not circumferentially encase the injured area to accommodate any soft-tissue swelling. If there is circumferential overlap, this should be addressed by cutting the splint once the supportive material has set. 

  • Fold the stockinette over the plaster or fiberglass to protect the patient’s skin from its sharp edges.

  • Circumferentially apply an elastic bandage around the splint. This aids in the molding of the splint material to the injured area and holds the support material in place until it has hardened. Direct placement on the skin should be avoided and is a commonly observed mistake.[9] 

  • Repeat the physical exam to ensure that there is no significant change in the patient’s neurovascular status. Any change in the physical exam should prompt the rapid removal of the splint and reassessment.

  • Counsel the patient on proper splint care and follow-up instructions.

Common upper extremity splints include:

  • Coaptation splint, sugar tong splint, posterior long arm elbow splint, ulnar gutter splint, radial gutter splint, volar or dorsal short arm splint, thumb spica splint

Common lower extremity splints include:

  • Posterior long leg splint, posterior short leg splint, posterior short leg splint with stirrups

These specific splinting approaches are well described elsewhere.[10]


While splints are commonly used, they are often applied improperly or inadequately.[11] Patients should be given a list of signs and symptoms that necessitate a prompt return to a medical professional. Complications include:

  • Loss of fracture reduction

  • Skin irritation or breakdown

  • Joint stiffness. Every effort should be made to immobilize the fewest number of joints possible.

  • Thermal injury – Both plaster and fiberglass support materials exhibit exothermic reactions when activated by water. Avoid skin burns by using room-temperature water when activating the support material and through careful monitoring after splint placement.

  • Neurovascular compromise – Acute carpal tunnel syndrome is a rare complication following the reduction of a wrist dislocation. Similarly, the reduction of a supracondylar humerus fracture may inadvertently occlude the brachial artery. Both scenarios are exacerbated through splint placement and require prompt splint removal, followed by a possible operative intervention.

  • Compartment syndrome – Excessive compression may occur through splint placement, mainly if a splint is circumferential, becoming a cast. 

Clinical Significance

Splints may be used to effectively immobilize an injury, including a sprain, fracture, or soft tissue injury. In specific scenarios, splints may be used as definitive management to treat these injuries. Educating patients regarding splint care and return precautions aids in a successful outcome.

A splint must be differentiated from a cast, to determine the best form of immobilization based on the clinical scenario. A splint is a non-circumferential application of plaster or fiberglass that is particularly useful in the acute post-injury setting. A splint’s supportive and forgiving structure allows physiologic swelling common to the acute inflammatory phase. In contrast, a cast is a circumferential application of plaster that rigidly immobilizes a particular joint or fracture. Because of the circumferential nature, casts are commonly not placed in the acute post-injury setting.[1]

Splint application is not a completely benign treatment, and improper placement may result in adverse outcomes. One study found that 40% of patients splinted in the emergency department developed soft tissue complications, including skin ulceration in 6% of patients. [5] Proper splint placement avoids unnecessary pain, complications, and excess healthcare costs. Careful monitoring for subsequent compartment syndrome, neurovascular compromise, skin breakdown, or necrosis should be maintained in the early post-injury period. Patients who complain of numbness or tingling in the affected limb, pale skin, numbness or tingling, or increased pain and swelling should be evaluated immediately for potential complications. Patients should be educated on proper splint care, elevating the injured extremity, keeping it clean and dry. Additionally, the patient should be counseled on return precautions, such as an acute increase in pain or any change in motor or sensory functions.

Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

Splints may be applied by medical personnel with a wide range of clinical backgrounds. Regardless of experience, basic knowledge about proper splint application and complications allows teams to work together to care for patients effectively. Following fracture splinting, follow up care should be coordinated for the patient to ensure improving clinical status. Often this coordination occurs between emergency physicians or first responders and primary care physicians or pediatricians for injuries that do not require specialty level care or operative fixation. This is particularly relevant in the case of pediatric forearm fractures, where most patients receive follow-up care with primary care physicians and not orthopedic specialists.[12] In the setting of multi-trauma, fractures with significant displacement, rotation or malalignment, peri-articular fractures, and open injuries, care should be coordinated with an orthopedic surgeon following the initial provider’s evaluation. Additionally, in these patients with an increased risk of adverse events, post-discharge follow-up phone calls should be arranged to ensure the appropriate continuity of care.

Articles and videos have been developed to help educate medical personnel to improve provider splint application. [10][13][14]

Nursing, Allied Health, and Interprofessional Team Interventions

Splints may be applied by appropriately trained physicians, physician assistants, nurses, technicians. A thorough history and physical exam must be obtained before any intervention. Medical professionals may serve as the primary treating clinician or splinting assistant. Regardless of the role assumed, knowledge about the goals of immobilization and proper splinting techniques will improve patient care. Coordination with an orthopedic specialist is necessary for any unstable injuries. 

Non-orthopedic medical professionals frequently treat patients with acute injuries that require splinting. However, few of these professionals are comfortable splinting injuries, and many have not received dedicated education on proper technique. Incorporating an inter-residency and interprofessional approach between orthopedic surgeons, emergency medicine physicians, family practitioners, and advanced practitioners can significantly improve these skills. [10]

Nursing, Allied Health, and Interprofessional Team Monitoring

Following the splint application, the patient should be instructed regarding proper splint care, including keeping the splint clean and dry, elevating the injured extremity to minimize swelling and 

Strict return precautions include getting the splint wet, change in motor function, sensation, or neurovascular status. Non-operative patients managed in a splint require follow-up care in 1 to 2 weeks after the initial splint placement. Further evaluation may include repeat X-rays, splint change, or conversion to a cast. 

Review Questions

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side view volar splint. Contributed by Tammy J. Toney-Butler, RN, CEN, TCRN, CPEN-Author Unknown


completed splint. Contributed by Tammy J. Toney-Butler, RN, CEN, TCRN, CPEN/Author Unknown


Short Leg Splint Example from two views. Contributed by Anthony J. Silva, CCMA, EMT-B


Rose’s Splint on the left, Splints, Welch’s Splints on the Right, amputation, Fractures, elbow joint. Contributed by Wikimedia Commons, (Public Domain)



Boyd AS, Benjamin HJ, Asplund C. Principles of casting and splinting. Am Fam Physician. 2009 Jan 01;79(1):16-22. [PubMed: 19145960]


Boyd AS, Benjamin HJ, Asplund C. Splints and casts: indications and methods. Am Fam Physician. 2009 Sep 01;80(5):491-9. [PubMed: 19725490]


Leggit JC, McLeod G. MSK injury? Make splinting choices based on the evidence. J Fam Pract. 2018 Nov;67(11):678-683. [PubMed: 30481246]


Lee TG, Chung S, Chung YK. A retrospective review of iatrogenic skin and soft tissue injuries. Arch Plast Surg. 2012 Jul;39(4):412-6. [PMC free article: PMC3408289] [PubMed: 22872847]


Abzug JM, Schwartz BS, Johnson AJ. Assessment of Splints Applied for Pediatric Fractures in an Emergency Department/Urgent Care Environment. J Pediatr Orthop. 2019 Feb;39(2):76-84. [PubMed: 28060178]


Hosseinzadeh P, Hayes CB. Compartment Syndrome in Children. Orthop Clin North Am. 2016 Jul;47(3):579-87. [PubMed: 27241380]


Ryan JR. Fractures and dislocations encountered by the general surgeon: general principles. Surg Clin North Am. 1977 Feb;57(1):197-210. [PubMed: 857333]


Gosselin RA, Roberts I, Gillespie WJ. Antibiotics for preventing infection in open limb fractures. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;2004(1):CD003764. [PMC free article: PMC8728739] [PubMed: 14974035]


Study: Education, training on proper splint technique needed in EDs, urgent care centers. ED Manag. 2015 Feb;27(2):21-3. [PubMed: 25688416]


Wendling A, Vopat M, Patel O, Wool N, Davis N, Dart B. Enhancing Splinting Confidence through Inter-Residency Education: An Educational Workshop. Kans J Med. 2020;13:29-37. [PMC free article: PMC7053410] [PubMed: 32190184]


Halanski M, Noonan KJ. Cast and splint immobilization: complications. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2008 Jan;16(1):30-40. [PubMed: 18180390]


Koelink E, Schuh S, Howard A, Stimec J, Barra L, Boutis K. Primary Care Physician Follow-up of Distal Radius Buckle Fractures. Pediatrics. 2016 Jan;137(1) [PubMed: 26729537]


Fitch MT, Nicks BA, Pariyadath M, McGinnis HD, Manthey DE. Videos in clinical medicine. Basic splinting techniques. N Engl J Med. 2008 Dec 25;359(26):e32. [PubMed: 19109569]


Cheng YT, Liu DR, Wang VJ. Teaching Splinting Techniques Using a Just-in-Time Training Instructional Video. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2017 Mar;33(3):166-170. [PubMed: 25834963]

Disclosure: Alyssa Althoff declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies.

Disclosure: Russell Reeves declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies.

Splinting of the jaw in case of a fracture, how it goes, where it can be done

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Jaw fracture is not a common medical diagnosis, but its onset is always accompanied by treatment in a dental clinic. First of all, splinting of the jaw is required, which ensures its immobilization, without which it is not possible to heal the fracture. Sometimes the jaw splinting procedure is also required for dislocation or other bite correction situations.

Splinting of the jaw after a fracture

Splinting of the jaw after a fracture is not just a key way to provide medical dental care, but the very first and most important. The cause of its occurrence, localization and nature of the damage are not important. Splinting of the damaged jaw in case of a fracture has to be done:

  1. In case of fractures with displacement of the facial bones and injuries not associated with displacement.
  2. For transverse, zigzag, oblique, longitudinal fractures.
  3. For closed and open injuries of the jaw bones.
  4. For a simple fracture in the maxillofacial region.
  5. In the treatment of multiple and comminuted fractures.

The specific method of splinting the jaw for fractures depends only on whether the upper or lower jaw was damaged, what type of damage occurred, how long, according to the dentist, it will take to restore the normal functioning of the teeth. Dentists use 3 types of splinting of the damaged jaw:

  • One-sided – required when only one half of the top or bottom of the teeth is damaged, with copper wire serving as a splint.
  • Double-sided – made to fix the dentition on both sides, thicker and stiffer wire, hooks or rings are used as the basis.
  • Two-jaw – required in case of displacement, debris and other complications as a result of trauma, it involves reliable fastening of both jaws to each other.

Additionally, the procedure is accompanied by the appointment of an X-ray examination, the appointment of painkillers and antibiotic therapy. It is impossible to solve the problem with a fracture of the lower or upper jaw on your own, since it is not just about the need to fix the teeth for the time of complete healing, but also about the exclusion of complications.

Splinting in case of fracture of the lower jaw

Splinting of the lower jaw in case of a fracture is the only possible option for recovery after this kind of damage, which means it is mandatory. This is due to the particular mobility of the lower part of the teeth and possible damage to the vessels, nerves, and muscles located nearby. Injuries are most often located in the chin area, on the side or in the corner of the jaw.

The installation of a splint on the lower jaw involves a surgical intervention, during which the doctor compares the fragments and fixes them in their original place. Most often, fastening is done in the mouth on the bone tissue, but some complex fractures require the installation of special devices from the outside.

The choice of a specific splinting method depends on the type and complexity of the fracture, its location. Incorrect selection of the method of treatment of the lower jaw can lead to serious complications, so it is important to contact a specialist with extensive experience, for example, Dr. Sadov’s Center for Comfortable Dentistry. This must be done immediately, immediately after first aid is provided to the patient, since any attempt to speak or otherwise move the injured jaw can lead to deterioration, bleeding, asphyxia and other undesirable consequences.

Splinting of the upper jaw

Fractures of the upper jaw are much less common than those of the lower jaw. It is less mobile and does not extend, so much more effort is required to cause harm. Most often, a fracture of the upper jaw is accompanied by a fracture of the lower, which means that a special two-jaw fixation is required. The meaning of the procedure is that both jaws are tightly connected to each other, leaving no free space even for eating. The oral cavity is literally “sewn up” for at least 1 month, and often for a longer period. With this method of splinting, a special load is placed on the teeth, since fixation is carried out using traction loops. This leads to additional pain.

Types of fractures of the upper jaw are divided into 3 groups according to the place of damage:

  1. According to the lower level, that is, with breaking off part of the maxillary sinus and nasal septum.
  2. On the average level – may accompany the separation of the jaw from the bones of the skull and nose.
  3. On the upper level – always accompanied by a complete separation from the nose, cheekbones, skull bones and TBI.

As for splinting, there are no differences between the treatment of the upper and lower parts of the jaw and the specific type of device is selected by the attending orthopedic dentist.

Rubber bands for splinting

In some cases, splinting with wire requires additional fastening with special rubber bands to keep the jaws closed. The main task of gum is to move the teeth in the direction in which they were originally. The advantages of the elastic material are:

  1. Elastic bands are easy to cut and remove, which is especially important if the patient has received a TBI and there is a risk of complications in the form of epileptic seizures, fainting and other neurological disorders.
  2. When properly tensioned, the elastic bands allow feeding through a straw, a tighter fit often results in tube feeding.
  3. Damaged rubber bands can be easily replaced, while damage to the metal structure will require serious medical attention.

The decision to install splinting rubber bands should be made by a physician and most often they are used only when the initial healing of the injured jaw has occurred. In the early stages, as a rule, a more rigid fixation is required. In any case, it is necessary to consult a specialist who, based on the condition of the teeth, the nature of the damage, and the general condition of the patient, will be able to determine the most appropriate type of splinting. The clinic of Dr. Sadov in Moscow employs professionals who have completed an internship abroad, who clearly understand the features of dental orthopedics.

How to eat after splinting

Rigid splinting involves difficulties in eating, but at the same time, during this period, it is especially important for the body to receive a large amount of vitamins, minerals, and nutrients required for the speedy regeneration of bone tissue. The patient’s menu after splinting usually includes various nutritious broths, fruit, vegetable and meat purees (children’s can be), semi-liquid and liquid cereals. It is necessary to monitor the content in food of a large amount of protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc. It is allowed to replace some meals with infant formula or sports nutrition, since in both cases the content of substances necessary for the body is high.

It is strictly forbidden to drink any alcoholic beverages during treatment, especially if there is also a traumatic brain injury in addition to the jaw. In addition, you should not try to eat solid foods that require chewing. First, it can cause severe pain. Secondly, lead to improper fusion of damaged bone tissue.

In case of injuries that have symptoms similar to a broken jaw: severe pain, bleeding, immobilization of the jaw, and so on, you should immediately seek professional help. Attempts at self-treatment or its complete absence cause irreparable harm and lead to loss of tooth functionality.

Splinting of jaws for fractures in Kaluga


Maxillofacial Surgery

Splinting of jaws for fractures

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Fracture of the jaw, a fairly common injury, given the fast pace of life and non-compliance with the simplest safety rules. A fracture occurs in the event of a blow or fall. A fracture of the jaw can be incomplete, that is, without displacement, and complete, that is, with displacement. In any case, emergency medical care and appropriate treatment are needed.

After a visual examination and sanitation of the oral cavity, the doctor sends the patient to the X-ray room to determine the location of the fracture, as well as its complexity. After that, a special splint is applied to the patient’s teeth, which fixes the jaw in a fixed position.

After examining the images, the doctor chooses one or another splinting method. If the upper jaw is broken, sometimes it is used to tighten it with the cheekbone bone using metal (titanium alloy) screws to fix it securely. The lower jaw requires the application of special strong elastic bands to entire parts of the bone tissue, if at least one of them breaks, the procedure is started anew.

There are 3 types of designs that are selected depending on the complexity of the fracture. For example, with a fracture of the lower jaw, a one-sided or two-sided design can be used. This design is imposed for a period of 6 to 10 weeks, depending on the patient’s regenerative abilities, a special liquid diet is prescribed, as well as a course of antibiotics and drugs to cleanse the oral cavity.

In any case, a fracture is an emergency and requires immediate medical attention. The quality of the material when installing the tire is also not unimportant, since if the rubber bands break, not only during installation, but also during the restoration process, re-installation will be necessary. In case of such an injury and a suspected fracture, you need to come to our Pain Clinic, probably to one of the best maxillofacial surgeons in the city of Kaluga, where he will provide all the necessary medical care. You can inform us about your arrival by calling us at the number indicated on the website.

If you do not live in Kaluga, you can sign up for an online consultation via WhatsApp: +7 (961) 123-69-68.
For a course of treatment, a course of rehabilitation for patients from other cities, we provide inexpensive accommodation in apartments. For surgical operations, we offer accommodation in a 24-hour hospital.

Do you have questions? Ask us on our social networks.


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I want to say a huge thank you to the maxillofacial surgeon Denis Leonidovich Garanichev for the successful operation of my daughter on July 26, 2022 to remove dystopic 48, 38 teeth, for your sensitivity and attention, for your caring attitude, for high professionalism and golden hands ! I would like to wish you continued success, health and all the best!


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Good afternoon, Olga! Thank you for taking the time to review! We wish you and your family health and good mood!
Sincerely, Administration of PAIN Clinic

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Denis Leonidovich was advised as an experienced surgeon. I live in Obninsk. Last year, two upper wisdom teeth were removed at the Like Smile clinic. To remove the lower teeth, they asked to take a 3D image. After familiarization, the surgeon refused to perform the operation, since both teeth touched the jaw nerve. It was only this year that I decided to have the surgery. I immediately turned to Denis Leonidovich. What to say about the operation itself and its consequences? I didn’t expect this, to be honest. 2 teeth were removed at once (the doctor advised, I did not argue with him). After freezing, I immediately began to touch my jaw and, oh, happiness! All sensitivity remains. Nerves are not hurt! The swelling was gone on the 3rd day! This is great! Denis Leonidovich – talent! May God grant him health and many salvations!


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Good afternoon, Ruslan! Thank you for your feedback! Denis Leonidovich is a truly talented doctor. We are extremely proud to have him on our team! We wish you health and summer mood! Sincerely, the administration of the Clinic of Pain

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I am writing in the fresh footsteps) With great gratitude for the work done. A few weeks ago, it was decided to remove the wisdom teeth to install braces. The question arose about choosing a specialist, as there was a great desire to complete what had been started as soon as possible. And what happiness it was to get to Denis
Leonidovich. From the first introductory reception to my exit from the operating room – everything was at the highest level. Anesthesiologist Rakov Vladimir Igorevich, the team of nurses is something. They explained everything, told) They supported me all the time, they were interested in how I felt! There are no words. If it weren’t for the headache after anesthesia, I would almost have been in a sanatorium !!! Once again, a big human THANK YOU


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Hello Maria! Thank you for your feedback! We wish you good health and a great summer mood! Sincerely, Administration of Pain Clinic

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I have been afraid of dentists since childhood. I treat my teeth only with an injection. One of the teeth started and had to be removed already. All my attempts have been unsuccessful. The fear was so strong that in the doctor’s office I was in a fainting state. I canceled the appointment several times out of fear. I was looking for some way for myself to remove a tooth in order to alleviate my suffering. I stumbled upon the Pain Clinic on the Internet and read about a miracle method – removal under sedation. I signed up for Garanichev Denis Leonidovich. On the appointed day, from the very morning, my legs were wadded with fear, my hands were shaking. After a conversation with Denis Leonidovich and Soldatova Irina Viktorovna, the fear began to gradually disappear, and when the procedure began, there was no trace of it at all. Everything went very quickly and absolutely painless. Many thanks to Denis Leonidovich and the whole team that assisted in my operation to remove a tooth on August 17, 2021!!!! Attentive, sensitive staff. Very good attitude towards patients. What was my surprise when the anesthesia went off at home, that nothing hurts me. No feeling of “aching gums” at the site of removal. A little swelling and all. Removal under sedation is the best thing they could think of for cowards like me! Once again, thank you so much for all your hard work!! Health and prosperity!


Response to Review

Hello Olga! Thank you for such a detailed review! Yes, indeed, it is much more pleasant to remove teeth under sedation =) We are very glad that you noted the work of the doctor and the entire team, they will be very pleased to read your review. Thank you again! We wish you good health! Sincerely, the administration of the Pain Clinic

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Larisa Ivanovna

Responsive, friendly, professional doctor. He knows and does his job very well. Very high quality and neatly performs all actions. The tooth extraction went almost unnoticed. Thank you for your kind attitude towards your patients and qualified knowledge, professional actions of your doctor


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Good evening, Larisa Ivanovna! Thank you for taking the time to review. We are very pleased that you were satisfied with the quality of services provided. We will convey your words to Denis Leonidovich. Be healthy! Sincerely yours, Administration of the Pain Clinic

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I really liked the attitude of the doctor to the patient, very polite, cultured, accurate. It does not hurt, gives good advice on how to take care of yourself later and what to process. Thank you.


Response to Review

Good evening! Thank you for your feedback! We sincerely rejoice whenever we see gratitude from the patient. We will definitely pass on your gratitude to Denis Leonidovich! Be healthy! Sincerely, the administration of the Pain Clinic

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Removed 2 wisdom teeth at once from Denis Olegovich Garanichev under sedation, because. As I got older, I became terrified of dentists. I live in Tula, but on the recommendation of a friend, I decided to remove teeth from Denis Olegovich (in Tula they refused to do it without a hospital, and even more so with sedation). No negative impressions, sedation is super 🙂 The whole operation is about an hour, there are no consequences from a calming cocktail. Further, everything overgrown without complications. I am very glad that there is such a doctor and such a clinic! Thank you so much!


Response to Review

Good afternoon, Evgenia! Thank you for such a warm, heartfelt review! We wish you a speedy recovery! We will pass on your words to Denis Leonidovich! He will be very pleased. Be healthy!
Sincerely, the administration of the Clinic of Pain

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Natalia Petrovna

I am afraid of dentists, I am very afraid. I suffered when the left lower wisdom tooth fell ill for almost a month, with varying success. Two friends stood before my eyes, who over the past year have removed complex lower teeth. Two or three times we went to the surgeon in dentistry to “twitch” pieces of teeth and roots. It’s thrash! I know for sure that no one treats wisdom teeth.