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8 types of itchy rash

A rash is a change in the skin that can result in bumpy, blotchy, or scaly patches. Many people have had an itchy rash at some point in their lives. Many are harmless and will go away on their own, but others may be more persistent due to underlying causes or conditions.

Many different factors can cause an itchy rash, including:

  • an allergic reaction to foods, medications, or objects, such as nickel earrings
  • touching or exposure to environmental allergens
  • diseases such as chickenpox
  • chronic conditions, such as psoriasis
  • infections such as ringworm
  • infestations such as scabies

Sometimes, an itchy rash will improve without complicated treatment or prescription medication. However, a rash can be an early indication or warning sign of a more serious long-term health concern, which a person should address.

It is important to take itchy rashes seriously, particularly if they are long lasting and of unknown origin. Here are eight of the more common examples of itchy rashes.

A range of everyday products and plants from rubber gloves to poison ivy contain different allergies that can cause an itchy rash in people who are sensitive to them.

The medical term for this response is allergic contact dermatitis. According to the National Institutes of Health NIH, nickel, which inexpensive earrings for pierced ears often contain, is the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis.

Symptoms can develop within a day or two after exposure but may take weeks to go away.

Calamine lotions and oatmeal baths might help control itching.

Severe forms, including a rash on the face or an uncomfortable rash that will not go away, may require prescription topical or oral steroids. Avoiding known triggers is the best way to prevent future episodes.

Many doctors and skin specialists consider psoriasis to be an autoimmune inflammatory disorder that disrupts the normal cycle of skin cells. A haywire immune system causes white blood cells to wreak havoc in the skin, resulting in red, raised, scaly plaques.

Around 2% of people living in the United States have psoriasis. It is a genetic disease that runs in families, so it is not contagious. This means that a person cannot contract psoriasis from coming into contact with someone who has it.

The location and appearance of plaques depend on the type of psoriasis.

With plaque psoriasis, which affects 90% of people with psoriasis, pink or red plaques develop in symmetrical patterns on the elbows, knees, and near the hairline. These plaques usually have a layer of white dead skin cells.

Another common type of psoriasis is guttate psoriasis. People with guttate psoriasis develop multiple little raised, red papules and plaques.

More severe forms of psoriasis, such as erythrodermic psoriasis, which affects a large portion of the body, or pustular psoriasis, which causes pus-filled blisters, are less common. Psoriasis can also cause pitting and other damage to fingernails and toenails.

In addition to the physical and social discomfort that an itchy psoriasis rash can cause, it can also lead to other complications, including psoriatic arthritis. This affects up to 30% of people with psoriasis and carries an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and metabolic syndrome.

Treatment depends on the severity of an individual’s psoriasis. Options range from topical skin treatments to light therapy to systemic medications that target the immune system.

Read about 12 home remedies for psoriasis here.

Hives, or urticaria, are a kind of itchy rash triggered by the body’s release of histamine in response to:

  • eating certain foods, including shellfish, peanuts, and tree nuts
  • taking medications that someone has an allergy to, such as sulfa drugs and penicillin
  • insect bites
  • sunlight
  • intense physical activity
  • infections

The American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology report that roughly 20% of people will experience hives at some point in their lives.

In most cases, hives get better within a few days. However, some people have hives for months at a time.

Allergies rarely cause these long lasting or chronic cases of hives. Antihistamines can usually control itching and discomfort in acute cases.

Learn more about how to treat hives here.

Also known as miliaria, heat rash develops when the sweat glands in the skin become blocked, causing inflammation and itchy red bumps.

Heat rash does not usually require treatment and goes away on its own, particularly when the person with the rash moves to a cooler area.

Read about 12 home remedies for heat rash here.

Some other conditions can also cause an itchy rash. Some common examples include:

Chickenpox

The primary symptom of chickenpox is a rash that develops into itchy, fluid-filled blisters. These will eventually scab over. Chickenpox is highly contagious, so individuals with the condition must avoid contact with others until no new blisters form, and all of the old blisters have scabbed over. Antihistamines and lukewarm oatmeal baths can help control the itching.

Measles

A very contagious virus causes measles. It typically results in a brownish blotchy rash, but other symptoms may develop before the rash appears. These include fever, white spots inside the mouth, and a runny nose.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease

As the name suggests, hand, foot, and mouth disease can cause an itchy or painful rash on the hands or feet or both. It is most common in children under 5 years old.

It is a contagious virus that can spread through nose and throat secretions, feces, or scabs and blisters.

Aside from a rash, other symptoms include fever, sore throat, and mouth sores.

Bedbugs, which are roughly the size of poppy seeds, can cause very visible and itchy welts and rashes.

People who are highly sensitive or allergic to bed bugs may need antihistamines to reduce the itching.

It usually takes professionals to remove bed bugs. However, some of these methods may help.

The scabies mite, which is invisible to the naked eye, can also cause an itchy rash. A person can develop scabies after direct contact with a person who has the condition, or through contact with infected objects. Scabies is readily treated but requires prescription medication.

Infections can cause an itchy rash on different parts of the body.

Ringworm is a fungal infection that causes a circular, red, or brown itchy rash with a thicker edge.

Athlete’s foot is ringworm that develops on a person’s foot. However, it can spread from one body part to another.

Both ringworm and athlete’s foot require antifungal creams, sprays, or sometimes oral medications for treatment.

Effective treatment for an itchy rash depends on the cause.

Some rashes, such as those due to poison ivy, will go away on their own. Others, such as psoriasis, tend to be a lifelong condition.

There are many reasons why a person may have an itchy rash. It may be a side effect of a more severe underlying condition. A person should see a doctor if they are concerned about the cause of their rash.

Individuals with long lasting or unexplained rashes should see a doctor for symptom relief.

It is possible to manage most rashes, including those caused by more serious medical conditions, with medical treatment.

8 types of itchy rash

A rash is a change in the skin that can result in bumpy, blotchy, or scaly patches. Many people have had an itchy rash at some point in their lives. Many are harmless and will go away on their own, but others may be more persistent due to underlying causes or conditions.

Many different factors can cause an itchy rash, including:

  • an allergic reaction to foods, medications, or objects, such as nickel earrings
  • touching or exposure to environmental allergens
  • diseases such as chickenpox
  • chronic conditions, such as psoriasis
  • infections such as ringworm
  • infestations such as scabies

Sometimes, an itchy rash will improve without complicated treatment or prescription medication. However, a rash can be an early indication or warning sign of a more serious long-term health concern, which a person should address.

It is important to take itchy rashes seriously, particularly if they are long lasting and of unknown origin. Here are eight of the more common examples of itchy rashes.

A range of everyday products and plants from rubber gloves to poison ivy contain different allergies that can cause an itchy rash in people who are sensitive to them.

The medical term for this response is allergic contact dermatitis. According to the National Institutes of Health NIH, nickel, which inexpensive earrings for pierced ears often contain, is the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis.

Symptoms can develop within a day or two after exposure but may take weeks to go away.

Calamine lotions and oatmeal baths might help control itching.

Severe forms, including a rash on the face or an uncomfortable rash that will not go away, may require prescription topical or oral steroids. Avoiding known triggers is the best way to prevent future episodes.

Many doctors and skin specialists consider psoriasis to be an autoimmune inflammatory disorder that disrupts the normal cycle of skin cells. A haywire immune system causes white blood cells to wreak havoc in the skin, resulting in red, raised, scaly plaques.

Around 2% of people living in the United States have psoriasis. It is a genetic disease that runs in families, so it is not contagious. This means that a person cannot contract psoriasis from coming into contact with someone who has it.

The location and appearance of plaques depend on the type of psoriasis.

With plaque psoriasis, which affects 90% of people with psoriasis, pink or red plaques develop in symmetrical patterns on the elbows, knees, and near the hairline. These plaques usually have a layer of white dead skin cells.

Another common type of psoriasis is guttate psoriasis. People with guttate psoriasis develop multiple little raised, red papules and plaques.

More severe forms of psoriasis, such as erythrodermic psoriasis, which affects a large portion of the body, or pustular psoriasis, which causes pus-filled blisters, are less common. Psoriasis can also cause pitting and other damage to fingernails and toenails.

In addition to the physical and social discomfort that an itchy psoriasis rash can cause, it can also lead to other complications, including psoriatic arthritis. This affects up to 30% of people with psoriasis and carries an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and metabolic syndrome.

Treatment depends on the severity of an individual’s psoriasis. Options range from topical skin treatments to light therapy to systemic medications that target the immune system.

Read about 12 home remedies for psoriasis here.

Hives, or urticaria, are a kind of itchy rash triggered by the body’s release of histamine in response to:

  • eating certain foods, including shellfish, peanuts, and tree nuts
  • taking medications that someone has an allergy to, such as sulfa drugs and penicillin
  • insect bites
  • sunlight
  • intense physical activity
  • infections

The American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology report that roughly 20% of people will experience hives at some point in their lives.

In most cases, hives get better within a few days. However, some people have hives for months at a time.

Allergies rarely cause these long lasting or chronic cases of hives. Antihistamines can usually control itching and discomfort in acute cases.

Learn more about how to treat hives here.

Also known as miliaria, heat rash develops when the sweat glands in the skin become blocked, causing inflammation and itchy red bumps.

Heat rash does not usually require treatment and goes away on its own, particularly when the person with the rash moves to a cooler area.

Read about 12 home remedies for heat rash here.

Some other conditions can also cause an itchy rash. Some common examples include:

Chickenpox

The primary symptom of chickenpox is a rash that develops into itchy, fluid-filled blisters. These will eventually scab over. Chickenpox is highly contagious, so individuals with the condition must avoid contact with others until no new blisters form, and all of the old blisters have scabbed over. Antihistamines and lukewarm oatmeal baths can help control the itching.

Measles

A very contagious virus causes measles. It typically results in a brownish blotchy rash, but other symptoms may develop before the rash appears. These include fever, white spots inside the mouth, and a runny nose.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease

As the name suggests, hand, foot, and mouth disease can cause an itchy or painful rash on the hands or feet or both. It is most common in children under 5 years old.

It is a contagious virus that can spread through nose and throat secretions, feces, or scabs and blisters.

Aside from a rash, other symptoms include fever, sore throat, and mouth sores.

Bedbugs, which are roughly the size of poppy seeds, can cause very visible and itchy welts and rashes.

People who are highly sensitive or allergic to bed bugs may need antihistamines to reduce the itching.

It usually takes professionals to remove bed bugs. However, some of these methods may help.

The scabies mite, which is invisible to the naked eye, can also cause an itchy rash. A person can develop scabies after direct contact with a person who has the condition, or through contact with infected objects. Scabies is readily treated but requires prescription medication.

Infections can cause an itchy rash on different parts of the body.

Ringworm is a fungal infection that causes a circular, red, or brown itchy rash with a thicker edge.

Athlete’s foot is ringworm that develops on a person’s foot. However, it can spread from one body part to another.

Both ringworm and athlete’s foot require antifungal creams, sprays, or sometimes oral medications for treatment.

Effective treatment for an itchy rash depends on the cause.

Some rashes, such as those due to poison ivy, will go away on their own. Others, such as psoriasis, tend to be a lifelong condition.

There are many reasons why a person may have an itchy rash. It may be a side effect of a more severe underlying condition. A person should see a doctor if they are concerned about the cause of their rash.

Individuals with long lasting or unexplained rashes should see a doctor for symptom relief.

It is possible to manage most rashes, including those caused by more serious medical conditions, with medical treatment.

8 types of itchy rash

A rash is a change in the skin that can result in bumpy, blotchy, or scaly patches. Many people have had an itchy rash at some point in their lives. Many are harmless and will go away on their own, but others may be more persistent due to underlying causes or conditions.

Many different factors can cause an itchy rash, including:

  • an allergic reaction to foods, medications, or objects, such as nickel earrings
  • touching or exposure to environmental allergens
  • diseases such as chickenpox
  • chronic conditions, such as psoriasis
  • infections such as ringworm
  • infestations such as scabies

Sometimes, an itchy rash will improve without complicated treatment or prescription medication. However, a rash can be an early indication or warning sign of a more serious long-term health concern, which a person should address.

It is important to take itchy rashes seriously, particularly if they are long lasting and of unknown origin. Here are eight of the more common examples of itchy rashes.

A range of everyday products and plants from rubber gloves to poison ivy contain different allergies that can cause an itchy rash in people who are sensitive to them.

The medical term for this response is allergic contact dermatitis. According to the National Institutes of Health NIH, nickel, which inexpensive earrings for pierced ears often contain, is the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis.

Symptoms can develop within a day or two after exposure but may take weeks to go away.

Calamine lotions and oatmeal baths might help control itching.

Severe forms, including a rash on the face or an uncomfortable rash that will not go away, may require prescription topical or oral steroids. Avoiding known triggers is the best way to prevent future episodes.

Many doctors and skin specialists consider psoriasis to be an autoimmune inflammatory disorder that disrupts the normal cycle of skin cells. A haywire immune system causes white blood cells to wreak havoc in the skin, resulting in red, raised, scaly plaques.

Around 2% of people living in the United States have psoriasis. It is a genetic disease that runs in families, so it is not contagious. This means that a person cannot contract psoriasis from coming into contact with someone who has it.

The location and appearance of plaques depend on the type of psoriasis.

With plaque psoriasis, which affects 90% of people with psoriasis, pink or red plaques develop in symmetrical patterns on the elbows, knees, and near the hairline. These plaques usually have a layer of white dead skin cells.

Another common type of psoriasis is guttate psoriasis. People with guttate psoriasis develop multiple little raised, red papules and plaques.

More severe forms of psoriasis, such as erythrodermic psoriasis, which affects a large portion of the body, or pustular psoriasis, which causes pus-filled blisters, are less common. Psoriasis can also cause pitting and other damage to fingernails and toenails.

In addition to the physical and social discomfort that an itchy psoriasis rash can cause, it can also lead to other complications, including psoriatic arthritis. This affects up to 30% of people with psoriasis and carries an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and metabolic syndrome.

Treatment depends on the severity of an individual’s psoriasis. Options range from topical skin treatments to light therapy to systemic medications that target the immune system.

Read about 12 home remedies for psoriasis here.

Hives, or urticaria, are a kind of itchy rash triggered by the body’s release of histamine in response to:

  • eating certain foods, including shellfish, peanuts, and tree nuts
  • taking medications that someone has an allergy to, such as sulfa drugs and penicillin
  • insect bites
  • sunlight
  • intense physical activity
  • infections

The American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology report that roughly 20% of people will experience hives at some point in their lives.

In most cases, hives get better within a few days. However, some people have hives for months at a time.

Allergies rarely cause these long lasting or chronic cases of hives. Antihistamines can usually control itching and discomfort in acute cases.

Learn more about how to treat hives here.

Also known as miliaria, heat rash develops when the sweat glands in the skin become blocked, causing inflammation and itchy red bumps.

Heat rash does not usually require treatment and goes away on its own, particularly when the person with the rash moves to a cooler area.

Read about 12 home remedies for heat rash here.

Some other conditions can also cause an itchy rash. Some common examples include:

Chickenpox

The primary symptom of chickenpox is a rash that develops into itchy, fluid-filled blisters. These will eventually scab over. Chickenpox is highly contagious, so individuals with the condition must avoid contact with others until no new blisters form, and all of the old blisters have scabbed over. Antihistamines and lukewarm oatmeal baths can help control the itching.

Measles

A very contagious virus causes measles. It typically results in a brownish blotchy rash, but other symptoms may develop before the rash appears. These include fever, white spots inside the mouth, and a runny nose.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease

As the name suggests, hand, foot, and mouth disease can cause an itchy or painful rash on the hands or feet or both. It is most common in children under 5 years old.

It is a contagious virus that can spread through nose and throat secretions, feces, or scabs and blisters.

Aside from a rash, other symptoms include fever, sore throat, and mouth sores.

Bedbugs, which are roughly the size of poppy seeds, can cause very visible and itchy welts and rashes.

People who are highly sensitive or allergic to bed bugs may need antihistamines to reduce the itching.

It usually takes professionals to remove bed bugs. However, some of these methods may help.

The scabies mite, which is invisible to the naked eye, can also cause an itchy rash. A person can develop scabies after direct contact with a person who has the condition, or through contact with infected objects. Scabies is readily treated but requires prescription medication.

Infections can cause an itchy rash on different parts of the body.

Ringworm is a fungal infection that causes a circular, red, or brown itchy rash with a thicker edge.

Athlete’s foot is ringworm that develops on a person’s foot. However, it can spread from one body part to another.

Both ringworm and athlete’s foot require antifungal creams, sprays, or sometimes oral medications for treatment.

Effective treatment for an itchy rash depends on the cause.

Some rashes, such as those due to poison ivy, will go away on their own. Others, such as psoriasis, tend to be a lifelong condition.

There are many reasons why a person may have an itchy rash. It may be a side effect of a more severe underlying condition. A person should see a doctor if they are concerned about the cause of their rash.

Individuals with long lasting or unexplained rashes should see a doctor for symptom relief.

It is possible to manage most rashes, including those caused by more serious medical conditions, with medical treatment.

8 types of itchy rash

A rash is a change in the skin that can result in bumpy, blotchy, or scaly patches. Many people have had an itchy rash at some point in their lives. Many are harmless and will go away on their own, but others may be more persistent due to underlying causes or conditions.

Many different factors can cause an itchy rash, including:

  • an allergic reaction to foods, medications, or objects, such as nickel earrings
  • touching or exposure to environmental allergens
  • diseases such as chickenpox
  • chronic conditions, such as psoriasis
  • infections such as ringworm
  • infestations such as scabies

Sometimes, an itchy rash will improve without complicated treatment or prescription medication. However, a rash can be an early indication or warning sign of a more serious long-term health concern, which a person should address.

It is important to take itchy rashes seriously, particularly if they are long lasting and of unknown origin. Here are eight of the more common examples of itchy rashes.

A range of everyday products and plants from rubber gloves to poison ivy contain different allergies that can cause an itchy rash in people who are sensitive to them.

The medical term for this response is allergic contact dermatitis. According to the National Institutes of Health NIH, nickel, which inexpensive earrings for pierced ears often contain, is the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis.

Symptoms can develop within a day or two after exposure but may take weeks to go away.

Calamine lotions and oatmeal baths might help control itching.

Severe forms, including a rash on the face or an uncomfortable rash that will not go away, may require prescription topical or oral steroids. Avoiding known triggers is the best way to prevent future episodes.

Many doctors and skin specialists consider psoriasis to be an autoimmune inflammatory disorder that disrupts the normal cycle of skin cells. A haywire immune system causes white blood cells to wreak havoc in the skin, resulting in red, raised, scaly plaques.

Around 2% of people living in the United States have psoriasis. It is a genetic disease that runs in families, so it is not contagious. This means that a person cannot contract psoriasis from coming into contact with someone who has it.

The location and appearance of plaques depend on the type of psoriasis.

With plaque psoriasis, which affects 90% of people with psoriasis, pink or red plaques develop in symmetrical patterns on the elbows, knees, and near the hairline. These plaques usually have a layer of white dead skin cells.

Another common type of psoriasis is guttate psoriasis. People with guttate psoriasis develop multiple little raised, red papules and plaques.

More severe forms of psoriasis, such as erythrodermic psoriasis, which affects a large portion of the body, or pustular psoriasis, which causes pus-filled blisters, are less common. Psoriasis can also cause pitting and other damage to fingernails and toenails.

In addition to the physical and social discomfort that an itchy psoriasis rash can cause, it can also lead to other complications, including psoriatic arthritis. This affects up to 30% of people with psoriasis and carries an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and metabolic syndrome.

Treatment depends on the severity of an individual’s psoriasis. Options range from topical skin treatments to light therapy to systemic medications that target the immune system.

Read about 12 home remedies for psoriasis here.

Hives, or urticaria, are a kind of itchy rash triggered by the body’s release of histamine in response to:

  • eating certain foods, including shellfish, peanuts, and tree nuts
  • taking medications that someone has an allergy to, such as sulfa drugs and penicillin
  • insect bites
  • sunlight
  • intense physical activity
  • infections

The American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology report that roughly 20% of people will experience hives at some point in their lives.

In most cases, hives get better within a few days. However, some people have hives for months at a time.

Allergies rarely cause these long lasting or chronic cases of hives. Antihistamines can usually control itching and discomfort in acute cases.

Learn more about how to treat hives here.

Also known as miliaria, heat rash develops when the sweat glands in the skin become blocked, causing inflammation and itchy red bumps.

Heat rash does not usually require treatment and goes away on its own, particularly when the person with the rash moves to a cooler area.

Read about 12 home remedies for heat rash here.

Some other conditions can also cause an itchy rash. Some common examples include:

Chickenpox

The primary symptom of chickenpox is a rash that develops into itchy, fluid-filled blisters. These will eventually scab over. Chickenpox is highly contagious, so individuals with the condition must avoid contact with others until no new blisters form, and all of the old blisters have scabbed over. Antihistamines and lukewarm oatmeal baths can help control the itching.

Measles

A very contagious virus causes measles. It typically results in a brownish blotchy rash, but other symptoms may develop before the rash appears. These include fever, white spots inside the mouth, and a runny nose.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease

As the name suggests, hand, foot, and mouth disease can cause an itchy or painful rash on the hands or feet or both. It is most common in children under 5 years old.

It is a contagious virus that can spread through nose and throat secretions, feces, or scabs and blisters.

Aside from a rash, other symptoms include fever, sore throat, and mouth sores.

Bedbugs, which are roughly the size of poppy seeds, can cause very visible and itchy welts and rashes.

People who are highly sensitive or allergic to bed bugs may need antihistamines to reduce the itching.

It usually takes professionals to remove bed bugs. However, some of these methods may help.

The scabies mite, which is invisible to the naked eye, can also cause an itchy rash. A person can develop scabies after direct contact with a person who has the condition, or through contact with infected objects. Scabies is readily treated but requires prescription medication.

Infections can cause an itchy rash on different parts of the body.

Ringworm is a fungal infection that causes a circular, red, or brown itchy rash with a thicker edge.

Athlete’s foot is ringworm that develops on a person’s foot. However, it can spread from one body part to another.

Both ringworm and athlete’s foot require antifungal creams, sprays, or sometimes oral medications for treatment.

Effective treatment for an itchy rash depends on the cause.

Some rashes, such as those due to poison ivy, will go away on their own. Others, such as psoriasis, tend to be a lifelong condition.

There are many reasons why a person may have an itchy rash. It may be a side effect of a more severe underlying condition. A person should see a doctor if they are concerned about the cause of their rash.

Individuals with long lasting or unexplained rashes should see a doctor for symptom relief.

It is possible to manage most rashes, including those caused by more serious medical conditions, with medical treatment.

8 types of itchy rash

A rash is a change in the skin that can result in bumpy, blotchy, or scaly patches. Many people have had an itchy rash at some point in their lives. Many are harmless and will go away on their own, but others may be more persistent due to underlying causes or conditions.

Many different factors can cause an itchy rash, including:

  • an allergic reaction to foods, medications, or objects, such as nickel earrings
  • touching or exposure to environmental allergens
  • diseases such as chickenpox
  • chronic conditions, such as psoriasis
  • infections such as ringworm
  • infestations such as scabies

Sometimes, an itchy rash will improve without complicated treatment or prescription medication. However, a rash can be an early indication or warning sign of a more serious long-term health concern, which a person should address.

It is important to take itchy rashes seriously, particularly if they are long lasting and of unknown origin. Here are eight of the more common examples of itchy rashes.

A range of everyday products and plants from rubber gloves to poison ivy contain different allergies that can cause an itchy rash in people who are sensitive to them.

The medical term for this response is allergic contact dermatitis. According to the National Institutes of Health NIH, nickel, which inexpensive earrings for pierced ears often contain, is the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis.

Symptoms can develop within a day or two after exposure but may take weeks to go away.

Calamine lotions and oatmeal baths might help control itching.

Severe forms, including a rash on the face or an uncomfortable rash that will not go away, may require prescription topical or oral steroids. Avoiding known triggers is the best way to prevent future episodes.

Many doctors and skin specialists consider psoriasis to be an autoimmune inflammatory disorder that disrupts the normal cycle of skin cells. A haywire immune system causes white blood cells to wreak havoc in the skin, resulting in red, raised, scaly plaques.

Around 2% of people living in the United States have psoriasis. It is a genetic disease that runs in families, so it is not contagious. This means that a person cannot contract psoriasis from coming into contact with someone who has it.

The location and appearance of plaques depend on the type of psoriasis.

With plaque psoriasis, which affects 90% of people with psoriasis, pink or red plaques develop in symmetrical patterns on the elbows, knees, and near the hairline. These plaques usually have a layer of white dead skin cells.

Another common type of psoriasis is guttate psoriasis. People with guttate psoriasis develop multiple little raised, red papules and plaques.

More severe forms of psoriasis, such as erythrodermic psoriasis, which affects a large portion of the body, or pustular psoriasis, which causes pus-filled blisters, are less common. Psoriasis can also cause pitting and other damage to fingernails and toenails.

In addition to the physical and social discomfort that an itchy psoriasis rash can cause, it can also lead to other complications, including psoriatic arthritis. This affects up to 30% of people with psoriasis and carries an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and metabolic syndrome.

Treatment depends on the severity of an individual’s psoriasis. Options range from topical skin treatments to light therapy to systemic medications that target the immune system.

Read about 12 home remedies for psoriasis here.

Hives, or urticaria, are a kind of itchy rash triggered by the body’s release of histamine in response to:

  • eating certain foods, including shellfish, peanuts, and tree nuts
  • taking medications that someone has an allergy to, such as sulfa drugs and penicillin
  • insect bites
  • sunlight
  • intense physical activity
  • infections

The American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology report that roughly 20% of people will experience hives at some point in their lives.

In most cases, hives get better within a few days. However, some people have hives for months at a time.

Allergies rarely cause these long lasting or chronic cases of hives. Antihistamines can usually control itching and discomfort in acute cases.

Learn more about how to treat hives here.

Also known as miliaria, heat rash develops when the sweat glands in the skin become blocked, causing inflammation and itchy red bumps.

Heat rash does not usually require treatment and goes away on its own, particularly when the person with the rash moves to a cooler area.

Read about 12 home remedies for heat rash here.

Some other conditions can also cause an itchy rash. Some common examples include:

Chickenpox

The primary symptom of chickenpox is a rash that develops into itchy, fluid-filled blisters. These will eventually scab over. Chickenpox is highly contagious, so individuals with the condition must avoid contact with others until no new blisters form, and all of the old blisters have scabbed over. Antihistamines and lukewarm oatmeal baths can help control the itching.

Measles

A very contagious virus causes measles. It typically results in a brownish blotchy rash, but other symptoms may develop before the rash appears. These include fever, white spots inside the mouth, and a runny nose.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease

As the name suggests, hand, foot, and mouth disease can cause an itchy or painful rash on the hands or feet or both. It is most common in children under 5 years old.

It is a contagious virus that can spread through nose and throat secretions, feces, or scabs and blisters.

Aside from a rash, other symptoms include fever, sore throat, and mouth sores.

Bedbugs, which are roughly the size of poppy seeds, can cause very visible and itchy welts and rashes.

People who are highly sensitive or allergic to bed bugs may need antihistamines to reduce the itching.

It usually takes professionals to remove bed bugs. However, some of these methods may help.

The scabies mite, which is invisible to the naked eye, can also cause an itchy rash. A person can develop scabies after direct contact with a person who has the condition, or through contact with infected objects. Scabies is readily treated but requires prescription medication.

Infections can cause an itchy rash on different parts of the body.

Ringworm is a fungal infection that causes a circular, red, or brown itchy rash with a thicker edge.

Athlete’s foot is ringworm that develops on a person’s foot. However, it can spread from one body part to another.

Both ringworm and athlete’s foot require antifungal creams, sprays, or sometimes oral medications for treatment.

Effective treatment for an itchy rash depends on the cause.

Some rashes, such as those due to poison ivy, will go away on their own. Others, such as psoriasis, tend to be a lifelong condition.

There are many reasons why a person may have an itchy rash. It may be a side effect of a more severe underlying condition. A person should see a doctor if they are concerned about the cause of their rash.

Individuals with long lasting or unexplained rashes should see a doctor for symptom relief.

It is possible to manage most rashes, including those caused by more serious medical conditions, with medical treatment.

Causes, 68 pictures of symptoms, and treatments

A rash is defined as a widespread eruption of skin lesions. It is a very broad medical term. Rashes can vary in appearance greatly, and there are many potential causes. Because of the variety, there is also a wide range of treatments.

A rash can be local to just one small part of the body, or it can cover a large area.

Rashes come in many forms, and common causes include contact dermatitis, bodily infections, and allergic reactions to taking medication. They can be dry, moist, bumpy, smooth, cracked, or blistered; they can be painful, itch, and even change color.

Rashes affect millions of people across the world; some rashes may need no treatment and will clear up on their own, some can be treated at home; others might be a sign of something more serious.

There are a number of potential causes of rashes, including allergies, diseases, reactions, and medications. They can also be caused by bacterial, fungal, viral, or parasitic infections.

Contact dermatitis

One of the most common causes of rashes – contact dermatitis – occurs when the skin has a reaction to something that it has touched. The skin may become red and inflamed, and the rash tends to be weepy and oozy. Common causes include:

  • dyes in clothes
  • beauty products
  • poisonous plants, such as poison ivy and sumac
  • chemicals, such as latex or rubber

Medications

Certain medications can cause rashes in some people; this may be a side effect or an allergic reaction. Also, some medications, including some antibiotics, cause photosensitivity – they make the individual more susceptible to sunlight. The photosensitivity reaction looks similar to sunburn.

Infections

Infections by bacteria, viruses, or fungi can also cause a rash. These rashes will vary depending on the type of infection. For instance, candidiasis, a common fungal infection, causes an itchy rash that generally appears in skin folds.

It is important to see a doctor if an infection is suspected.

Autoimmune conditions

An autoimmune condition occurs when an individual’s immune system begins to attack healthy tissue. There are many autoimmune diseases, some of which can produce rashes.For instance, lupus is a condition that affects a number of body systems, including the skin. It produces a butterfly-shaped rash on the face.

Rashes come in many forms and develop for many reasons.

However, there are some basic measures that can speed up recovery and ease some of the discomfort:

  • Use mild soap – not scented. These soaps are sometimes advertised for sensative skin, or for baby skin.
  • Avoid washing with hot water – opt for warm.
  • Try to allow the rash to breathe. Do not cover with a Band-Aid or bandage.
  • Do not rub the rash dry, pat it.
  • If the rash is dry, for instance, in eczema, use unscented moisturizers.
  • Do not use any cosmetics or lotions that may be causing the rash – for instance, newly purchased items.
  • Avoid scratching to lessen the risk of infection.
  • Cortisone creams that can be purchased over-the-counter or online may ease itching.
  • Calamine can relieve some rashes, e.g. poison ivy, chickenpox, and poison oak.

If the rash causes mild pain, acetaminophen or ibuprofen may be useful, but these are not a long-term solution – they will not treat the cause of the rash.

It is important to speak with a doctor before taking any medication. Compare brands before purchasing over-the-counter or online products, to ensure the product is suitable.

If a rash occurs with the following symptoms, it is important to visit a doctor:

  • a sore throat
  • pain in joints
  • if you have had a recent animal or insect bite
  • red streaks near the rash
  • tender regions near the rash
  • a large collection of pus

Although the majority of rashes are not a major cause for concern, anyone experiencing the following symptoms should go to the hospital straight away:

  • quickly changing coloration on the skin
  • difficulty breathing or feeling like the throat is closing up
  • increasing pain or severe pain
  • high fever
  • confusion
  • dizziness
  • swelling of the face or extremities
  • severe pain in the neck or head
  • repeated vomiting or diarrhea

If a rash occurs with the following symptoms, it is important to visit a doctor:

  • a sore throat
  • pain in joints
  • if you have had a recent animal or insect bite
  • red streaks near the rash
  • tender regions near the rash
  • a large collection of pus

Although the majority of rashes are not a major cause for concern, anyone experiencing the following symptoms should go to the hospital straight away:

  • quickly changing coloration on the skin
  • difficulty breathing or feeling like the throat is closing up
  • increasing pain or severe pain
  • high fever
  • confusion
  • dizziness
  • swelling of the face or extremities
  • severe pain in the neck or head
  • repeated vomiting or diarrhea

1. Bites and stings

Many insects can cause a rash through a bite or sting. Although the reaction will vary depending on the person and the animal, symptoms often include:

  • redness and rash
  • itching
  • pain
  • swelling – either localized to the site of the bite or sting or more widespread

2. Flea bites

Fleas are tiny jumping insects that can live in fabrics within the home. They have a very fast breeding cycle and can take over a home very rapidly.

  • flea bites on humans often appear as red spots
  • the skin can become irritated and painful
  • secondary infections can be caused by scratching

3. Fifth disease

Also known as erythema infectiosum and slapped cheek syndrome, fifth disease is caused by the parvovirus B19. One of the symptoms is a rash, which appears in three stages:

  • A blotchy red rash on the cheeks with groups of red papules.
  • After 4 days, a net of red marks may appear on the arms and trunk.
  • In the third stage, the rash only appears after exposure to sunlight or heat.

4. Impetigo

Impetigo is a highly contagious skin infection that most commonly affects children. The first sign is normally a patch of red, itchy skin. There are two types of impetigo:

  • Non-bullous impetigo – red sores appear around the mouth and nose.
  • Bullous impetigo – less common, generally affects children under 2. Medium to large blisters appear on the trunk, arms, and legs.

5. Shingles

Shingles is an infection of an individual nerve. It is caused by the same virus as chickenpox – the varicella-zoster virus. Symptoms include:

  • A rash similar to chickenpox in a band around the infected nerve.
  • Blisters can merge producing a solid red band.
  • Rash is often painful.

6. Scabies

Scabies is a skin condition caused by a microscopic mite. It is very contagious and spreads easily through person-to-person contact. Symptoms include:

  • Intense itching – often worse at night.
  • Rash – appears in lines as the mite burrows. Blisters are sometimes present.
  • Sores – may appear where the rash has been scratched.

7. Eczema

Eczema is one of the most common skin conditions. It often first develops in childhood. Symptoms depend on the type of eczema and on the age of the individual but they often include:

  • dry scaly patches on the skin
  • intensely itchy rash
  • cracked and rough skin

8. Hay fever

Hay fever, or allergic rhinitis, is an allergic response to pollen. Symptoms can be similar to those of a common cold, such as:

  • runny nose
  • watery eyes
  • sneezing

Hay fever can also cause a rash, similar to hives. These will appear as itchy red patches or eruptions on the skin.

9. Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever is a disease caused by a toxin released by a bacteria – Streptococcus pyogenes – the same bacteria that is responsible for Strep throat. Symptoms include a sore throat, rash, and fever. The rash has the following characteristics:

  • red blotches
  • blotches turn to fine pink-red rash like sunburn
  • skin feels rough

10. Rheumatic fever

Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory reaction to a streptococcal infection, such as Strep throat. It most commonly affects children aged 5-15. Symptoms include:

  • small painless bumps under skin
  • red skin rash
  • swollen tonsils

11. Mono (mononucleosis)

Mono, or mononucleosis, is caused by a virus. It is rarely serious, but symptoms can include:

  • a pink, measle-like rash
  • body aches
  • high fevers

12. Ringworm

Ringworm, despite its name, is caused by a fungus. The fungal infection affects the top layer of the skin, scalp, and nails. Symptoms vary depending on the site of the infection, but can include:

  • itchy, red rash in rings – sometimes slightly raised
  • small patches of scaly skin
  • hair near patches breaks away

13. Measles

Measles is a highly contagious disease caused by the rubeola virus. Symptoms include:

  • a reddish-brown rash
  • small grayish-white spots with bluish-white centers in the mouth
  • dry cough

14. Yeast infection (candidiasis)

Candidiasis is a common fungal infection of the genitals. It affects both sexes, but more commonly, women. Symptoms include:

  • rash
  • pain and soreness in the genital area
  • itching, burning, and irritation

15. Stasis dermatitis

Stasis dermatitis is also known as varicose eczema. It develops due to poor circulation and most commonly affects the lower legs. Symptoms include:

  • varicose veins covered in itchy, dry skin
  • red, swollen, painful skin, which may weep or crust over
  • heavy, aching legs after standing for some time

16. German measles

Also known as rubella, German measles are an infection caused by the rubella virus. Symptoms include:

  • rash – less bright than measles, often begins on the face
  • inflamed, red eyes
  • stuffy nose

17. Sepsis

Sepsis, often called blood poisoning, is a medical emergency. It is the result of a wide scale immune response to an infection. Symptoms vary, but can include:

  • a rash that does not fade under pressure
  • fever
  • increased heart rate

18. West Nile virus

West Nile virus is an infection spread by mosquitos. Often, there are no symptoms, but if they do occur, they can include:

19. Lyme disease

Lyme disease is a bacterial infection transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick. The symptoms include an erythema migrans rash that often appears in the early stages of the disease.

  • The rash begins as a small red area that may be warm to the touch but not itchy.
  • The center loses color, giving it a bull’s-eye appearance.
  • The rash does not necessarily appear at the site of the tick bite.

20. Cellulitis

Cellulitis is a bacterial infection of the deep layer of skin – the dermis. It normally occurs when bacteria enter through a break in the skin. Symptoms include:

  • Skin sores or rash that starts suddenly and grows quickly.
  • Warm skin around the redness.
  • Fever and fatigue.

21. MRSA

MRSA (methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus) is a contagious bacterial infection that is resistant to a range of antibiotics. This makes it difficult to treat. Symptoms include:

  • rash
  • swelling and tenderness in the affected part of the body
  • wounds that do not heal

Photo credit: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

22. Chickenpox

Chickenpox is an infection by the varicella zoster virus. It is unpleasant, but most people recover within a couple of weeks. Symptoms include:

  • An itchy rash of small red spots first appears on the face and trunk, and then spreads across the body.
  • Spots then develop blisters on top.
  • After 48 hours, the blisters cloud and start to dry out.

23. Lupus

Lupus is an autoimmune disease, meaning that the immune system attacks healthy tissue. Symptoms vary widely from person to person, but can include:

  • Butterfly-shaped rash across the cheeks and the bridge of the nose.
  • Flaky red spots or a purple, scaly rash on the face, neck, or arms.
  • Skin sensitivity to the sun.

24. Toxic shock syndrome

Toxic shock syndrome is a rare condition sparked by a bacterial infection. It develops quickly and can be life-threatening. All people who have toxic shock syndrome have fever and a rash with the following characteristics:

  • looks similar to sunburn and covers most of the body
  • flat not raised
  • turns white when pressed

25. Acute HIV infection

During the first stages of HIV, levels of the virus in the blood are very high because the immune system has not yet started tackling the infection. Early symptoms include a rash with the following features:

  • mostly affects the upper part of the body
  • flat or barely raised small red dots
  • not generally itchy

26. Hand, foot, and mouth

Hand, foot, and mouth is a childhood illness resulting from a viral infection. Symptoms include:

  • Rash – flat, non-itchy red blisters on the hands and soles of the feet.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Ulcers on the throat, tongue, and mouth.

Image credit: KlatschmohnAcker

27. Acrodermatitis

Acrodermatitis, a type of pustular psoriasis, is also known as Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. It is associated with viral infections. Symptoms include:

28. Hookworm

Hookworm is a common intestinal parasite. It can cause a range of complications. Symptoms include:

  • Skin rash in one particular area that is red, itchy, and raised.
  • Breathing complications.
  • Extreme tiredness.

29. Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki’s disease is a rare syndrome that affects children. It is characterized by an inflammation of the walls of the arteries throughout the body. Symptoms include:

  • A rash on the legs, arms, and torso and between the genitals and anus.
  • A rash on the soles of the feet and palms of the hand, sometimes with peeling skin.
  • Swollen, chapped, and dry lips.

30. Syphilis

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection. The disease is treatable, but will not go away on its own. Symptoms vary depending on the stage of the disease and include:

  • Initially – painless, firm, and round syphilitic sores (chancres).
  • Later – non-itchy red/brown rash that starts on the trunk and spreads across the body.
  • Oral, anal, and genital wart-like sores.

31. Typhoid

Typhoid is caused by a bacterial infection. It is spread quickly by contact with the feces of an infected person. If untreated, 25 percent of cases end in death. Symptoms can include:

  • Rash – rose-colored spots, especially on the neck and abdomen.
  • Fever – up to 104 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • Abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation.

Image credit: Charles N. Farmer, CDC/ Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1964

32. Dengue fever

Dengue fever, also called breakbone fever, is transmitted by mosquitos. The condition ranges from mild to severe. Symptoms can include:

  • Initially a flat, red rash appears over most of the body.
  • Later, a secondary rash appears, similar to measles.
  • Severe joint and muscle aches.

Image credit: calliopejen, 2009

33. Ebola

Ebola is a serious viral disease; it spreads rapidly through families and friends and can often be fatal. Often, a rash is one of the symptoms:

  • Initially, a short-lived mild rash may be present.
  • Rashes begin to peel and look like sunburn.
  • Later in the disease, the rash may turn to abscesses.

34. SARS

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a contagious and sometimes fatal respiratory illness. Symptoms can include:

35. Contact dermatitis

Contact dermatitis occurs when the skin comes in contact with an irritant; it is relatively common, and can be unpleasant. Symptoms include:

  • red, flaky rash that stings
  • blistered skin
  • burning sensation
  • cracked skin

36. Fungal infection

Although some fungi live naturally on the human body, sometimes, they can overtake. Symptoms depend on where the infection strikes, but can include:

  • a red rash with a circular shape and raised edges
  • cracking, flaking, or dry peeling of the skin in the infected area
  • chafing, irritation, itching, or burning in the infected area

37. Drug allergy

Certain people have allergic reactions to prescribed drugs. The body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the medication as if it were a pathogen. Symptoms vary depending on the individual and the drug, but can include:

  • Rash, including hives
  • Itchy skin or eyes
  • Swelling

38. Atypical pneumonia

Also called walking pneumonia, atypical pneumonia is less severe than the typical form. Symptoms can include:

  • rashes (uncommon)
  • weakness and fatigue
  • chest pain, especially when breathing deeply

39. Erysipelas

Erysipelas is a skin infection. It is a form of cellulitis, however, unlike cellulitis, it only affects the upper layers of the skin, rather than deeper tissue. The skin in a particular area becomes:

  • swollen, red, and shiny
  • tender and warm to the touch
  • red streaks above the affected area

Image credit: CDC/Dr. Thomas F. Sellers/Emory University

40. Reye’s syndrome

Reye’s syndrome is rare and most commonly occurs in children. It can cause serious damage to the body’s organs, particularly the brain and liver (image opposite shows fat accumulation in liver cells). Early symptoms include:

  • Rash on the palms of the hands and feet.
  • Repeated, heavy vomiting.
  • Lethargy, confusion, and headaches.

41. Addisonian crisis

Addisonian crisis – also known as an adrenal crisis and acute adrenal insufficiency – is a rare and potentially fatal condition where the adrenal glands stop working correctly. Symptoms include:

  • skin reactions, including rashes
  • low blood pressure
  • fever, chills, and sweating

42. Chemical burns

Chemical burns are relatively common; they can occur when a person comes in direct contact with a chemical or its fumes. Symptoms vary but can include:

  • skin that appears black or dead
  • irritation, burning, or redness in the affected area
  • numbness and pain

43. Colorado tick fever

Colorado tick fever, also known as mountain tick fever and American tick fever is a viral infection that develops after a bite from a Rocky Mountain wood tick. Symptoms can include:

  • a flat or pimply rash
  • skin or muscle pain
  • fever

44. Accidental poisoning by soap products

Some soap products contain strong chemicals. If they are ingested or inhaled, they can cause serious damage. Symptoms can include:

  • chemical burns on the skin
  • swelling of the throat, lips, and tongue
  • difficulty breathing

45. Adult-onset Still’s disease

Adult-onset Still’s disease is a rare inflammatory disorder that usually affects people in their 30s. Symptoms include:

  • A pink rash, mostly affecting the chest and thighs, which tends to fade quickly.
  • Joint and muscle pain, commonly affecting the knees, wrists, and ankles.
  • Enlarged spleen, liver, or lymph nodes.

46. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common form of arthritis in children; it used to be called juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Symptoms vary depending on the subtype, but can include:

  • fleeting rashes
  • a scaly psoriasis-like rash
  • spiking fever

47. Histoplasmosis

Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection of the lungs. Sometimes, it presents no symptoms, but in other cases, it produces pneumonia-like symptoms; these include:

  • rash
  • chest pain
  • red bumps on lower legs

48. Dermatomyositis

Dermatomyositis is a medical condition that causes muscle weakness and rashes. The rash may be red and patchy or bluish-purple in color; it appears in a number of places, including:

  • shoulders and upper back
  • knuckles
  • palms and fingers
  • around the eyes

49. Graft-versus-host disease

People being treated for certain cancers may sometimes undergo a stem cell transplant; in some cases, the donor cells attack the recipient’s healthy cells instead of the cancer cells. Symptoms can include:

  • Rashes affecting the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, ears, or face.
  • Other skin changes, such as drying, scaling, scarring, hardening, and darkening.
  • Hair loss.

50. Icthyosis vulgaris

Ichthyosis vulgaris is a hereditary skin condition that often begins in childhood. It is caused by a mutation in the gene that codes for the protein filaggrin; features include:

  • The skin’s surface becomes dry, thick, and scaly.
  • The dryness is often accompanied by fine, white, or skin-colored scales.
  • It commonly affects the elbows, shins, face, scalp, and torso.

51. Pemphigoid

Pemphigoid is a group of rare autoimmune conditions that primarily cause rashes and skin blistering; there are three main types:

  • Bullous pemphigoid – blistering on the lower torso, groin, armpits, inner thighs, soles, and palms.
  • Cicatricial pemphigoid – mostly affects mucous membranes.
  • Pemphigoid gestationis – develops during pregnancy and mostly affects the upper body.

52. Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis is a condition involving the growth of persistent or inappropriate granulomas or clumps of inflammatory cells. Symptoms include:

  • Erythema nodosum – a raised red rash on the lower extremities.
  • Nodules or growths under the skin, especially around scar tissue.
  • Skin discoloration.

53. Phenylketonuria

Phenylketonuria is a genetic condition that affects how phenylalanine is broken down by the body. It affects around 1 in 10,000 babies in the U.S. If left untreated, phenylalanine builds up, causing:

  • skin rashes, such as eczema
  • lighter skin and eyes due to abnormal levels of melanin
  • seizures

54. Porphyria

Porphyria refers to a group of genetic disorders that can affect the nervous system or the skin; symptoms are varied but can include:

  • redness and swelling on the skin
  • burning pain on the skin
  • changes in skin pigmentation

55. Dermatitis neglecta

Dermatitis neglecta is a skin disorder that arises when an individual does not clean themselves sufficiently. It can look similar to other allergic conditions. Symptoms include patches of scaly skin that are collections of:

  • sweat and moisture
  • dirt
  • bacteria and other germs

Image credit: Dr. Piotr Brzezinski Ph.D.

56. Heliotrope rash

Heliotrope rash is often the first noticeable symptom of an inflammatory muscle disease called dermatomyositis. The rash often includes:

  • raised and bumpy skin
  • red patches
  • skin looks dry and irritated

Image credit: Elizabeth M. Dugan, Adam M. Huber, Frederick W. Miller, Lisa G. Rider, 2010.

57. Uric acid skin rash

A person may develop a rash when high levels of uric acid in the blood cause crystals to form and accumulate in and around a joint. This can also lead to gout. Symptoms include:

  • A dotted rash on the surface of the skin
  • Redness, tenderness, and swelling of the joints
  • Prolonged joint pain for weeks following the reaction

Image credit: WNT.

1. Amoxicillin reaction

Some people are allergic to the antibiotic amoxicillin. If a person experiences any of the following symptoms they should stop taking it and report to their doctor:

  • skin rash
  • blotchy skin
  • itchiness

Image credit: Skoch4, 2008.

2. Erythema ab igne (hot bottle rash)

Erythema ab igne is caused by overexposure to heat. Regularly using hot water bottles, or other forms of heat, to relieve pain from muscle or joint damage may lead to developing this skin condition.

Image credit: James Heilman, MD, 2010.

3. Ketoconazole shampoo reaction

Applying ketoconazole shampoo to the scalp can help reduce skin conditions such as dandruff and psoriasis. If a person has an allergic reaction to ketoconazole their symptoms may include:

  • enflamed rash covering the area that came into contact with the shampoo
  • itchiness

Image credit: Niels Olson, 2010.

4. Beard dye reaction

Some people are allergic to chemicals found in beard or hair coloring dye. Symptoms of an allergic reaction include:

  • dry, flaky skin
  • redness
  • itchiness

Image credit: Yngve Roennike, 2016.

5. Infant milk rash

Breastfed babies may develop a rash if they are allergic to a food group that their mother is consuming. Symptoms of a food allergy can include:

  • hives
  • itchiness
  • coughing
  • diarrhea

6. Urticaria (nettle rash)

A person with urticaria will likely develop a raised, itchy rash that is usually triggered by an allergen. Common symptoms of urticaria include:

  • pink wheals (swellings) on the skin
  • redness
  • extreme itchiness

7. Grass allergy

A person with a grass allergy may develop hay fever symptoms when coming into contact with grass. It is also common to experience:

  • small red dots on the skin
  • hives
  • itchiness

Image credit: Carolyn, 2009.

8. Poison ivy reaction

Coming into contact with poison ivy plant oil can lead to a person developing contact dermatitis. Symptoms of this include:

  • small bumps or blisters on the skin
  • redness
  • itchiness

Image credit: CDC/ Richard S. Hibbits, 1971.

9. Smallpox vaccination reaction

Following a vaccination, some people may develop the following symptoms:

  • small bumps
  • redness
  • itchiness
  • fever

Image credit: CDC/ Arthur E. Kaye, 1969.

10. Hyposensitization therapy reaction

Hyposensitization therapy is used to treat allergic disease. While receiving the course of injections, a person may experience the following symptoms:

Image credit: Bionerd, 2008.

11. Euproctis chrysorrhoea (brown-tail moth) reaction

A person may develop a rash after touching a brown-tail moth. This is caused by a reaction to the toxins found in the moth’s hairs. Symptoms include:

  • red, blotchy skin
  • raised bumps

Image credit: B kimmel, 2010.

Normal ranges in adults and children

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Normal body temperatures vary depending on many factors, including a person’s age, sex, and activity levels.

The normal body temperature for an adult is around 98.6°F (37°C), but every person’s baseline body temperature is slightly different, and may consistently be a little higher or lower.

In this article, we discuss the normal ranges of temperature for adults, children, and babies. We also consider factors affecting body temperature, and when to call a doctor.

Body temperature readings vary depending on where on the body a person takes the measurements. Rectal readings are higher than oral readings, while armpit readings tend to be lower.

The table below gives the normal ranges of body temperature for adults and children according to a thermometer manufacturer:

Type of reading 0–2 years 3–10 years 11–65 years Over 65 years
Oral 95.9–99.5°F (35.5–37.5°C) 95.9–99.5°F (35.5–37.5°C) 97.6–99.6°F (36.4–37.6°C) 96.4–98.5°F (35.8–36.9°C)
Rectal 97.9–100.4°F (36.6–38°C) 97.9–100.4°F (36.6–38°C) 98.6–100.6°F (37.0–38.1°C) 97.1–99.2°F (36.2–37.3°C)
Armpit 94.5–99.1°F (34.7–37.3°C) 96.6–98.0°F (35.9–36.7°C) 95.3–98.4°F (35.2–36.9°C) 96.0–97.4°F (35.6–36.3°C)
Ear 97.5–100.4°F (36.4–38°C) 97.0–100.0°F (36.1–37.8°C) 96.6–99.7°F (35.9–37.6°C) 96.4–99.5°F (35.8–37.5°C)

Normal body temperature readings will vary within these ranges depending on the following factors:

  • a person’s age and sex
  • the time of day, typically being lowest in the early morning and highest in the late afternoon
  • high or low activity levels
  • food and fluid intake
  • for females, the stage in their monthly menstrual cycle
  • the method of measurement, such as oral (mouth), rectal (bottom), or armpit readings

A normal adult body temperature, when taken orally, can range from 97.6–99.6°F, though different sources may give slightly different figures.

In adults, the following temperatures suggest that someone has a fever:

  • at least 100.4°F (38°C) is a fever
  • above 103.1°F (39.5°C) is a high fever
  • above 105.8°F (41°C) is a very high fever

Researchers have looked into the individual differences between people’s normal body temperatures. A study looking at almost 35,500 people found that older adults had the lowest temperatures, and African-American women had higher temperatures than white men.

They also found that certain medical conditions can affect a person’s body temperature. For example, people with an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) tended to have lower temperatures, while people with cancer had higher temperatures.

A normal body temperature for children aged 3–10 ranges from 95.9–99.5°F when taken orally.

Children tend to have similar body temperatures to adults.

Sometimes, babies and young children have higher body temperature ranges than adults for armpit and ear measurements.

A normal body temperature for infants aged 0–2 years ranges from 97.9–100.4°F when taken rectally. Body temperature may rise a little when a baby is teething.

The average body temperature of a newborn is 99.5°F.

A baby’s temperature is higher because they have a larger body surface area relative to their body weight. Their bodies are also more metabolically active, which generates heat.

Babies’ bodies do not regulate temperature as well as adults’ bodies. They sweat less when it is warm, meaning that their bodies retain more heat. It may also be more difficult for them to cool them down during a fever.

A dangerous body temperature depends on a person’s age:

Adults

A temperature of 100.4–104°F caused by short-term illnesses should not cause significant harm in otherwise healthy adults. However, a moderate fever can be more worrying for a person with existing heart or lung problems.

Call a doctor for temperatures above 104°F or lower than 95° F, especially if there are other warning signs, such as confusion, headaches, or shortness of breath. Temperatures of over 105.8°F can cause organ failure.

Doctors define hypothermia as a temperature dropping below 95°F. Hypothermia can be dangerous if not treated quickly.

Children

Children aged between 3 months and 3 years old who have a fever but a temperature of lower than 102°F do not always need medicine. Call your doctor if a child has a temperature of over 102.2°F, or has a lower temperature but is experiencing dehydration, vomiting, or diarrhea.

Babies

If an infant of 3 months or younger has a rectal temperature of 100.4°F or above, seek emergency medical attention. In very young babies, a slight fever can signal a serious infection.

There are many types of thermometers available, and the best method depends on a person’s age:

Age Best method
0 to 3 months Rectal
3 months to 3 years Rectal, ear, or armpit
4 to 5 years Oral, rectal, ear, or armpit
5 years to adult Oral, ear, or armpit

Follow the instructions on the thermometer package.

If a temperature reading is unusually high or low, take another reading after about 5 to 10 minutes. If someone is unsure the reading is correct, they can take another reading with a different thermometer.

An area of the brain called the hypothalamus regulates body temperature. If body temperature rises above or dips below the 98.6°F (37°C) mark, the hypothalamus kicks in to regulate the temperature.

If the body is too cold, the hypothalamus sends signals to make the body shiver, which warms the body up. If the body is too hot, it sends messages to begin sweating, which lets heat leave the body.

Infections cause most fevers. A fever develops as the body’s natural way of reacting to and fighting infection.

Doctors consider a fever to be a body temperature that reaches or exceeds 100.4°F. Other symptoms include:

  • appetite loss
  • chills
  • a headache
  • irritability
  • muscle aches
  • shivering
  • sweating
  • weakness

The ideal body temperature in adults is around 98.6°F, but this varies based on age, sex, physical activity, and health. Body temperature changes throughout the day. A temperature of above 100.4°F signals a fever.

Babies may have higher body temperatures than adults, but even a slight fever in babies can signal a severe infection.

Temperature readings taken from different body parts give a range of body temperatures that doctors consider normal. Rectal readings are higher than oral readings, and armpit readings tend to be lower.

If a person has an unusually high or low temperature, they should seek medical attention immediately.

SHOP FOR THERMOMETERS

Thermometers are available for purchase online:

90,000 ᐈ Allergic reactions and skin rashes

Allergens can enter the body in several ways:

  • via skin contact
  • orally, e.g. with food
  • via injection
  • by inhalation

Once an allergen enters the body, it can cause an inflammatory reaction, including a skin rash.

Contact dermatitis occurs when a person touches something they are allergic to.

Generally, a person needs repeated exposure to an allergen before a reaction occurs. The rash may appear within 24 to 48 hours. Almost any substance in the environment can cause an allergic reaction with skin rashes.

Let’s talk about the most common causes of allergies

Poisonous plants

The American Asthma and Allergy Foundation (AAFA) states that poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are the most common triggers of contact dermatitis.Within a few days after contact with one of these plants, a person may develop an itchy red rash over the skin. The rash usually forms a line on the hands, feet, or areas where the plant has touched the skin.

Chemicals

Certain chemicals may cause an allergic reaction on contact with human skin:

  • latex and rubber
  • hair dyes
  • propylene glycol
  • formaldehyde
  • perfumes
  • adhesives
  • nickel, gold and cobalt

A chemical rash often resembles a burn.It can present with swelling or blistering, and scaly or dry oval patches. An allergic reaction is usually limited to the area of ​​skin directly in contact with the allergen.

Medicines

Any drug may cause an allergic reaction.

Medications that are more likely to cause allergic rashes include: antibiotics such as penicillin and sulfa drugs, neomycin and bacitracin, aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), codeine, antihypertensive drugs, birth control pills.

In case of immediate allergic reactions, the rash usually looks like hives – raised red rashes on the skin. Drug reactions often start on the trunk and can spread to the arms, legs, palms, soles and mucous membranes of the mouth.

Delayed allergic reactions and rashes may appear after a few days or weeks. An allergic reaction can occur even after you stop taking the medication. Topical antibiotics such as neomycin and bacitracin can also cause contact dermatitis.

Food and food additives

Foods causing most allergic reactions are:

  • peanuts
  • soybean
  • wheat
  • milk
  • nuts (walnuts, almonds, pine nuts, brazil nuts, pecans, cashews, pistachios)
  • eggs
  • fish and shellfish
  • sesame

Respiratory allergens

In more rare cases, a person may develop hives when an allergen is inhaled.

Examples of respiratory allergens include:

  • pollen
  • mold spores
  • dust mites
  • animal dander

Other symptoms of allergic reactions may include: itching, pain, burning, low-grade fever, swelling, wheezing, or difficulty breathing.

Diagnostics

A doctor can usually diagnose a rash caused by an allergic reaction by collecting a person’s medical history and examining the rash.Allergy skin tests and other allergy tests are also done.

Treatment

The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI) states that the time from the onset of an allergic reaction to its disappearance can take 14-28 days, even with treatment (depending on the type of reaction).

Treatment options include:

  • corticosteroid creams
  • non-steroidal creams
  • cool compresses
  • oat baths
  • OTC anti-itch lotions
  • OTC antihistamines
  • prescription oral corticosteroids
  • adrenaline injection

When to see a doctor?

A person should see a doctor if he has:

  • rash occurs suddenly and spreads rapidly
  • rash appeared after starting a new medication
  • there are accompanying symptoms such as severe itching, pain or fever
  • large blisters or edema appear
  • symptoms of allergic reaction persist despite treatment attempts

In some cases, an allergic reaction can lead to anaphylaxis or edema of the airways.AAFA states that drug, food allergens and insect bites are the most common causes of anaphylaxis.

Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency.

A person needs emergency help if they experience the following symptoms:

  • Difficulty breathing or sensation of swelling in the throat
  • swelling of the face, lips or tongue
  • confusion or loss of consciousness
  • drop in blood pressure
  • bluish skin tone
  • vomiting or diarrhea
  • abdominal cramps
  • dizziness
  • confusion

A person with a history of anaphylaxis should always have an EpiPen with them.

Take care of yourself and seek medical advice on time!

Measles – viral infection

Measles is a viral infection with a very high susceptibility. If a person did not have measles or was not vaccinated against this infection, then after contact with a sick person, infection occurs in almost 100% of cases. The measles virus is very volatile. The virus can spread through ventilation pipes and elevator shafts – at the same time, children living on different floors of the house get sick.After contact with a patient with measles and the appearance of the first signs of the disease, it takes 7 to 14 days. The disease begins with severe headache, weakness, fever up to 40 degrees C. A little later, runny nose, cough and almost complete lack of appetite join these symptoms. The appearance of conjunctivitis is very characteristic of measles – inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyes, which is manifested by photophobia, lacrimation, sharp redness of the eyes, and subsequently – the appearance of purulent discharge.These symptoms last 2 to 4 days. On the 4th day of the disease, a rash appears that looks like small red spots of various sizes (from 1 to 3 mm in diameter), with a tendency to merge. The rash occurs on the face and head (especially behind the ears) and spreads throughout the body for 3 to 4 days. It is very characteristic of measles that the rash leaves behind pigmentation (dark spots that persist for several days), which disappears in the same sequence as the rash appears.Measles, despite the rather bright clinic, is easily tolerated by children, but under unfavorable conditions it is fraught with serious complications. These include pneumonia (pneumonia) and otitis media (otitis media). Fortunately, such a formidable complication as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) occurs quite rarely. Measles treatment aims to relieve the main symptoms of measles and maintain immunity. It must be remembered that after measles for a sufficiently long period of time (up to 2 months), suppression of immunity is noted, so the child can get sick with any cold or viral disease, so you need to protect him from excessive stress, if possible – from contact with sick children.After measles, persistent lifelong immunity develops. All those who have had measles become immune to this infection.

Doctor of infectious diseases Alshevskaya D.N.

Rubella

Rubella is also a viral infection spread by airborne droplets. Rubella is less contagious than measles and chickenpox. As a rule, children who stay in the same room for a long time with the child who are the source of infection get sick. Rubella in its manifestations is very similar to measles, but it proceeds much easier.The incubation period (the period from contact until the first signs of illness appear) lasts from 14 to 21 days. Rubella begins with an increase in the occipital lymph nodes and () an increase in body temperature to 38 degrees C. A little later, a runny nose, sometimes a cough, joins. After 2 to 3 days after the onset of the disease, a rash appears. Rubella is characterized by a small-dotted pink rash that begins with a rash on the face and spreads throughout the body. A rubella rash, unlike measles, never drains, there may be a slight itching.The period of rashes can be from several hours, during which there is no trace of the rash, up to 2 days. In this regard, diagnosis can be difficult – if the period of the rash fell on the night hours, and went unnoticed by the parents, rubella can be regarded as a common viral infection. Rubella treatment consists of relieving the main symptoms – fighting the fever, if any, treating the common cold, expectorants. Complications from measles are rare. After rubella, immunity also develops, re-infection is extremely rare.

Mumps

Mumps (mumps) is a viral infection of children characterized by acute inflammation in the salivary glands. Infection occurs by airborne droplets. Susceptibility to this disease is about 50-60% (that is, 50-60% of those in contact and not sick and not vaccinated get sick). Mumps begins with an increase in body temperature up to 39 degrees C and severe pain in the ear area or under it, aggravated by swallowing or chewing.At the same time, salivation increases. Swelling in the area of ​​the upper neck and cheek grows quite quickly, touching this place causes severe pain in the child. By itself, this disease is not dangerous. Unpleasant symptoms disappear within three to four days: body temperature decreases, swelling decreases, pain disappears. However, mumps often ends with inflammation in the glandular organs, such as the pancreas (pancreatitis), gonads. Postponed pancreatitis in some cases leads to diabetes mellitus.Inflammation of the gonads (testicles) is more common in boys. This significantly complicates the course of the disease, and in some cases it can result in infertility. In especially severe cases, mumps can be complicated by viral meningitis (inflammation of the meninges), which is severe but not fatal. After the transferred disease, stable immunity is formed. Re-infection is almost impossible.

Chickenpox

Chickenpox (chickenpox) is a typical childhood infection.Mostly young children or preschoolers are ill. Susceptibility to the pathogen of chickenpox (the virus that causes chickenpox belongs to herpes viruses) is also quite high, although not as high as to the measles virus. About 80% of contact persons who have not been sick before develop chickenpox. This virus also has a high degree of volatility; a child can become infected if he was not in the immediate vicinity of the patient. The incubation period is 14 to 21 days. The disease begins with the appearance of a rash.Usually it is one or two reddish specks that look like a mosquito bite. These elements of the rash can be located on any part of the body, but most often they first appear on the stomach or face. The rash usually spreads very quickly – new elements appear every few minutes or hours. The reddish specks, which at first look like mosquito bites, take on the appearance of bubbles filled with transparent contents the next day. These bubbles are very itchy. The rash spreads all over the body, on the limbs, on the scalp.In severe cases, there are elements of a rash on the mucous membranes – in the mouth, nose, on the conjunctiva of the sclera, genitals, intestines. By the end of the first day of the disease, the general state of health worsens, the body temperature rises (up to 40 degrees C and above). The severity of the condition depends on the number of rashes: with scanty rashes, the disease proceeds easily, the more rashes, the more severe the child’s condition. Chickenpox is not characterized by a runny nose and cough, but if there are elements of a rash on the mucous membranes of the pharynx, nose and on the conjunctiva of the sclera, then pharyngitis, rhinitis and conjunctivitis develops due to the addition of a bacterial infection.The bubbles open in a day or two with the formation of ulcers, which are covered with crusts. Headache, feeling unwell, fever persist until new rashes appear. This usually occurs from 3 to 5 days (depending on the severity of the disease). Within 5-7 days after the last pouring of the rash, the treatment of chickenpox is to reduce itching, intoxication and prevent bacterial complications. The elements of the rash must be lubricated with antiseptic solutions (usually an aqueous solution of brilliant green or manganese).Treatment with coloring antiseptics prevents bacterial infection of rashes, allows you to track the dynamics of the appearance of rashes. It is necessary to monitor the hygiene of the oral cavity and nose, eyes – you can rinse your mouth with a solution of calendula, the mucous membranes of the nose and mouth should also be treated with antiseptic solutions. In order to avoid secondary inflammation, you need to rinse your mouth after each meal. A child with chickenpox should be fed with warm, semi-liquid food, watered abundantly (however, this applies to all childhood infections).It is important to ensure that your baby’s fingernails are cut short (so that he cannot scratch the skin – scratching predisposes to bacterial infection). To prevent infection of rashes, bed linen and clothes of a sick child should be changed daily. The room in which the child is located must be regularly ventilated, making sure that the room is not too hot. These are general rules. Complications of chickenpox include myocarditis – inflammation of the heart muscle, meningitis and meningoencephalitis (inflammation of the meninges, brain matter, inflammation of the kidneys (nephritis).Fortunately, these complications are quite rare. After chickenpox, as well as after all childhood infections, immunity develops. Re-infection occurs, but very rarely.

Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever is the only childhood infection caused not by viruses, but by bacteria (group A streptococcus). It is an acute airborne disease. Infection is also possible through household items (toys, dishes). Children of early and preschool age are ill. The most dangerous in relation to infection are patients in the first two to three days of the disease.Scarlet fever begins very acutely with an increase in body temperature to 39 degrees C, vomiting. Severe intoxication and headache are immediately noted. The most characteristic symptom of scarlet fever is angina, in which the mucous membrane of the pharynx has a bright red color, swelling is expressed. The patient notes a sharp pain when swallowing. There may be a whitish coating on the tongue and tonsils. The tongue subsequently acquires a very characteristic appearance (“crimson”) – bright pink and coarsely grained. By the end of the first or the beginning of the second day of the disease, a second characteristic symptom of scarlet fever appears – a rash.It appears on several parts of the body at once, most densely localized in the folds (elbow, inguinal). Its distinctive feature is that a bright red small-point scarlet fever rash is located on a red background, which gives the impression of a general drainage redness. When pressed, a white streak remains on the skin. The rash can be spread all over the body, but there is always a clean (white) area of ​​skin between the upper lip and nose and the chin. Itching is much less pronounced than with chickenpox.The rash lasts up to 2 to 5 days. The manifestations of angina persist somewhat longer (up to 7 – 9 days). Scarlet fever is usually treated with antibiotics, as the causative agent of scarlet fever is a microbe that can be removed with antibiotics. It is also very important to treat sore throat locally and carry out detoxification (removal of toxins from the body that are formed in the process of the vital activity of microorganisms – for this they give plenty of drink). Shown vitamins, antipyretics. Scarlet fever also has quite serious complications.Before the use of antibiotics, scarlet fever often ended with the development of rheumatism (an infectious-allergic disease, the basis of which is damage to the connective tissue system). with the formation of acquired heart defects. Currently, subject to competently prescribed treatment and careful adherence to the recommendations, such complications are practically not encountered. Scarlet fever almost exclusively affects children because with age, a person acquires resistance to streptococci.Those who have been ill also acquire strong immunity.

Infectious erythema

This infectious disease, which is also caused by viruses, is transmitted by airborne droplets. Children from 2 to 12 years old are sick during epidemics in a nursery or at school. The incubation period is different (4-14 days). The disease is easy. There is a slight general malaise, nasal discharge, sometimes a headache, a slight increase in temperature is possible. The rash begins on the cheekbones in the form of small red, slightly embossed dots, which merge as they increase, forming red, shiny and symmetrical spots on the cheeks.Then, within two days, the rash covers the entire body, forming slightly swollen red spots that are pale in the center. Combining, they form a rash in the form of garlands or a geographic map. The rash disappears after about a week, over the next weeks, transient rashes may appear, especially with excitement, physical exertion, sun exposure, bathing, and changes in ambient temperature.
This disease is not dangerous in all cases. The diagnosis is clinical. Differential diagnosis is more often carried out with rubella and measles.Treatment is symptomatic. The prognosis is favorable.

Prevention

Of course, it is better to get rid of childhood infections at an early age, because adolescents and older people get sick much more severely with much more frequent complications. However, complications are also observed in young children. And all these complications are quite serious. Before the introduction of vaccination, the lethality (mortality) in these infections was about 5-10%. A common feature of all childhood infections is that after the disease, persistent immunity develops.Their prevention is based on this property – vaccines have been developed that allow the formation of an immunological memory, which causes immunity to the causative agents of these infections. Vaccination is carried out once at the age of 12 months. Vaccines against measles, rubella and mumps have been developed. In the Russian version, all these vaccines are administered separately (measles-rubella and mumps). Alternatively, vaccination with an imported vaccine containing all three components is possible. This vaccination is well tolerated, complications and undesirable consequences are extremely rare.Comparative characteristics of childhood infections

Measles

Rubella

Epid. mumps

Chickenpox

Scarlet fever

Infectious erythema

Route of infection

airborne

airborne

airborne

airborne

airborne

airborne

Exciter

measles virus

rubella virus

virus

herpes virus

streptococcus

virus

Incubation period (from the moment of infection to the onset of symptoms)

from 7 to 14 days

from 14 to 21 days

12 to 21 days

from 14 to 21 days

from a few hours to 7 days

7-14 days

quarantine

10 days

14 days

21 days

21 days

7 days

14 days

Intoxication (headache, body aches, feeling unwell, whims)

expressed

moderate

moderate to severe

moderate to severe

expressed

moderate

Temperature rise

up to 40 degrees C and above

to 38 degrees C

to 38.5 degrees C

up to 40 degrees C and above

to 39 degrees C

Up to 38 degrees C

Nature of rash

flat reddish spots of various sizes on a pale background (100%)

flat small pink spots on a pale background (in 70%)

no rash

red itchy spots that turn into vesicles with transparent contents, subsequently opening and crusting (100%)

bright red small-dotted spots on a red background, merge into a solid redness (100%)

On the cheeks first red dots, then spots.Then swollen red spots, pale in the center on the body

Prevalence of rash

on the face and behind the ears, extends to the body and hands

on the face, extends to the body

no rash

on the face and body, extends to the limbs, mucous membranes

all over the body, most brightly in the folds; no rash between the nose and upper lip

First on the cheeks, then all over the body

Catarrhal phenomena

cough, runny nose, conjunctivitis precede the onset of rash

runny nose, cough – sometimes

not typical

not typical

sore throat

runny nose

Complications

pneumonia, otitis media, in rare cases – encephalitis

rarely – encephalitis

meningitis, pancreatitis, inflammation of the gonads, pyelonephritis

encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, nephritis

rheumatism, myocarditis, encephalitis, otitis media, nephritis

Rare – arthritis

Period of contagion

from the moment of the onset of the first symptoms until the 4th day after the onset of the first rashes

7 days before and 4 days after the onset of rash

from the last days of the incubation period to 10 days after the onset of symptoms

from the last days of the incubation period until the 4th day after the appearance of the last rashes

from the last days of the incubation period until the end of the rash period

During catarrhal phenomena

Scabies – KVD No. 2

Scabies – a contagious parasitic skin disease caused by the scabies mite

Sarcoptes scabiei, accompanied by itching, worse in the evening and at night, and

papular vesicular eruptions.

Currently, scabies remains one of the most common parasitic

dermatoses in our country.

An increase in the number of patients with scabies usually accompanies wars, natural disasters,

social shocks due to population migration, economic recession,

deterioration of social conditions.

As mentioned above, the causative agent of scabies is the scabies mite – Sarcoptes scabiei.

This species belongs to the family Sarcoptidae, group Acaridiae, suborder Sarcoptiphormes,

to the order of Acariphormes acariform ticks.Representatives of the genus Sarcoptes currently

time known as parasites of more than 40 species of animal hosts belonging to 17

families of 7 orders of mammals.

Morphological appearance of scabies mites of the Sarcoptidae family extremely

is unique and due to deep adaptations to intradermal parasitism.

The structure of itch pruritus, like most mites, is characterized by strict

by the constancy of the microstructures of the external skeleton, which is associated with their microscopic

sizes.

The female itch mite looks like a turtle. Its size is 0.25–0.35 mm.

Adaptations to intradermal parasitism are represented by multiple

setae, triangular cuticle outgrowths on the dorsal surface, spines on all

paws that serve as stops when gnawing through, chelicerae of gnawing type,

long elastic bristles on the tarsi of the hind legs, to maintain direction

moves forward only. Devices for ectoparasitism – sticky pneumatic

suckers on the forelegs, waxy bristles on the body and limbs creating

around the tick an extensive mechanoreceptor sphere and allowing orientation to

touch without eyes.The rate of movement of the female during the course is 0.5–2.5 mm / day, and at

skin surface 2–3 cm / min. Sexual dimorphism is characteristic of scabies mites.

The main function of males is fertilization. They are much smaller in size –

0.15-0.2 mm, have dense bristles on the body to protect against mechanical stress and

suckers also on the IV pair of legs for attachment to the female during mating. Ratio

females and males in scabies mites is 2: 1.

The life cycle of an itch mite is clearly divided into two parts: short-term

cutaneous and long-term intradermal. Intradermal is represented by two topically

separated periods: reproductive and metamorphic. Reproductive

is carried out by the female in the itch burrowing through her, where she lays eggs.

The hatching larvae emerge from the passages to the surface of the skin through the holes,

done by the female over the place of each clutch, settle on it and are introduced into

hair follicles and under the scales of the epidermis.Here their metamorphosis (molting) takes place:

through the stage of proto and teleonymph, new individuals (females and males) are formed. Females and

males of the new generation come to the surface of the skin, where they mate.

Daughter females migrate to the hands, wrists, feet, penetrate the skin and immediately begin

to lay passages and lay eggs. In rare cases, the introduction of females is possible in other

areas of the skin (buttocks, axillary areas, abdomen, etc.)) at the expense of

mechanical pressing. Clinically, this corresponds to scabious skin lymphoplasia.

Only females and larvae are invasive stages and participate in infection. At

at room temperature and at least 60% relative humidity, females keep

mobility 1–6 days. Even at 100% humidity, females can withstand on average up to 3

days, larvae – up to 2 days.

Scabies mites are characterized by a strict daily rhythm of activity.Happy female

is at rest. In the evening and in the first half of the night, she gnaws one or

two egg bends at an angle to the main direction of travel, in each of which

lays one egg. Before laying the egg, she deepens the bottom of the passage, and in the roof it makes

outlet for larvae. The second half of the night, the female gnaws a course in a straight line,

eating intensively, during the day – stops and freezes. The daily program is running

by all females synchronously.As a result, the scabies course on the patient’s skin has a convoluted

is a shape and consists of stroke segments called the daily stroke element. Back part

strokes are gradually exfoliated, and during a clinical examination of the patient, he at a time

consists of 4–7 diurnal elements and has a constant length of 5–7 mm. During life

the female passes 3–6 cm in the epidermis, the revealed daily rhythm of activity has

of great practical value. He explains the increased itching in the evening, predominance of

direct route of infection by contact in bed in the evening and at night, efficiency

prescription of anti-scab drugs at night.

Clinical picture

Clinic of scabies is due to the characteristics of the pathogen and the host’s response to

its implementation.

The incubation period for scabies has a different duration and depends on whether

, an adult female or larva got on the skin. In the first case, it is extremely short, and in

second is 2 weeks. Itching, as the main symptom of scabies, appears on time,

which range from 14 days to 6 weeks for primary infection and may be

is extremely short, limited to several days during reinfection.Also shown,

that reinfection at the same time may be more difficult in already

sensitized persons, and the number of detected scabies mites in such

patients are often minimal [7, 9].

The typical form of scabies is characterized by itchy skin manifesting in

is greatest in the evening and during sleep. However, itching can be persistent. He

can be localized in certain areas of the skin or spread throughout the body, for

excluding the skin of the face and scalp.Extremely important feature

is the presence of itching in family or team members.

Examination reveals specific rashes. Main clinical

symptoms of scabies are scabies, polymorphic eruptions outside the passages,

characteristic lesions and symptoms named after the authors Ardi

(the presence of pustules and purulent crusts on the elbows and in their circumference), Gorchakova (the presence there

bloody crusts), Michaelis (the presence of bloody crusts and impetiginous

lesions in the intergluteal fold with the transition to the sacrum), Cesari (detection

itch burrows in the form of a slight elevation on palpation).

The characteristic places of localization of rashes are mainly flexion

the surface of the joints (wrist and elbow), as well as the anterolateral surface

abdomen, lower back, buttocks, genital area, while they are absent on the upper

half of the back. Scabies and eruptions are well pronounced in the interdigital and

axillary folds, on the areola of the breast of women, in the navel.

Rashes are represented by paired papules and vesicles, scabby passages,

eczematous pseudo-vesicles (pearl vesicles) on the skin of the lateral surfaces

fingers and palms; scabious ulcers, with crusts on the surface; as well as scabious

knots.

Atypical forms of scabies, often encountered in recent years, it seems to us

appropriate to classify and represent as follows:

scabies without skin lesions;

urticarial scabies;

scabies on the background of corticosteroid therapy;

nodular (with post-scabious nodules) scabies;

eczematized scabies;

scabies complicated by pyoderma;

Norwegian scabies;

infants and children scabies.

The first two forms are mainly due to allergic reactions.

Scabies without skin involvement may be beginner forms

diseases in people who follow the norms of body hygiene, but more often manifests itself as

allergic reaction to tick antigens during the period of illness or after treatment. This

the form of the disease is more often detected during active examination of persons who were in contact with

patients with scabies.

Urticarial scabies is represented by small blisters due to sensitization

to both ticks and their waste products. They occur more often on the front

surface of the torso, thighs, buttocks and forearms.

Scabies with local corticosteroid therapy, also called latent scabies,

as a result of suppression of immune reactions of the skin leads to the loss of specific symptoms

scabies. The disease acquires papulosquamous, papulovesicular, and sometimes even

hyperkeratotic nature of the rash.

Nodular scabies (scabious lymphoplasia) characterized by itchy nodules

red, pink or brown. On the surface of new knots,

to detect itch burrows. Characteristic localization: penis, scrotum,

axillary and intergluteal folds, areola. Nodules usually

are few in number. Sometimes they are the only diagnostic feature

scabies [2, 4].

Eczematized scabies occurs, as a rule, in people with allergic

predisposition.Lichenification foci may appear at the sites of scratching.

However, eczematous lesions usually come to the fore and the diagnosis of scabies is not

can always be suspected. Rashes appear on the hands, in the armpits

depressions, shins, hands. In advanced cases, rashes can acquire

disseminated, up to the development of erythroderma.

In persons with reduced body resistance to eczematized lesions by

places of scratching can be associated with a secondary bacterial infection in the form of impetigo

or ecthyma, staphylococcal folliculitis, boils, and abscesses may occur.

Norwegian scabies (crusty, crusty) in the initial stages presented as common

scabies or disguised as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis.

Characterized by keratinization, formation of scales or thick crusts. With a pronounced

immunodeficiency process can be generalized, with neurological

diseases – manifest as a limited area of ​​impaired sensitivity.

Infant and infant scabies is characterized by eruptions resembling

urticaria or childhood pruritus in the form of a large number of combed and covered

a crust of blisters with predominant localization in the perineum on the scrotum, in

axillary folds.The characteristic itch burrows can be found on the soles.

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of scabies, in addition to clinical data, is based on microscopic

confirmation of the diagnosis. However, this procedure requires considerable skill, experienced by

microbiologists and in some clinical forms is impracticable. Minimum

clinical manifestations of scabies also make it difficult to obtain sufficient

biological materials for research.The technique has advantages in

specialized institutions. There are several laboratory techniques

scabies diagnostics: mite extraction with a needle, thin section method, scrapings, alkaline

skin preparation.

Scabies is a contagious parasitic skin disease caused by the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei, accompanied by itching, worse in the evening and at night, and papular vesicular rash.

Currently, scabies remains one of the most common parasitic dermatoses in our country.

An increase in the number of patients with scabies usually accompanies wars, natural disasters, social upheavals, which is due to population migration, economic recession, deterioration of social conditions.

As mentioned above, the causative agent of scabies is the scabies mite – Sarcoptes scabiei. This species belongs to the Sarcoptidae family, the Acaridiae group, the Sarcoptiphormes suborder, the Acariphormes order of acariform ticks. Representatives of the genus Sarcoptes are currently known as parasites of over 40 host species belonging to 17 families of 7 orders of mammals.

The morphological appearance of itch mites of the Sarcoptidae family is extremely peculiar and is due to deep adaptations to intradermal parasitism. The structure of itch itch, like most mites, is characterized by the strict constancy of the microstructures of the external skeleton, which is associated with their microscopic size.

The female itch mite looks like a turtle. Its size is 0.25–0.35 mm. Adaptations to intradermal parasitism are represented by multiple bristles, triangular cuticle outgrowths on the dorsal surface, spines on all legs that serve as stops when gnawing through the course, gnawing chelicerae, long elastic bristles on the legs of the hind pairs of legs, to maintain the direction of travel only forward.Devices for ectoparasitism are sticky pneumatic suction cups on the forelegs, waxy bristles on the body and limbs, which create an extensive mechanoreceptor sphere around the tick and allow one to navigate by touch without eyes. The speed of movement of the female in the course is 0.5–2.5 mm / day, and on the skin surface, 2–3 cm / min. Sexual dimorphism is characteristic of scabies mites. The main function of males is fertilization. They are much smaller in size – 0.15–0.2 mm, have dense bristles on the body to protect against mechanical stress and suckers also on the fourth pair of legs for attachment to the female during mating.The ratio of females to males in scabies mites is 2: 1.

The life cycle of the scabies mite is clearly divided into two parts: short-term cutaneous and long-term intradermal. Intradermal is represented by two topically separated periods: reproductive and metamorphic. The reproductive is carried out by the female in the itch gnawing through her, where she lays eggs. The hatching larvae emerge from the passages to the surface of the skin through the holes made by the female above the place of each clutch, settle on it and penetrate into the hair follicles and under the scales of the epidermis.Here their metamorphosis (molting) proceeds: through the stage of proto- and teleonymph, new individuals (females and males) are formed. Females and males of the new generation come to the surface of the skin, where they mate. Daughter females migrate to the hands, wrists, feet, penetrate the skin and immediately begin to make passages and lay eggs. In rare cases, the introduction of females is possible in other areas of the skin (buttocks, axillary areas, abdomen, etc.) due to mechanical pressing. Clinically, this corresponds to scabious skin lymphoplasia.Only females and larvae are invasive stages and participate in the infection. At room temperature and relative humidity, at least 60% of females remain mobile for 1–6 days. Even at 100% humidity, females can withstand on average up to 3 days, larvae – up to 2 days.

Scabies mites are characterized by a strict daily rhythm of activity. During the day, the female is at rest. In the evening and in the first half of the night, she gnaws one or two egg knees at an angle to the main direction of the stroke, in each of which she lays an egg.Before laying the egg, it deepens the bottom of the passage, and makes an outlet for the larvae in the roof. In the second half of the night, the female gnaws a course in a straight line, intensively feeding, during the day it stops and freezes. The daily program is performed by all females synchronously. As a result, the itch stroke on the patient’s skin has a crimped shape and consists of stroke segments called the daily stroke element. The posterior part of the stroke is gradually exfoliated, and during a clinical examination of the patient, it consists of 4–7 daily elements at a time and has a constant length of 5–7 mm.During her life, the female passes 3–6 cm in the epidermis; the revealed daily rhythm of activity is of great practical importance. He explains the intensification of itching in the evening, the predominance of a direct route of infection through contact in bed in the evening and at night, the effectiveness of prescribing anti-scab drugs at night.

Clinical picture

Clinic of scabies is due to the characteristics of the pathogen and the response of the host organism to its introduction.

The incubation period for scabies has a different duration and depends on whether an adult female or a larva got on the skin.In the first case, it is extremely short, and in the second it is 2 weeks. Itching, as the main symptom of scabies, appears in terms that range from 14 days to 6 weeks with a primary infection and can be extremely short, limited to a few days with reinfection. It has also been shown that reinfection, at the same time, can be more difficult in already sensitized individuals, and the number of detected scabies mites in such patients is often minimal [7, 9].

The typical form of scabies is characterized by itchy skin, which is most pronounced in the evening and during sleep.However, itching can be persistent. It can be localized to specific areas of the skin or spread throughout the body, with the exception of the face and scalp. An extremely important symptom is the presence of itching in family or community members.

Examination reveals specific rashes. The main clinical symptoms of scabies are scabies, polymorphic eruptions outside the passages, characteristic places of rashes, as well as symptoms named after the authors of Ardi (the presence of pustules and purulent crusts on the logs and in their circumference), Gorchakov (the presence of bloody crusts in the same place), Michaelis (the presence of bloody crusts and impetiginous rashes in the intergluteal fold with the transition to the sacrum), Cesari (detection of itch passages in the form of a slight elevation on palpation).

The characteristic places of localization of rashes are mainly the flexion surface of the joints (wrist and elbow), as well as the anterolateral surface of the abdomen, lower back, buttocks, genital area, while they are absent on the upper half of the back. Scabies and eruptions are well pronounced in the interdigital and axillary folds, on the areola of the breast of women, in the navel. Rashes are represented by paired papules and vesicles, scabby passages, eczematous pseudo-vesicles (pearl vesicles) on the skin of the lateral surfaces of the fingers and palms; scabious ulcers, with crusts on the surface; as well as scabious nodules.

Atypical forms of scabies, which are often encountered in recent years, it seems to us appropriate to classify and present as follows:

scabies without skin lesions;

urticarial scabies;

· scabies on the background of corticosteroid therapy;

nodular (with post-scabious nodules) scabies;

eczematized scabies;

scabies complicated by pyoderma;

Norwegian scabies

Infant and infant scabies.

The first two forms are mainly due to allergic reactions.

Scabies without skin lesions can be an early form of the disease in people who follow the norms of body hygiene, but more often manifests itself as an allergic reaction to tick antigens during the period of illness or after treatment. This form of the disease is more often detected during active examination of persons who have been in contact with a patient with scabies.

Urticarial scabies is represented by small blisters caused by sensitization to both ticks and their waste products.They occur more often on the front of the torso, thighs, buttocks, and forearms.

Scabies on the background of local corticosteroid therapy, also called latent scabies, as a result of suppression of the immune responses of the skin, leads to the loss of specific symptoms of scabies. The disease acquires papulosquamous, papulovesicular, and sometimes even hyperkeratotic nature of the rash.

Nodular scabies (scabious lymphoplasia) is characterized by the appearance of itchy nodules of red, pink or brown color.Scabies can be found on the surface of the new nodules. Typical localization: penis, scrotum, axillary and intergluteal folds, areola. The nodules are usually few in number. Sometimes they are the only diagnostic sign of scabies [2, 4].

Eczematized scabies occurs, as a rule, in people with an allergic predisposition. Lichenification foci may appear at the sites of scratching. However, eczematous lesions usually come to the fore and the diagnosis of scabies may not always be suspected.Rashes appear on the hands, armpits, legs, hands. In advanced cases, rashes can become disseminated, up to the development of erythroderma.

In persons with a reduced resistance of the body to eczematized lesions at the sites of scratching, a secondary bacterial infection in the form of impetigo or ecthym may occur, staphylococcal folliculitis, boils and abscesses may occur.

Norwegian scabies (crusty, crusted) in the initial stages is presented as ordinary scabies or disguised as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis.Characterized by keratinization, the formation of scales or thick crusts. With severe immunodeficiency, the process can be generalized, with neurological diseases – it can manifest itself in a limited area of ​​impaired sensitivity.

Infant and infant scabies is characterized by rashes resembling urticaria or childhood pruritus in the form of a large number of combed and crusted blisters with predominant localization in the perineum on the scrotum, in the axillary folds.The characteristic itch burrows can be found on the soles.

Diagnosis of scabies

The diagnosis of scabies, in addition to clinical data, is based on microscopic confirmation of the diagnosis. However, this procedure requires considerable skill, an experienced microbiologist and, in some clinical forms, is not feasible. The minimal clinical manifestations of scabies also make it difficult to obtain sufficient biological material for research. The technique has advantages in specialized institutions.There are several methods for the laboratory diagnosis of scabies: extraction of the tick with a needle, the method of thin sections, scrapings, alkaline preparation of the skin.

Glossary

Adenoma of the prostate gland – benign hyperplasia (increase in volume) of the glandular tissue of the prostate gland. According to statistics, it prevails in patients over the age of 50. It is characterized by disorders of urination, dysfunctions of the bladder and kidneys, and sexual dysfunctions.In the initial stages of the disease, an asymptomatic course is possible, the final stages are manifested by severe pain syndrome, the inability to urinate independently.

Azoospermia – the absence of sperm in the ejaculate. It is one of the causes of infertility in men.

Acne (acne) – a pustular skin lesion, with the most frequent localization in the face, chest and back, associated with a violation of the sebaceous glands.The patients have a feeling of inferiority, depression, shyness, irritability. The disease is accompanied by inflammatory changes around acne (acne), with the possible involvement of regional lymph nodes.

Allergic contact dermatitis – itchy rash on the skin in places of contact with allergens. When combing, infection may occur, followed by the spread of the inflammatory process in the skin.

Allergy to medications – a type of adverse reactions to taking medications, on the part of the skin manifested by itching, rashes, hives, areas of redness, blistering, etc.The most formidable complication is the development of toxic epidermal necrolysis – rejection of large areas of the skin (from 20 to 100%), sometimes incompatible with life.

Algodismenorrhea is a cyclic pathological process consisting of pain in the lower abdomen, which may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, headache, lack of appetite, fever, fainting and other vegetative manifestations during menstruation. Hypersensitivity to certain hormones during the menstrual cycle, endometriosis, or pelvic inflammatory disease can be the cause.

Amenorrhea – pathological absence of menstruation in women for 6 months or more. The cause of the disease can be a brain tumor, psychosis, inflammatory diseases of the ovaries, uterus, malformations of the genital organs, diseases of the adrenal glands, thyroid gland, nutritional disorders.

Anal itching – a pathological condition characterized by persistent itching in the anus. The disease is characterized by a persistent course.It can be primary (true) and secondary, accompanying many diseases (hemorrhoids, anal fissure, helminthic invasions, inflammation of the sigmoid and rectum, constipation, diarrhea, inflammation of the genital organs, diabetes mellitus, fungal skin lesions, etc.). Anal itching is always dangerous by the development of perianal pyoinflammatory processes and inflammatory changes in the sigmoid and rectum.

Apoplexy of the ovary – hemorrhage in the ovary, accompanied by its rupture and bleeding into the abdominal cavity.It occurs against the background of a previous inflammatory process. Lifting weights and violent sexual intercourse play a provoking role. It is manifested by severe pain syndrome and signs of internal bleeding.

Aspermia – the absence of sperm in the semen. One of the causes of male infertility.

Asthenozoospermia – a decrease in the number of motile forms, as well as the speed of movement of sperm in semen (more than 30%). One of the causes of male infertility.


Bacterial infections – purulent-inflammatory lesions of the skin and hair follicles caused by various bacterial flora (the most common are staphylococcal and streptococcal infections). Manifested by the formation of boils, carbuncles, vesicles with serous or purulent contents, inflammation of the hair follicle bulb. Purulent areas of the skin can become necrotic; when a large amount of infectious agents enter the blood, bacteremia develops, which can be fatal.

Bacterial vaginosis – inflammatory changes in the vagina, accompanied by discharge from the genital tract. Bacterial vaginosis is one of the causes of severe pathology of the female genital organs and complications of pregnancy and childbirth.

Bartholinitis – inflammation of the large gland of the vestibule vestibule. The causative agents are various microbes: staphylococci, gonococci, etc. It is manifested by swelling, pain in the vaginal area.

Beli is a symptom of gynecological diseases associated with a change in the secretion of the genital organs. The reasons may be inflammatory processes, tumors of various localization.

Infertility – the absence of pregnancy for 2 years or more in a woman who has a regular sex life and does not use contraception. In 60% of cases, infertility is caused by disorders in a woman’s body, in 40% – in a man’s body. The most common cause of infertility in a woman is anatomical and functional changes in the genitals: infantilism; inflammation of the disease of the fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, vagina; dysfunction of the ovaries and pituitary gland, adrenal glands, thyroid gland; tumors of the uterus; endometriosis; ovarian tumors.An important cause of secondary infertility is abortion.

Painful intercourse (dyspareunia) – possible in both men and women. Pain can appear at the beginning, in the middle of intercourse, after completion, during or after orgasm. Usually pain is felt in the form of cramps, tingling, burning. The pain can be external, in the pelvic region, felt in the penis or vagina, in the abdomen. The reasons can be divided into organic (the presence of diseases of the genitourinary organs), psychogenic and infectious-inflammatory.

Warts – growths on the epidermis (surface layer of the skin) or mucous membranes caused by the human papillomavirus. May appear on the skin of the limbs, palms, soles, scalp, mucous membranes of the mouth, larynx, genitals and rectum. They tend to overgrow, affecting large areas of the skin or mucous membranes. When warts are traumatized, it is possible to introduce an infection with the development of inflammation. They cause a pronounced cosmetic defect that greatly worries patients.The most formidable complication is malignancy (malignancy) of the process with the development and progression of malignant tumors.


Vaginitis – inflammation of the vaginal mucosa. The causative agents are: streptococci and staphylococci, Escherichia, Trichomonas, mushrooms. In acute inflammation, complaints of a feeling of heaviness in the vagina, burning, itching in the external genital area.
Vesicular viral eruptions are vesicular rashes on the skin or mucous membranes caused by various viruses, including herpes simplex virus.They are contagious (infectious) diseases. The classic manifestation is grouped vesicles on a red background, open vesicles crusty, accompanied by soreness or itching. Suppression of the immune system is noted, so the rash spreads, covering new surfaces, fever is possible. When a secondary pathogenic flora is attached, purulent skin lesions develop.

Vesicular-bullous dermatoses – limited lesions of the skin and mucous membranes, manifested by the development of vesicles (vesicles) up to 5 mm in diameter and blisters (bulls) over 5 mm.The reasons are varied, including infections (bacterial, viral and fungal), external agents (allergic contact dermatitis, bites, burns, radiation, photodrug reactions), inflammatory dermatoses, genetic defects. Large surfaces of the skin or mucous membranes can be affected, patients are worried about soreness and itching in places where blisters develop. Perhaps the addition of purulent skin lesions with severe intoxication, fever.

Herpes simplex virus – blistering eruptions on the skin or mucous membranes caused by various viruses, including herpes simplex virus.They are contagious (infectious) diseases. The classic manifestation is grouped vesicles on a red background, open vesicles crusty, accompanied by soreness or itching. Suppression of the immune system is noted, so the rash spreads, covering new surfaces, fever is possible. When a secondary pathogenic flora is attached, purulent skin lesions develop.

Viral exanthema – any skin rash associated only with a viral infection.Most often appears with measles, rubella, herpes, intestinal viruses, chickenpox, etc. The spread of the rash can be in the form of spots and nodules, blisters, redness, etc. Treatment of the underlying disease is always indicated.

Human papillomaviruses – growths on the epidermis (surface layer of the skin) or mucous membranes caused by the human papillomavirus. May appear on the skin of the limbs, palms, soles, scalp, mucous membranes of the mouth, larynx, genitals and rectum.They tend to overgrow, affecting large areas of the skin or mucous membranes. When warts are traumatized, it is possible to introduce an infection with the development of inflammation. They cause a pronounced cosmetic defect that greatly worries patients. The most formidable complication is malignancy (malignancy) of the process with the development and progression of malignant tumors.

Pubic louse is a parasitic infection with a characteristic localization of the process in the pubic region. It can also be found on short hairs around the back of the head, trunk, eyebrows, eyelashes and armpits.The most common route of infection is through sexual contact. Bites cause itching, discomfort, scratching is dangerous by introducing a secondary infection into the wound.

Vulvitis – inflammation of the external genital organs, often combined with vaginitis. It occurs as a result of mechanical, chemical influences and the development of infection. It is manifested by pain and itching in the genital area.


Hemangioma is a benign vascular tumor that can develop at any age and anywhere in the body.Various sizes and shapes. On the skin, hemangiomas are raised formations of red, dark blue or cherry color. Sometimes the hemangioma develops backwards. At this site, hypopigmentation, excess skin, fibrous fat deposits or scars develop. The most formidable complication of hemangiomas are violations of vital functions (vision, breathing, nutrition, defecation or urination), ulceration followed by bleeding and the development of infection, heart failure, etc.

Genital herpes – sexually transmitted infection. The causative agent is most often the herpes simplex virus II. Asymptomatic viral shedding can occur in the following cases: the rash is located in places inaccessible to patients, due to their anatomical location; lesions are misinterpreted by the doctor or patient (eg, candidiasis, fissures).

Deep trichophytosis – damage to the scalp (scalp, ringworm) caused by a fungal pathogen.It manifests itself as inflammatory plaques, abscesses, sometimes accompanied by an increase in regional lymph nodes and fever. In some patients, residual scarring and persistent baldness are observed.

Deep mycoses – certain fungal infections that can penetrate deep into the skin, causing damage to mucous membranes, lymph nodes and internal organs. Clinical manifestations on the skin are varied, depending on the type of pathogen. The most formidable complications are the drift of a fungal infection through the blood vessels to the tissues of the joints, bones, eyes, meninges, etc.d.

Gonorrheal proctitis – damage to the rectal mucosa. It is observed when infected discharge from the genital tract flows. It is manifested by a burning sensation in the rectum and an urge to defecate.

Gonorrheal urethritis – damage to the mucous membrane of the urethra. Complaints of pain and pain when urinating.

Gonorrheal endometritis – damage to the mucous membrane of the body of the uterus. The ascent of infection is facilitated by menstruation, abortion, childbirth, intrauterine interventions.The acute stage is accompanied by pain in the lower abdomen, low-grade fever, and serous-purulent discharge.

Gonorrheal endocervicitis – damage to the mucous membrane of the cervical canal. Complaints of slight pain in the lower abdomen, mucopurulent leucorrhoea.

Gonorrhea is a disease of the urogenital tract caused by gonococcus, which has a tropism for the mucous membranes covered with columnar epithelium. The disease is caused by a pathogenic microorganism and is sexually transmitted, leading to infertility.

Fungal lesions of the feet – interdigital or plantar infection with characteristic inflammation. It is peeling, maceration, cracks or redness in the interdigital folds. The lesion of the feet according to the “moccasin” type is manifested in the form of diffuse hyperkeratosis (excessive keratinization) and peeling in the area of ​​the soles of the foot. This form of infection is usually accompanied by nail damage. The inflammatory type of infection is manifested by the rash of blisters on the arch or lateral surfaces of the foot.Blisters and cracks in the foot interfere with normal walking, causing pain. It is always possible to attach a secondary infection with the development of purulent-inflammatory complications.


Dermatitis – inflammation of the skin, manifested by outlined redness with itching. The lesions pass through 3 stages: acute (with the manifestation of a vascular reaction), subacute (with the formation of crusts and scales in the affected area) and chronic (with a pronounced thickening of the outer skin). Depending on the stage of the disease, skin manifestations can occur in the form of spots, vesicles, plaques, edema, crusts, scales, cracks, etc.e. The most common forms are contact (allergic or from irritation), atopic, pompholix (violation of the water balance of the skin), seborrheic, autosensitive, etc. Any areas of the skin are affected, the disease often takes on chronic forms with periodic exacerbations.

Dermatomycosis – fungal infection of the skin.

Diabetes mellitus – a chronic increase in blood sugar levels, which develops as a result of the influence of many factors, including genetic ones.The first signs are thirst, frequent urination, and changes in body weight. In the future, the pathology of the retina of the eye develops with deterioration of vision, impaired renal function, damage to the nervous and cardiovascular systems. The most formidable are acute complications of diabetes mellitus – various types of coma.

Dysplasia of the cervix, vagina is a precancerous condition, which means a change in the epithelium (mucous membrane) of the cervix and vagina of various origins.It can occur both on the unchanged cervix and with concomitant diseases (infectious and inflammatory processes, including sexually transmitted diseases). It does not have a clear clinical picture, most often it is asymptomatic. With severe dysplasia, surgical treatment is indicated (in order to avoid the development of malignant oncology) and constant dispensary observation.

Sexually transmitted diseases – inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary tract in men and women.Includes chlamydia, ureaplasmosis, mycoplasmosis, gardnerellosis, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, viral diseases (herpes, hepatitis, HPV). Depending on the main localization of the inflammatory focus, the clinic of diseases is diverse – urethritis, prostatitis, cystitis, adnexitis, endometritis, colpitis, vaginitis, etc. The most common consequences are chronic inflammatory processes of the genitourinary organs (sluggish or with frequent exacerbations), all kinds of sexual disorders, infertility.

Itching of the vulva – referred to as precancerous diseases of the external genital organs.It occurs in women during menopause or postmenopause.


Impetigo – superficial pyoderma (purulent skin lesions). Caused by group A streptococcus or Staphylococcus aureus. The disease is promoted by non-observance of hygiene rules, vitamin deficiency, inadequate protein nutrition. Primarily, a vesicular element appears on the inflamed skin, which turns into a bladder with a yellowish content. When opened, the contents shrink into yellowish crusts. With a prolonged course, the development of glomerulonephritis (damage to the glomeruli of the kidney) is possible.

Ichthyosis – a skin disease characterized by excessive dryness of the skin, peeling. The most common are hereditary forms, but it is possible that this condition may occur secondarily in relation to other diseases (malignant tumors, eating disorders, metabolic disorders, etc.). Vulgar ichthyosis begins in childhood, palms, soles, extensor surfaces, thin scales are affected, hair follicles can be affected. Lamellar ichthyosis manifests itself from birth, lamellar scales, dark against a background of reddened skin.The process is generalized, flexion surfaces, palms and soles are affected.


Vulvovaginal candidiasis – infection of the vagina and vaginal opening with yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida. The predisposing factors for the development of the disease are the impact of various external factors on a person, prolonged use of antibiotics, hormonal drugs, cytostatics, oral contraceptives, diabetes mellitus, pregnancy, etc. skin and mucous membranes of the vulva and vagina, copious or moderate cheesy discharge from the genital tract, itching and burning, an unpleasant odor that intensifies during sexual intercourse.

Ovarian cyst – a formation resulting from the accumulation of secretions in the preexisting ovarian cavity. Possible torsion or hemorrhage of cysts with the development of a pronounced pain symptom.
Pathological male climax – a decrease in the level of male sex hormones due to the extinction of the hormonal and reproductive activity of the reproductive system. It manifests itself in the form of sexual dysfunction, increased blood pressure, heart pain, weakness.

Menopause syndrome in women – a disorder of the functions of various organs and systems of the body against the background of the extinction of the hormonal and reproductive activity of the reproductive system.Possible neuropsychiatric disorders (fatigue, depression, tearfulness, sleep disturbances, fears), autonomic disorders (hot flashes, tachycardia, increased blood pressure, migraine, pain in the heart, etc.), trophic disorders (vaginitis, dryness of the mucous membranes, increased fragility of bones, pain in the bladder). It is often accompanied by an increase in body weight.

Kraurosis of the vulva – precancerous disease of the external genital organs. Usually observed in women during menopause or postmenopause.Complaints of itching and dryness of the mucous membrane of the external genital organs.

Dysfunctional uterine bleeding – occurs as a result of a violation of the production of ovarian hormones. It is characterized by an alternation of delayed menstruation and bleeding. With prolonged and heavy bleeding, post-hemorrhagic anemia develops.

Lichen planus – a common disease that occurs in middle age in men and women; non-infectious origin.It is characterized by itchy nodular rashes with clear boundaries of a purple hue on the skin (flexors of the wrists and forearms, sides of the neck, buttocks, penis, ankles, sacrum). Lesions of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity differs from the skin by the absence of nodules in the presence of a white lace mesh. Severe itching in places of skin lesions provokes scratching with the addition of a secondary infection. Against this background, the development of purulent-inflammatory complications is possible.


Leukoplakia of the vulva, cervix – a precancerous disease manifested by the development of the sclerosing process, the appearance of whitish spots on the external genital organs and the vaginal part of the cervix that cannot be removed with a cotton swab.Itching of the vagina is possible. A transition to a malignant formation (cancer) is possible.


Uterine fibroids is a benign tumor originating from the smooth muscle tissue of the uterus. The disease manifests itself in cyclic or acyclic bleeding, symptoms of compression of the bladder and rectum are possible. Development of necrosis or torsion of the leg of the node is possible.


Burn – acute inflammation of the skin after thermal or chemical exposure.One of the causes of burns is photodermatitis (sunburn), especially in people with lightly pigmented or white skin (blondes, albinos, redheads). Burns are manifested by redness, blistering, and the development of necrosis in severe cases. May be accompanied by headaches, vomiting, fever, fainting.

Onychomycosis – fungal infection of the nail bed and nail. It is accompanied by whitening, yellowing and loosening of the nail plate, or detachment of the nail with the formation of subungual crumbling masses and discoloration of the nail.Tends to spread with the defeat of new nail plates. One of the varieties is candidal onychomycosis, noted in patients with chronic candidiasis of the skin and mucous membranes.

Shingles is an infection caused by the VZ virus parasitizing the nerve ganglia (nodes). Has a periodically repeating flow. A skin rash consists of painful and / or itchy blisters that tend to appear on one side. The development of visible lesions is often preceded by pain.The entire cycle of the disease is usually 2-3 weeks. Most often, the skin of the trunk is affected (in accordance with the zone of innervation of the intercostal nerves), less often – the skin of the face. Shingles can appear in people of any age, especially with reduced immunity. The most common complication is neuralgia with severe and debilitating pain that can last for years. Sometimes lesions of the eyeball develop.


Papillomavirus infection is a disease caused by both low- and highly oncogenic types of human papillomavirus, sexually transmitted, can occur latently (without clinical manifestations), subclinical (with a dull clinical picture) or have certain clinical symptoms.Manifested by genital warts, chronic inflammatory processes, dysplasias (precancerous conditions). It can lead to the development of a malignant process.

Papulosquamous rashes – inflammatory skin diseases characterized by red or pink nodules and plaques covered with scales. This group includes psoriasis, lichen planus, seborrheic dermatitis, lichen rosacea, acute parapsoriasis, lichen planus and filiformis. Large areas of the skin can be affected, the rash is sometimes accompanied by itching.After the disappearance of the rashes, zones of hypopigmentation are formed in their place, in rare cases, scars. Patients are worried about a pronounced cosmetic defect.

Pyoderma – purulent skin lesions. Gangrenous pyoderma can be a manifestation of Crohn’s disease (damage to the mucous membrane of the large intestine), lymphoma, leukemia, cardiovascular failure, rheumatism, etc. Bubbles appear suddenly on the buttocks, thighs, face, opening, turn into ulcers. The ulcers rapidly increase in size, within a few days they can reach 10–20 cm in diameter.Pus is secreted through the holes in the ulcers, regional lymph nodes increase. The course of the disease is severe. After the resolution and healing of the ulcerative process, scars are formed.

Subcutaneous fungal infections – lesions of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, often developing after an injury or cut with the introduction of a fungal infection into the wound. Nodules form on the skin, rapidly enlarging and ulcerating. Without treatment, blockage of the lymphatic vessels and edema of the elephantiasis type occur.Damage to deep-lying tissues – muscles and bones is possible.

Premenstrual syndrome – a disorder of the function of the nervous, cardiovascular and endocrine systems in the second half of the menstrual cycle. Complaints about headaches, insomnia, depression, irritability, edema, tachycardia, arrhythmia, and dyspnea that appear 7-10 days before the onset of menstruation.

Prostatitis – an inflammatory process of the prostate gland. It is caused by a number of reasons: infectious diseases, stagnant processes of the pelvic organs, microcirculation disorders.The disease can occur in acute, subacute and chronic forms. The most often manifested by the following symptoms: pain, urinary disorder, sexual dysfunctions. Long-term presence of a focus of infection leads to the formation of a chronic inflammatory process with periodic exacerbations and persistent disorders in the sexual sphere.

Occupational diseases – a group of skin diseases caused by harmful occupational factors. The most common are acne (caused by, for example, fats or oils), depigmentation (caused by certain chemicals), lichen planus (caused by developers), infectious lesions (when working on contaminated surfaces), photodermatosis, contact dermatitis (for example, from rubber gloves at the medical staff), etc.d.


Versicolor versicolor – caused by a yeast-like fungus, infection occurs through close contact with patients, when wearing someone else’s clothes, through the sand on the beach. Hormonal imbalances contribute to the development of the disease. It manifests itself in various sizes with spots of brown or yellow color, merging into large foci. The spots are slightly scaly, located in the upper part of the body, less often on the neck, scalp or other areas. Without treatment, the process progresses to cover new skin surfaces.

Erysipelas is a type of cellulitis commonly caused by hemolytic streptococcus. Begins with fever, malaise, headache. A red infiltrated plaque with a sharply delineated border appears on the skin. In severe cases, the surface layer of the skin becomes blistered or necrotic. Without treatment, erysipelas leads to death, caused by vascular thrombosis, intoxication, and bacteremia (infection in the blood).

Rosacea – rosacea.The cause of the disease is unclear, but it is known that patients experience increased blood flow to the skin. Acne rosacea predominantly affects the forehead, cheeks, nose, and chin. There are three main manifestations of the disease – telangiectasia (spider veins), enlargement of the sebaceous glands, acne-like nodules.

Pink lichen is an acute benign disease affecting young adults and adolescents. It begins with a single, well-defined oval-shaped spot 2–4 cm in diameter with characteristic peeling.After a few days or weeks, similar rashes appear on the trunk and limbs. Trunk lesions are arranged in parallel lines in the form of a “Christmas tree”. The cause of pink lichen is unknown, but the infectious nature of the disease is not excluded.

Hypertrophic scar – a pathological feature of connective tissue to excessive regeneration (proliferation). Scars appear at the sites of cuts, wounds, and other skin defects. Large scars disfigure the skin surfaces, impair the functions of flexion / extension of the limbs.Patients suffer from a pronounced cosmetic defect.


Salpingitis – inflammation of the fallopian tube. It is accompanied by recurrent pain in the lower abdomen, a rise in temperature. Often occurs as a result of the spread of a sexually transmitted infection. The chronic process leads to the development of infertility.

Seborrheic dermatitis – develops as a result of increased function of the sebaceous glands under the influence of androgens. A certain role is given to the lack of vitamins B6 and H.It is manifested by the formation of fatty yellowish scales located on the reddened scalp, the hair is glued together. Often the skin of the buttocks, genitals, and large folds is affected. It may be accompanied by excruciating itching, the addition of a secondary infection with the development of purulent-inflammatory complications.

Seborrheic keratosis – benign epidermal skin formation, observed in elderly patients. The reason is unclear. Clinically, seborrheic keratosis presents as well-defined, prominent brown, gray, black, or tan nodules that appear to be “stuck” to the skin.Their surface is often uneven, but sometimes it is warty or smooth. In some cases, seborrheic keratosis is associated with malignant tumors of the internal organs. With frequent trauma to areas of keratosis, malignancy of the process is possible.

Polycystic ovary syndrome – a pathology based on changes in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian system, leading to cystic and degenerative changes in the ovaries. It can manifest itself as menstrual irregularities or amenorrhea, infertility, hirsutism, vegetative manifestations.

Systemic fungal infections – deep fungal skin lesions involving internal organs (lungs, bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, spleen, adrenal glands, central nervous system, bones, joints, etc.). They are accompanied by symptoms of a cold, fever, chills, headache, muscle pain, cough. On the skin, the manifestations of fungal infections are variable. The most common are warts or nodules, painful sores on the mucous membranes of the mouth and nose.

Sporotrichosis – subcutaneous fungal infection. People who practice floriculture, horticulture and caring for animals are at risk of infection. Distinguish between the skin-lymphatic form of the disease (the formation of an ulcerating nodule with the spread of infection along the lymphatic vessels), skin (nodules with ulcerations on the skin) and disseminated (damage to the lungs, joints, bones, eyes, meninges). With the spread of the process to the internal organs, a severe clinical course of the disease is observed with impaired function of the affected organ.

Staphylococcal impetigo – purulent skin lesions caused by staphylococcus. Thin flabby blisters with cloudy contents or layers of pus form on the skin. At the base of the bladder, redness of varying degrees of severity may be observed. Bubbles quickly fall off, and the lesion can take on the appearance of a shiny varnished surface. Older lesions have yellowish crusts. The disease may be accompanied by fever, malaise. It is possible to attach a secondary infection with the development of a severe clinical picture.

Drug rash – skin manifestation of drug allergy. Extensive skin surfaces can be affected. The clinic is diverse – from a benign course of the process to the development of urgent dermatological conditions (acute urticaria, angioedema, toxic epidermal necrolysis – rejection of the superficial skin layer).


Telangiectasia – expansion of skin vessels in the form of vascular “stars”.The reason is unknown, family cases are possible. There are several types of telangiectasias, including dermal-ocular, generalized, nevoid. Skin and eye telangiectasias are located on the auricles, behind the ear, on the neck, on the face, eyeballs, conjunctiva, eyelids, in the ulnar, popliteal fossa, the back of the hands and feet. On the skin of the trunk, areas of skin atrophy, spots of the color “coffee with milk” can be found. Dystrophy of hair, nails, a tendency to various types of infection is noted.When telangiectasias are located on the cerebellum, cerebellar symptoms are manifested – decreased reflexes, convulsions, etc. Generalized telangiectasias spread throughout the body, often accompanied by varicose veins. Nonvoid telangiectasias tend to become malignant.


Urogenital mycoplasmosis is a group of inflammatory diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria – mycoplasmas. Infection occurs predominantly through sexual contact.Mycoplasmosis in a woman can cause premature birth, early discharge of amniotic fluid, the development of pneumonia, meningitis in children.


Folliculitis – inflammation of hair follicles in the form of a common rash on the body. The main cause of folliculitis is an infectious lesion, sometimes folliculitis appears after hair removal. Abscesses, inflammation of the lymphatic vessels, etc. may occur. Without treatment, the disease becomes chronic with periodic exacerbations.

Photocontact dermatitis – damage to areas of the skin irradiated by the sun, to which photoallergen has been applied (tar derivatives, psoralen, some sunscreens and fragrances). Some plants (fig, celery, parsnips, fennel, rose hips, meadow grasses, clover, lemon, and other citrus fruits) cause phytophotodermatitis.

Photosensitive dermatitis – skin reactions resembling sunburn caused by exposure to sunlight on the skin while taking certain medications.

Furuncle – painful swelling around the hair shaft, in the center of which a yellow abscess, infiltration appears. The central part is compacted, opened with rejection of the necrotic rod. The disease may be accompanied by a temperature reaction. It is caused by Staphylococcus aureus, diabetes mellitus and decreased immunity contribute to the development of the disease.

Chlamydia is a urogenital sexually transmitted infection.In women, chlamydia causes urethritis, cervicitis, then endometritis, inflammation of the uterine appendages, infertility can develop. Often the onset of the disease is accompanied by frequent painful urination. Transmission of the causative agent to a child is possible in 40-60% of cases, both in the presence and in the absence of obvious clinical manifestations of infection in the mother.

Chronic proctitis, proctosigmoiditis – chronic inflammation of the rectum and sigmoid colon. It is a consequence of an untreated acute disease or has a specific nature – tuberculous, syphilitic, gonorrheal, due to helminthic invasion, etc.Clinically manifests itself as a recurrent feeling of discomfort in the rectum, a feeling of incomplete emptying, periodic exacerbations, accompanied by
increased frequency of stools mixed with mucus and sometimes blood, painful urge to defecate. Chronic inflammatory processes can lead to the development of ulcers on the intestinal mucosa, the formation of fistulas.

Cervicitis is an inflammatory process of the cervix, which can be caused by pathogens of sexually transmitted infections (chlamydia, gonococcus, Trichomonas, etc.)etc.). The disease is accompanied by profuse mucous or purulent discharge, itching, burning, pain in the lower abdomen.

Cystalgia – the appearance of painful urge to urinate with normal urine tests. It is caused by gynecological diseases, ovarian dysfunction.

Scabies is a contagious disease caused by the scabies mite. Infection occurs through contact with a sick person or through infected linen.Patients are worried about severe itching, aggravated at night, swelling in the axillary areas, individual blister rashes on the body. A complication of the disease by the development of purulent-inflammatory changes in the skin, eczema is possible.

Eczema – inflammation of the skin, manifested by outlined redness with itching. The lesions pass through 3 stages: acute (with the manifestation of a vascular reaction), subacute (with the formation of crusts and scales in the affected area) and chronic (with a pronounced thickening of the outer skin).Depending on the stage of the disease, skin manifestations can occur in the form of spots, vesicles, plaques, edema, crusts, scales, cracks, etc. Any areas of the skin are affected
cover, the disease often takes on chronic forms with periodic exacerbations.

Exocervicitis – inflammation of the mucous membrane of the vaginal part of the cervix. Causes of the disease, clinical picture, complications – see endocervicitis.

Ecthyma is an infectious disease caused by group A streptococcus or Staphylococcus aureus.Emaciated people with altered immunity, emaciated by the infection, are more likely to get sick. First, a bubble with cloudy contents appears on the skin, upon opening which a purulent thick crust quickly forms. A rounded ulcer with a peripheral inflammatory corolla is exposed under the crust. Ectymes can be single or multiple, the favorite localization is the lower limbs.

Endometriosis is a hormone-dependent disease that develops against a background of impaired immune processes in the body, characterized by the penetration of the endometrium into tissues where it normally does not exist.

Endometritis – inflammation of the uterine lining due to infection. Often associated with previous abortions and complicated childbirth.

Endocervicitis – inflammation of the mucous membrane of the cervical canal caused by infectious agents (including sexually transmitted infections), mechanical damage and trauma (during abortion, diagnostic curettage, rupture of the cervix during childbirth, etc.). Clinically, it can manifest itself with profuse mucous or purulent discharge, itching, burning, pain in the lower abdomen.When the inflammatory process spreads to other organs, a clinic of urethritis, endometritis, salpingo-oophoritis, etc. is possible. The chronic course of the disease can lead to complications during pregnancy and childbirth, infertility.

Erythema – a change in the color of areas of the skin from bright pink to bluish-purple, accompanying various diseases of the skin and internal organs. The clinical manifestations of erythema are diverse, there are several types of erythema – nodular, heat, migrating necrolytic, pigmentary, exudative, gluteal, etc.Some of them have a tendency to generalization (extensive spread) of the process, ulceration and malignancy.

Cervical erosion is an acquired pathological process characterized by damage and subsequent exfoliation of the stratified squamous epithelium of the vaginal part of the cervix. As a result, a wound surface is formed with the development of an inflammatory reaction. The occurrence of erosion is facilitated by abortions, cervical ruptures during childbirth, chronic endocervicitis.


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How to properly deal with childhood viral diseases – Rossiyskaya Gazeta

The main signs of the ailments they cause are a rash and high fever.

“Flying” infections among childhood viral diseases occupy a special place – they are the most common and most contagious. Chickenpox, rubella and measles can also be infected while being 50 meters from the sick person: viruses – the causative agents of these diseases are easily carried by air currents.

Many pediatricians believe that it is even useful to get sick with them in kindergarten, especially chickenpox and rubella: it strengthens the immune system and in the future the body will quickly overcome “adult” infections. In addition, these diseases are tolerated by adults much more difficult and are fraught with complications.

Rash rash strife

Each of the diseases manifests itself in different ways. All of them are characterized by a rash – and it is by its appearance and location on the body that one can determine which of the volatile infections fell on the child.

In measles, bright pink spots first appear behind the ears, on the face and neck, and then, merging with each other, turn into spots and slowly spread throughout the body, going down and after a couple of days reaching the legs. From the fourth day of the rash, they turn pale, peel off, leaving dark spots that persist for several days.

Rubella rash occurs first on the face and neck and then quickly (in just a few hours!) Spreads throughout the body.It is light pink, the spots are small and never merge with each other, the rash lasts no more than three days and disappears without leaving any traces.

Chickenpox gives a rash at first in the form of unbearably itchy pale pink spots, which then quickly turn into blisters filled with a clear liquid. Already on the second day, the liquid becomes cloudy, and the bubble wrinkles and becomes covered with brown crusts. Spots, bubbles, and crusts can be present on the body at the same time, since the rash appears repeatedly over 4-5 days.

Now for more details.

1 Measles. If a person is not vaccinated, there is practically no chance of not getting infected by contact with a sick person: the virus – the causative agent of measles is unusually mobile and infectious. The first signs of the disease are visible on the 8-10th day after infection, and may appear even after three weeks.

Measles begins with severe headache, weakness, fever up to 40 degrees, runny nose, dry cough; eyes turn red and watery. If you look into a child’s mouth, then on the inside of the cheeks you can see pustules, similar to grains of salt.These symptoms persist for 3-6 days, after which a rash appears. Five days after the rash, the temperature decreases and the general well-being improves. Measles treatment aims to relieve the main symptoms and maintain immunity. Knock down the high temperature with antipyretics, put a damp cool napkin on your forehead, let’s drink more. Close the curtains in the room – the bright light irritates the eyes, which should be washed out, then the eye drops prescribed by the doctor are instilled. With measles, the content of vitamins C and A decreases in the child’s body, so give your baby multivitamins from the first day.

Important:

  • Measles is not the mildest of viral infections, and care should be taken to prevent the child from getting sick. Get vaccinated!
  • A child with measles is contagious already 1-2 days before the first signs of the disease appear and ceases to be so 5 days after the onset of the rash. All those who have had measles become immune to this infection.
  • After measles up to two months, the immune system is weakened, and the baby can get sick with a cold or viral disease.So try to protect him from unnecessary stress and from contact with patients.

2 Rubella. The first complaints are runny nose, itching, temperature up to 38 degrees, redness of the eyes. Symptoms are similar to those of measles, but the main symptom of rubella, apart from the rash, of course, is swollen lymph nodes behind the ears, on the back of the neck and on the back of the head.

Most often rubella is mild, practically does not cause complications and does not require any treatment, only plenty of drinking.

Important:

  • A sick child is contagious the day before and within 5 days after the rash appears.
  • It happens that after a few hours there is no trace of the rash, and if the rash began at night, it may go completely unnoticed, and rubella will be regarded as a common infection.
  • Rubella is extremely dangerous for pregnant women, fraught with severe fetal malformations. The threat is not only the infection of the expectant mother, but even just contact with the patient, especially in the first 14 weeks of pregnancy.Even if a woman has previously had rubella or is vaccinated, there is still a risk!

3 Chickenpox. Susceptibility to the pathogen of chickenpox is almost as high as to the measles virus. Vaccinations against this disease exist, but we do not have them, so almost all children sooner or later get sick with chickenpox.

With chickenpox, the temperature rises sharply and the general condition worsens. The severity of the condition depends on the number of rashes: the larger the rash, the harder the child is.Chickenpox does not cause a runny nose and cough, but if there is a rash on the mucous membranes of the pharynx, nose and on the conjunctiva of the sclera, then pharyngitis, rhinitis and conjunctivitis develop: a bacterial infection is not long in coming!

Feeling unwell, fever persists until new rashes appear. This usually happens 3-5 days and lasts about a week.

The goal of chickenpox treatment is to reduce intoxication and prevent bacterial complications. Severe itching can be fought with brilliant green, a weak solution of potassium permanganate.This not only disinfects the ulcers, but also allows you to track the dynamics of their appearance. Avoid overheating: the more your baby sweats, the more itchy. Feed your baby warm, semi-liquid food, drink plenty of water (however, this applies to all childhood infections).

Important:

BTW

Not only volatiles

These diseases are rare today due to mass vaccinations. But still let’s call them:

Scarlet fever is the only childhood infection caused not by viruses, but by bacteria, and is treated with antibiotics.Children from one to 16 years of age get sick with it. Scarlet fever is characterized by rapid and almost simultaneous development of all symptoms: a sharp rise in temperature, headache, nausea, vomiting. A characteristic symptom of scarlet fever is angina, in which the mucous membrane of the pharynx has a bright red color. By the end of the first – the beginning of the second day, a second characteristic symptom appears: a bright red small-dot rash. If scarlet fever is not promptly treated, serious complications can occur – damage to the heart (rheumatism) and kidneys (glomerulonephritis).

Epidemic parotitis (mumps). It starts with a fever up to 39 and pain in or under the ear, worse when swallowing or chewing. At the same time, the separation of saliva increases. By itself, this disease goes away within three to four days, but mumps often ends with pancreatitis, inflammation of the gonads (testicles) in boys, in especially severe cases it is complicated by meningitis, which is severe, but usually does not lead to death …After the transferred mumps, persistent immunity is formed, and re-infection with it is excluded.

Whooping cough has one of the most common symptoms – dry paroxysmal cough, which is very difficult to treat. The cough is preceded by a catarrhal period, which is practically indistinguishable from the usual acute respiratory infections, and at this very time the patient is most contagious! There is no innate immunity to whooping cough; even a newborn can get sick. In children under one year old, the disease is especially difficult. And here complications are dangerous, especially pneumonia.Since the causative agent of whooping cough is a bacterial bacillus, the doctor prescribes antibiotic treatment.

Dermatoses of pregnant women

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Pregnancy is a great time for any woman, especially when it is a planned and desired event in the life of a married couple. Unfortunately, due to various circumstances, pregnancy does not always occur naturally – in such cases, modern medicine offers various procedures for assisted reproductive technologies.This makes a woman’s attitude to such a natural process for her even more reverent. And here, quite often, our skin can present surprises. A variety of skin conditions can be exacerbated during pregnancy. At the same time, traditionally prescribed drugs have limitations for use in such a situation. And here it is important that the specialist has experience in treating such situations.

Our Clinic is in some way unique, since many years of experience in managing women with skin diseases during pregnancy has not only the chief physician, who for 15 years has been a consultant at the D.O. Ott, but also other specialists who are employees of the Department of Skin Diseases of the First Medical University. Academician I.P. Pavlov.

Now let’s try to explain the causes of the occurrence and identify the most common skin diseases during pregnancy.

During pregnancy, changes in the immune system of the pregnant woman are considered to be the main cause of skin lesions. Pathological processes can be manifested by an exacerbation of chronic skin diseases or the appearance of specific dermatoses associated with pregnancy, the so-called “dermatoses of pregnant women”.

Changes in the skin are very diverse, both in manifestations and in development mechanisms. They can be conditionally divided into 3 groups:

I. Stigmas of pregnancy:

Chloasma is the most famous of them. As a development mechanism, various functional endocrine-metabolic changes during pregnancy are assumed. It manifests itself as brownish spots of indeterminate outlines, often symmetrical, on the skin of the cheeks, forehead, chin, neck without subjective sensations.Chloasma can occur at different times of gestation, intensifying as it develops and disappearing without a trace soon after childbirth. But with subsequent pregnancies, chloasma occurs again. Exposure to sunlight increases the appearance of spots.

Melanosis of pregnant women – changes in the skin in the form of hyperpigmentation in the nipples, genitals, white line of the abdomen, also without subjective sensations or inflammation. After childbirth, these disorders disappear. Chloasma and melanosis usually do not require special treatment and regress spontaneously after childbirth.

II. Skin diseases reported relatively frequently during pregnancy:

This group includes a variety of skin changes and diseases that often accompany pregnancy, as well as some common dermatoses, which are usually aggravated during gestation. The main mechanism is a change in hormonal ratios in the body of a pregnant woman. This, in turn, affects the functional capabilities of the immune and nervous systems, the state of the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, cardiovascular activity, water-salt metabolism, etc.

This group includes: hyperhidrosis

  • hypertrichosis
  • palmar-plantar telangiectasias
  • erythema of palms
  • alopecia – hair loss
  • onychodystrophy – changes in the nail plates

Most of these and other conditions, as a rule, disappear after childbirth. Their treatment, if necessary, is symptomatic.

The course and severity of symptoms of other skin diseases also changes during pregnancy. These primarily include eczema, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, lichen planus, acne, Dühring’s dermatitis herpetiformis. During pregnancy, they are often exacerbated, and exacerbations are usually more pronounced and more severe than before gestation. Sometimes, on the contrary, during pregnancy, remission occurs, which continues until childbirth, after which another exacerbation occurs. Correction of exacerbations of these dermatoses during pregnancy is very difficult. Many medicines used under normal conditions affect the development of the fetus.Therefore, external symptomatic therapy becomes the leading method.

III. Actually dermatoses of pregnant women

Four skin diseases characteristic of pregnancy, pemphigoid of pregnant women, polymorphic dermatosis of pregnant women, atopic dermatitis of pregnant women, and cholestasis of pregnant women can be distinguished by clinical presentation, histopathology, risk of complications in the fetus. Only pemphigoid in pregnant women and intrahepatic cholestasis in pregnant women are associated with significant risk to the fetus.Since all of these dermatoses are pruritic, a careful assessment of any pruritic pregnancy is necessary.

Pregnant pemphigoid , formerly known as pregnancy herpes, is the rarest skin disorder in pregnancy and is an autoimmune disease. Clinically manifests itself in the form of papules and plaques, transforming into vesiculobullous elements, localized in the navel with spread to the chest, back and limbs.Pemphigoid usually resolves spontaneously within a few months after delivery. As a rule, there is a relapse of dermatosis during subsequent pregnancies, with an earlier onset of dermatosis and greater severity compared to the previous pregnancy. Treatment should be directed at reducing itching and blistering. In mild cases, topical corticosteroids and antihistamines are effective. In severe pemphigoid, it is advisable to use systemic corticosteroids.

Polymorphic dermatosis of pregnancy (PEP) is a benign, itchy inflammatory disease.It usually occurs at the end of the third trimester or immediately after delivery in the first pregnancy. Urticarial papules and plaques appear first on the abdomen and, unlike the pemphigoid of pregnant women, do not affect the navel. The rash usually spreads to the thighs and buttocks, and can rarely be widespread. Clear-cut rashes will regress spontaneously within 4-6 weeks without treatment. Treatment for PEP is based on symptom relief using topical corticosteroids and antihistamines.If the rash becomes generalized, a short course of systemic corticosteroids may be used.

Atopic dermatitis of pregnancy (AEP) is the most common skin disease in pregnant women. AEP is a benign disease characterized by an itchy eczematous or papular rash. Two thirds of AEP cases are characterized by eczematous skin changes localized to atopic areas of the body, such as the neck and flexion surfaces of the extremities.The rest of the cases are characterized by a papular rash in the abdomen and extremities. Lesions usually respond well to treatment and resolve spontaneously after delivery. However, AEP is more likely to recur in subsequent pregnancies. Dermatosis does not significantly affect the fetus, but there is an increased risk of developing atopic dermatitis in an infant.

Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) – characterized by acute onset pruritus that often begins on the palms and soles and then generalizes.There are mainly secondary lesions on the skin, such as excoriation, but there may be papules. In 10%, jaundice develops due to concomitant extrahepatic cholestasis. After giving birth, the itching goes away within a few weeks. There is a risk of relapse in subsequent pregnancies. Diagnosis of ICP is important because there is a risk of complications for both the mother and the fetus.

Treatment is aimed at normalizing serum bile acid levels to reduce the risk to the fetus and control symptoms in the mother.Treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is recommended. Other drugs that relieve itching may be used, such as antihistamines, dexamethasone. Treatment of pregnant women with dermatoses is very difficult, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy. If dermatosis is detected in a pregnant woman, it is necessary to jointly manage it by a dermatologist, obstetrician-gynecologist. Treatment of dermatoses in pregnant women requires a differentiated approach to therapy, taking into account the duration of pregnancy, exacerbation of the disease and the prevalence of the process.

The clinic has sufficient laboratory facilities and all the necessary set of equipment for the diagnosis and treatment of conditions such as dermatoses of pregnant women.

Chickenpox. Symptoms, effects, vaccination in Novosibirsk

General information

Chickenpox (chickenpox) is an acute, highly contagious (highly contagious) viral disease that is prevalent throughout the world. As soon as one case occurs among susceptible individuals, it is very difficult to prevent an outbreak of the disease.While children tolerate chickenpox relatively easily, in adults it takes on more serious forms. It can be fatal, especially in newborns and in immunocompromised individuals.

The causative agent, varicella zoster virus (VZV), is transmitted by airborne droplets or by direct contact, and patients are usually contagious several days before the onset of the rash until the time when the rash crusts.

VZV enters the human body through the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx and almost without exception causes clinical manifestations of the disease in susceptible individuals.In addition to chickenpox itself, the virus causes shingles or herpes zoster (so-called herpes zoster).

Probability of getting sick

People of all ages can get chickenpox. However, this infection most often affects children. About half of childhood diseases occur at the age of 5 to 9 years, less often children 1–4 and 10–14 years old are sick. About 10% of the cases are people 14 years and older. Among this age group, over the past 5 years, the incidence has increased from 28 to 58 per 100 thousand.population. Children in the first months of life are most often resistant to this infection. However, children who are premature and weakened by other diseases can be seriously ill with chickenpox.

The maximum incidence of chickenpox is observed in the autumn-winter months, the minimum – in the summer. Epidemic outbreaks are observed in the autumn-winter period, mainly in organized groups among preschool children. Children attending kindergartens and nurseries get this infection 7 times more often than children who do not attend them.

The risk group also includes patients with immunodeficiencies, including HIV infection. Severe cases of chickenpox in children who received hormonal therapy with steroid drugs have been described. Also described are cases of congenital chickenpox in children whose mothers had chickenpox in the first half of pregnancy; perinatal infection occurs in children whose mothers become ill 5 days before and 48 hours after the birth of the child.

Symptoms and nature of the course of the disease

The incubation period is usually 14-16 (10-21) days.Chickenpox is characterized by an itchy rash that usually begins on the head and face and is initially accompanied by fever and general malaise. The elements of the rash look like small (several millimeters in diameter) bubbles rising above the reddened surface of the skin, filled with a clear liquid (which contains the virus). As the rash gradually spreads to the body and limbs, the first bubbles (vesicles) dry out. Usually all crusts disappear after 7-10 days.

Complications after a previous illness

Although chickenpox is a relatively benign childhood illness and is rarely considered a significant public health problem, the disease can sometimes be complicated by pneumonia or encephalitis caused by the VZV virus, which can be permanent or fatal.Disfiguring scars can form as a result of secondary infection of the vesicles; in addition, necrotizing fasciitis or sepsis may result from such infection.

Complications of chickenpox are recorded with a frequency of 5-6%, they are the reason for hospitalization in 0.3-0.5%. Of the total number of cases, this is several thousand per year. 30% of complications are neurological, 20% are pneumonia and bronchitis, 45% are local complications accompanied by the formation of scars on the skin.

Features of treatment

Treatment of chickenpox is mainly reduced to the prevention of bacterial complications.To avoid the spread of the virus, good hygiene must be followed, including daily showers and nail clipping in young children (to prevent scratching and rupture of the rash blisters).

The use of antiviral agents, such as acyclovir, is justified only for premature infants, patients with impaired immune systems and adults (due to the greater severity of the infection).

The traditional remedy for the “treatment” of chickenpox – “brilliant green” – is not at all effective, much more effective than baths and baths with a small addition of soda, antihistamines and pain relieving ointments to relieve itching.

Effectiveness of vaccination

Varicella vaccines obtained using the Oka strain of the VZV virus have been on the market since 1974. Positive results regarding safety, efficacy and cost-benefit analysis have confirmed the validity of their implementation in childhood immunization programs in a number of industrialized countries. After observing study populations for 20 years in Japan and 10 years in the United States, more than 90% of immunocompetent individuals vaccinated during childhood still had protection against chickenpox.

In response to vaccination, about 95% of children develop antibodies, and 70-90% will be protected from infection for at least 7-10 years after vaccination. According to Japanese researchers (Japan is the first country in which a vaccine was registered), immunity lasts 10-20 years.

Research shows that emergency vaccination can be effective – when the vaccine is given within 3 days of exposure to VZV, at least 90% protective efficacy can be expected.Chickenpox in people who have received the vaccine is much weaker than in people who have not been vaccinated.

Vaccines

According to the current US vaccination schedule, children receive 2 doses of the vaccine (1st dose at 12 months, 2nd at 6 years old).

The chickenpox vaccines currently available on the market are obtained using the so-called VZV Oka strain, which has been modified by sequential reproduction in various cell cultures. The various formulations of these live, attenuated vaccines have been extensively tested and approved for use in Japan, the Republic of Korea, the United States, and several European countries.Some vaccines are approved for use by ages 9 months and older.

The optimal age for varicella vaccination is 12-24 months. In Japan and several other countries, one dose of the vaccine is considered sufficient, regardless of age. In the United States, 2 doses of the vaccine given 4-8 weeks apart are recommended for adolescents and adults, of whom 78% seroconverted after the first dose and 99% after the second dose.