Stingray stings treatment: First Aid, Symptoms & Treatment
Stingray Stings are Common in Florida!
Stingray Stings are common in Florida!
Stingray stings are a common dive and beach related injury. Let me explain the causes and prevention and treatment options.
Stingray season on Florida beaches runs approximately between the months of April and October. It is during these warm watered months that these sea creatures come into the shallow Florida Gulf Coast waters to mate. Activity and energy frighten these shy, bottom dwellers. They cannot see well and rely on electro-sensors/vibrations to let them know they are in danger. Stingrays generally do not attack aggressively. When threatened, their primary reaction is to swim away. However, when attacked by predators or stepped on, the stinger in their tail is whipped up and used as a weapon.
What can I do to prevent being stung by a stingray? To prevent a painful sting, it is important to do the “Stingray Shuffle”. This is done by shuffling your feet across the sandy ocean floor as you walk in the water. This way you alert the stingray of your presence. They will uncover themselves and swim away. Stingrays don’t want to be stepped on any more than you want to be stung! Another way to prevent yourself from being stung is to wear protective wading boots (water booties)!
Stingray injury care is mainly directed at monitoring the injured person’s vital signs, providing pain relief, and treating the wound.
There is no antivenom (antidote) to stingray toxin. The venom is a protein and is broken down by heat, so placing the injured area in water as hot as the person can tolerate (113°F or 45°C) for 30-90 minutes can dramatically relieve the pain. The old wives’ tale of urinating on the area helps because of the warmth, not the urine itself.
Normally the issue is the wound and the pain associated with it. Most Urgent Cares, like ours, can handle such an injury. The wound will be numbed if needed. It will be cleaned, and any foreign matter removed. Injuries to tendons, nerves, blood vessels, and other body structures will be determined. If it has been more than 5 years since the last tetanus vaccine, one should be given.
Antibiotics are often given because the wound is contaminated with bacteria from the stinger and from the seawater. People generally do well after a Stingray Sting with effective treatment, since a majority of the cases are mild.
In severe cases, you may experience anaphylaxis type allergic reaction, respiratory distress, paralysis, and severe bleeding in which case 911 should be called for emergency services. Skin ulceration can cause secondary bacterial or fungal infections to develop in the wound. In rare cases, the sting can be serious or fatal if major organs are injured. This may occur during deep sea diving or like what happened to the beloved Steve Irwin.
See our Physicians and P.A.s at Doctors Urgent Care for the highest quality medical evaluation and treatment. We are familiar with and treat Stingray injuries regularly.
David B. Dean, MD
Doctors Urgent Care
treating a stingray and jellyfish sting
With beautiful tropical waters and sandy shores, the perfect beach day isn’t hard to come by on Hilton Head.
Unfortunately, jellyfish and stingrays are also easy to come by. As the weather grows warmer, more and more of these tropical creatures make their way into our waters. In the heat of July and August, sting rates to skyrocket. Unfortunately, if there are jellyfish in the water, the only way to avoid them is to stay out of the ocean. They aren’t easy to spot and sometimes the only way to know if they’re present is if someone is stung. Stingrays tend to bury themselves into the sand, which also makes them difficult to see. While stings are common in this area, few visitors are aware of how to treat them properly.
One of the first things to know is what kind of jellyfish frequent Hilton Head.
There are several species of jellyfish that come to our waters. The most common is the cannonball jellyfish. The moon, lions mane, sea wasp (box jellyfish), sea nettle and even a Portuguese man-o-war have been spotted. The sea wasp, or box jellyfish, is the one that stings with the most venom and causes the most pain.
The most common jellyfish in the Hilton Head area, the cannonball. Photo courtesy of Dauphin Island Sea Lab.
There are several species of stingrays on Hilton Head Island. The Southern stingray, roughtail stingray, smooth butterfly, spotted eagle, bullnose, cownose and Atlantic rays are in our waters. The majority of stingray stings are reported around Coligny. This may be due to the fact that there are more swimmers in this area.
When it comes to treating a sting from either a jellyfish or a stingray it is very important to know that ocean water is going to be your best friend.
When you use clean cold water on a jellyfish sting it can actually inflame the welt, causing smaller barbs from the sting to release more venom into the victim’s skin, so take ocean water and run it over the affected area. Do not rub sand or towels over the area as that will inflame the sting for both jellyfish and stingrays.
For jellyfish, put either shaving cream or a baking soda and vinegar paste onto the welt. Then, scrape it off gently with a credit card. This helps to remove any barbs that may have been left on your skin without re-stinging yourself. With a stingray all you have to do is take out the barb that has stung you if it is still embedded into the skin.
Finally, take white vinegar and run it over the jellyfish sting for at least 30 seconds. Be sure that all the barbs have been removed as pure white vinegar may cause the barbs to implode and cause more stinging. Do not pour vinegar on a stingray sting. That will only cause more pain to an already painful welt or open wound. The best thing to do is to soak the sting in the hottest water you can possibly stand for at least 30 minutes.
While being stung isn’t a pleasant experience, following these steps may help you to decrease the pain caused by these native animals.
Remember, if you show any allergic signs or you begin to feel nauseous or have a fever seek medical help immediately.
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How To Treat a Stingray Injury (And How to Avoid One!)
Thousands of people are reported to be stung by stingrays each year in the United States alone (5000, to be exact!), and such injuries range from small wounds to severe lacerations and even (rarely) lead to deaths. Most incidents occur due to ignorance or carelessness, so we would like to provide our readers with some useful information on stingray injuries in an easy to read format. Forewarned is forearmed!
Stingrays inhabit coastal marine waters in tropical and subtropical areas throughout the world. Contrary to common belief, these animals do not usually attack people and try to avoid being stepped on whenever possible. If that does not sound convincing to you, check out the place named Stingray City in the North Sound of Grand Cayman in the Caribbean Sea, where tourists feed and swim with uncaptured stingrays fearlessly. Local tour guides can even lure these animals to the surface with a piece of squid and encourage vacationers to stroke them. While we certainly do not recommend such close relationships with stingrays, it is a curious fact that those friendly creatures are the same species that are found in the Gulf of Mexico, where people fall victim to stingray injuries on a regular basis.
Well, stingrays are not aggressive species but, like any living things, they try to protect themselves in dangerous situations. After all, nobody likes being stepped on. Sometimes you can easily see stingrays congregating along the sandy sea bottom, but in many cases, they lie buried in the sand in shallow or muddy areas of water and are difficult to notice. This is why these animals are sometimes called aquatic landmines. If a diver, fisher, or swimmer does not exercise extreme caution, they can sustain a life-threatening injury and experience the worst pain in their life after putting their foot down on a stingray, lying at the bottom. The size of a stingray and its stinger depends on the stingray species – many of them grow up to several feet across and still can easily hide in the sand.
Probably, the best way to prevent a stingray sting is to develop a habit to shuffle along instead of lifting your feet and stepping down in shallow areas. If you have an oar or a long stick, you can gently slide it along the sandy ground in front of you to check the bottom for stingrays. Wearing footwear can give additional protection. Nevertheless, most types of footwear cannot eliminate the possibility of injuries. Many stings are in the ankle or top of the foot. Clothing hardly provides any protection, since stingray stingers (spines) can penetrate neoprene, leather, and rubber.
Stingrays have spines, or stingers, which they use to penetrate and envenom the enemy’s body, so there are two aspects in any stingray injury: the penetrating wound and the venom.
Never underestimate the penetrating ability of a stingray’s barb, even on the smallest of stingrays. The stingray’s barb is designed to penetrate virtually all sorts of dense materials, including wood and leather. And as unbelievable as it may seem, it’s been documented that large stingrays are able to drive a barb through a boat’s wooden planks or completely through a persons arm or leg.
Stingray wounds vary from uncomplicated puncture wounds to major lacerations. The bone-hard spine resembles the incredibly sharp serrated blade of a knife, has a pointed end, and can be up to 14 inches long.
When you step on a stingray, the fish throws its tail with a stinger forward and side-to-side, which often causes injury in the lower leg or in the top of the foot.
If the sting penetrates abdomen or chest and injures the vital organs, it can lead to more severe consequences and even death. Quite often, the stinger or its parts stay imbedded in the wound and cause persistent infection if you do not remove them.
The stinger is covered with a sheath, which discharges venom when broken (then the animal regenerates it in the same way as we regenerate our fingernails). The stingray venom consists of a heat-labile (degraded by heating) protein. Unfortunately, no antivenom exists.
Be aware that 70 percent of stingray victims go unconscious as a result of envenomation.
Envenomation immediately causes pain around the injury, which feels very intense, peaks at 30-60 minutes, and lasts up to 48 hours.
The pain is often relentless and inconceivable and it can be shocking even to witness it.
At first, the wound looks blue or dusky and then its color may change to bright red. Stingray wounds usually swell and bleed. Venom often causes weakness, headache, dizziness, anxiety, sweating, nausea, diarrhea, fainting, and muscle cramps. Envenomation can also result in tissue death (necrosis) and infection.
If you or another person are injured by a stingray, you should promptly seek expert medical help. Nevertheless, there are actions you can take to provide first aid in the meanwhile.
Deep wounds, as well as abdomen and chest, injuries require immediate hospitalization!
Irrespective of the stingray species, first aid is always the same and consists in the following steps:
1. Irrigate the wound with water to remove the venom. The water should be fresh and clean – ideally, sterile. Tap water is still an option. As for saltwater, it contains bacteria, so it is the last resort in treating stingray injuries. Contrary to popular belief, urine and vinegar are not effective.
2. Remove the foreign material (pieces of the stinger, sheath, etc.) to prevent complicating infections. First, extract the most obvious material. Then you can meticulously remove the remains when you immerse the wound in hot water.
3. Immerse the injured area in hot water for 30-90 minutes to decrease the pain. The temperature should be as high as the person can tolerate, but less than 115 °F in order not to cause burns. Change the water frequently to keep the temperature high. While the injured area is in the water, remove the remaining foreign material. If you have no access to hot water, you can use a hot compress or even hot sand (but then irrigate the wound thoroughly to remove the sand). In any case, do not omit this step, because it helps to decrease the pain significantly.
If pain returns, repeat the hot-water soaking.
4. Use oral pain medications to relieve the pain. If you have proper training, you can infiltrate the area around the wound with an anesthetic such as bupivacaine or lidocaine. Be aware that the pain may last for up to 48 hours.
5. After heating the injury, cover the wound with a sterile dressing. You should change it daily. Elevate the injured area and keep it away from saltwater. It is not recommended to stitch the wound, because it may contain bacteria from seawater. If you need to stop a lot of bleeding, you can tape or sew the wound but close it loosely so that potential infection would be able to drain.
6. It is recommended to provide antibiotic treatment for 5 days to prevent bacterial infection. The chosen antibiotics should be effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, and Vibrio species.
If the wound is not healing or infection is not improving in spite of antibiotics, prompt expert medical attention is needed!
Alternative Protection and First Aid
Snake Bite Kits
In case you were stung, there is one more remedy you might find very helpful. Snakebite kit syringes are reported to relieve even the most excruciating pain after stingray envenomation, so you can try one as well. Such kits are sold in sports goods and drugstores.
Stingray wounds vary from uncomplicated puncture wounds to major lacerations with possible complications, which may lead to paralysis or even amputation. A severe stingray injury can keep the victim out for work for a few weeks, and months may pass before he or she can walk normally again. People who experienced the worst pain in their life when they were stung by a stingray often have to overcome a deep psychological trauma before they can feel the inner ability to enter the water again. In rare cases, when stingrays inflict wounds to abdomen or chest, the victim can even die, so caution is never too much when you are in the water. If you or another person get stung by a stingray, implement the steps described above and promptly seek expert medical help!
Symptoms, First Aid, and When to Go to the ER
The sun is out, the weather is warm, and the beaches are calling out to us. And many of us will answer that call.
For most of us, we’ll enjoy our fun in the sun without issues. But it’s always important to be prepared in case the day’s festivities take a turn.
The warm weather brings more than just seasonal allergies and sunburns. Run-ins with jellyfish or stingrays are not only painful but can occasionally result in medical emergencies.
Here are tips on applying stingray and jellyfish sting first aid, and how to know when to go to the emergency room.
The First Signs of a Sting
Around 1,500-2,000 stingray injuries are reported in the United States every year. In most cases, the injury is not life-threatening, but it can be very painful.
The stinger itself is barbed and can cause a lot of soft tissue damage. Common symptoms of stingray venom include swelling, cramps, nausea, skin discoloration, and vomiting.
Jellyfish stings are far more common, no doubt helped by the fact that their populations appear to be increasing in the majority of their habitats.
The first signs of a jellyfish sting are sharp, shooting pain, tingling or numbness around the area of the sting, and the area turning red or purple. More serious stings can also cause nausea, dizziness, and vomiting.
Applying Stingray and Jellyfish First Aid
Applying first aid for stingray sting depends on the area of the wound. If it’s a flesh wound, you should remain in the ocean and attempt to remove the barb if possible. Let the saltwater clean the wound while you apply pressure to slow the bleeding.
While tending the wound, pay attention to how you’re feeling, as it’s possible to have an allergic reaction to the venom. If you notice shortness of breath, excessive sweating, an irregular heartbeat or feelings of faintness, seek medical attention immediately.
If the barb has pierced the throat, neck, abdomen, or chest, or has completely gone through part of the body, do not try to remove it. Instead, seek immediate emergency treatment.
By comparison, jellyfish stings tend to be less severe.
Treating the affected area with saltwater or a hot water rinse can help neutralize the venom and provide relief. Topical pain creams or over-the-counter painkillers can also help reduce the discomfort.
Be on the lookout for symptoms like dizziness or nausea. While most jellyfish stings don’t have long-lasting effects, serious cases can escalate quickly.
If you experience difficulty breathing, chest pains, or loss of feeling in the affected limb, go to the ER right away.
An Ounce of Prevention Is Worth a Pound of Cure
The best way to deal with stings is to avoid them rather than have to apply ray or jellyfish sting first aid.
Stingrays would rather avoid you than sting you. Most incidents occur when they’re stepped on as they lay on the seafloor. Doing the “stingray shuffle” will give them ample warning to flee.
Most jellyfish stings happen when they wash ashore and are stepped on, so watch your step.
Unfortunately, rays and jellyfish aren’t the only things that come ashore during the summer. Hurricane season will be here before we know it. To ensure you’re ready, check out the Corpus Christi ER guide on preparing early.
Mekonnen S. “How to Prevent and Treat Stingray Injuries” National Capital Poison Center, https://www.poison.org/articles/how-to-prevent-and-treat-stingray-injuries-201
Frost E. “What’s Behind That Jellyfish Sting?” Smithsonian Magazine, 30 Aug. 2013, https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/whats-behind-that-jellyfish-sting-2844876/
“The Stingray Shuffle,” University of Florida, https://sfyl.ifas.ufl.edu/archive/hot_topics/environment/stingray_shuffle.shtml
SurfShot Magazine – Paul Frediani’s Sports Athletics Press Appearances
SURFSHOT MAGAZINE, JUNE 2004
There are over 1,500 reported stingray stings each year. They are very painful and can result in infection or even death. The Round Stingray (Urolophus halleri) is the most abundant species off the Southern California coast. What most commonly occurs when these creatures sting, what most commonly occurs is the poor stingray gets stepped on and pinned to the sand. The stingray then whips its tail up, plunging its stinger into whatever is on top of it. The stinger is a bony barb near the tip of its tail. When it’s plunged into a surfer/swimmer, the glands of the barb pump venom into the wound causing a sharp, searing pain. The stinger can go right through your booties. Although the venom usually kills only the tissue surrounding the sting, if it were to be injected into a nerve, blood vessel or vital organ the effect could be deadly.
TREAT A STINGRAY STING BY:
1. Deactivating the venom. This is possible because the venom is broken down by heat. The best thing to do is plunge your foot into hot water as soon as possible. Be careful not to burn yourself. If you have a thermometer handy, keep the water at around 112 degrees and soak for about an hour. Keep adding hot water to maintain temperature. DO NOT elevate the injured body part as this can cause venom to spread.
2. Care for the wound. Add a squirt of antibacterial solution or mild soap to the hot water. Once you’re finished soaking, rinse the wound out with gallons of clean water. Sometimes pieces of barb come out. If the wound is large it may need stitches. If it’s a small puncture wound, keep it open and allow it to drain. Soak in clean water two or three times a day. You may need antibiotics and a tetanus shot if you haven’t had one in five years.
3. Manage the pain. Relieve the pain immediately by taking aspirin, Tylenol or ibuprofen. See a doctor if you need stronger medicine or if you’re not back to normal after 36 hours.
JELLYFISH AND PORTUGUESE MAN OF WAR
The most common Jellyfish belongs to the Scyphozoans class of Cnidarians. They are made up of 99% water and can be found in all seas and some freshwater locations. Sizes range from 1 to 16 inches with some species reaching 6ft in width and 15ft in length. The Portuguese Man of War or Physalia physalis (in Greek means air bubble) is not a true Jellyfish, but belongs in the Hydrozoans class of Cnidarians. Their balloon-looking portion that is filled with carbon monoxide and floats on the water’s surface most commonly identifies them. They can reach 50 feet in length in the open oceans.
1. Do not rub the tentacles with your hands, a towel, sand, or clothing.
2. Spray or rinse the tentacles with. household VINEGAR for at least 30 seconds to prevent further stings.
3. If vinegar is not available, rinse the area with large amounts of salt water. Do not use fresh water; this may cause the tentacles to release venom (fire).
4. Rinse eye stings with a saline solution, such as Artificial Tears. Do not put vinegar, alcohol, or any other “stinger solution” in the eyes. The skin around the eye can be dabbed with a cloth saturated in vinegar, but you must be extremely careful not to get any of the solution in the eye.
5. If vinegar is not available, unseasoned meat tenderizer, baking soda, or household ammonia may be useful for treating jellyfish stings. Meat tenderizer or baking soda may be sprinkled directly onto the affected area or made into a paste by adding water and then applying to the skin. Household ammonia may be sprayed on or used to rinse the affected area.
6. If it is available, apply shaving cream or a paste of baking soda, flour, or talc to the tentacles. The tentacles will stick to the shaving cream or paste and can then be easily scraped off with a safety razor, a knife-edge, or the edge of a credit card.
7. Pick off tentacles with a stick or your hand protected by a towel or glove. Be very careful not to rub or press the tentacles.
8. Take an antihistamine, such as diphenhydramine or chlorpheniramine, or apply 1% hydrocortisone cream to help control itching.
9. Use an ice pack to help relieve pain.
10. Clean any open sores 3 times per day, apply an antiseptic ointment, such as bacitracin, and cover with a light bandage.
In health and fitness,
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Prehospital Care, Emergency Department Care, Prevention
John L Meade, MD CEO, Statdoc Consulting, Inc
John L Meade, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, Medical Association of the State of Alabama
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Specialty Editor Board
John T VanDeVoort, PharmD Regional Director of Pharmacy, Sacred Heart and St Joseph’s Hospitals
John T VanDeVoort, PharmD is a member of the following medical societies: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Richard H Sinert, DO Professor of Emergency Medicine, Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine, Research Director, State University of New York College of Medicine; Consulting Staff, Vice-Chair in Charge of Research, Department of Emergency Medicine, Kings County Hospital Center
Richard H Sinert, DO is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Joe Alcock, MD, MS Associate Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center
Joe Alcock, MD, MS is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Richard S Krause, MD Senior Clinical Faculty/Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Buffalo State University of New York School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences
Richard S Krause, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
90,000 If you get bitten …
In the warm season, the number of victims of animal and insect bites and burns caused by plants and some animals increases. Moreover, not somewhere in the distant Amazon, but here in St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region and in places of traditional recreation – in the Crimea, Bulgaria, the Mediterranean.
The common viper is widespread in Russia, as well as in Northern and Central Europe and Northern Asia. The poison causes pain, swelling at the site of the bite, a rise in temperature, the work of the heart can deteriorate sharply, in severe cases, loss of consciousness is possible.Deaths from a viper bite are quite rare. However, allergy sufferers can have a very strong reaction. Therefore, the first thing to do is to take an antihistamine and go to the doctor. It is necessary to maintain peace, drink more fluids (but not alcohol). Sometimes it is recommended to suck out the poison if there are no damaged teeth or abrasions in the mouth.
The steppe viper lives in the Crimea, the Caucasus, Europe, Kazakhstan and China. Its bites are less venomous than those of a common viper. Cases of death of people from bites of a steppe viper are not known.But the bites of large species of vipers are dangerous to humans. For example, a gurza bite, which injects about 50 mg of poison. This snake lives in the Transcaucasia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, in northern Africa, in the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean, etc.
Bees, wasps, bumblebees
From the bite, there is short-term pain and burning, followed by redness and swelling. In most cases, pain and itching will go away in one to two days. It is dangerous if a person is stung by dozens or hundreds of bees at the same time (lethal dose – 100-500 bites).If an insect bite fell on the inside of the mouth or throat, in the eyeball – in these cases, an urgent need to consult a doctor. There are people with hypersensitivity to Hymenoptera bites. They may have a severe reaction, even if they have been stung by one or two insects.
For a country walk, it is better to have clothes made of light fabric that cover the neck, arms and legs as much as possible. Bright and dark colors attract insects more. If a wasp or bee is flying next to you, do not make sudden, fussy movements.
If stung by a bee, you must carefully remove the sting. It is not recommended to squeeze out the sting with your fingers, as this can lead to the spread of poison. Place a cotton swab moistened with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or water and soda on the bite site. You can apply ice. Allergy sufferers should always carry the antihistamines recommended by their doctor.
Ringed centipede is found in large quantities in the Crimea, the Mediterranean and Transcaucasia.The bite is dangerous to humans, but not fatal.
Scolopendra often crawl into tents and houses. You can step on it on the beach or accidentally hit it with your hand while assembling the tent or turning over a stone.
Many people tolerate a scolopendra bite rather hard. The site of the bite is severely swollen, and the swelling gradually spreads over a significant area of the body. The temperature often rises to 38-39 °, chills and aches are often present. Symptoms usually resolve within 24 to 48 hours.However, in any case, the victims should urgently consult a doctor. Bites are especially difficult for children, allergy sufferers or people with heart disease.
In Australia and South America, there are larger species of purple, red and yellow scolopendra. In total, about 600 species of scolopendra are known.
Scorpions and spiders
Scorpion venom has a toxic effect on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems.The most dangerous on the territory of the former USSR is karakurt (“black widow”). Karakurt is found in the desert and steppe zone of Central Asia, in the Crimea, the Caucasus, southern Europe and northern Africa. Female bites can be fatal to humans and animals such as a camel or a horse – the poison of a karakurt is 15 times stronger than that of a rattlesnake. A spider does not attack a man unless he is disturbed.
After a bite of karakurt, a small red speck appears on the skin, which quickly turns pale.After 10-15 minutes, there is acute pain in the abdomen, lower back, chest, severe anxiety, agitation, fear of death. The victim’s legs become numb, breathing is difficult, vomiting and headache appear. The face becomes bluish. The heart rate drops, the pulse is arrhythmic. It is necessary to introduce an anti-caracourt serum, so the patient must be taken to a medical facility.
Dogs, cats, foxes, rats
Animal bites can cause rabies and tetanus.Rabies is a 100% fatal infectious disease of the nervous system. The victim is prescribed a course of rabies vaccination. If the dog can be monitored, then after 10 days, in the absence of rabies in the dog, vaccinations can be stopped, in all other cases, vaccinations are continued until the course is completed.
Tetanus is another dangerous animal-borne disease. It is recommended that you get a tetanus shot every 10 years. If more than five years have passed since the last vaccination, and the wound is deep and dangerous, it is necessary to re-vaccinate within 48 hours from the moment of the bite. Less dangerous, but much more frequent complications of animal bites are wound infection and the development of an abscess.
Avoid contact with unknown animals. Even animals that seem friendly can bite. Do not feed or try to catch or play with wild animals – squirrels, raccoons, rats. Do not disturb the animal while it is eating or feeding its offspring.And don’t stick your fingers in the cages at the zoo.
Sea urchins and jellyfish
Many people suffer from injections from sea urchins. They are at the bottom off the coast of Turkey, Cyprus, Montenegro, etc. The injections are very painful and take a long time to heal. Small shards of sea urchin needles are often left in the wound. Removing them is not always easy – they are very fragile. It is better not to swim where there are hedgehogs, or to go into the water in rubber slippers. If the injection could not be avoided, you will have to see a doctor.
You shouldn’t joke with jellyfish either. When you touch the jellyfish, a burn occurs, sometimes quite severe. Rinse the damaged area with salt water, not fresh water, which can intensify the burn. Apply ice well. Allergy sufferers may experience a strong reaction, and in such cases, an urgent need to consult a doctor, and before that, take an antihistamine. There are known cases of anaphylactic reactions to burns of ordinary jellyfish, which ended tragically.
In the Black Sea, Aurelia and Cornerot are most often found, they are not very dangerous.More aggressive jellyfish live in the Mediterranean – cyanea (“hairy jellyfish”), pelagia (“little lilac sting”), chryzaora (“sea nettle”), etc. Their burns are stronger than those of the Black Sea, and allergic reactions are more common. Most dangerous of all jellyfish in the waters of Australia.
Some plants can cause severe long-lasting burns.
Ash, or burning bush, is a plant with very beautiful flowers.They are sniffed, brought to the face, ripped off … At the moment of touching a person does not feel anything, but after 10-12 hours the skin at the place of touch turns red, becomes blistered and burns (up to the second degree) are formed. Large skin lesions are life-threatening. Grows in Europe, Turkey. It can be found in the Crimea and the Caucasus.
The hogweed is common throughout the European part of Russia, in Estonia. A short exposure to the sun of a skin area stained with plant sap is enough, and a second-degree burn occurs.They are treated in the same way as regular burns. You need to remember how these plants look and not touch them, do not inhale their aroma.
Healer-bloodsucker and other useful creatures
It turns out that some bites and poisons are not only painful but beneficial.
Doctors actively use leeches, bees and snakes to treat many diseases. Bee venom is used to treat pain of various origins, chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma, the consequences of a stroke, etc.From snake venom, medicinal preparations are made that have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.
It is widely used in medicine and hirudotherapy – treatment with leeches. 82 different substances were found in the saliva of leeches. A negligible amount of this “medicine” enters the patient’s bloodstream and does its good work there. Leeches help in the treatment of arthrosis and arthritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, myopathy, neurodermatitis, bronchial asthma.
Treatment with leeches also has contraindications: hemophilia, congenital incoagulability of blood, severe anemia, hemorrhagic diathesis, pregnancy.In addition, leeches are not recommended for people with persistently low blood pressure, as well as those with individual intolerance to any component from the secreted salivary glands of these useful annelids.
The “bite” itself is no more painful than a mosquito: piercing the skin, the leech injects a special substance, it is it that relieves swelling and pain. The famous surgeon Nikolai Pirogov, even during the Russian-Turkish war, put a hundred or more leeches on extensive lacerated wounds. And this saved hundreds of wounded from pain shock and infections!
There are about 400 species of leeches on the globe, but only medical and pharmaceutical leeches are capable of performing miracles.The first information about their healing properties belongs to Ancient Egypt. These are murals found in the tomb of the 18th Dynasty pharaohs (1567–1308 BC). They say that the secret of Nefertiti’s extraordinary beauty is that she added dried leeches to her cosmetic preparations.
Sergey Rodnikov, traumatologist-orthopedist:
– Our clinic is often visited by patients who have received wounds or injuries from animal or insect bites – dogs, cats, bees, ticks and even foxes, iguanas, parrots and jellyfish…
Often there are difficult cases, bite wounds are lacerated, extensive, multiple, often infected. Jellyfish burns take a long time to heal. Animals and insects can carry various dangerous infections. Allergy sufferers, asthmatics, children, and the elderly especially suffer from insect poison during bites. They need to be especially careful and protect themselves, and if the bite could not be avoided, then immediately consult a doctor. Going even for a short walk in the forest, you need to carefully cover your body in any weather, even hot.It is necessary to use agents that repel insects and ticks – now there is a large selection in pharmacies and stores. Be careful when dealing with pets and even more so with wild animals. Be sure to have at home and take a small first-aid kit with you outside the city and to the resort, in which you put a bandage, iodine, a plaster, a small bottle of hydrogen peroxide, and soda powder. Soda needs to be diluted with water and a bite bandage made – this is one of the simple and effective methods of first aid. People with manifestations of allergies must have antihistamines with them, which are recommended to them by the attending physician.
For the prevention of tick-borne encephalitis, you need to take a course of vaccination. When planning to travel to epidemiological areas, you also need to make the necessary vaccinations in advance. All vaccinations, except rabies vaccination, can be done in our clinic. Rabies vaccination in St. Petersburg is done only at the City Antirabies Center at 26 Kavalergardskaya Street.
90,000 First aid for snake bites
First aid for snake bites
Shchupak A.Yu., Sivoraksha G.V.
More than 2000 snakes are found in the world, of which about 350 species are considered poisonous. According to the World Health Organization, up to 5.5 million people are bitten by snakes every year. On the territory of Russia, there are 14 species of venomous snakes, but the most common are reptile bites of three families: already-like, viper and asp.
In the Far East, endemic species are the viper, the shitomordnik. Viper bites or snake bites most often occur during mushroom and berry picking. As a rule, a person accidentally steps on it, or grabs it with his hand.
Snake venom contains enzymes, proteins, biologically active substances.
Clinical manifestations in snake bites, regardless of their type, are characterized by common signs.
General symptoms of a snake bite
It is important to highlight the factors that determine the severity of symptoms of intoxication.
- Snake species.
The most dangerous are cobras, rattlesnakes. Vipers cause less severe abnormalities.
- Localization of the bite.
The limbs are most often affected. In the case of localization of the bite on the trunk, neck, face or in the area of blood vessels, symptoms develop much faster.
- The victim’s age and general condition at the time of the bite.
Children and the elderly are most sensitive to snake bites.Concomitant pathology significantly aggravates the toxic effect of the poison.
- Behavior after a bite.
Intense movement accelerates blood circulation and promotes the rapid spread of the poison throughout the body.
- Infection of snake teeth with pathogenic microorganisms. In some cases, local purulent-necrotic processes develop.
A clear implementation of the algorithm of modern recommendations for first aid in case of a snake bite will not only save the life of the victim, but also minimize the health risk.
- Calm the victim and lay in a horizontal position;
- remove all jewelry from the limb to prevent tissue compression during swelling;
- Immobilize (immobilize) a bitten limb with an improvised splint;
- suck poison from the wounds within the first 10 minutes after the bite;
- Apply a compression bandage above the bitten area;
- give plenty of drink;
- during transportation, do not raise the limb above the head;
- to carry out basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation in case of respiratory arrest and cardiac activity.
What not to do:
- to consume alcoholic beverages;
- be subjected to physical exertion;
- Apply a tourniquet to a limb;
- make cross-sections at the site of the bite;
- cauterize the bite site;
- apply warm compresses;
- Put ice over the limb.
The next stage of evacuation should be considered a specialized medical organization, where one of the methods of detoxification therapy will be the introduction of mono- or polyvalent anti-snake serum as an element of antidote action.
On the territory of the city of Khabarovsk, patients with snakebites are treated in the acute poisoning center of the KGBUZ “City Clinical Hospital No. 10” of the Ministry of Health of the Khabarovsk Territory (Khabarovsk, Tikhookeanskaya st., 213).
Shchupak A.Yu. – Head of the Department of Clinical Toxicology and Extreme Medicine of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education of the Far Eastern State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Candidate of Medical Sciences, Associate Professor, toxicologist of the highest qualification category.
Sivoraksha G.V. – Head of the Center for Acute Poisoning of the KGBUZ “City Clinical Hospital No. 10” of the Ministry of Health of the Khabarovsk Territory, a toxicologist of the highest qualification category.
90,000 First aid for snake bites – Advice for the population
Any unfamiliar snake should be considered obviously poisonous, but it is advisable to study the signs of harmless and poisonous snakes before the hike. For example, it is distinguished by two bright yellow spots in the temporal region of the head.
Do not attempt to catch or play with snakes unless absolutely necessary, even if they are small and outwardly sluggish.The baby snakes that have just hatched from the egg are also poisonous.
Care should be taken when handling dead snakes, some of them retain their venom for a long time. An accidental injection of a poisonous tooth can cause poisoning.
Snakes never attack without warning! Cobra threat pose – the front third of the body is raised vertically, the hood is swollen, swaying from side to side, hiss resembling a sneeze, throws towards the enemy. Cobra is capable of making a throw equal to one third of its body length.An irritated cormorant shakes finely with the tip of its tail. In the pose of threat, the efa curls up in two dense half rings, in the middle of which it slightly raises its head. Vipers and gyurza, threatening with a throw, roll up
in a plate, zigzag the front part of the body, hiss strongly. The hissing of the gyurza resembles the sound of air escaping from the hole of a hand pump.
If you suddenly notice a crawling snake, freeze, let it leave. If the snake is in a threatening pose, step back slowly.Avoid sudden, snake-frightening movements! You cannot, defending yourself, put your hands forward, turn your back to the snake. If you have a stick, hold it in front of you towards the snake. Do not run away from the snake you meet – you can step on another unnoticed. Remain calm in decisions, actions, gestures. Remember, a snake that you do not see is dangerous, a detected snake does not pose a threat.
Everything, including poisonous snakes, living on the territory of the former Soviet Union, are edible.And if you are forced to take up hunting, try to press the snake’s head to the ground with a stick, then chop it off or crush it with a blow of a stone. Do not even touch the severed head – within a few minutes it is capable of active action!
First aid for snake bites. Incorrect actions in providing assistance often cause greater damage to health than the snake bite itself, significantly complicate diagnosis and further treatment.
When a cobra bites, in the first minute there is a slight burning sensation, numbness, redness, pain appear.Numbness, pain quickly spreads to the entire affected limb, sometimes to the trunk. Coordination of movements is impaired (staggering gait, difficult to stand). Disorder of speech and swallowing sets in. Possible strong salivation, irresistible drowsiness. Breathing is oppressed, it becomes more and more rare, superficial. The body temperature rises to 38-39 °. The victim may die without help in 2-7 hours.
The bite of vipers, gyurza, cormorant causes severe long-term pain.Large swelling at the site of the bite. Then it spreads quickly. (For example, a finger bite may cause swelling up to the shoulder.) The skin around the bite becomes reddish-cyanotic. After 20-40 minutes, shock phenomena occur: pallor of the skin, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, weak and frequent pulse, decreased pressure. Periodic loss of consciousness is possible. Sometimes agitation and seizures. Death can occur in 30 minutes, but sometimes in a day or more.
- Immediately after the bite, provide the victim with complete rest in a horizontal position.Suck the poison! If necessary, transfer the victim to a convenient, weather-protected place. Independent movement of the victim is unacceptable!
- In the first seconds after the bite, press with your fingers, open the wound and begin to vigorously suck the venom through your mouth. Spit out bloody fluid from time to time. If there is little saliva or there are wounds on the lips, in the mouth, you should take a little water into your mouth (water dilutes the poison) and suction of the poison should be carried out alternately for 15 minutes without interruption. This allows you to remove from the victim’s body from 20 to 50 percent of the poison.For the person providing assistance, sucking the poison is completely harmless, even if he has wounds or abrasions in his mouth. If the victim is alone, he must suck the poison on his own.
- The wound should be disinfected, a sterile bandage should be applied, which should be periodically loosened as the edema develops so that it does not cut into soft tissues.
- To slow the spread of the poison in the body, restrict the victim’s mobility. Immobilize the affected limbs. When biting in the leg, tie it to the healthy one and, putting something under the knees, slightly raise them.When biting in the arm, lock it in a bent position.
- Give the victim more tea, broth, water (it is better to refuse coffee as a stimulant). Increased water consumption promotes the removal of poison from the body.
- Try to get the victim immediately, transport him on a stretcher to the nearest medical facility. It is advisable to find the snake and deliver it to the doctor for identification. If necessary, administer prolonged artificial respiration and cardiac massage.
- If serum is available, inject it intramuscularly (preferably in the back) no later than 30 minutes after the bite. With a bite of a viper, a sycamore, the introduction of serum is inappropriate.
- Cut the bite crosswise or excise the affected area. Cuts by accidental objects (knives, glass shards) lead to infections, damage to veins, tendons.
- Cauterize the wound with objects red-hot on a fire, coal from a fire, gunpowder.The poisonous teeth of snakes reach a centimeter in length, the poison is injected deep into the muscle tissue.
- It is dangerous and useless to cauterize the bite with caustic potassium, nitric, sulfuric and carbolic acids.
- Do not apply tourniquet above the bite site. The imposition of a tourniquet on the affected limb worsens the condition of the victim, provokes gangrenous phenomena (especially with bites of gyurza, vipers), and increases the possibility of death.
- Remember that alcohol is not an antidote, but, on the contrary, makes it difficult to remove the poison from the body, enhances its effect.
HOW TO TREAT SKAT BITS – MEDICINE
If you manage to catch a stingray by surprise and sting, you will most likely have a very painful reaction. It will hurt, but chances are it won’t kill you unless you get stung multiple times or
If you manage to catch a stingray by surprise and sting, you will most likely have a very painful reaction. It will hurt, but chances are it won’t kill you unless you’ve been stung multiple times or in a vital place.
Little is known about the stingray bite toxin other than that it is protein-based and can be dangerous. Australian conservationist Steve Irwin was killed in 2006 when a stingray hit him several times in the chest. It is widely accepted that physical injuries, not poison, were the cause of his death.
Stingray sting incidence
About 1,500 stingray bites occur in the United States each year. Most stingray bites occur on warm beaches in states such as Florida or California. Conventional wisdom says that you need to shuffle your feet so the rays know that you are approaching.Of course, you are probably more likely to bump your foot on a rock than step on a slope.
Stingray bite symptoms
- Severe pain (may last up to two days)
- Swelling around the wound
- Redness or blue discoloration around the wound
- Muscle spasms
- Pulmonary cramps
or weakness Convulsions Low blood pressure
Since most of the bites come from stingrays stepped on by beach goers, most of the injuries are in the feet and legs.The exception is fishermen, who bite their hands more often than anywhere else. Regardless of the location of the bite, the treatment should be the same. If you suspect a stingray bite, follow these steps:
- Stay Safe . Do not panic. Stingrays sting us to scare us away. The bite is painful, but usually not very dangerous. Patients should return to the safe bank, shuffling their feet (so they don’t get stung again).
- Call 911. A patient bitten by a stingray will require medical attention.Stingray bites are very painful and patients should at least receive treatment for pain relief. Follow universal precautions and use personal protective equipment, if you have one.
- Stop bleeding and perform basic first aid procedures while awaiting the arrival of the ambulance.
- Wash the wound with fresh, clean water and soap. If this is not possible, at least rinse the wound with plenty of seawater.
- Remove small parts or notches from the tip with tweezers or pliers.Only remove stings if a medical emergency is significantly delayed. A long sting was considered a pierced object. Do not remove stings from your chest or abdomen! Removing the sting may result in severe bleeding. Remember to control bleeding for any tissue damage.
- If medical attention is delayed significantly, some toxins can be neutralized by immersing the cleansed wound in fresh hot water (110-113 degrees Fahrenheit) or by placing towels soaked in hot water over the wound. Be careful not to let the water get too hot and burn the victim.
90,000 What to do if bitten by a midge: first aid, elimination of symptoms.
In case of damage to the tongue, there is a need for urgent hospitalization, in particular, this applies to people prone to allergic reactions and young children.
A midge bite in the leg, arm, head causes painful sensations that intensify when scratching. If there were residues of dirt under the nails, then severe infection with the formation of a purulent abscess is possible.
After a midge bite, a large number of symptoms of varying severity occur:
- Swelling of the affected area and spread to nearby tissues.
- Pain at the site of the bite.
- Itching and redness.
- Increase in the temperature of the skin in the affected area.
- Chills and fever.
- General poor health.
- The appearance of a rash, followed by blisters and blisters, as characteristic signs of an acute allergic reaction.
- Enlargement of regional lymph nodes.
- The appearance of an infiltrate (compaction) at the site of the bite.
- Lump size enlargement and suppuration.
- Numbness of the affected area.
Signs of a midge bite may persist for a week. With an adequate response from the body, the tumor gradually subsides, starting from the second day. Of course, the rate of disappearance of symptoms depends on the quality of the treatment.
When a midge has bitten, an urgent need to take measures that will help prevent serious consequences, namely:
- The affected area should be rinsed with cold water. With the exception of the area of the eyes and mucous membranes, you should use laundry soap.
- Wait until the skin is dry, but do not dry it with a towel.
- Press lightly with your fingers on the place where the midge has bitten. Release after a few seconds.
- Use a cotton pad and chlorhexidine to treat the affected area.
- Take an antihistamine: Suprastin, Claritin, Cetrin and others.
- Make a lotion from a weak soda solution and a cotton pad
Medical treatment of the affected area after a midge bite is as follows:
- Taking painkillers and allergy pills. You can use Nurofen, which will reduce unpleasant symptoms, relieving pain.In addition, the reception of Suprastin, Fenistil, Claritin, Zodak and Tsetrin is shown. These antihistamines can reduce the symptoms of itching and burning, and eliminate edema. Their use is necessary in the first 3 days after the incident.
- Applying Sudocrem or Levomekol to the skin, which promote rapid healing and relieve inflammation. The procedure is repeated 2 times a day for 5 days.
- Use of glucocorticosteroid drugs.Hydrocortisone or Dexamethasone can be applied a few hours after the bite. Such formulations quickly relieve swelling in the area of inflammation localization, eliminate allergy symptoms. It is also recommended to use such creams at least 2 times a day for 3 days.
Lovers of folk remedies can use the following recipes:
- Wash and peel fresh potatoes. Grate the tuber and apply the resulting gruel to the affected area, leaving for 20 minutes.You can then treat the bite with any antihistamine cream. You need to repeat the procedure every day until the inflammation decreases.
- Dilute 1: 1 water and 6% vinegar. Apply lotions 2 times a day for 15 minutes, using gauze folded several times. The course of treatment is 3-4 days, depending on the nature of the edema.
- Add to 1 st. l. vegetable oil 3 drops of mint essential oil. Moisten a cotton pad abundantly in the composition and apply on the affected area for 10 minutes.Repeat the procedure after 2 hours. This method is especially effective in the first 2 days.
In no case should you heat the bite site until it heals. And for the first 3-5 days, limit yourself to a shower, avoiding hot baths. In no case should you comb the bite site. If you get an infection, the wound can become very swollen and fester.
If the edema grows rapidly and the general state of health worsens, then it is recommended to consult a local therapist.When there are characteristic signs of anaphylactic shock, you need to call an ambulance.
Tips for those who have a rest in nature: how not to bite yourself by the nasty, how to anoint your skin to protect yourself from midges.
To avoid a midge bite, you should follow some rules:
- Avoid walking near rivers and other bodies of water in hot weather, especially in the morning or evening.
- During the period of activation of midges, namely on hot days, it is better not to be in places with long grass.If this cannot be avoided, it is recommended that you wear clothing that will cover your arms and legs.
- When going fishing, you need to stock up on mosquito nets that will protect the tent.
- If you are planning a long outdoor recreation, you should use special spirals from mosquitoes and midges. Or you can use regular scented candles.
- Purchase insect aerosols in advance.
- Stock up on vanilla powder and sprinkle it on your clothes.This smell will scare off annoying insects.
- Apply mint or lavender essential oil to hands and feet. Midges of this kind will be avoided.
For diagnostics and treatment, as well as prescribing medications and determining the regimen for their intake, we recommend that you contact your local doctor and GP.
Question: How to treat a stingray bite? – Health
Contents of the article:
Video taken from the channel: NatuRArrium Diary: Notes on Nature
Stingray treatment Motoro
Video taken from the channel: akvamir78rus
Treatment for stingray stopped eating stingray!
Video taken from the channel: Vasily Bely
Stingrays off the Odessa coast.Should you be afraid of them?
Video taken from the channel: News Channel 7 Odessa
Strike a house stingray with a poisonous thorn. Is it dangerous to keep stingrays at home?
Video taken from the channel: Alexander Boyarchanin.
Black Sea stingray stingray. First aid to the victim
This video focuses on the common stingray (lat. Dasyatis pastinaca), known as the sea cat. It is this fish that periodically terrifies vacationers on the Black Sea coast.And it is not surprising, because on the tail of the stingray there is a poisonous thorn, which this fish skillfully uses for self-defense ..
We will tell you:
• what is the danger of stingrays and sea cat in particular;
• how a stingray prick threatens a person ;.
• what to do (first aid) if a person is injured by the stingray;
• how to avoid the troubles associated with meeting a sea cat ..
Enjoy your viewing, everyone!
ATTENTION! In the video there is a scene where I touch the stingray with my hands.They managed to catch him by driving him to the shore and carefully picking him up, after which the ramp was placed in a hole with sea water during the shooting. However, this behavior is risky, since not only carrying a stingray on your hands (this is to the question of whether a stingray can let a person get close enough and even be in your hands), but also light touching it can lead to the defensive behavior of a sea cat and end in failure … Everyone who wants to play with the stingray should understand this, and then see for yourself: we warned you 😉
Video taken from the channel: Maxim Chechetov
Crimea.Stingray stingray. TIN !!!
Video taken from the channel: Oleg Ageev
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