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Stomach pain and yellow diarrhea: The request could not be satisfied


Yellow Stool – Symptoms, Causes, Treatments

Although the color of stool can be affected by different foods and medications, it is typically brownish due to digestion of bile salts, digestive agents made by the liver and stored in the gallbladder.

A reduction or absence of bile salts can cause the stool to become yellow or pale. Bile salt production can be reduced due to severe liver disease such as hepatitis or cirrhosis. The passage of bile salts into the intestines can be prevented by blockages of the bile ducts due to inflammation, gallstones, or external compression. Pain, especially in the right upper abdomen, fever, nausea, itching, and yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes can also occur with these conditions.

The pancreas also produces substances important for digestion, including the enzyme lipase, which breaks down fats. Excess fat in the stool can cause yellowish, bulky stool that floats, has an oily or greasy appearance, and smells foul. Inflammation of the pancreas can reduce lipase production. Absence of lipase is uncommon, but can result from pancreatic cancer, severe pancreatic disease, cystic fibrosis, or abnormal lipase production that is present from birth (congenital).

Conditions that affect the intestines, especially those that interfere with fat absorption, can also cause yellow stool. For example, Giardia, a parasite that can be found in waste products and contaminated water, can cause yellow diarrhea, fever, and flu-like symptoms.

Yellow stool is unusual, and may be a symptom of a serious medical condition. Seek immediate medical care (call 911) for severe abdominal pain, stool with blood or pus, high fever (higher than 101 degrees Fahrenheit), significant vomiting, seizures, changes in mental status, or sudden behavior changes. Symptoms of dehydration such as decreased urination, increased thirst, fatigue, and light-headedness also require immediate medical care.

If your yellow stool persists for more than a day or two or causes you concern, seek prompt medical care.

Diarrhoea | NHS inform

Diarrhoea will usually clear up without treatment after a few days, particularly if it’s caused by an infection.

In children, diarrhoea will usually pass within 5 to 7 days and will rarely last longer than 2 weeks.

In adults, diarrhoea usually improves within 2 to 4 days, although some infections can last a week or more.

While waiting for your diarrhoea to pass, you can ease your symptoms by following the advice outlined below.

Drink fluids

It’s important to drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration, particularly if you’re also vomiting. Take small, frequent sips of water.

Ideally, adults should drink a lot of liquids that contain water, salt, and sugar. Examples are water mixed with juice and soup broth. If you’re drinking enough fluid, your urine will be light yellow or almost clear.

It’s also very important for babies and small children not to become dehydrated. Give your child frequent sips of water, even if they are vomiting. A small amount is better than none. 

Fruit juice or fizzy drinks should be avoided as they can make diarrhoea worse in children.

If you’re breastfeeding or bottle feeding your baby and they have diarrhoea, you should continue to feed them as normal.

Contact your GP immediately if you or your child develop any symptoms of dehydration.

Oral rehydration solutions

Your GP or pharmacist may suggest using an oral rehydration solution (ORS) to prevent dehydration if you’re at risk – for example, if you’re frail or elderly. ORS can also be used to treat dehydration that has already occurred.

Rehydration solutions usually come in sachets available from your local pharmacist without a prescription. They are dissolved in water and replace salt, glucose, and other important minerals that are lost if you are dehydrated.


Your GP or pharmacist may recommend giving your child an ORS if they are dehydrated or at risk of becoming dehydrated.

The usual recommendation is for your child to drink an ORS each time they have an episode of diarrhoea. The amount they should drink will depend on their size and weight.

Your pharmacist can advise you about this. The manufacturer’s instructions should also give information about the recommended dose.

You may be able to give your baby an ORS if they become dehydrated, but check with your GP, pharmacist, or health visitor first.


Opinion is divided over when and what you should eat if you have diarrhoea. However, most experts agree you should eat solid food as soon as you feel able to. Eat small, light meals and avoid fatty or spicy foods.

Good examples are potatoes, rice, bananas, soup, and boiled vegetables. Salty foods help the most.

You don’t need to eat if you’ve lost your appetite, but you should continue to drink fluids and eat as soon as you feel able to.


If your child is dehydrated, do not give them any solid food until they have drunk enough fluids. Once they have stopped showing signs of dehydration, they can start eating their normal diet.

If your child is not dehydrated, offer them their normal diet. If they refuse to eat, continue to give them fluids and wait until their appetite returns.


Antidiarrhoeal medicines

Antidiarrhoeal medicines may help reduce your diarrhoea and slightly shorten how long it lasts. However, they’re not usually necessary.

Loperamide is the main antidiarrhoeal medicine used, as it has been shown to be effective and causes few side effects.

Loperamide slows down the muscle movements in your gut so more water is absorbed from your stools. This makes your stools firmer and they’re passed less frequently.

An alternative to loperamide is a different type of antidiarrhoeal medicine called racecadotril, which works by reducing the amount of water produced by the small intestine. Evidence suggests this medication may be as effective as loperamide for treating diarrhoea.

Some antidiarrhoeal medicines can be bought from a pharmacy without a prescription. Check the patient information leaflet that comes with the medicine to find out whether it’s suitable for you and what dose you should take. Ask your pharmacist for advice if you’re unsure.

Do not take antidiarrhoeal medicines if there is blood or mucus in your stools or you have a high temperature (fever). Instead, you should contact your GP for advice.

Most antidiarrhoeal medicines should not be given to children. Racecadotril can be used in children over 3 months old if it’s combined with oral rehydration and the other measures mentioned above, although not all doctors recommend it.


Painkillers will not treat diarrhoea, but paracetamol or ibuprofen can help relieve a fever and a headache. If necessary, you can give your child liquid paracetamol or ibuprofen.

Always read the patient information leaflet that comes with the medication to check if it’s suitable for you or your child and find out the correct dose. Children under 16 years of age should not be given aspirin.


Treatment with antibiotics is not recommended for diarrhoea if the cause is unknown. This is because antibiotics:

  • will not work if the diarrhoea is caused by a virus 
  • can cause unpleasant side effects 
  • can become less effective at treating more serious conditions if they’re repeatedly used to treat mild conditions

Antibiotics may be recommended if you have severe diarrhoea and a specific type of bacteria has been identified as the cause.

They may also be used if you have an underlying health problem, such as a weakened immune system.

Hospital treatment 

Occasionally, hospital treatment may be needed if you or your child are seriously dehydrated. Treatment will involve administering fluids and nutrients directly into a vein (intravenously).

Treating the underlying cause

If you’ve been diagnosed with a specific condition that’s causing your diarrhoea, treating this may help improve your symptoms.

For example:

  • irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can be treated with changes to your diet and medications – read more about treating IBS
  • inflammatory bowel disease can be treated with medications that help reduce inflammation in the bowel
  • coeliac disease can be treated by excluding foods containing gluten from your diet – read more about treating coeliac disease
  • bile acid malabsorption can be treated with medication that helps stop bile building up in the digestive system

Read more about common causes of diarrhoea.

Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Options

What is Gastroenteritis In Children?

Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the stomach and intestines that causes diarrhea, vomiting, nausea and other symptoms of digestive upset. In the industrialized world, the most common causes of gastroenteritis in children are viruses, bacteria (food poisoning), and intestinal parasites.

  • Viral gastroenteritis – In otherwise healthy children, viral infections of the digestive tract often are responsible for mild episodes of gastroenteritis. In the United States, the most common causes of viral gastroenteritis in children are rotaviruses, adenoviruses, enteroviruses (during summer months), astroviruses and Norwalk-like virus (norovirus). Rotaviruses are the most likely cause of infectious diarrhea in children under age 5. All of these viruses tend to spread on hands that have touched either an infected person’s stool or surfaces contaminated with infected stool. For this reason, young children – especially those just starting to learn good hygiene – are particularly vulnerable to viral gastroenteritis. They may touch a dirty diaper (either their own or a playmate’s), forget to wash their hands after using the toilet, put dirty fingers in their mouths, bite their fingernails, or chew and suck on toys that other children have touched with soiled hands. Parents and child-care personnel also can spread viral gastroenteritis from child to child, particularly if they do not wash their hands thoroughly with soap and water after changing every soiled diaper. In addition, adults who have viral gastroenteritis themselves sometimes can spread their viral infections to children, especially if they prepare children’s meals without first washing their hands with soap and water. Occasionally, some of the viruses that cause viral gastroenteritis also have been found in drinking water or food, primarily in developing countries and rural areas where sanitation is poor. Norovirus has gotten plenty of press in recent years, mostly because of outbreaks of Norwalk-like viruses on cruise ships.
  • Bacterial gastroenteritis (food poisoning) – Food that hasn’t been prepared or stored properly can grow bacteria on its surface, and these bacteria sometimes produce irritating chemicals called toxins. If a child eats the germ-filled food, symptoms of gastroenteritis are triggered either by the bacteria themselves or by their irritating byproducts. In addition, certain types of aggressive bacteria, such as Campylobacter, Salmonella or E. coli 0157, can cause more severe forms of food poisoning that produce high fever, severe gastrointestinal symptoms and dehydration, even in children who are usually strong and healthy.
  • Intestinal parasites – Intestinal parasites can be spread to children on dirty hands, on the soiled surfaces of toys and bathroom fixtures, and in contaminated water or food. Giardia lamblia, the parasite that causes giardiasis, is the most common parasitic cause of diarrhea among children in the United States, especially those in child care centers.

Worldwide, gastroenteritis kills millions children every year, primarily in developing nations where sanitation and health care are poor. Most of these children die from extreme dehydration (abnormally low levels of body water) resulting from a combination of severe diarrhea, vomiting and not drinking enough fluids. Even in the industrialized world, millions of episodes of gastroenteritis occur each year, especially in young children. In the United States, rotavirus infections used to be responsible for more than 3 million cases of gastroenteritis in children each year, with at least 50,000 hospitalizations and 20 to 40 deaths. Fortunately, the rotavirus vaccine that is given to young infants has been very effective in decreasing the number of moderate to severe cases of rotavirus disease in the United States.

Overall, about 90% of children with gastroenteritis in the United States have such mild symptoms that they do not need to be treated by a doctor. Occasionally, however, gastroenteritis can lead to severe dehydration and other dangerous complications. This is more likely to happen in infants, children with chronic illnesses and children taking immune-suppressing medications.


In children, symptoms of gastroenteritis include:

  • Mild diarrhea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Cramps
  • Vomiting
  • Irritability (fussiness)
  • Poor appetite

Some children also have a low-grade fever or complain of a headache.


To help make a diagnosis, your doctor may ask the following questions:

  • Has your child been exposed to an adult or child with diarrhea, especially in a day-care center or preschool setting?
  • Has your child played with a pet that is ill with gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea?
  • Has your child touched pet reptiles? Reptiles, especially pet turtles, sometimes carry salmonella bacteria.
  • Has your child recently traveled to a developing country, been in any location where the drinking water is not tested routinely or been near potentially contaminated streams, lakes or swimming holes in the United States?
  • Did your child recently drink unpasteurized milk or apple cider, eat unwashed vegetables, or eat food that was left standing at room temperature for prolonged periods?

To help assess your child’s risk of dehydration, your doctor also may ask questions related to your child’s fluid intake and fluid losses over the past several hours. Specifically, you doctor may want to know about:

  • The number of episodes of vomiting
  • Whether your child can drink fluids without vomiting
  • The number of bowel movements
  • Whether your child’s bowel movements are semi-solid, mildly “loose” or very watery
  • How often your child has been urinating, often measured as the number of wet diapers within the last 8 to 12 hours, or the number of bathroom trips to urinate

In most cases, a doctor diagnoses gastroenteritis and dehydration based on the symptoms, history of exposure to someone with diarrhea, spoiled food or impure water, and the results of a physical examination. Special tests rarely are needed unless your child has unusually severe symptoms, such as:

  • A high fever or fever that lasts longer than several days
  • Severe, watery diarrhea
  • Their skin color and whites of the eyes turn yellow
  • Signs of significant dehydration, including dry mouth, eyes and skin; no tears when crying; no wet diapers within the past 8 to12 hours; a sunken “soft spot” a weak cry; unusual sleepiness or lack of body movement; and a sudden drop in weight, which can happen with the loss of body fluids in young children
  • Stool that contains blood or pus
  • Diarrhea that lasts more than two weeks

If more tests are needed, they may include blood tests to check for evidence of infection and dehydration, as well as other laboratory tests, such as a stool culture. In the lab, stool samples may be cultured for the presence of bacteria (especially Campylobacter, Salmonella, or, less commonly, E. coli 0157) or examined for microscopic parasites.

Expected Duration

In children, most cases of mild, uncomplicated gastroenteritis last about two to three days. However, even after most symptoms go away, your child may continue to have occasional loose stools for more than a week.


It would be ideal never to get these infections in the first place and being up-to-date with your child’s vaccines can help reach that goal. For example, young infants should receive the rotavirus vaccine, which has been shown to protect children against 85% to 98% of severe illness from rotavirus. There is also a hepatitis A vaccine universally recommended for all toddlers 12 to 23 months of age (and catch-up doses of this vaccine for older toddlers and children).

In addition, to help prevent gastroenteritis in all members of your family, you can take the following steps:

  • Wash your hands frequently with soap and water, especially after using the toilet, after changing diapers and after caring for a child with diarrhea. An alcohol-based hand sanitizer should NOT be used alone.
  • Wash your hands with soap and water before and after preparing food, especially after handling raw meat. An alcohol-based hand sanitizer should NOT be used alone.
  • Wash diarrhea-soiled clothing in detergent and chlorine bleach. If bathroom surfaces are contaminated with stool, wipe them with a chlorine-based household cleaner.
  • Cook all meat thoroughly before you serve it to your family, and refrigerate leftovers within two hours.
  • Make sure you don’t transfer cooked foods onto unwashed plates that held raw meat.
  • Wash kitchen countertops and utensils thoroughly after they have been used to prepare meat.
  • Never drink unpasteurized milk, unpasteurized apple cider or untreated water.
  • If you travel to an area where sanitation is poor, make sure that your family drinks only bottled water or soft drinks, and that they don’t eat ice, uncooked vegetables or fruit that they haven’t peeled themselves.

If your child attends day care, make sure that all day-care personnel wash their hands frequently, especially after changing soiled diapers and before preparing food. Also, check that your center follows pediatricians’ standard recommendations for managing cases of diarrhea:

  • If a child develops diarrhea while in day care, notify the parent or guardian to take the child home as soon as possible.
  • Do not allow the sick child to return to day care until diarrhea has begun to improve.


In otherwise healthy children, most cases of mild gastroenteritis gradually go away within a few days. In the meantime, you can try the following suggestions:

  • To prevent dehydration, encourage your child to drink plenty of fluids. Your doctor may recommend a particular brand of over-the-counter oral rehydration solution in addition to breast milk, formula or milk. In general, these solutions are better than soft drinks, fruit juice or other sweetened beverages, which usually have too many carbohydrates (sugar) and too little sodium (salt) to restore normal fluid balance in children with gastroenteritis.
  • If your child is too nauseated to drink his or her normal intake of fluids at one sitting, try offering several smaller sips more frequently over a longer period.
  • Once your child’s vomiting subsides, resume a normal diet gradually while continuing the oral rehydration solution. Begin with lean meats and complex carbohydrates, such as rice, potatoes and bread. Temporarily avoid fatty foods and sugary beverages. If your child is breastfeeding, resume nursing as soon as possible.
  • Do not give your child anti-diarrhea medicines without checking with the doctor first. These medicines can interfere with the intestine’s ability to pass harmful viruses, bacteria, parasites and toxins out of the body through the stool. This can make it harder to know when your child is actually getting sicker and needs more attention.
  • Have your child rest in bed until symptoms subside. Do not allow your child to return to school until diarrhea has begun to improve.

If your child is showing signs of significant dehydration and cannot drink fluids, your doctor will send him or her to the hospital to receive fluids intravenously (through a vein). Your child also may need to take antibiotics if stool tests confirm that a more serious bacterial infection is causing the gastroenteritis. For intestinal parasites, your doctor will prescribe an antimicrobial medication.

When To Call a Professional

Call your doctor promptly whenever an infant less than 2 months old has symptoms of gastroenteritis. For older children with diarrhea and vomiting, call your doctor if your child has any one of the following:

  • Stools that contain blood or pus, or stools that smell foul
  • Signs of dehydration
  • Blood or bile (greenish fluid) in the vomit
  • Severe abdominal pain or a distended (swollen) abdomen
  • Skin color and whites of the eyes turn yellow
  • A history of recent travel to a developing country or to any area where sanitation is poor
  • A chronic medical condition, especially any condition that weakens the immune system or is treated with immune-suppressing medication

Also, call your doctor promptly if your child is taking any oral medication for a chronic medical condition and is either too nauseated to swallow the medicine or has vomited after taking it. It is not good for children to miss doses of the medicines recommended by their doctors. Do not repeat any vomited doses of medicines without contacting your child’s doctor.


Overall, the outlook is excellent. Almost all children with mild gastroenteritis recover completely without complications.

External resources

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Office of Communications & Public Liaison
6610 Rockledge Drive, MSC6612
Bethesda, MD 20892-6612
Phone: 301-496-5717

National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Disorders
Office of Communications and Public Liaison
Building 31, Room 9A04
31 Center Drive, MSC 2560
Bethesda, MD 20892-2560
Phone: 301-496-4000

National Center for Infectious Diseases
Office of Health Communication
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Mailstop C-14
1600 Clifton Road
Atlanta, GA 30333
Toll-Free: 1-888-232-3228
http://www. cdc.gov/

American College of Gastroenterology (ACG)
P.O. Box 342260
Bethesda, MD 20827-2260

American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)
141 Northwest Point Blvd.
Elk Grove Village, IL 60007-1098
Phone: 847-434-4000
Fax: 847-434-8000



Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Medical Disclaimer

Toddler’s Diarrhea | CS Mott Children’s Hospital

Healthy young children can have diarrhea that is not related to infection and/or underlying disease, called toddler’s diarrhea, or non-specific diarrhea of childhood.  Toddler’s diarrhea typically occurs in children aged 6 months to 5 years, and is most common among children 2–4 years old. Stools may be loose or watery and frequent, occurring more than three times a day. Usually, diarrhea occurs during the day, but up to 25 percent of kids with toddler’s diarrhea pass stool at night as well. The stool may look brown, green, or yellow, and may contain undigested food pieces. A child with toddler’s diarrhea typically does NOT have abdominal pain, vomiting, weight loss, or poor weight gain.

Causes of toddler’s diarrhea

Food and fluid may move more quickly through a child’s intestinal tract so that there is less time for the intestines to absorb bile, water, and sugars back into the blood vessels from the intestinal surface. Excess bile in the stool may give it a yellow or green appearance. Excess water and undigested sugar in the intestines leads to loose, frequent stools. Foods high in indigestible fiber like vegetables and fruits may appear “whole” or undigested in the stools. Bacteria in the large intestine feed on the excess undigested sugars, creating more fluid and gas as a by-product. This also contributes to loose or “explosive” stools and gassiness.

Young children are often picky eaters, preferring foods that are high in sugars. Having a diet high in certain sugars can cause or contribute to toddler’s diarrhea.

How do I know if my child has toddler’s diarrhea?

Make an appointment to see your pediatrician if your child has frequent loose stools lasting more than a couple of weeks. Before the appointment, consider keeping a written log of your child’s stool patterns for at least one week. Each day, write down the frequency and consistency of your child’s bowel movements as well as a diary of the types of foods and drinks he or she consumes. This will help your doctor make the diagnosis of toddler’s diarrhea or decide if further evaluation is needed to look for other causes of diarrhea. Remember, if the diagnosis of toddler’s diarrhea is made after consulting with your pediatrician, this is not considered a disease, but rather a harmless condition of childhood. The vast majority of children outgrow toddler’s diarrhea with time and/or by following dietary interventions.

If a child has blood in the stool, vomiting, poor weight gain or weight loss, abdominal pain, refusal to eat/drink, or fever, call your doctor to discuss being seen sooner. These “red flag” symptoms indicate that something more serious than toddler’s diarrhea is going on and further evaluation and/or treatment may be needed.

Tips to help with toddler’s diarrhea

  • Avoid prune, pear, and apple juice, which are high in the indigestible sugar called sorbitol.
  • Avoid foods and drinks that contain high fructose corn syrup.
  • Limit all juice intake to less than 4 ounces per day. Have water or milk to drink instead.
  • Avoid foods with artificial sweeteners (may be labeled “diet” or “light”).
  • Make sure the diet includes healthy fats, such as nuts or nut butters, eggs, dairy fat, and plant-based oils.
  • If your child has skin irritation on his or her bottom due to frequent loose stools, clean the skin with lukewarm water, use a zinc oxide-based diaper ointment and allow your child to have time diaper-free with the skin exposed to air if/when possible.

Additional resources:

Toddler’s diarrhea (gikids.org)


Written by Haley Neef, MD
Updated January 2020

Gastroenteritis – shigella – Better Health Channel

Shigella gastroenteritis is a bowel infection caused by bacteria from the Shigella family. Other names for shigella gastroenteritis include shigellosis, Shigella infection, Shigella enteritis and bacillary dysentery. Common symptoms include diarrhoea that may contain blood, mucus or pus, abdominal cramps, nausea and vomiting. 

To cause infection, the bacteria have to be eaten, either directly through physical contact with a person with the illness, or indirectly by contaminated food and water. After incubating (bacteria multiplying) in the body for around one to three days, the infection causes the characteristic symptoms. These symptoms last for about four to seven days. 

It is important to seek prompt medical advice. In very rare cases, shigella gastroenteritis can be life threatening. 

Children are particularly prone to shigella gastroenteritis

Anyone can contract the infection, but children are particularly prone (although infection in babies under six months is unusual). The infection tends to be more severe in young children and the elderly. Outbreaks can occur in institutional settings, particularly where children are still in nappies (such as childcare centres) or adults are incontinent (such as nursing homes). 

Symptoms of shigella gastroenteritis

The symptoms of shigella gastroenteritis include: 

  • diarrhoea (which may contain traces of pus, mucus or blood)
  • fever
  • abdominal cramps
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • dizziness when standing up.

Complications of shigella gastroenteritis

Young children are more susceptible to complications, which may include: 

  • seizures caused by fever
  • dehydration
  • headache
  • lethargy
  • stiff neck
  • confusion.

Causes of shigella gastroenteritis

Shigella bacteria are excreted (passed) in faeces (poo). If an infected person doesn’t wash their hands after going to the toilet, the bacteria can be spread if they touch objects and surfaces that will be touched by other people, or handle food that may be eaten by other people. 

A person changing the nappy of a baby with shigella gastroenteritis may contaminate their hands with the bacteria. 

Shigella bacteria can also be spread through sexual contact, especially during oral or oro-anal sex. Men who have sex with men are at particular risk.
It is also possible to get shigella gastroenteritis from drinking water that is contaminated with human faeces containing Shigella bacteria. 

Infection can still occur after symptoms have stopped

The symptoms of shigella gastroenteritis may clear up after a week or so, but the person can have Shigella bacteria in their faeces for at least four weeks after the symptoms stop. Occasionally, a person may excrete the bacteria for months after the symptoms have stopped.

Some people are carriers of shigella, which means that they have the bacteria in their body, but don’t feel sick. These people can still pass the disease on to others.

Diagnosis of shigella gastroenteritis

Stool culture or rectal swabs are used to diagnose shigella gastroenteritis. 

Treatment for shigella gastroenteritis

Treatment options for shigella gastroenteritis may include: 

  • plenty of fluids
  • oral rehydration drinks, available from your chemist 
  • intravenous fluids (in severe cases)
  • eating solid foods
  • avoiding anti-vomiting or anti-diarrhoea drugs unless prescribed or recommended by your doctor
  • sometimes, taking appropriate antibiotics to kill the bacteria within a matter of days. Due to increasing levels of antibiotic resistance, these medications are now saved for the very sick or to reduce the spread of infection to vulnerable people or those in residential facilities.

Prevention of shigella gastroenteritis

General suggestions on how to reduce the risk of shigella gastroenteritis include: 

  • Wash hands thoroughly with soap and hot water after going to the toilet or changing nappies, and before preparing food or eating.
  • Use disposable paper towels to dry your hands rather than cloth towels, since the bacteria can survive for some time on cloth.
  • Keep cold food cold (below 5 °C) and hot foot hot (above 60 °C) to discourage the growth of bacteria.
  • Make sure foods are thoroughly cooked.
  • Thoroughly wash raw vegetables before eating.
  • Reheat food until the internal temperature of the food reaches at least 75 °C.
  • Clean the toilet and bathroom regularly, including the toilet seat, door handles and taps, by using a cleaning product that is able to kill bacteria, such as a product containing chlorine.
  • Clean baby change tables regularly.
  • Water from rivers and lakes may be contaminated by human faeces. Boil water from these sources before drinking.
  • Do not have sex with anyone who currently has or who has recently recovered from diarrhoea of any cause – this is particularly important for oro-anal contact.

Preventing the spread of shigella infection

Good personal hygiene should be practised at all times. In addition to the above precautions, suggestions to reduce the risk of transmission include:

  • Don’t share towels or linen with the infected person.
  • The infected person shouldn’t prepare any meals at home for other family members.
  • The infected person should stay at home until the diarrhoea has stopped, to prevent infecting others at work, school, kindergarten or childcare. It is especially important not to visit vulnerable people such as people in aged care facilities and hospitals.
  • If the infected person works in a high-risk occupation, such as a food worker, healthcare worker, childcare worker or in a residential facility; it is important that they stay away from work while awaiting advice from the Department of Health and Human Services.
  • Children must not attend childcare centres, kindergartens or school until 24 hours after their symptoms have stopped.
  • When travelling overseas to countries with poor sanitation conditions, only drink bottled water. Don’t forget to brush your teeth in bottled water too. Avoid food buffets, uncooked foods or peeled fruits and vegetables, and ice in drinks.
  • Avoid having sex for a week after diarrhoea has stopped. For a further two weeks wash hands before and after sex, avoid high risk activities such as oral and oro-anal sex or use barrier methods (such as condoms and dental dams). 

Where to get help

Vomiting With Diarrhea

Is this your child’s symptom?

  • Vomiting and diarrhea occur together
  • Vomiting is the forceful emptying (throwing up) of what is in the stomach
  • It’s normal for nausea (upset stomach) to come before each bout of vomiting
  • Diarrhea means 3 or more watery or very loose stools. Reason: 1 or 2 loose stools can be normal with changes in diet.
  • If vomiting is done, use the Diarrhea care guide.

Causes of Vomiting with Diarrhea

  • Viral Gastroenteritis. GI infection from a virus is the most common cause. A common agent is the Rotavirus. The illness starts with vomiting. Watery loose stools follow within 12-24 hours. On cruise ship outbreaks, the most common viral cause is Norovirus.
  • Food Poisoning. This causes rapid vomiting and diarrhea within hours after eating the bad food. Caused by toxins from germs growing in foods left out too long. An example is Staph toxin in egg salad.
  • Traveler’s Diarrhea. Caused by germs in food or drink. Suspect this if it follows recent foreign travel.
  • Bacterial GI Infection. Diarrhea can also be caused by some bacteria. Most bacterial diarrhea goes away on its own. A few can cause a severe large bowel infection (such as Shigella colitis).
  • Serious Complication: Dehydration. This is the health problem where the body has lost too much fluid. (See below for more on this).

Vomiting Scale

  • Mild: 1 – 2 times/day
  • Moderate: 3 – 7 times/day
  • Severe: Vomits everything, nearly everything or 8 or more times per day
  • Severity relates even more to how long the vomiting goes on for. At the start of the illness, it’s common to vomit everything. This can last for 3 or 4 hours. Children then often become stable and change to mild vomiting.
  • The main risk of vomiting is dehydration. Dehydration means the body has lost too much fluid.
  • Watery stools with vomiting carry the greatest risk for causing dehydration.
  • The younger the child, the greater the risk for dehydration.

Diarrhea Scale

  • Mild: 3-5 watery stools per day
  • Moderate: 6-10 watery stools per day
  • Severe: Over 10 watery stools per day
  • The main risk of diarrhea is dehydration.
  • Frequent, watery stools can cause dehydration.
  • Loose or runny stools do not cause dehydration.

Dehydration: How to Know

  • Dehydration means that the body has lost too much fluid. This can happen with vomiting and/or diarrhea. A weight loss of more than 3% is needed. Mild diarrhea or mild vomiting does not cause this. Neither does a small decrease in fluid intake.
  • Vomiting with watery diarrhea is the most common cause of dehydration.
  • Dehydration is a reason to see a doctor right away.
  • These are signs of dehydration:
  • Decreased urine (no urine in more than 8 hours) happens early in dehydration. So does a dark yellow color. If the urine is light straw colored, your child is not dehydrated.
  • Dry tongue and inside of the mouth. Dry lips are not helpful.
  • Dry eyes with decreased or absent tears
  • In babies, a sunken soft spot
  • Slow blood refill test: Longer than 2 seconds. First, press on the thumbnail and make it pale. Then let go. Count the seconds it takes for the nail to turn pink again. Ask your doctor to teach you how to do this test.
  • Fussy, tired out or acting ill. If your child is alert, happy and playful, he or she is not dehydrated.
  • A child with severe dehydration becomes too weak to stand. They can also be very dizzy when trying to stand.

When to Call for Vomiting With Diarrhea

Call 911 Now

  • Can’t wake up
  • Not moving or too weak to stand
  • You think your child has a life-threatening emergency

Call Doctor or Seek Care Now

  • Dehydration suspected. No urine in more than 8 hours, dark urine, very dry mouth and no tears.
  • Blood in the stool
  • Stomach pain when not vomiting. Exception: stomach pain or crying just before vomiting is quite common.
  • Age less than 12 weeks old with vomiting 2 or more times. Exception: normal spitting up.
  • Age less than 12 months old and vomited Pedialyte 3 or more times
  • Severe vomiting (vomits everything) for more than 8 hours while getting clear fluids
  • Weak immune system. Examples are: sickle cell disease, HIV, cancer, organ transplant, taking oral steroids.
  • Vomiting a prescription medicine
  • Fever over 104° F (40° C)
  • Fever in baby less than 12 weeks old. Caution: do NOT give your baby any fever medicine before being seen.
  • Your child looks or acts very sick
  • You think your child needs to be seen, and the problem is urgent

Contact Doctor Within 24 Hours

  • Age less than 1 year with vomiting
  • Has vomited for more than 24 hours
  • Fever lasts more than 3 days
  • You think your child needs to be seen, but the problem is not urgent

Contact Doctor During Office Hours

  • Vomiting is a frequent problem
  • You have other questions or concerns

Self Care at Home

  • Mild or moderate vomiting with diarrhea

Seattle Children’s Urgent Care Locations

If your child’s illness or injury is life-threatening, call 911.

Care Advice for Vomiting with Diarrhea

  1. What You Should Know About Vomiting With Diarrhea:
    • Most vomiting is caused by a viral infection of the stomach. Sometimes, mild food poisoning is the cause.
    • Throwing up is the body’s way of protecting the lower intestines.
    • Diarrhea is the body’s way of getting rid of the germs.
    • When vomiting and diarrhea occur together, treat the vomiting. Don’t do anything special for the diarrhea.
    • The main risk of vomiting is dehydration. Dehydration means the body has lost too much fluid.
    • Here is some care advice that should help.
  2. Formula Fed Babies – Give Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) for 8 Hours:
    • If your child vomits more than once, offer ORS for 8 hours. If you don’t have ORS, use formula until you can get some.
    • ORS is a special fluid that can help your child stay hydrated. You can use Pedialyte or the store brand of ORS. It can be bought in food stores or drug stores.
    • Spoon or syringe feed small amounts. Give 1-2 teaspoons (5-10 mL) every 5 minutes.
    • After 4 hours without throwing up, double the amount.
    • Return to Formula. After 8 hours without throwing up, go back to regular formula.
  3. Breastfed Babies – Reduce the Amount Per Feeding:
    • If vomits more than once, nurse for 5 minutes every 30 to 60 minutes. After 4 hours without throwing up, return to regular nursing.
    • If continues to vomit, switch to pumped breastmilk. ORS is rarely needed in breastfed babies. It can be used if vomiting becomes worse.
    • Spoon or syringe feed small amounts of pumped milk. Give 1-2 teaspoons (5-10 mL) every 5 minutes.
    • After 4 hours without throwing up, return to regular feeding at the breast. Start with small feedings of 5 minutes every 30 minutes. As your baby keeps down the smaller amounts, slowly give more.
  4. Older Children (over 1 Year Old), Offer Small Amounts of ORS For 8 Hours:
    • ORS. Vomiting with watery diarrhea needs ORS (such as Pedialyte). If refuses ORS, use half-strength Gatorade. Make it by mixing equal amounts of Gatorade and water.
    • The key to success is giving small amounts of fluid. Offer 2-3 teaspoons (10-15 mL) every 5 minutes. Older kids can just slowly sip ORS.
    • After 4 hours without throwing up, increase the amount.
    • After 8 hours without throwing up, go back to regular fluids.
    • Avoid fruit juices and soft drinks. They make diarrhea worse.
  5. Stop All Solid Foods:
    • Avoid all solid foods and baby foods in kids who are vomiting.
    • After 8 hours without throwing up, gradually add them back.
    • Start with starchy foods that are easy to digest. Examples are cereals, crackers and bread.
  6. Do Not Give Medicines:
    • Stop using any drug that is over-the-counter for 8 hours. Reason: Some of these can make vomiting worse.
    • Fever: Mild fevers don’t need to be treated with any drugs. For higher fevers, you can use an acetaminophen suppository (such as FeverAll). This is a form of the drug you put in the rectum (bottom). Ask a pharmacist for help finding this product. Do not use ibuprofen. It can upset the stomach.
    • Call your doctor if: Your child vomits a drug ordered by your doctor.
  7. Return to School:
    • Your child can return to school after the vomiting and fever are gone.
  8. What to Expect:
    • For the first 3 or 4 hours, your child may vomit everything. Then the stomach settles down.
    • Moderate vomiting usually stops in 12 to 24 hours.
    • Mild vomiting (1-2 times per day) with diarrhea may last a little longer. It can continue off and on for up to a week.
  9. Call Your Doctor If:
    • Vomits all clear fluids for more than 8 hours
    • Vomiting lasts more than 24 hours
    • Blood or bile (green color) in the vomit
    • Stomach pain present even when not vomiting
    • Dehydration suspected (no urine in over 8 hours, dark urine, very dry mouth, and no tears)
    • Diarrhea becomes severe
    • You think your child needs to be seen
    • Your child becomes worse

And remember, contact your doctor if your child develops any of the ‘Call Your Doctor’ symptoms.

Disclaimer: this health information is for educational purposes only. You, the reader, assume full responsibility for how you choose to use it.

Last Reviewed: 05/30/2021

Last Revised: 03/11/2021

Copyright 2000-2021. Schmitt Pediatric Guidelines LLC.

Some Causes Are Serious » Scary Symptoms

Have you had orange diarrhea lately?

That must have been a surprising sight, maybe even an alarming sight, since loose stools are supposed to be brown (though a little greenish is okay), not orange.

Diarrhea can come in an assortment of colors, and orange is one of them.

If you wish to examine the color of your bowel movements, the best way to do this is to make sure, first of all, that the lighting in the bathroom is good.

Next, if possible, urinate before you release your movement.

Next, flush the toilet so that the yellow of the urine won’t taint your perception of the color of your diarrhea.

When viewing the color of your bowel movement, lift the toilet seat up for a better view and better lighting.

“Stool can vary in color for a number of reasons,” says Edward Cruz Paredez, MD, a board certified gastroenterologist based in La Jolla, CA.

“The common colors of brown and green are due to the digestion of food and combination with yellow/green bile secreted by the liver.”

But what about orange diarrhea?

Dr. Paredez explains, “Orange diarrhea can be caused by food or supplements which contain orange food coloring, food with artificial yellow or orange coloring, or foods such as carrots, cilantro, collard greens, fresh thyme, kale, sweet potatoes, spinach, turnip greens, winter squash.”

Do you take turmeric supplements? Bright orange specks may show up in your bowel movements, though this should not actually color your bowel movements orange.

Dr. Paredez continues, “Orange diarrhea may be the result of infectious diarrhea, which causes rapid transit through the intestine, which limits the amount of bile in the stool.

“Less commonly it could also occur from a blockage of the bile ducts, which can be seen in cases of gallstones or bile duct or pancreatic cancers.”

Bile duct cancer and pancreatic cancer are the life-threatening medical conditions that can result in orange diarrhea.

However, this color in your bowel movements rarely means cancer.

“In fact, biliary blockage from cancer more commonly produces ‘white, grey or clay’ colored stools,” adds Dr. Paredez.

Another potential cause of diarrhea that has an orange tinge to it, is microscopic colitis, an inflammation of the lining of the large colon.

This non-serious condition interferes with food absorption (contributes to rapid colon transit).

So if you eat something that’s reddish or orange (not necessarily fruit; this could be the contents of a seasoning packet for rice), some of that may not get digested and will end up in your diarrhea — giving it an orange tinge.

Dr. Paredez has been named a Top Doctor by San Diego Magazine and has also received a 2016 “People Love Us on Yelp” Award.

Lorra Garrick has been covering medical, fitness and cybersecurity topics for many years, having written thousands of articles for print magazines and websites, including as a ghostwriter. She’s also a former ACE-certified personal trainer.  


Top image: Shutterstock/ShutterOK

Hollow diarrhea | Parfenov A.I.

Table 1 shows the characteristics of the main types of diarrhea and the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. Four mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of diarrhea: intestinal hypersecretion, increased osmotic pressure in the intestinal cavity, impaired transit of intestinal contents, and intestinal hyperexudation.

Secretory diarrhea results from the fact that the secretion of water into the intestinal lumen prevails over absorption. The main activators of secretion are bacterial toxins, enteropathogenic viruses, drugs, biological active substances (free bile acids, long-chain fatty acids), some gastrointestinal hormones (secretin, VIP), prostaglandins, serotonin and calcitonin.
Secretory diarrhea is characterized by profuse watery stools (usually more than 1 liter).
Hyperosmolar diarrhea develops when the osmotic pressure of the chyme increases, which prevents the absorption of water from the intestinal lumen. Osmotic pressure in the intestinal cavity increases with impaired absorption due to the accumulation of products of hydrolytic breakdown of food substances in the intestinal cavity. Hyperosmolar diarrhea is characterized by profuse loose stools with a large amount of food debris.
Exudative diarrhea is characteristic of inflammatory bowel disease and is characterized by the exudation of water and electrolytes into the intestine through damaged mucous membranes. With exudative diarrhea, stool is runny, often bloody and pus-filled.
Hyper- and hypokinetic diarrhea. The cause of hyper- and hypokinetic diarrhea is impaired intestinal motor function. Laxatives and antacid drugs containing magnesium salts, as well as biologically active substances, such as secretin, pancreosimin, gastrin, prostaglandins and serotonin, contribute to an increase in the transit speed.
This type of diarrhea is characteristic of irritable bowel syndrome. With hyper- and hypokinetic diarrhea, the stool is frequent and liquid, but its daily amount does not exceed 200-300 g; the appearance of a chair is preceded by a cramping pain in the abdomen, which subsides after a bowel movement.
The above mechanisms of diarrhea are closely related, nevertheless, each nosological form of pathology is characterized by one or another predominant type of diarrhea. This explains the features of the clinical manifestations of intestinal dysfunction.
One example is diseases in which bile acids cause diarrhea. Diarrhea caused by bile acids – chronic diarrhea (CD) – has its own pathogenetic and clinical features, as well as approaches to treatment [3,4].

Etiology and pathogenesis of CD
The cause of hologenic diarrhea is the excess flow of bile acids into the colon. Bile acids (BA) increase the activity of adenylate cyclase in the intestinal wall with the formation of cAMP, which causes the secretion of Na + ions and water into the intestinal lumen.The entry of a large amount of bile into the colon occurs with malabsorption of fatty acids and an increase in the motor-evacuation function of the small intestine. Disorders of fatty acid absorption can rarely be primary (congenital), quite often they are secondary (due to Crohn’s disease and other inflammatory diseases of the small intestine). An increase in the rate of transit through the small intestine is caused by intestinal hormones, as well as by the FAs themselves, if they enter the empty small intestine, i.e. in the interdigestive period. Asynchronous intake of FAs with food is observed with biliary dyskinesias, inflammatory diseases of the gallbladder or its absence (cholecystectomy).The presence of a large amount of bile in the blind and other parts of the colon is decisive in the pathogenesis of diarrhea and pain in the right iliac region, often accompanying CD.

Features of the clinical picture of HC
Holodened diarrhea, as a rule, is not an independent nosological form. It occurs, as already indicated, or when a large amount of FAs enters the colon due to impaired absorption in the small intestine, or rapid transit. Therefore, CD develops in patients who have undergone resection of the small intestine, with Crohn’s disease, disorders of bile secretion (gallbladder disease, cholecystectomy, etc.).).
A characteristic feature of CD is the presence of FAs in the stool: it usually has a bright yellow or greenish coloration. Another characteristic symptom of this type of diarrhea is pain in the right iliac region, often appearing on palpation of the cecum and ascending colon. HD is characterized by a rather persistent chronic, but not progressive course.

CD is indicated by the presence of bile in the feces, which can be seen by the characteristic bright yellow or greenish color of feces.During colonoscopy, the presence of bile in the intestine can sometimes be observed: it densely covers the walls of the blind and ascending colon. Most accurately the diagnosis of CD can be confirmed by a high concentration of FA in the feces. According to our data, not yet published, normally the amount of FA in the daily amount of feces does not exceed 100 mg / g. With CD, the concentration of FAs increases several times. Clinical and instrumental signs of gallbladder pathology (hypokinesia, changes in wall thickness, stones, etc.)), cholecystectomy.
Approximate wording of the diagnosis
• Cholelithiasis. Cholecystectomy (2008). Hollow diarrhea.
• Short bowel syndrome. Resection of the ileum for small bowel obstruction (2007). Hollow diarrhea.
• Biliary dyskinesia. Hollow diarrhea.

The goal of pathogenetic therapy for CD is to restore the normal function of the biliary tract and eliminate the detergent effect of FA on the intestinal mucosa during the interdigestive period.
To improve the function of the biliary tract, it is recommended to prescribe choleretic drugs, for example, Hepabene. The alkaloid fumarin contained in Hepabene eliminates spasms of the gallbladder and bile ducts, thereby facilitating the flow of bile into the duodenum. The presence of the hepatoprotector silymarin in the preparation improves the function of hepatocytes and, consequently, improves the quality of bile. Silymarin binds free radicals and toxic substances in liver tissue; has an antioxidant, membrane stabilizing and cytoprotective effect, stimulates protein synthesis, promotes the regeneration of hepatocytes.Thus, Hepabene combines hepatoprotective and antispasmodic properties. In patients with chronic cholecystitis, when using Hepabene, choleresis increases and the contractile function of the gallbladder improves. Gepabene should be administered 1 capsule with meals, without chewing, with water.
In order to capture fatty acids in the interdigestive period, it is recommended to prescribe adsorbents. The main properties of enterosorbents are the ability to bind toxic products, normalize motility, and strengthen the protective function of the intestinal mucous barrier.Enterosorbents are prescribed between meals, i.e. 3-4 hours after eating.
Patients with CD can also be shown drugs used for other types of diarrhea (Table 2). So, when symptoms of bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine appear (flatulence, increased hydrogen in exhaled air, etc.), antibacterial agents are prescribed for 5-7 days, then probiotics (linex, bifiform, probifor, etc.) are prescribed for 3-4 weeks. Octreotide is indicated for patients with extensively resected small intestine.Being a synthetic analogue of somatostatin, this drug inhibits the secretion of water and electrolytes into the intestinal lumen and reduces watery diarrhea. Octreotide is prescribed n / a 100 mcg 3 times a day until diarrhea subsides.
The use of such complex therapy contributes to the cessation of hologenny diarrhea within 1-2 weeks.

1. The pathogenetic mechanism of the development of hologenny diarrhea is an increased flow of bile into the large intestine, where it increases the secretion of water and electrolytes.
2. Holodenal diarrhea develops after extensive resection of the small intestine, including the ileum, in patients with inflammatory diseases of the ileum, biliary dyskinesia, and after cholecystectomy.
3. Hollow diarrhea that develops after cholecystectomy can be considered as a separate variant of the postcholecystectomy syndrome.
4. The main clinical symptoms of hologenny diarrhea are frequent watery stools with bright yellow or greenish coloration of feces and pain in the right iliac region when a large amount of bile enters the cecum.
5. For the treatment of hologenny diarrhea, it is necessary to apply: a) in the interdigestive period – adsorbents that bind excess of unabsorbed bile acids in the large intestine; b) during meals – choleretic agents that promote the optimal participation of bile in intestinal digestion.

1. Farthing M. J. Diarrhoea: a significant world wide problem. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 2000; 14: 65-9.
2. Binder H. J. Causes of Chronic Diarrhea. NEJM 2006; 355: 236-9.
3. Parfenov A.I. Diseases of the ileocecal region. M .: Anacharsis 2005; 280 s.
4. Parfenov A.I., Kroums L.M., Lychkova A.E., Poleva N.I. Hollow diarrhea. Ter. Arch. 2008; 80 (2): 33–38


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Decreased appetite


12-th of September


The information in this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-medication.In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, only the attending physician should prescribe diagnostic tests. For a diagnosis and correct treatment, you should contact your doctor.

Decreased appetite – the reasons for the appearance, in what diseases it occurs, diagnosis and treatment methods.

Decreased appetite occurs under the influence of various factors. Natural causes can be satiety, fatigue, or a preoccupation with an activity.However, in some cases, poor appetite can be a symptom of the disease, and you should pay attention to this.


Depending on the degree of impaired appetite, hyporexia is distinguished – a decrease in appetite and anorexia – an almost complete lack of appetite.

Sometimes there may be an idiosyncrasy (painful reaction) to a food or dish. In some cases, it may not be about loss of appetite, but about quick satiety, for example, after surgery on the intestines or stomach.

Possible causes and diseases in which there is a decrease in appetite

The formation of a feeling of hunger and satiety occurs in the brain, where signals are received from nerve endings (for example, from receptors when the stomach is stretched) and substances (hormones, glucose, toxins) carried by the blood.

Intoxication of the body often leads to a decrease in appetite.

The cause of intoxication can be infectious diseases, which are accompanied by the release of waste products of microorganisms into the blood.These toxins, through a chain of biochemical reactions, cause suppression of the food center, which leads to a decrease in appetite. The same mechanism is triggered by tumor decay products. Dying under the influence of drugs, tumor cells release substances into the blood that contribute to a decrease in blood pH (acidification), which, in addition to affecting the food center, can lead to kidney failure, fever, nausea, and vomiting.

Decrease and lack of appetite are characteristic of endocrine disorders (pituitary and adrenal insufficiency, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus).

The causes of pituitary insufficiency are most often tumors, hemorrhages, or infectious processes.

Hypothalamic-pituitary insufficiency in most cases occurs in young women under the age of 40.

Lack of thyroid-stimulating hormone, leading to the development of hypothyroidism, is also accompanied by loss of appetite, apathy, decreased blood pressure, and constipation.Depletion due to a lack of pituitary hormones leads to disturbances in the field of thinking and intelligence.

The overwhelming majority of patients with diabetes mellitus gradually develop concomitant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, which are combined by the “gastroenterological” form of autonomic diabetic neuropathy. In this case, the disorder of the functions of the digestive system is due to a greater extent to a violation of glucose uptake and a change in the structure of the walls of blood vessels.Symptoms are dominated by increased salivation, impaired motility of the esophagus, stomach (gastroparesis), decreased acidity of the stomach, heartburn and impaired swallowing. The defeat of the intestine is manifested by a weakening of peristalsis, up to paresis, and diarrhea. A decrease in appetite in this disease is associated with a disruption in the production of the hormone ghrelin in the stomach, which is called the hormone of hunger. Gastroparesis can be suspected with severe and persistent nausea, pain, distention in the epigastric region after eating, and a feeling of early satiety.

Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are accompanied by a decrease in appetite due to pain and dyspeptic syndrome.

Gastroduodenitis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer can be accompanied by either excessive or insufficient secretion of hydrochloric acid, infection with Helicobacter pillory bacteria.

These factors determine the development of inflammation and the formation of erosions on the gastric mucosa.Ingestion of food in the stomach causes heartburn and pain.

Disruption of food digestion due to inflammatory and infectious processes in the intestine (colitis) is also accompanied by dyspeptic symptoms (diarrhea, rumbling in the abdomen, cramping pain), which lead to loss of appetite.

The pain syndrome characteristic of pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas) always leads to a decrease in appetite. Dyspeptic syndrome, which manifests itself with an exacerbation of the disease, is accompanied by nausea, decreased or lack of appetite, sometimes vomiting, belching, less often – heartburn, bloating, rumbling in the abdomen.Frequent exacerbations lead to weight loss and asthenia.

Decreased appetite is typical for patients with liver and kidney diseases, which is explained by the appearance of nausea and vomiting in such patients due to intoxication of the body.

Psychogenic and neurological causes contribute to the development of hypo- and anorexia.

Stress, depression, anxiety suppress appetite responses, making diagnosis and treatment difficult.

Studies have noted that patients with nervous and mental (schizoid) disorders are often indifferent not to food, but to the feeling of hunger. They simply do not notice it, being under the influence of other emotional stimuli. In old age, in patients with dementia, lack of appetite is one of the indicators of disease progression.

Characterized by a decrease in appetite in people addicted to drugs, smoking and alcohol, which is caused by intoxication and changes in metabolism at all levels.Metabolic disorders and decreased appetite are also observed in persons adhering to a rigid protein diet.

Taking some medications, which can be conditionally divided into adrenaline and serotonin, may also be accompanied by a decrease in appetite.

Particular attention should be paid to loss of appetite in children, as insufficient nutrition can cause impaired physical development and serious illness.

In newborns, a decrease in appetite occurs against the background of difficulty in the act of sucking with rhinitis, diseases of the oral mucosa and other conditions.In addition, in infants, a decrease in appetite is observed with overfeeding, especially in the case of a high-protein diet, and also as an act of protest during force-feeding.

In school-age children, neurogenic anorexia is sometimes observed due to pathological dissatisfaction with their appearance and body weight.

Which doctors should I contact?

As a rule, patients with complaints of loss of appetite turn to
a therapist who, after preliminary diagnosis and obtaining the results of clinical and biochemical blood tests, directs the patient to
endocrinologist, psychotherapist or oncologist.Sometimes, when the infectious nature of the disease is detected, the patient is referred to an infectious disease specialist.

Diagnostics and examinations

In case of complaints of decreased appetite, the therapist assesses the patient’s appearance (jaundice, thyroid condition, sweating, type of skin), during the survey, assesses the accompanying symptoms (pain, nausea, vomiting). For general information, the doctor prescribes a general clinical

Why does the right side hurt

Why can the right side hurt?

The causes of this symptom are usually related to internal organs.“This is a sign that something located on the right side of the abdomen is suffering,” says Bulat Yunusov, surgeon at GMS Clinics and Hospitals. “The cause of damage to these organs can also be different, for example, inflammation, oncological processes, trauma, the consequences of previous operations, neurological disorders.”

However, this symptom may have other reasons. “The unpleasant sensation in the right side can be muscular in nature, especially if it occurs after physical exertion.If the person falls on their right side, the pain may be associated with muscle contusion or injury, such as myositis. Gallstones can also cause unpleasant tingling sensations in the side. The stones close the ducts, which leads to a swelling of the bladder and, as a result, to the occurrence of calculous cholecystitis, that is, an inflammatory process. All this, of course, is accompanied by pain, ”commented an invited specialist from another medical center. Let’s consider the main causes of pain in the right side.

Inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract

Pain and cramps in the right side can be caused by a whole bunch of inflammatory processes in the gastrointestinal tract. “These are, for example, appendicitis, diverticulitis, colitis, gastroenteritis, stomach and duodenal ulcers,” says Bulat Yunusov.

Most often, with these diagnoses, pain is felt as aching, moderate, with a gradually increasing intensity. With appendicitis, pain can increase when walking, coughing, changing body position, and decrease at rest.Also, with this diagnosis, there is an increase in temperature, nausea, and vomiting.

With a stomach ulcer, the pain becomes more noticeable after eating fatty, spicy or fried foods, alcohol, as well as intense physical exertion. Additional symptoms may include heartburn, nausea, and vomiting.

With colitis (inflammation of the intestines), the pain can be pulling or paroxysmal. The disease is also accompanied by diarrhea, fever, general weakness, headaches, the presence of mucus in the feces.

With diverticulitis (protrusion of the intestinal walls), acute pain is felt to the right of the navel, the temperature rises, and diarrhea appears (with blood and mucus).

With gastroenteritis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and small intestine), pain in the right side is accompanied by a lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, etc.

With pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), the pain begins suddenly and is constant and intense.Sometimes it can “give” to the left side or intensify after eating heavy, fatty or spicy foods.

Diseases of the urinary system

Often the side hurts on the right side due to the organs of the excretory system. “These include urolithiasis and pyelonephritis,” says Bulat Yunusov.

Pyelonephritis is an inflammatory kidney disease, in which, in addition to pain in the right side, weakness, nausea, vomiting, “jumping” pulse, dry mouth, high temperature may also occur.

Pain in the side with urolithiasis can be constant or wavy, dull or acute, it can only bother at rest or intensify when walking. It depends on the location of the stone, but sometimes pain can first be felt in the lumbar region (the so-called “renal colic”), and only then “settle” in the right side.

Liver diseases

“Pain in the right side can occur with damage to the liver and organs of the hepatobiliary system,” says Bulat Yunusov.”Such diseases include cholecystitis, obstructive jaundice, liver cysts, hepatitis, cirrhosis.” All these diagnoses are characterized by a rather sharp pain in the right side, which can “radiate” to the right shoulder, neck or shoulder blade.

Often on the right side at the bottom it hurts in women due to malfunctions of the pelvic organs. “Such disorders in work include inflammatory diseases (salpingitis, salpingo-oophoritis) and non-inflammatory (corpus luteum cyst, ovarian tumors, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, ectopic pregnancy),” notes Bulat Yunusov.

With salpingitis (inflammation of the fallopian tubes) and salpingo-oophoritis (inflammation of the fallopian tubes and ovaries), the pain is most often felt as pulling in the groin area, but it can also “give” to the right or left side. It is accompanied by fever, nausea, severe headache, vaginal discharge and intensifies during sexual intercourse.

With cysts of the ovaries or corpus luteum, pulling or stabbing pain is mainly localized in the lower abdomen or lower back, but can also be felt in the right side.

With endometriosis, pain is most often acute, cramping, and can disappear and return. It is felt, as a rule, in the lower abdomen, in the left or right side (closer to the lower back).

Reaction to physical activity

Sometimes the right side hurts not at all due to malfunctions of internal organs (which we discussed above). If you felt pain on the right during (or immediately after) physical activity, chances are that it is:

  • Muscle spasm due to weakness in the muscles of the back or peritoneum.
  • Spasm of the diaphragm. It is most often encountered while running: rapid breathing causes the diaphragm to contract faster, which can cause it to spasm and “give off” pain in the right side.
  • Enhanced liver function. This organ is considered the “blood” depot of the body. During exercise, the liver may slightly increase in volume and “press” on its outer capsule, where there are many nerve endings, which will feel like pain in the right side. And such discomfort can also arise due to an improper diet: for example, if before training you “went over” with carbohydrates or fats.In this case, during the lesson, the liver will be forced to work with increased stress, which can also provoke pain syndrome.

How to determine why your right side hurts

Of course, you will not be able to make an accurate diagnosis on your own. However, you can get some idea about it, starting from how exactly your right side hurts. “In acute diseases, pain occurs suddenly, increasing in intensity in a short period of time (hours, sometimes days),” says Bulat Yunusov.“If the reason is some kind of chronic disease, then the pain syndrome is either permanent or wavy in nature, not differing in great intensity.”

It is also important to check for additional symptoms. “To correctly determine the cause of the pain in the right side, it is necessary to listen to the nature of this pain. For example, muscle pain is usually dull and aching, – commented the invited specialist. – However, muscle pain can be acute, because in addition to muscles in the right side there are intervertebral joints, which can be a source of discomfort.With gallstone disease or acute cholecystitis, an increased temperature joins the pain. This situation can be called “pain-plus” – pain and temperature. The discomfort caused by renal colic can also be “pain-plus”, but already pain plus frequent urination or the presence of blood in the urine. Pain caused by bowel problems – pain plus diarrhea. ”

What to do if your right side hurts

As you can see, side pain can be a symptom of a wide variety of health problems.Therefore, you should not ignore it – be sure to see a doctor. “It is not always possible to determine the severity of the disease that caused the situation by the nature of the pain syndrome. This applies, first of all, to the elderly and patients with diabetes mellitus – serious diseases of the abdominal cavity can be erased (pain syndrome may not be expressed at all or disappear completely), says Bulat Yunusov. – Thus, if abdominal pain does not go away within a few hours and is accompanied by an increase in body temperature, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, stool disorders (constipation or diarrhea), discomfort during urination, a decrease in blood pressure, then the only correct solution is an in-person consultation doctor “.

Can you take medicine if you have severe pain in your right side? Yes, but with caution. “You should not resort to taking analgesics on your own, as this can“ blur ”the clinical picture of the disease, which will lead to an untimely formulation of the correct diagnosis,” says Bulat Yunusov. “The only thing is that it is possible to take antispasmodics (for example, no-shpy): these drugs relieve spasm of the muscles of internal organs and are aimed at eliminating the cause of the pain syndrome, in inflammatory diseases, as a rule, they do not give an analgesic effect.”

In general, doctors have a negative attitude towards self-medication. “At home, it’s impossible to guarantee pain relief without harming the body as a whole. You can dull the feeling of discomfort, thereby relieving your torment only for a while. In addition, self-medication, completely unintentionally, you can cripple some other organ, which initially had nothing to do with pain in the right side. Home treatment is not a safe remedy. ”

The best way out is to make an appointment with a general practitioner and discuss your condition with him. Sometimes the problem can be solved “remotely”. “To understand the conditions that are accompanied by a wave-like course with dull pain for a long time, possibly with a remote consultation,” sums up Bulat Yunusov.

Source: Zhivi.ru

What to do if a child starts vomiting: instructions for parents

https: // ria.ru / 20201218 / rvota-1589979048.html

What to do if a child starts vomiting: instructions for parents

What to do if a child starts to vomit: instructions for parents – RIA Novosti, 12/18/2020

What to do if the child started vomiting: instruction for parents

Vomiting in a child is a protective process that is triggered under various circumstances and diseases in the body. How to provide first aid – in the material of RIA … RIA Novosti, 18.12.2020

2020-12-18T20: 58

2020-12-18T20: 58

2020-12-18T20: 58


health – society

evgeny komarovsky

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MOSCOW, Dec 18 – RIA Novosti. Vomiting in a child is a protective process that is triggered under various circumstances and diseases in the body. How to provide first aid – in the material RIA Novosti. How to behave to parents if the child has vomiting see a doctor no.In all other cases, medical advice is required. Causes of vomiting in children It should be borne in mind that the vomiting center in a minor is more sensitive than in an adult. A growing body can react to different smells, unfamiliar tastes, and nervous tension. Types of vomiting in a child Different circumstances can cause vomiting in children. Based on them, several types of symptoms are distinguished. Most often, parents note vomiting with bile in a child. This happens if he overeats, becomes poisoned, or unhealthy food is included in his diet – fried, spicy, fatty.In this case, there may be vomiting and diarrhea in the child at the same time. Vomiting mixed with mucus may be a sign of infection, diseases of the central nervous system, exacerbation of gastritis. But the most dangerous thing is when there is blood in it. Probably, the child’s gastrointestinal mucosa is affected, which means that he urgently needs hospitalization. Only a qualified doctor can determine for sure the type of vomiting and what causes it, therefore, if symptoms appear, you should consult a specialist. What to do and how to stop vomiting in a child. the child has vomiting and fever, a stomach or head hurts, a rash and signs of dehydration appear, then an urgent need to call a doctor.According to the expert, the violation of water-salt metabolism is the most dangerous in vomiting and poses a particular threat to children under one year old. The body of a newborn is 75% water, over 1 month old – 60%, so vomiting can lead to dehydration and, together with the loss of electrolytes (potassium, sodium). Severe dehydration leads primarily to a violation of the central nervous system: the child becomes irritable, and then lethargic, disoriented. On examination, you will notice that the skin and mucous membranes are dry, and the pulse is weak.In this case, you need to urgently call the ambulance team. During bouts of vomiting, the child should lie on his side or be in another convenient position for him, which will not allow him to choke on the emerging masses. After vomiting, the mouth must be rinsed. As noted by the children’s doctor Evgeny Komarovsky, when vomiting, the child should be given to drink often and in small portions – a few sips. Only a qualified doctor can tell parents how and how to stop vomiting in a child, and prescribe the necessary medications and procedures for this …It is better not to decide on your own what to give the child against vomiting. And although traditional medicine offers several ways to stop vomiting at home, they can only make the situation worse. For proper treatment, you need to contact a specialist. Prevention In order not to “pick up” bacterial or viral infections that can provoke fever and vomiting in a child, you must follow the rules of hygiene: wash your hands, fruits and vegetables, do not eat expired products. It is also important to limit access of a small child to a first-aid kit, household chemicals and to wean the baby from putting foreign objects in his mouth.In addition, you need to limit children in the use of chips, crackers, popcorn and sweets in large quantities. In case of complaints of abdominal pain, stool disorders, it is important to consult a doctor and not self-medicate.



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children, health – society, Evgeny Komarovsky

MOSCOW, December 18 – RIA Novosti. Vomiting in a child is a protective process that is triggered by various circumstances and diseases in the body. How to provide first aid – in the material RIA Novosti.

How to behave for parents if a child has vomiting

– If we are talking about a baby, then it is imperative to seek medical help. If about an older child, then you need to pay attention to whether there are other symptoms (fever, headaches, abdominal pain, rash) that indicate the occurrence of a serious illness. If they are available, you also need to call doctors, – told RIA Novosti Associate Professor of the Department of Propedeutics of Internal Diseases of the Medical Institute of Tula State University, candidate of medical sciences, pediatrician Victoria Sobolenkova.

If an attack of vomiting in a child was one-time, mild, and there is reason to believe that it was caused by overeating, motion sickness or stress, then perhaps there is no direct need to see a doctor. In all other cases, medical advice is required.

Causes of vomiting in children

– Vomiting is a common symptom of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Most often it is associated with an infection – viral or bacterial. However, it can also be with fever, increased blood pressure, acute pyelonephritis.Also, vomiting in a child without fever can occur in acute surgical pathology (for example, appendicitis), motion sickness, intoxication after taking medications, ” noted Victoria Sobolenkova.

It should be borne in mind that the vomiting center in a minor is more sensitive than in an adult. A growing organism is capable of reacting to various odors, unfamiliar tastes, and nervous tension.

September 16, 2020, 14:31

The doctor named the symptoms of a rare disease in children

Types of vomiting in a child

Various circumstances can cause vomiting in children.Based on them, several types of symptoms are distinguished.

– Regurgitation syndrome is characteristic of infants. It can be accompanied by vomiting without symptoms of an acute illness and not lead to upsetting the baby’s general condition, the expert noted.

Most often, parents note vomiting with bile in a child. This happens if he overeats, becomes poisoned, or unhealthy food is included in his diet – fried, spicy, fatty. In this case, the child may have vomiting and diarrhea at the same time.

December 11, 2020, 16:13 The spread of coronavirus The doctor spoke about the features of the coronavirus in children

A sign of infection, diseases of the central nervous system, exacerbation of gastritis may be vomiting mixed with mucus. But the most dangerous thing is when there is blood in it. Probably, the child’s gastrointestinal mucosa is affected, which means that he urgently needs hospitalization.

Only a qualified doctor can determine for sure the type of vomiting and what causes it, therefore, if symptoms appear, you should consult a specialist.

What to do and how to stop vomiting in a child

If a child has vomiting and fever, a stomach or headache, a rash and signs of dehydration, then an urgent need to call a doctor.

– Before the arrival of doctors, it is important to carry out oral rehydration: to drink it off with water or means to restore the water-electrolyte balance, for example, “Regidron” or “Adiarin Regidro”, – explained Victoria Sobolenkova.

According to a specialist, a violation of water-salt metabolism is the most dangerous in vomiting and poses a particular threat to children under one year old.The body of a newborn is 75% water, over 1 month old – 60%, so vomiting can lead to dehydration and, together with the loss of electrolytes (potassium, sodium).

December 3, 2020, 15:01

Dr. Komarovsky named the stupidest tips for treating coronavirus

Severe dehydration leads primarily to a violation of the central nervous system: the child becomes irritable, and then lethargic, disoriented. On examination, you will notice that the skin and mucous membranes are dry, and the pulse is weak.In this case, you need to urgently call the ambulance team.

During bouts of vomiting, the child should lie on its side or be in another comfortable position for him, which will not allow him to choke on the emerging masses. After vomiting, rinse your mouth.

As the children’s doctor Yevgeny Komarovsky notes, when vomiting, the child should be given to drink often and in small portions – a few sips.

Only a qualified doctor can tell parents how and how to stop vomiting in a child, and prescribe the necessary medications and procedures for this.It is better not to decide on your own what to give the child against vomiting. And although traditional medicine offers several ways to stop vomiting at home, they can only make the situation worse. For the correct treatment, you need to contact a specialist.

13 October 2020, 11:00 This is for a long time “This is for a long time”: what can be done so that children have less colds? What do parents need to know in order to survive the autumn with their children? How to “strengthen” the immunity of a preschooler and why frequent snot is normal? What to do with adenoids? What is the harm of “useful herbs” and herbal preparations? Will immunomodulators, humidifiers, vitamin D and hardening save you from frequent colds? We analyze (not) myths about child immunity.


In order not to “pick up” bacterial or viral infections that can provoke fever and vomiting in a child, you must follow the rules of hygiene: wash your hands, fruits and vegetables, do not eat expired products.

It is also important to restrict a small child’s access to a first-aid kit, household chemicals and to wean the baby from putting foreign objects in his mouth.

In addition, children should be limited in the use of chips, crackers, popcorn and sweets in large quantities.In case of complaints of abdominal pain, stool disorders, it is important to consult a doctor and not self-medicate.

12 symptoms and signs of liver cancer

Head of the oncology department at the Ichilov clinic.
Oncologist with 20 years of experience.

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The earlier cancer is diagnosed, the better the patient has a chance of a complete cure. Here are 10 signs and symptoms of liver failure or liver damage.If at least some of them appear, it is necessary to urgently consult a hepatologist.

  1. Upset stomach

Nausea and vomiting are common when the liver is damaged. However, these symptoms can also indicate other conditions, including migraines, poisoning, dizziness, pregnancy, motion sickness, or depression. In addition, they can serve as signs of kidney disease. If the liver is damaged, you will definitely feel nauseous, as the affected organ will not be able to get rid of toxins.Sometimes this phenomenon occurs due to a change in metabolism.

  1. Fatigue and weakness

You may be constantly tired. The liver works more actively and needs additional rest. Again, she is unable to process all the toxins to be eliminated from the body.

Get the treatment program for free

  1. Decreased appetite

Bile promotes the breakdown of fats.If food is poorly digested, a person loses weight and eats less.

  1. Poor digestion

The liver produces bile. If the organ is damaged, diarrhea and poor digestion are observed. Moreover, disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, intolerance to fatty foods or alcoholic beverages, gallstone disease, bloating and constipation can develop.

  1. Urine changes

Urine turns orange, brownish or amber.This is due to an increase in the level of bilirubin in the blood. Since the liver does not excrete bilirubin, it passes into the urine.

  1. Chair changes

With a lack of bile, the stool also changes. Instead of brown, its color becomes pale, yellow, clay or gray. In any case, this symptom is a reason for urgent medical attention.

  1. Jaundice

With this disorder, the skin turns yellow, as well as the eyes, tongue and fingers.Jaundice can be a sign of bladder abnormalities, so if signs of it are found, seek immediate medical attention.

  1. Abdominal pathologies

Colic and lower abdominal pain may indicate liver damage. One of the early symptoms of hepatic pathology is ascites, or fluid accumulation in the lower abdomen. Often, in parallel, there is hypertension of the vessels of the abdominal cavity, also called portal hypertension.

  1. Liquid Retention

Fluid is mainly retained in the ankles and feet. This happens as a result of cardiovascular disorders, abnormalities of the lymphatic system, kidney damage and hormonal imbalances.

  1. Sensitive skin

If the liver is damaged, the skin is more likely to irritate and flake off. Because of this sensitivity, veins appear more strongly and hematomas form more often. The use of skin creams helps to treat the symptoms, but not the primary pathology.

  1. Abdominal pain

Painful tenderness in the abdomen is the most obvious sign of liver damage.

  1. Constipation, diarrhea and intestinal bleeding

Blood may be seen from the intestines and is associated with diarrhea and constipation.

Cost of diagnostics and treatment of liver cancer in Israel

So that you can get an idea of ​​the cost of treatment in Israel, we present the prices for some types of diagnostics and treatment of liver cancer at the Ichilov Oncology Center.

Liver cancer treatments Cost
Radiofrequency ablation of liver cancer $ 7045
Revision of liver biopsy performed at the patient’s place of residence $ 653
Preoperative consultation with an abdominal surgeon $ 557
Ultrasound of the abdominal organs $ 137

You can take the first step to recovery right now.To do this, fill out the application – and one of our doctors will contact you within 2 hours.

Or call: + 972-3-376-03-58 in Israel and + 7-495-777-6953 in Russia.

This consultation does not bind you to anything and is completely free . We guarantee you complete confidentiality and medical secrecy. We will help you as we have helped other patients.

Children’s Clinical Diagnostic Center in Domodedovo

04.02.2021 Anna

Good afternoon. The son is 2 years old, from birth problems with stool, blood, mucus, diarrhea. Against this background, at 8 months, there was paraproctitis. Now the stool has returned to normal in moments, mushy in moments. Because of this, the scar is inflamed, from the operation. Diet and medication are not always effective. What kind of examination or what else can you do?

Dear parents of our patients!
Due to the current circumstances, we are forced to temporarily suspend the acceptance of questions to the gastroenterologist (questions regarding problems with the gastrointestinal tract, defecation and digestion disorders, stool disorders, changes in feces analyzes).
We will inform you additionally about the resumption of the practice “Question to the gastroenterologist”.

Best regards, management of LLC “DDC”.

03.02.2021 Christina

Hello, my daughter is now 3 years old, and her sheep’s kcal is as hard as a stone, sometimes kcal in peas, and sometimes as a big stuck together solid kcal. We visited a gastroenterologist 2 years ago, she said to go on a diet and give a laxative for 2 months.But it didn’t really help us, but earlier my daughter had blood, kcal scratched the walls of the intestine. Now there is no blood, but pooping as before, does not give a laxative effect. And my daughter’s anus is also hard. Tell me what to do?

Hello. An examination by a gastroenterologist or pediatrician is definitely needed. Therapy is needed. It is advisable to take fresh tests the day before: a clinical blood test, a general urine test, scatology. Perform an abdominal ultrasound. For the prevention and treatment of constipation, you need a diet, be sure to follow the drinking regimen, take up to 800-1000 ml of water per day.Fiber-rich foods, vegetables, fruits, dairy products, limit flour, especially fresh baked goods, sweets.

31.01.2021 Elena

Hello, please tell me is it worth worrying? For a year and 10 months, the child stopped drinking the mixture, switched to ordinary milk, the feces became like goat poop, but not always when it is normal when there are hard round stones, which doctor should we go to and what tests should we take? Or does it happen with children and you shouldn’t worry?

Hello.When complementary foods or switching to another food, in your case milk, the stool has changed in the type of “sheep”, as it is called by gastroenterologists. You need to pass a coprogram, an analysis of feces for dysbiosis, perform an ultrasound of the abdominal cavity and come to an appointment with a gastroenterologist, come and be happy to help.

02.02.2021 Tatiana

Hello. The child is 3 years old, weight is almost 15kg, height is 97cm. I will describe the problem, the child began to say that his stomach hurts, but how he cries or gets off on a large scale, everything goes on up to 5 times a day on a large scale, then everything seems to be fine.Now we have had a cold, we did not take antibiotics, and then again the stomach hurts, everything is the same 5 6 times a day, we walk on a large scale and then the stomach passes without crying, it goes a little bit too much, there is not even a digested food quite a bit color, well, it’s usually brown, but I don’t eat much like chtoli mucus, walks can once straight a lot, then just a little bit. Eats apples bananas borscht without overcooking his homemade tomato just a little bit chicken soups once a day a slice of kinder baby chocolate, etc.nuggets tea cutlets cottage cheese for children, before that they gave well a little rye croutons with sour cream eats well appetite to eat itself asks not to force feed very active runs plays and for two days in a row, almost like eating, goes straight to the toilet and we still sit on our breasts since. What can we do? We made an appointment with a doctor, of course.

Good afternoon! In case of abdominal pain, unstable, undigested stool, frequent bowel movements, it is necessary to exclude enzymatic insufficiency of the intestine, helminthic invasion, giardiasis of the intestine.To do this, it is necessary to do an ultrasound of the abdominal cavity, pass a general analysis of feces (scatology), feces for lamblia antigens qualitatively, 3 times feces for helminth eggs, scraping for enterobiasis. An additional examination, if necessary, will be prescribed by the doctor after examining the child. Health to you, gastroenterologist M. N. Goroshanskaya

02.02.2021 Alexandra

Good afternoon. The baby is 9 months old, on gv + complementary foods 3 times a day, allergy to BKM, iron deficiency anemia (reduced ferritin with normal hemoglobin) 2 weeks ago, all indicators of the age norm were taken.From drugs we take teknofer, aquadetrim, biogaya.
Complaints of constant flatulence (the child does not sleep well at night). The last week the baby goes to the toilet from 1 to 4 times (kcal is mushy, from light yellow to brown, a small amount), before that, the chair was 1 time in 2-3 days. I did not introduce new products.
Mom follows a dairy-free diet.
She eats dairy-free, gluten-free porridges.
The kid is active, gaining weight well, the appetite is excellent, but the increased gas production is very disturbing.At 1 month and 4, they did an ultrasound of the abdominal cavity, gas formation was increased, at half a year they did a coprogram – the enzymatic system was not perfect.
Tell me what kind of examination to go through to find out the cause of increased gas production? Could anemia be one of the causes?

Good afternoon! It is unlikely that a decrease in ferritin is the cause of flatulence. Scatology needs to be repeated, it is possible that there is an enzymatic deficiency. With loose stools, an analysis of feces for carbohydrates is shown.If the symptoms of flatulence are persistent, and with all options for stool, feces for dysbiosis with the determination of sensitivity to bacteriophages can help in correcting the intestinal microflora. If flatulence depends on the frequency and nature of the stool, correction of the diet and drinking regimen is necessary. Stool after 1 – 2 days is not the norm, the reason for such a rare bowel movement needs to be clarified. See your doctor with a food diary for your baby a few days in advance, which will indicate the amount and composition of food eaten, liquids, intervals between meals, frequency and nature of stools.Health to you, gastroenterologist M. N. Goroshanskaya.

02.02.2021 Olga

Good evening. The child is 4 years old. 1.5 weeks ago I noticed that at the end there is red blood on the feces.
The chair is always 2-4 times a day. No constipation. Sometimes it is tight, pushing!
The pediatrician advised, without examination, to put down sea buckthorn candles. After 8 candles, the picture does not change.
Tell me, what could it be? And which doctor should you sign up for? (Proctologist, surgeon, gastroenterologist?)
The child is active, eats everything.Thank you in advance!

Good evening! The main reason for the presence of blood at the end of the act of defecation in children of this age group is an acute anal fissure. Also, it is impossible to unequivocally exclude other diseases (colon polyp, intestinal hemangiomas, enterocolitis, etc.), in which blood may also be present in the feces. First of all, you need to see a pediatric surgeon. If necessary, you will be referred for consultation with other specialists and for additional examinations.

02.02.2021 March

Good afternoon! Baby 1.5 months
Constantly crying, spitting up.
Constipation for 6 days
Can’t poop himself.
Small pimples on the face
With red spots, they either go away or pour out five
As soon as we use a gas pipe
There are also a lot of gases
Constantly grabs the stomach from him
The child’s stool is yellowish dirty color
With white lumps
Sometimes it poops very liquid
Sometimes thick
It is also noticeable in the chair like pebbles
When you crush them, they crumble like starch.in general, it all scares me
What could it be?
Our pediatrician says it doesn’t look like dysbiosis
And we think that this is it
Because mucus is still secreted when pushing

Dear Mom!
You have not indicated on what kind of feeding your baby is, it is very important to understand the symptoms that the baby has.
But for children of this age it is impossible to give recommendations without examining the child, asking the mother, and, if necessary, prescribing tests to find out the causes of the condition that has arisen.Come to an appointment at our center, we will try to help your baby.

02/01/2021 Christina

Hello, the child is 4 months old, rashes on the cheeks are small red pimples (sometimes merge into a red spot), the pediatrician said food allergy and referred to the allergist they said atomic dermatitis (and definitely not food), but I’m sure it’s not him, as in other places rashes are very very rare and punctate, and he does not scratch them.Recently, I began to regurgitate milk after each feeding. The stool, as far as I can appreciate, is normal, several times a day, a little bit, yellow. What tests can be passed to understand what it can be? I am on a hypoallergenic diet (about two weeks), the child is on gv, but the redness does not go away. Ultrasound did everything, everything is normal, except for the enlarged pelvis near the kidney.

Good evening Christina. Very often, the first manifestations of atopic dermatitis in a baby appear on the cheeks, in the form of redness, dryness, maculopapular rash.The most common cause may be an allergy to cow protein and a mom’s irregularity in her diet. I recommend completely eliminating all dairy products in your diet for 2 weeks, as well as red fish and seafood, honey, jam, chocolate, sweets, nuts, citrus fruits. If, on your diet, your child’s regurgitation decreases and the cheeks turn pale, then most likely it is an allergy. After 2 weeks, try gradually introducing dairy products into your diet. If redness, small rash, or dryness reappears, it is a cow’s milk protein allergy.Unfortunately, blood tests for allergens are not always informative at this age. I would advise you to take an analysis for scatology, dysbiosis, carbohydrates and make an appointment with our pediatricians. I think we can help you deal with this problem.

02/01/2021 Zhanna

Hello! Daughter is 3 months old. Born at 37 weeks. From birth, constipation and colic. And a green chair. Probiotics have already been drunk.

Hello.It depends on what formula you are on or you are breastfeeding, what is the increase in the child, maybe the child does not eat up, the formula may not be suitable. If you have not done an abdominal ultrasound, then you need to do it in order to exclude pathology. We need a clinical blood test. I think it is better to visit a doctor for an examination, taking an anamnesis and, thus, finding the cause of your constipation.

01/30/2021 Christina

Good afternoon.Daughter 10 months old. Born on time. 40 weeks. With a weight of 3626 / 52cm.
A month later from birth, I was tormented by gaziks / colic. Then constipation. Helped with a gas pipe. After a while, everything returned to normal. We are now 9.5 months old. Complementary feeding EP. Eats everything from the table. I add some water. Weight 8.200 constipation began again. The pediatrician prescribed hilak forte and fermented milk mixture. The child suffers from the mixture all night long, screams. 10 days have passed. There is no improvement. What should we do?

Good afternoon! The first thing you can do in case of constipation is to adjust your diet and drinking regime.Nutrition should be balanced. Excessive intake of proteins and fats should be avoided. The diet requires a sufficient intake of dietary fiber (vegetables and fruits). For children of the first year, water consumption should be about 100 ml per day.
Probiotics can have a positive effect on digestion and motility. For the selection of treatment, it is recommended to consult a pediatrician.

90,000 Coronavirus unusual symptoms reported in Spain

COVID-19 can lead to damage to the oral cavity, Spanish scientists have found.A quarter of the patients studied had inflammation of the tongue, as well as edema and ulcers of the oral mucosa. As previously stated at the University of Brazil, such symptoms result from a systemic deterioration in health due to illness. At the same time, another unusual symptom was noted in Spain – 10% of patients complained of burning sensation in the palms and feet.

A group of scientists from Madrid, during a survey of patients who have undergone COVID-19, identified atypical symptoms of the disease. The results of the study were published on the Daily Express website.

Spanish researchers studied data on 666 patients and found that every fourth patient noted swelling and inflammation of the tongue, tubercles and spots on it, as well as swelling and sores on the oral mucosa.

At the same time, scientists warned that these symptoms were recorded only in adult patients infected with COVID-19, therefore, the conclusions of the study cannot be extended to children or asymptomatic patients.

Previously, researchers from the Oral Histopathology Laboratory of the Faculty of Health of the Brazilian University also described a case of oral mucosal lesions in a patient with COVID-19.Their article was published on the website of the International Journal of Infectious Diseases.

An elderly man hospitalized with COVID-19, in addition to loss of taste on the 24th day of hospital stay, developed yellow mouth ulcers similar to herpes, as well as deep fissures and a specific white plaque on the back of the tongue. Doctors came to the conclusion that these are secondary lesions resulting from systemic deterioration in health due to COVID-19.

The Brazilian doctors’ assumption was confirmed by the Director General of the German Dental Implant Center Maret Khashieva.According to her, herpes and stomatitis can develop against the background of coronavirus.

“This is due to a decrease in immunity. Diseases of the oral cavity can also be provoked by drugs that are prescribed to treat coronavirus infection. These primarily include antibiotics. Taking them, especially for a long time, disrupts the balance of microflora, which can cause the development of oral candidiasis (thrush), ”the specialist emphasized in an interview with Izvestia.

She also noticed that people with dental pathologies have an increased risk of contracting coronavirus.This is due to the fact that the immune system is “distracted” by lesions of the mouth, which greatly weakens the body’s defenses.

At the same time, Spanish scientists found that approximately 10% of adult patients with coronavirus pneumonia complained of burning sensation in the palms and feet.

Earlier, the British therapist Hussein Abde also told the Express edition that reddening of the toes may indicate the development of COVID-19. According to him, some patients complained of swelling of the lower limbs and a burning sensation.The doctor noted that the sensations are similar to hives or chickenpox and require immediate medical attention.

Meanwhile, in early January, Egyptian doctors discovered that one of the patients had prolonged hiccups as the only pronounced symptom of COVID-19 – it was with this complaint that a 64-year-old man turned to them. During the examination, it turned out that the patient was infected with the coronavirus, and also that he had a low white blood cell count, the Daily Express reported.

British physician Chris Steele, in turn, warned of the development of photophobia in some people infected with the “British” strain of coronavirus.According to him, this symptom occurs because the coronavirus causes an “inflammatory response throughout the body.”

Researchers at Anglius Ruskin University in England asked people who tested positive for COVID-19 to fill out a questionnaire about their symptoms. The study found that 18% of participants reported photophobia and 16% reported “eye pain.”

Of the 83 respondents, 81% reported “eye” problems within two weeks of the onset of other coronavirus symptoms.Nearly all of the participants had eye problems lasting less than two weeks.

At the same time, 15 main symptoms of COVID-19 were described based on data from the British Office for National Statistics by epidemiologists at King’s College London.

In their opinion, the disease is most often signaled by: continuous cough (more than an hour or more than three attacks during the day), high fever, loss of smell and taste, headaches, severe fatigue, rash, loss of appetite, sore throat, muscle pain not caused by any physical activity, confusion, diarrhea, shortness of breath, chest pains, wheezing and abdominal pain.