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Stool color guide: Stool Color Chart, Meaning, Texture Changes, Size & Unhealthy


Poop Color Chart | FastMed Urgent Care

If you’re looking for a color of stool chart (or a poo colour chart, for our friends outside of the U.S.), it’s probably no surprise to you that taking a second look at your bowel movement may provide valuable information regarding your health.

Your stool can come in a variety of shapes and sizes, but the most telling sign of potential health risk is its color. See what your body is trying to tell you with the poop color chart from FastMed.

Wheel … of … Poop Colors!

Okay, so it’s a chart. We just couldn’t help ourselves. If you review the poo colour chart below, you can create a general understanding of what your bowels may be trying to tell you. Any instance you note that suggests medical attention, we strongly encourage that you seek it.

Poop (Stool) Color Chart!

Very Light Brown

This indicates a high-fat diet with little fiber. It is not a sign of any major health issues, but it should encourage you to improve your overall diet.

Medium Brown

This is the color (or colour) of normal, healthy stool.


Black, tar-like stool is an indication of internal bleeding. A serious medical condition may be present, so it’s important to seek immediate medical attention.


This is a common sign of food passing through the colon before the final stage of digestion. It is typically normal and not of any concern.


Frequent greasy, yellow stools are often a sign of an underlying medical condition. Seek medical attention for a proper diagnosis.


If your stool is dark red without any signs of blood, then the color may be due to the ingestion of certain foods and not necessarily harmful.

If your stool is bright red and there are signs of blood, seek the advice of a medical professional.


Typically caused by a lack of bile and requires medical attention.

If you have remaining questions about your poop after reviewing our stool color chart, stop by your local FastMed Urgent Care. Our staff of experienced medical professionals is dedicated to providing the highest quality of care for all of your basic health needs. Take a look at our list of locations to find the closest FastMed Urgent Care near you!

Stools – Unusual Color

Is this your child’s symptom?

  • Stool color that is strange or different than normal
  • Normal stool colors are any shade of brown, tan, yellow or green
  • The only colors that may be caused by a disease are red, black and white
  • Dark green may look like black, but dark green is a normal color

Causes of Unusual Stool Color

  • Almost always due to food coloring or food additives.
  • Stool color relates more to what is eaten than to any disease.
  • In children with diarrhea, the gastrointestinal (GI) passage time is very rapid. Stools often come out the same color as the fluid that went in. Examples are Kool-Aid or Jell-O.
  • The only colors we worry about are red, black (not dark green) and white.

Clues to Unusual Stool Colors


  • “Bloody stools”: 90% of red stools are not caused by blood
  • Blood from lower GI tract bleeding
  • Medicines. Red medicines (like Amoxicillin). Sometimes, other medicines that turn red in the GI tract (such as Omnicef)
  • Foods. See list below.

Foods That Can Cause

Red Stools:

  • Red Jell-O, red or grape Kool-Aid
  • Red candy, red licorice
  • Red cereals
  • Red frosting
  • Red food coloring
  • Beets
  • Cranberries
  • Fire Cheetos
  • Paprika
  • Red peppers
  • Rhubarb
  • Tomato juice or soup, tomato skin


  • Blood from stomach bleeding (stomach acid turns blood to a dark, tar-like color)
  • Foods. Licorice, Oreo cookies, grape juice
  • Medicines. Iron, bismuth (Pepto-Bismol)
  • Other. Cigarette ashes, charcoal
  • Bile. Dark green stools from bile may look black under poor lighting. Smear a piece of stool on white paper. Look at it under a bright light. This often confirms that the color is really dark green.


  • Green stools are always normal, but they can be mistaken for black stools.
  • Bile. Most dark green stools are caused by bile.
  • Green stools are more common in formula fed than breastfed infants. It can be normal with both.
  • Green stools are more common with diarrhea. This is due to a fast transit time through the gut. However, formed stools can also be green.
  • Dark green stools may look black under poor lighting. Eating spinach can cause dark green stools.
  • Medicines. Iron (such as in formula)
  • Foods. See list below.

Foods That Can Cause

Green Stools:

  • Green Jell-O
  • Grape-flavored Pedialyte (turns bright green)
  • Green fruit snacks
  • Spinach or other leafy vegetables

White or Light Gray:

  • Foods. Milk-only diet
  • Medicines. Aluminum hydroxide (antacids), barium sulfate from barium enema
  • Liver disease. Babies with blocked bile ducts have stools that are light gray or pale yellow.

When to Call for Stools – Unusual Color

Call Doctor or Seek Care Now

  • Your child looks or acts very sick
  • You think your child needs to be seen, and the problem is urgent

Contact Doctor Within 24 Hours

  • You think your child needs to be seen, but the problem is not urgent

Contact Doctor During Office Hours

  • Stool is light gray or white and occurs 2 or more times
  • Strange color without a cause lasts more than 24 hours. Exception: green stools.
  • Suspected food is stopped and strange color lasts more than 48 hours
  • You have other questions or concerns

Self Care at Home

  • Strange stool color most likely from food or medicine
  • Green stools

Seattle Children’s Urgent Care Locations

If your child’s illness or injury is life-threatening, call 911.

Care Advice for Stools – Unusual Color

  1. What You Should Know About Unusual Stool Color:
    • Strange colors of the stool are almost always due to food coloring.
    • The only colors that may relate to disease are red, black and white.
    • All other colors are not due to a medical problem.
    • Normal stools are not always dark brown. Sometimes they are light brown, tan or yellow.
    • Here is some care advice that should help.
  2. Green Stools:
    • Green color of the stools is always normal. Most often, green stools are caused by bile.
    • Green stools are more common in formula fed than breastfed infants. But, they can be normal with both.
    • Green stools are more common with diarrhea. This is due to a fast transit time through the gut. However, formed stools may also be green. This is normal and nothing to worry about.
    • If your child takes iron, be sure your child is not taking too much.
  3. Avoid Suspected Food or Drink:
    • Don’t eat the suspected food.
    • Don’t drink the suspected drink.
    • The strange stool color should go away within 48 hours.
  4. Save a Sample:
    • If the strange stool color doesn’t go away, bring in a sample.
    • Keep it in the refrigerator until you leave.
  5. What to Expect:
    • Remove the cause of the unusual color from the diet.
    • Then the stool should change back to normal color.
    • This should happen within 48 hours or 2 stools later.
  6. Call Your Doctor If:
    • Strange color without a cause lasts more than 24 hours
    • Suspected food is stopped and strange color lasts more than 48 hours
    • You think your child needs to be seen
    • Your child becomes worse

And remember, contact your doctor if your child develops any of the ‘Call Your Doctor’ symptoms.

Disclaimer: this health information is for educational purposes only. You, the reader, assume full responsibility for how you choose to use it.

Last Reviewed: 05/30/2021

Last Revised: 03/11/2021

Copyright 2000-2021. Schmitt Pediatric Guidelines LLC.

Stool Color Chart, Meaning of Form & Texture Changes

Type of doctors treating stool color changes

Most often, primary health care provider will ask questions about the stool color which may include health care professionals who care for infants and children. Depending upon the cause of the stool color change, involvement of certain specialists may be needed. For example, for red or black stool because of bleeding, endoscopy may be performed by a gastroenterologist, to look for a bleeding source in the stomach or intestine. The specialist that helps manage other diseases of the intestinal tract, including Crohn’s disease, pancreatitis, and celiac disease, that can cause color changes because of poor absorption of nutrients from the diet is known as gastroenterologists.



In most cases, a diagnosis of the stool color, if any, cannot be made by stool color alone.

The patient and the doctor need to consider other symptoms, past medical history, dietary changes, and medications to help decide what has caused the stool to change color. Physical examination will be important to help decide the significance of the stool color.

To look for blood, fat, or infection, stool may be tested. Depending upon the clinical situation, blood tests may be important. Depending on the change in color, it may be important to examine the pancreas, liver or GI tract.

Contacting doctor about stool color or texture changes

Urgent assessment and treatment may be needed aside from black, red, or maroon stools that may mean bleeding is a possibility as most color changes are not an emergency. The importance is determined based on other symptoms that might be there.

Changes are often noted in their bowel pattern for women who are pregnant. Due to iron and vitamin supplements the stool may turn black. Stool can also turn greenish due to iron. Constipation may happen and hemorrhoids can be developed and cause blood in the stool as the uterus enlarges and increasing pressure within the pelvis.

If no underlying problem is present, changes in stool color are often because of changes in the diet and will resolve in a couple of days. If this is not the case and changes are continuous, health care professional should be contacted and medical attention needs to be sought.

Doctor should be contacted if having stool color changes and having related symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, fever, or abdominal pain.

It is essential to keep in mind that every person is different and changes in bowel habit which may include color, size, frequency, or consistency (hard or soft) may be normal for one person or a sign of a potential problem for another.

Free Printable Stool Color Charts

Stool, commonly known as Poop or faeces, is an ordinary part of the digestive process. Stool comprises of waste products that are removed from the body. This may include bacteria, undigested food particles, proteins, salts or any other substance that are produced and later released by the intestines. Although Poop may vary in its color, amount, texture, shape or odor, there are a few things that can possibly indicate a healthy or unhealthy stool.

In this article, we have discussed the different types of Poop, including the signs that indicate a healthy or unhealthy poop. Keep reading to acquire more information.

What is a healthy stool?

Healthy faeces can be as different and as unique as the people produce it. Nevertheless, there are a few general tips to follow if you want to assess your stool artistry for optimum health.

The following are the general characteristics of normal or healthy Poop:

  • Medium to dark brown: Poop contains a pigment called bilirubin, which is formed when red blood cells are broken down.
  • Strong-smelling: Bacteria in excrement release gases that contain the unpleasant smell associated with Poop.
  • Soft to a firm in texture: faecal matter that is released in a single piece or a few smaller pieces is usually considered a sign of a healthy bowel. The shape of the intestines forms the long, sausage-like shape of stool.
  • It should be painless to pass: Normal and healthy Poop should be pain-free to pass and should require minimal strain.
  • Passed once or twice daily: While most people pass stool once or twice a day, others may poop up to three times a day. On average, a healthy person should pass the bowel at least three times a week.
  • It should be consistent in its characteristics: You should monitor any changes in the smell, color, texture or frequency of your Poop, as changes may indicate health issues.


The table in this section, indicates the various colors of Poop, potential cause and possible solutions or precautions.

color Potential cause What to do
Black GI bleeding Iron, bismuth This is an emergency. Visit an emergency department
Maroon Gastrointestinal bleeding This is an emergency. Consult an emergency department
Red- bright red blood Haemorrhoids, annal fissure Consult a health-care professional
Red- maroon/dark red, sometimes with mucus or clots Inflammatory bowel disease, infection, tumour, diverticular bleed, rapid upper gastrointestinal bleeding Urgently consult a doctor
Green sometimes normal. A diet rich in green vegetables is usually associated with diarrhoea Consult a doctor
Brown Normal color Keep eating healthy  
Yellow Pancreatic diseases, malabsorption, cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, Giardia infection Consult a doctor
Clay, pale yellow, or white Lack of bile in the stool which causes liver or biliary disease Consult your health care practitioner

Normal Poop is usually light to dark brown in color. This is due to bilirubin- a pigment compound formed during the breakdown of red blood cells our body. Bilirubin is responsible for the brown coloring. Although differences in stool color or texture may be normal, other noticeable changes should be evaluated by a doctor since the symptoms associated with poop color changes are most likely the symptoms of underlying issues or illnesses. The color of Poop may change due to many reasons, including:

  1. over-the Diet (e.g. beets, green vegetables, liquorice)
  2. Illnesses such as Gastrointestinal diseases, tumor, cancer, biliary diseases, diarrhoea, among others
  3. Bismuth, for example, Pepto-Bismol
  4. Intake of drinks.
  5. Certain -counter drugs and prescription medications
  6. Stool that comes out in an unusual color, especially yellow, may be as a result of diarrhoea, intestinal bleeding, liver or pancreatic diseases, or over the counter and prescribed medications.
  7. Green Poop is usually a common color change. If stool passes through the intestines too fast, there might not be enough time for bile to be broken down to provide the standard brownish color of stool. This is mainly due to diarrhoea or due to certain foods such as green, leafy vegetables or green food coloring.
  8. Black or red Poop is normally associated with bleeding within the digestive system, that is, from the oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine/colon. You should visit a doctor immediately if you notice this color change.
  9. The yellow, greasy and foul-smelling stool may be due to the intestine’s inability to digest and absorb fat due to illnesses of the intestinal lining such as cystic fibrosis, or celiac diseases. It may also be as a result of the inability of the pancreas to manufacture adequate digestive enzymes or lack of enough bile in the intestines.
  10. Bright red stools may be as a result of bleeding from haemorrhoids in adults or annal fissure for infants. Other common causes may be intestinal infections, tumors, inflammatory bowel diseases, among others.
  11. Black tarry stools are usually due to a large amount of bleeding into the digestive system, especially from the upper gastrointestinal tract. This is a worrisome symptom as it can result in a medical emergency if left untreated.
  12. White stools or pale stools are often caused by liver diseases or bile ducts. These may be due to pancreatic cancer which often blocks the bile ducts. Lack of bile makes the Poop to lose its brown color, thus leaving it to appear pale.
  13. Maroon stools are usually caused by Gastrointestinal bleeding, especially the upper GI tract. They result from partial digestion of blood in the ileum and proximal colon. The color may also partially depend on how rapidly the blood travels through the intestines. The faster the speed of the stool through the GI tract, the brighter red the color. This is also an emergency that should never be ignored.
  14. When stool color changes, the type of tests needed to be conducted depends on what is suspected to be the cause of the color change. For instance, a gastrointestinal tract endoscopy may be needed to evaluate black, maroon or red Poop if bleeding is suspected.


A long sausage-like shape is how most Poops come out, due to the shape of the intestines. However, Poop may come out in various shapes. When Poop differentiates from the normal log-like shape, it is trying to inform you that something is up. Faecal matter should not come out in small pellets but instead, should be a few inches in length which should be comfortable and easy to pass with less or minimal strain.

When to see a doctor

You should consider booking an appointment with your doctor if changes to Poop last for more than two weeks.

If your stool is bright red, black, maroon or looks like coffee grounds, seek immediate medical treatment. This is because it indicates blood loss, which can result in a medical emergency if left untreated.

Key Takeaways

The default color of normal Poop is brown. It is often soft to firm in texture, and it is easy to pass. If you ever experience differences in poop color, shape or texture, monitor the changes carefully and visit a doctor if the issues do not resolve within two weeks.

Make it your habit to eat foods that are rich in fibre, exercise regularly, minimize your stress levels, and stay hydrated by drinking lots of water to encourage a normal bowel function.

Free Stool Color Chart Templates

Monitoring the changes in your stool color, texture, shape or odor daily, may seem like a very daunting task. However, it doesn’t have to be. Download our free, easily customizable and professionally designed stool color chart templates, which will help you to navigate through the whole process quickly and effectively.

Monitoring the changes in your stool color, texture, shape or odor daily, may seem like a very daunting task. However, it doesn’t have to be. Download our free, easily customizable and professionally designed stool color chart templates, which will help you to navigate through the whole process quickly and effectively.

Frequently Asked Questions

What do the colors of my Poop mean?

Brown and green color in Poop is considered normal. Stool color rarely indicates a potentially serious intestinal condition. This is mainly because stool color is influenced by your daily diet and by the amount of bile in your intestines which digests fats in your stool.

What are the seven types of stool?

The various categories of Poop are:
Separate hard lumps like nuts which are usually difficult to pass and are black-severe constipation
Lumpy, sausage-like shaped poop-mild constipation
Sausage-like shaped but cracks on its surface and tends to be black sometimes-normal
Soft blobs with clear cut edges-lacks fiber
Average stool- snake or sausage-like, usually smooth and soft-normal
Liquid consistency with no solid pieces-severe diarrhea
Mushy consistency with ragged edges-mild diarrhea

Why is my Poop a darker color?

Some over the counter drugs and prescribed medications contain Pepto Bismol, which causes dark stools. Iron is also a common cause of dark stools. Licorice, blueberries, or any food with a dark red, blue, purple, or green food coloring may also cause darker stools.

When should I be concerned about my stool color?

Check with your doctor if you are concerned about the changes in your stool color. Seek immediate medical attention if your stool is bright red or black and tarry. This color changes indicate the presence of excessive blood. In cases of severe diarrhea for more than two weeks, seek medical attention, as food may be moving through the large intestines too promptly.


The default color of bowel movements is usually light-dark brown or sometimes green. However, there are moderate variations among individuals concerning stool form, amount, and color. When differences in stool type occur, it implies that there may be certain conditions or illnesses that are affecting the gastrointestinal tract of the whole body. If these changes persist for more than two weeks, it is recommended that you seek medical attention. To foster a healthy bowel movement system, you should exercise regularly, drink many fluids, eat fibre-filled foods and regularly monitor your stool color, texture, shape and odor using stool color chart templates.

Is My Newborn’s Poop Color Normal? – Happiest Baby

Baby Poop Guide

Few new parents are prepared for how weird baby poops look… especially when it comes to newborn poop color! But don’t worry. Here’s our down-and-dirty guide to baby poop:

First Baby Poop

Your brand-new bundle of joy will probably bless you with her first poop within 24 hours of her birth. That first poop is the strangest one… it’s made up of everything the baby was ingesting within the womb like amniotic fluid and water. This first bowel movement is called meconium and is sticky dark greenish-black in color. Luckily, in the next few days, your sweet baby’s poop will get waterier and lighten in color.

Poop of a Breastfed Baby

If you’re breastfeeding your sweet honey, her poop will be yellowish and runny. Some babies have a bowel movement after every breastfeeding session…while others only have 3-4 daily. By the time your baby is around one to two months old, the poop will thicken to the consistency of oatmeal and occur once a day or less. Don’t worry about calling your doctor unless your baby doesn’t have a seriously dirty diaper for more than 3 days… but call sooner if your baby has a weak cry, weak suck or is acting sick.>

Poop of a Formula-Fed Baby

If you’re formula-feeding, your little one’s poop will be thicker and firmer – like peanut butter. The color can range from yellow to tan to brown to green. Around her 1- to 2-month birthday, your little one may start to go a few days between bowel movements. This is normal!

Solid Food Poop

According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, you should begin introducing your little one to solid foods around 6 months of age. Once you do that, you’ll notice her poop changes. It will become browner and thicker…and smellier! Did you ever think you’d miss those newborn poop days?

Baby Poop Color Guide

  • Green Baby Poop – Green baby poop does not mean anything bad. Typically babies have green poop if they are given iron supplements, or at 4 to 6 months when they are introduced to solid green foods such as pureed peas and spinach.
  • Orange, Yellow and Brown Baby Poop – Orange, yellow and brown baby poop is common in breastfed and bottle fed babies.
  • Black Blood in Baby Poop – If your baby’s poop has specks of black blood in it, then it means your baby has digested blood while breastfeeding. This is not a cause for alarm, however, you may want to check with your doctor to make sure the blood is not a symptom of something more serious.

Baby Poop Color Warning Signs

Odds are, you won’t have to call your doctor about your baby’s poop but it’s good to know when to take that step. If you notice your baby has poops that look like the one’s below, then make sure to contact your doctor immediately.

  • Runny Baby Poop – Runny poop or diarrhea that is green, yellow or brown, can be an indication of an infection or allergy.
  • Hard, Pebble-like Baby Poop – If your baby has hard, pebble-like poop, then he/she may be suffering from constipation. This can be quite common when your baby is first introduced to solid foods, but can also be a symptom of sensitivity to milk, soy, or lack of tolerance to something in breast milk or formula.
  • Red Blood in Baby Poop – Sometimes baby poop can turn red because of food or liquids such as tomatos, beets, or fruit punch. However, red baby poop can also be a sign of blood in the stool. This can be a sign of of a milk protein allergy or bacterial infections.
  • Green Mucus in Baby Poop – Slimy, green mucus in your baby’s poop can be a sign of an infection. You’ll notice that mucus in poop looks like green-colored streaks with glistening strings.
  • White Baby Poop – Chalky baby poop that is gray or white in color can be a sign that your baby is not digesting food properly, or that there is a lack of bile in the liver.

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Disclaimer: The information on our site is NOT medical advice for any specific person or condition. It is only meant as general information. If you have any medical questions and concerns about your child or yourself, please contact your health provider.

Baby Poop Guide

If there’s one thing that’s universal when it comes to parenting, it’s the fact that you’re going to be talking about baby poop a lot. (Cue questions: How often should a newborn poop? How can you help baby poop? What does green baby poop mean?) And while it may not be a typical topic of conversation for the dinner table, it’s essential to talk about it. Baby’s poop—the color, consistency and amount—can provide important clues into the health of your infant, says Wendy Sue Swanson, MD, a pediatrician and executive director of digital health for Seattle Children’s Hospital, where she blogs at Seattle Mama Doc.

Another reason why it’s a constant topic of conversation throughout the diaper years? Because baby’s poop habits change all the time. Here’s what to expect from that first diaper change, all the way up through potty training.

Unlike many of your child’s milestones, you likely won’t take a picture of baby’s first poop—but it’s an important one. Usually sticky and darkish green-black in color, baby’s first poop is called meconium and is made up of everything baby ingested in utero, including amniotic fluid, skin cells and water. But within the first few days of life, your newborn’s poop should progressively get more watery and lighter in color. If it doesn’t, or if baby isn’t consistently pooping in the first few days of life, it could be a sign that he isn’t getting proper nutrition and needs a follow-up visit with the pediatrician, Swanson says.

How Often Should a Newborn Poop?

In the first four to six weeks of life, regardless of whether your infant is breastfed or formula-fed, you should expect your newborn to poop after nearly every feeding, Swanson says. And depending on whether you’re breastfeeding, formula feeding or combination feeding, the stools will likely look different. Breastfed baby poop is often yellow, seedy and runny, while a formula-fed baby’s poop may be darker and thicker.

Related Video

After six weeks, as baby’s digestive tract develops, her poop habits may change. How often should a newborn poop? It depends. While one to three times or more a day is a benchmark, it’s common for breastfed babies to not poop as frequently as formula-fed babies.

How Often Should a Breastfed Baby Poop?

Is your breastfed baby not pooping? Don’t panic. Because breast milk is digested differently than formula, it’s not unusual for a breastfed baby to pee regularly (creating six to eight wet diapers a day) but not poop for several days. “It’s common for a breastfed baby to go two or three days without pooping, and it’s possible for them to go up to seven days,” Swanson says. If your breastfed baby is not pooping, it’s more important to watch their demeanor than their diapers. “If he seems content and his belly is soft, he’s likely fine. But if his belly feels rigid or baby seems uncomfortable, it could be a sign he’s constipated.”

How Often Should a Formula-Fed Baby Poop?

Formula-fed babies tend to have poop that’s a bit darker and firmer than breastfed baby poop. Their poop may be the consistency of hummus and color can range from yellow to greenish-brown or tan. Formula-fed babies will likely poop at least once a day; if she doesn’t poop for two or more days, it could signal constipation. Equally important is the consistency of baby’s poop. “Log or pellet-like shapes could indicate constipation,” Swanson says. It’s important to address this with your pediatrician, since constipation could mean an allergy or be a sign that it’s time to try another brand of baby formula.

Baby Poop Color: What Does It Mean?

When it comes to assessing potential health issues, a pediatrician often checks baby’s poop color. Before you panic, remember that what goes in must come out—especially for babies who are beginning to eat table food. In other words, if baby has beets for lunch, you’re probably going to see red in a few hours. Still, pediatricians agree it’s smart to keep tabs on the colors you see. If you do spot something unusual, bag up the diaper and bring it along to your appointment—it can help a doctor make an assessment.

Photo: Lindsey Balbierz

From green baby poop to red, orange, black and beyond, here’s what each baby poop color could mean:

Green Baby Poop

With formula-fed infants, it’s normal for baby poop to be a greenish-tan color. Sometimes the iron in baby formula can cause dark green baby poop and isn’t a reason for concern. Green baby poop can also signal teething or that baby is getting over a stomach bug. If baby has green poop and is also fussy at feedings or seems gassy and uncomfortable, it could be a sign he has a cow’s milk allergy and is reacting to the formula, Swanson says, which means you should consult your doctor about other options. For a breastfed baby, green baby poop might signal something else. “Bright green baby poop in a breastfed infant, especially if it’s frothy, may mean he’s getting too much foremilk and not enough of the fattier hindmilk,” Swanson says. Try keeping baby on one breast per feeding or hand express a bit of milk before letting him latch and see if this solves the problem.

White Baby Poop

If baby is still being breastfed or formula-fed, chalky, whitish or gray baby poop definitely warrants a call to the pediatrician, since it can be a sign the liver isn’t functioning the way it should be.

Orange Baby Poop

Many of baby’s first solids foods can result in orange-colored baby poop (think: carrots and sweet potatoes). A breastfed baby may also have orange-ish tinted stool if Mom has been on medication or been eating artificially colored foods, since the dyes may make their way into breast milk. Orange poop generally doesn’t indicate a problem, but if you’re worried, call your pediatrician, Swanson says.

Red Baby Poop

Flecks of red are no big deal. If you’re breastfeeding, they might be tiny amounts of blood baby swallowed from cracks in your nipple. Red flecks might also appear if baby is constipated and straining too hard to poop. If you’re just starting baby on table foods, you may have to play diet detective to suss out any food culprits. Stools that look genuinely bloody or are bright red may indicate an infection, allergy, GI injury or other medical concern and should be addressed immediately.

Black Baby Poop

If a newborn’s poop is still looking black by day three, it may be a sign she’s not getting adequate nutrition or digesting milk the way she should. If you see black poop when baby’s a bit older, it could be caused by iron in her diet, which is no big deal. If baby isn’t taking an iron supplement and the poop looks black, it could be a sign of GI tract bleeding and should be seen by a doctor. “But it’s not red!” you say? Blood actually turns from red to black as it travels through baby’s intestines, according to Madhavi Kapoor, MD, clinical assistant professor in the department of pediatrics at NYU Langone Medical Center.

Yellow Baby Poop

Mustard yellow is a normal baby poop color for both breastfed and formula-fed infants. If baby’s stool is bright yellow, the color change could be a result of medications or food eaten by Mom.

Gray Baby Poop

If baby is eating solids, poop may be gray depending on what your child ate, Swanson says. If baby hasn’t yet started table food, then it’s important to assess, as it could indicate a liver or gallbladder problem.

Before having a baby, you probably never imagined you’d wish for a dirty diaper. But a poop can provide sweet relief for an uncomfortable baby and a worried parent. There are a few common reasons why baby is not pooping: Dehydration, eating starchy foods like bananas, a time shift due to traveling or occasionally an allergy or intolerance. In older babies, especially those on the cusp of potty training, withholding poop can be psychological—they may be afraid of the potty or upset over an external issue, like a caregiver change or thrown-off schedule.

Luckily, many at-home remedies to help baby poop are simple, effective and recommended by pediatricians—but it’s best to use them only occasionally. “I warn parents not to become dependent on a ‘trick’ to make a baby poop,” Swanson says. “If it’s a persistent problem, it’s something I like to see in the office.”

Here are some ideas on how to get a newborn to poop, as well as what to do when an older baby is not pooping .

• Bicycle Legs. Peddling an infant’s legs to and from his chest, as if he was riding a bicycle, can be a gentle way to stimulate your child’s digestive system, Swanson says. Older babies generally don’t need this trick, since crawling, climbing and pulling up to stand help keep things moving.

• Warm Bath. The warmth and stimulation of the water can relax muscles and help baby poop.
• Rectal Stimulation. For occasional use only, Swanson suggests gentle rectal stimulation by gently inserting a rectal thermometer or using a gas-relieving product, such as Fridababy’s Windi ($15, Fridababy. com). However, Swanson cautions this shouldn’t become your go-to trick. “If used too often, the baby may become reliant on rectal stimulation to poop.”

• Water or Juice. Constipation can be a sign of dehydration. If baby has started eating solids, offering a few ounces of water or pear juice may help move things along. Constipation may also be a sign baby needs to nurse more or be offered a bottle more regularly. If you’re at all concerned, talk to your pediatrician.

• Glycerin Suppositories. Another occasional-use tool, Swanson says glycerin suppositories can be helpful for constipation. Ask your doctor first, especially if baby is younger than a year.

• The Four Ps: Prunes, Plums, Peaches and Pears. These four fruits are a great natural way to help baby poop. If baby has started solids, add a serving or two into your child’s daily diet to keep things moving.

• Veggies. The high-fiber content in vegetables makes them all-stars when it comes to dealing with constipation.

• Whole Grains. When planning baby’s meals, try incorporating some whole grains: Brown rice, whole-wheat pasta and multigrain cereals or bread maximize bran intake, which can help soften stool and make it easier for baby to poop.

While it’s normal to get a teeny bit less obsessive over every single diaper change as baby grows, it’s still important to keep an eye out for potential problems and warning signs. While some odd consistencies may have a simple explanation (hello, raisins!), others may need to be discussed with your doctor. Here are some types of baby poop to watch out for:


In infancy, loose stools can be a sign of an allergy, either to the milk proteins in formula or, if you’re breastfeeding, to something you ate. As baby gets older, watery stools may be a sign of teething (baby is swallowing more saliva, leading to runnier poop), but could also be a sign of a stomach bug. In that case, keeping your child hydrated with plenty of water or milk is essential. If the diarrhea is accompanied by a fever of 100.4 or higher, or baby is younger than 3 months old, it’s a good idea to call your pediatrician, Kapoor says.

Blood in Baby Stool

While a few flecks can be normal, anything more than that should be brought to your pediatrician’s attention. “Blood in the stool could be caused by constipation, infection, injury or allergy, so going to the doctor is essential,” Kapoor says.

Mucus in Baby Stool

A common sign of teething or a cold, occasional mucus is no big deal. However, “if you notice it frequently or in large amounts, it could be a sign of a GI tract issue and should be discussed with your pediatrician,” Kapoor says.

Stringy Baby Poop

A cousin to mucus, stringy baby poop could be a sign of a cold or teething, or just the result of something baby has been eating. If it shows up frequently in baby’s diaper, it’s a good idea to call your pediatrician.

Foamy Baby Poop

“In a breastfed infant, foamy stool may be a sign that baby is getting too much foremilk,” Kapoor says. For an easy solve, try completing a feeding on just one breast. In a formula-fed baby, frothy baby poop could indicate an infection or allergy.

Pebble-Like Stool

This is a classic sign of constipation or withholding stool in older babies. Try some home constipation cures and go to the doctor if baby doesn’t poop within the next 24 hours.

Doctors agree that if you see anything unusual, spot a baby poop problem accompanied by a high fever or if baby is crying inconsolably, you should call the doctor, who can help guide you through possible causes and next steps. And don’t be shy about bagging the diaper for your doctor’s inspection. “We see it all the time, and we aren’t disgusted,” Kapoor says. “It can help us best figure out what the issue may be.”

Poop 101: A beginner’s guide to reading your own poop

The next time you ponder your poop before you flush, one thing to keep in mind is that your feces passed through a lot of important organs on their way out. (And if you don’t take a peek, well, congratulations on your moral superiority, I guess?) So it might be possible that your stool can tell you when there’s something wrong with the squishy internal Rube Goldberg machine that converts food into feces.

Ponder your poop before you flush

I have a lot of questions about what this external nugget of evidence says about the inner workings of my body: is that the shape it’s supposed to be? When did I eat that corn? Why is it blue? (That only happened once.)

The quick and dirty version of the digestion process starts as soon as we take a bite. Little molecular wrenches called enzymes start dismantling our food in the mouth, then the stomach. In the small intestine, enzymes do even finer work — breaking down fats, proteins, and starches into molecules small enough to pass through the intestine’s walls and into the bloodstream. That’s how you absorb the food’s nutrients. Muscle contractions called peristalsis push the food — now a soupy, messy slop — along to the large intestine, where water is sucked back into the body. What you’re left with is, usually, is a somewhat solid mélange of indigestible food leftovers, microbes, dead cells, and all sorts of waste products our bodies need to expel. The stool hangs out in the rectum before squeezing out through the anus.

Once the poop is in the toilet, what can it tell you about your body? Since the porcelain bowl isn’t a magic mirror, I quizzed gastroenterologist Justin Sewell from the University of California, San Francisco while he grabbed a quick lunch on the other end of the phone.

Earth tones are healthy — but so are lots of other colors

Poop can come in a rainbow of colors depending on what you eat. But earth tones like brown, yellow, and green are the most common, Sewell says. These muddy hues are the result of mixing digested food with broken down bits of dead red blood cells that get dumped into the small intestine along with bile, an enzyme produced by the liver to digest fats.

There’s a huge range of normal

If your poop falls outside this range of shades (like, say, blue), it’s not necessarily unhealthy. But if your poop is gray, black, red, or maroon, those colors could be signs of a health problem. Pale or gray could mean that something is preventing bile and its accompanying red blood cell waste from reaching the small intestine. That could be from a problem anywhere in the liver, the gallbladder (which stores bile), and the connecting ductwork. Often, people with gray poops show other signs of liver problems, like jaundice.

Flickr/Justin Dolske (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Black, red, or maroon-hued poop can all be from bleeding. Tarry and sticky stools usually suggest bleeding from the stomach or upper small intestine — like from an ulcer, for example. Dark red or maroon poops could mean bleeding in the upper colon or lower small intestine. Red diarrhea could be due to an inflammatory bowel disease like Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis — or it could mean that your colon is infected with bacteria like certain strains of E. coli. And bright red blood on the toilet paper could be due to hemorrhoids — itchy, swollen veins in the rectum or anus that bleed. That’s the much more common, and much less scary option: because it could also be from polyps or colon cancer.

Poop can come in a rainbow of colors

But remember, poop is food waste so you might just be seeing the results of something you ate. Iron supplements or Pepto-Bismol can also make your poop black, and beets can make your poop red. (It also turns your pee red. I thought I was dying the first time this happened.)

There’s no ideal poop shape

When I create a perfect, uninterrupted log I feel victorious — like I peeled an apple without breaking the spiral of skin. But Sewell tells me that my quest for the perfect poop is misguided: There’s no such thing.

“I’ve had people bring me pictures of their poop and say ‘This is not right, it’s supposed to be a perfect, smooth log shape.’ And yes, for some people that’s normal but for other people, that’s just not the way their body works,” he says. “There’s no ideal poop.”

“There’s no ideal poop.”

Poop types and shapes can grouped into seven categories in the Bristol Stool Scale, which describes the range of imaginable stools — from hard little rabbit pellets (type one — a sign of constipation) to watery diarrhea (type seven — which could be due to anything from an infection to having just gone for a run). As long as your poop falls into types two through six on the Scale, you’re probably doing just fine.

Wikimedia Commons/Cabot Health (CC BY-SA 3.0)

“Anywhere from formed logs to soft and falling apart is fine — and that just depends on individual people’s bodies and their diet,” Sewell says. If it’s hard or sticky, however, you might want to add fiber and water to the menu. If it’s mushy or watery, drink more water to rehydrate.

Food bits are fine, but lots of them is weird

Sighting food in poop isn’t unusual, Sewell says. But pay attention to how the food looks. It’s totally normal to find pieces of corn kernels, for example, which have indigestible bits made of a plant fiber called cellulose. “If you eat a bunch of greens, you’re going to see pieces of partially digested plant material come out,” Sewell says. And the chunks can be bigger or smaller depending on how well you chew.

Pixabay Public Domain

But if your poop is almost entirely composed of recognizable food bits, it could be signs of a digestion problem. Your gut might be squeezing food through too quickly to get properly digested. Anything from parasites, to certain types of gastrointestinal infections, to even irritable bowel syndrome and severe celiac disease can get peristalsis moving faster than it should. So if what comes out strongly resembles what went in, maybe you should see a doctor.

Mucus and fat aren’t okay

If you see mucus on your poop, that can be a sign of an autoimmune disease or an infection. But what does mucus even look like when it’s coming out of an orifice other than your nose? It’s white, semi-solid, and stringy, Sewell says. Like egg drop soup, he adds.

Seeing that in the toilet bowl suggests inflammation, most likely in the lower gut. The inflammation could be from ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease — or from some kind of parasitic, viral, or bacterial infection.

Be on lookout for fat in poop as well. A fatty stool usually floats and can leave an oil slick on the surface of the water. After you flush, there might be orange ring of what looks like pizza grease that lingers around the bowl. Like when you’re cooking something oily, Sewell says, “and you pour out the water, and there’s a rim of fat that sticks to the edge of the container.

Fatty poop can come from a number of things — including diet pills like Alli that can make fat leak out your butt. It can also be a sign of pancreatic or liver disease, because it means the enzymes they produce that should be breaking down fat aren’t doing their jobs. Intestinal disorders like Crohn’s disease or celiac disease can cause this, as well.

So what does your poop say about you?

The main thing to keep in mind is that there’s a huge range of normal. That also includes the frequency with which you poop — generally, anything less than three times per week is constipation, and anything more than three times a day is too frequent. Most people poop one to two times a day, or once every other day, Sewell says. Variation in urgency is common, too — having to go right now isn’t unusual, but if that’s a constant sensation, you may want to check in with a doctor.

“Pay attention — but don’t obsess.”

“I think it’s healthy for people to look at what they produce, note any major changes, and ask their doctor about it,” Sewell says. “People do obsess over having, they want the perfect shape poop, they want it harder, they want it softer. It’s not really much under your control besides eating more or less fiber, or consuming more or less water. So pay attention — but don’t obsess.”


Public Domain

90,000 Acute intestinal infections. Lyceum No. 144

Healthcare Institution “4th City Children’s Clinical Hospital”
Gastroenterology Department
Pinevich O.P., Stolyarova T.A., Dankova T.N.

According to WHO recommendations, the term “acute intestinal infections” (AEI) includes more than 30 diseases of bacterial, viral or protozoal etiology, the main symptom of which is acute diarrhea.

OCI – a polyetiological group of infectious diseases accompanied by impaired motility of the gastrointestinal tract with the development of diarrhea, intoxication, and in some cases – dehydration.

At the present stage, OCI are still widespread. According to WHO materials, in developing countries, children under 5 years of age have 1 billion episodes of diarrhea annually (on average, 3-4 episodes of diarrhea per year per child). Diarrhea kills 3 million children every year (about 80% of them are under 2 years of age).AEI is ranked 2nd in prevalence after ARI. In Belarus, 9-10 cases of the disease are registered annually per 1000 children under the age of 14. According to the DIKB for 1999, in the structure of the incidence of AEI, 35.4% were rotavirus infection, 18.4% – shigellosis, 9.5% – salmonellosis, 6.1% – AEI caused by UPF, 30.6% – AEI of unknown etiology …

In the problem of their study, the issues of timely early diagnosis are of particular relevance at the present stage; the nature of the clinical course of the disease; differential diagnostics; the development of complications leading to unfavorable outcomes; as well as ongoing adequate etiopathogenetic therapy. An essential feature of OCI is polyetiology and a wide range of clinical forms – from subclinical to toxic. Depending on the etiology and pathogenesis, AEI is divided into invasive intestinal infections, in which the causative agents of the disease are Shigella, Salmonella, enteroinvasive Escherichia, Campylobacter; and secretory – the cause of the disease are rotaviruses, adenoviruses, astroviruses, as well as bacteria (enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia) and parasites (Cryptosporidia, Isospores, Balantidia, Microsporidia).

The clinical picture characteristic of a particular nosological form of intestinal infections is of great importance. To make a preliminary diagnosis, it is necessary to clarify the first signs of the disease, complaints at the time of examination, measure the body temperature, examine the stool, and examine the sick person. The main task at this stage is to decide on the presumably viral or presumably bacterial etiology of the disease, since the treatment in both cases is fundamentally different in the appointment of etiotropic drugs. Another, no less important task is to assess the patient’s condition with determining the severity of the pathological process and, accordingly, the resulting solution to the issue of inpatient or outpatient treatment, and in the case of hospitalization, the need for urgent and intensive therapeutic measures.

The source of infection in AEI is a sick person or carriers. The most common source is patients with mild, erased and asymptomatic forms of infection. The main transmission mechanism is fecal-oral, which is realized by food, water and contact-household, less often – by air and dust.Moreover, if in bacterial infections, food and waterways are of greater importance, then in viral diarrhea, water and contact. Viruses, as you know, cannot multiply on food and are transmitted “from a living person to a living person.” For viral intestinal infections, the cold season is more typical, and bacterial infections are more common in the summer-autumn with a peak in August-September.

Intestinal infections usually begin acutely. The leading clinical symptoms are diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain and symptoms of intoxication.To assess diarrhea, it is necessary to take into account the frequency of stools, the volume of bowel movements (scant or abundant discharge), the nature of the bowel movements (consistency, color, odor, the presence of undigested food lumps), pathological impurities in the feces (mucus, blood, pus). When assessing vomiting, one takes into account its frequency, duration, volume and nature of vomit (eaten food, with bile, with blood – scarlet or like “coffee grounds”). The presence of previous nausea and a feeling of relief after vomiting are important, for example, with meningitis and other lesions of the central nervous system, vomiting does not bring relief.When determining abdominal pains, their duration, intensity, nature (cramping or aching), their localization and irradiation are specified.

Viral diarrhea is characterized by a clinic of gastroenteritis or enteritis with abundant watery stools without pathological impurities or with a small amount of them. Vomiting in frequency prevails over diarrhea and dehydration often occurs, usually I degree. Intoxication, as a rule, is not expressed and even with exicosis is very moderate, the body temperature is kept at subfebrile numbers, sometimes reaching 38 ° C and slightly higher.The lack of expression of intoxication is evidenced by the fact that after vomiting the child can eat, play and feel quite satisfactory. Rarely, rotavirus infection can proceed as isolated gastritis, without diarrhea. It should be stated that with viral diarrhea, there are no inflammatory changes in the hemogram and coprogram, and the severity of the disease is determined by the degree of dehydration with unexpressed or short-term symptoms of intoxication.

In acute intestinal infections of bacterial etiology, the nature of the stool depends on the etiology of the disease.With salmonellosis, the stool is enteric in nature – abundant, watery with an admixture of a fairly large amount of green mucus, the so-called “swamp mud” stool. In the case of pronounced erosions on the intestinal mucosa, an admixture of blood appears in the stool, which, evenly distributed, gives it the appearance of “meat slops”. For shigellosis, the most typical clinical variant is distal colitis – scanty stools, initially fecal in nature, in dynamics takes the form of “rectal spitting” with an admixture of transparent mucus, with a more severe course, blood in the form of dots or veins.Bacterial diarrhea, like viral diarrhea, can proceed according to the variant of acute gastroenteritis, but, regardless of which syndrome prevails, they are characterized by significantly more pronounced intoxication with body temperature reaching pronounced febrile values ​​(up to 39 ° C, and in some cases even more). Thus, bacterial diarrhea is characterized by the prevalence of symptoms of intoxication over the clinic of dehydration, “inflammatory” changes in the hemogram (leukocytosis, neutrophilia, stab shift to the left, accelerated ESR) and coprogram (an increase in the content of leukocytes and erythrocytes, the appearance of mucus in large quantities).

One of the main tasks to prevent the development of acute intestinal infections in children is health education of the population.

Experts of the World Health Organization have developed ten “golden” rules for the prevention of foodborne infections for effective health education of the population of the entire planet on the prevention of AEI.

1. Selection of safe food products. Many foods, such as fruits and vegetables, are eaten raw, while others are risky to eat without pre-processing.For example, always buy pasteurized milk, not raw milk. When shopping for food, keep in mind that the purpose of post-processing is to make the food safe and to extend its shelf life. Certain foods that are eaten raw require careful washing.

2. Prepare food thoroughly. Many raw foods, mainly poultry, meat and raw milk, are often contaminated with pathogens. During the cooking (frying) process, bacteria are destroyed, but remember that the temperature in all parts of the food must reach 70 ° C. Frozen meat, fish and poultry must be thawed thoroughly before cooking.

3. Eat cooked food without delay. When cooked food is cooled to room temperature, microbes begin to multiply in it. The longer she stays in this state, the greater the risk of getting food poisoning. To be on the safe side, eat food immediately after cooking.

4. Store food carefully. If you have prepared food for future use or want to preserve the rest of it after eating, keep in mind that it must be stored either hot (around or above 60 ° C) or cold (around or below 10 ° C).This is an extremely important rule, especially if you intend to store food for more than 4-5 hours.

It is better not to store food for children at all. A common mistake leading to countless cases of food poisoning is keeping large amounts of warm food in the refrigerator. This food in an overloaded refrigerator cannot cool down completely quickly. When the middle of the food stays warm for too long (temperature over 10 ° C), microbes survive and multiply rapidly to a level that is dangerous to human health.

5. Reheat pre-cooked food thoroughly. This is the best measure of protection against microorganisms that may have multiplied in food during storage (proper storage inhibits the growth of microbes, but does not destroy them). Once again, before eating, thoroughly heat the food (the temperature in its thickness should be at least 70 ° C).

6. Avoid contact between raw and prepared foods.

Properly cooked food can be contaminated by contact with raw food.This cross-contamination can be apparent when, for example, raw poultry comes into contact with cooked food, or it can be hidden. For example, you cannot use the same cutting board and knife to cook raw and boiled (fried) poultry. This practice can lead to the potential risk of food contamination and the growth of microorganisms in them, followed by human poisoning.

7. Wash your hands often. Wash your hands thoroughly before preparing food and after every break in the cooking process – especially if you have changed your baby or been in the toilet. After cutting raw foods such as fish, meat or poultry, wash your hands again before handling other foods. And if you have an infected scratch (wound) on your arm, be sure to bandage it or apply a plaster before you start cooking. Also remember that pets – dogs, birds and especially turtles – are often carriers of dangerous microorganisms that can enter food through your hands.

8. Keep your kitchen perfectly clean.Since food is easily contaminated, any surface used to prepare it must be completely clean. Treat every food scraps, crumbs, or dirty stains as a potential reservoir of germs. Wiping towels should be changed every day. Floor rags also require frequent washing.

9. Keep food protected from insects, rodents and other animals. Animals often carry pathogens that cause foodborne illness.Store food in tightly sealed jars (containers) to reliably protect food.

10. Use clean water. Clean water is essential for both drinking and cooking. When in doubt about the quality of the water, boil it before adding to food or before using it.

In the event of symptoms of an acute intestinal infection (fever, vomiting, upset stools, abdominal pain), seek immediate medical attention!

90,000 Causes of Liquid Green Stool in Adults and Treatment of Diarrhea | IMODIUM®

Number of views: 75 910

Last update date: 20.04.2021

Average reading time: 7 minutes


Causes of green diarrhea
Associated symptoms
Why diarrhea is dangerous
IMODIUM ® Express diarrhea
Find out in our video about the main causes of diarrhea!

Green-tinged stools that are not associated with dietary changes may indicate the development of certain gastrointestinal diseases.If, at the same time, loose stools are observed, the violation of the functions of the digestive system is beyond doubt. Left untreated diarrhea of ​​any origin is a dangerous phenomenon that can lead to serious deterioration in health.

Causes of green diarrhea

Loose stools with green feces can be caused by many reasons. The most common are the following.

Intestinal infection .

Diseases such as rotavirus enteritis, dysentery, amebiasis and many others cause pathogens that enter the digestive system along with food and water, through unwashed hands or the sharing of dishes and personal items of healthy and sick people.

Food poisoning .

Improper storage of cooked dishes, poor-quality or expired products, their incorrect or insufficient heat treatment and other circumstances can lead to the growth of bacteria in food, often causing disruptions to the digestive tract.

Chronic and acute pathologies.

Diseases of the digestive system and hepatobiliary system can cause stool staining from dark green to marsh and cause stool disorders.

Food Allergy .

Allergies caused by the consumption of food allergens are characterized by diarrhea, among other symptoms. Depending on the chemical composition of such a product, feces may acquire an unnatural color, including a greenish one.

Other reasons.

Among the physiological causes of dark green diarrhea, the most likely is the consumption of large quantities of fresh vegetables and fruits, which simultaneously increase intestinal motility and liquefy feces.Also, while taking some medicines, feces with herbs are a common phenomenon that passes after the drug is discontinued.

Concomitant symptoms


Pain .

Increased body temperature .

Nausea .

This is one of the common symptoms associated with diarrhea.Increased gas production in the intestines is often accompanied by bloating and intestinal colic, which is relieved or temporarily disappears after the gas passes.

It can be dull and aching, acute and paroxysmal, localized in the upper abdomen or spread over the anterior abdominal wall and give to the sides, lower back.

This symptom usually accompanies diarrhea of ​​infectious origin, and can also manifest itself in acute inflammatory diseases of the stomach and intestines.

It can be of varying intensity: from mild to severe, resolving only after a few episodes of vomiting.

Each of the listed symptoms is important, therefore, when contacting a doctor, it is important to tell about each of these signs, when it began to manifest itself, how badly, etc. This will allow the doctor to form a general picture of the disease and will facilitate the diagnosis.

Why diarrhea is dangerous

Diarrhea left without proper treatment can lead to severe complications on the body as a whole.The most dangerous of them are the following.

Dewatering . With diarrhea, the mechanism of water absorption by the intestinal walls is disturbed. The liquid is excreted from the body without having time to take part in the metabolism. In addition, water is released into the intestinal lumen, which increases fluid loss. It is especially dangerous if a child in the first 2-3 years of life or an adult recovering from a serious illness develops dehydration. It can be dangerous not only for health, but also for life.

Electrolyte imbalance in the body . Together with water, the body loses salts, without which the proper functioning of cells, the penetration of necessary substances through their membranes and the excretion of products of cellular metabolism are impossible. As a result, this can lead to disruption of the functioning of vital organs.

Depletion . With diarrhea, especially if it lasts for a long time, a deficiency of nutrients, vitamins, minerals and other biologically significant elements often develops.This leads to a chronic decline in strength, a decrease in body weight, and the internal organs suffer from a lack of substances they need, which affects their functions.

Occurrence of anal fissures . Constant irritation of the anal area during diarrhea leads to irritation of the rectal mucosa and skin around the anus. A prolonged course of diarrhea often causes the formation of anal fissures and accompanying symptoms: acute pain and bleeding.


To treat diarrhea, it is important to determine the cause of the diarrhea, assess your overall health and find out if the diarrhea has led to serious complications.Therefore, with green diarrhea, you need to see a doctor who will conduct an examination, collect anamnesis and prescribe a diagnosis. Treatment is recommended based on the findings. It can include taking a wide variety of medicines, the list of which may include:

  • antibacterial drugs – prescribed for the treatment of diarrhea of ​​bacterial origin;
  • antidiarrheal agents – allow to normalize the motor function of the intestine, reduce fluid loss and restore the rhythm of the intestine;
  • anti-inflammatory drugs – help to stop inflammation of the intestinal walls;
  • enterosorbents – absorb toxins and remove gases.

Treatment of diarrhea is carried out in a comprehensive manner: both the underlying disease or condition that caused this symptom and the consequences of diarrhea (decreased electrolyte levels, etc.) are eliminated.


® Express in the fight against diarrhea

IMODIUM ® Express is a drug that is approved for use in the symptomatic treatment of acute and chronic diarrhea of ​​various origins. The active substance, loperamide, has the following effects:

  • helps to restore intestinal motor function – slows down the movement of feces and reduces the frequency of the urge to defecate;
  • helps to reduce the volume of water released into the intestinal lumen;
  • helps to regulate and restore normal absorption of water and dissolved salts by the intestinal wall.

Before taking IMODIUM ® Express, read the instructions and consult a specialist.

Find out in our video about the main causes of diarrhea!

This material is for guidance only and does not replace a visit to a doctor.

* Among the products based on Loperamide. Sales in money terms for February 2018 – January 2019, according to IQVIA data.

Black stool (melena) in a dog

The term melena is used to describe stools that appear black and tarry due to the presence of digested blood in the feces.

Melena usually results from bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

Also seen in dogs after they have swallowed a sufficient amount of blood from the respiratory tract, such as with nosebleeds or coughing and swallowing blood from the lungs. Melena itself is not a disease, but a symptom of some other underlying medical condition, such as a gastrointestinal ulcer or blood clotting disorder. The dark color and gummy consistency of feces is due to the digestion of blood as it passes through the intestinal tract.

Other symptoms that may accompany melena depend on the cause, severity, and location of the bleeding.

In patients with gastrointestinal bleeding:

  • Vomiting, with or without blood;
  • Lack of appetite;
  • Weight Loss;
  • Weakness and exercise intolerance;
  • Pale mucous membranes;
  • Difficulty or rapid breathing;
  • Abdominal pain.

In patients with airway bleeding:

  • Epistaxis;
  • Sneezing;
  • Coughing up blood;
  • Pale mucous membranes;
  • Weakness and exercise intolerance;
  • Difficulty or rapid breathing.

For patients with bleeding disorders:

  • Epistaxis;
  • Blood in urine;
  • Bright red blood in the stool;
  • Hemorrhages in the eyes;
  • Vomiting, with or without blood;
  • Abnormal bruising;
  • Pale mucous membranes;
  • Weakness and exercise intolerance;
  • Difficulty or rapid breathing.

There are a lot of diseases that can be accompanied by black feces. Some of them:

  • Ulcers of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • Tumors of the mouth, esophagus, stomach or small intestine;
  • Gastrointestinal infections;
  • Foreign body of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • Medicinal toxicity;
  • Exposure to toxins;
  • Parasites;
  • Diseases of the liver;
  • Infections, neoplasms, or foreign bodies in the lungs or in the nose;
  • Injury.
Making a diagnosis

It is necessary to provide the veterinarian with the most detailed medical history of your pet, the time of the onset of symptoms, possible incidents that could lead to this, the drugs used, the diet, etc. All this will help to suggest the cause of what is happening. After receiving from the information, the doctor will need to carry out a number of diagnostic procedures – most often these are blood tests, including coagulation, X-ray and ultrasound examinations.The results of these examinations in some cases will help to make a final diagnosis. In difficult cases, it may also require endoscopic examinations, surgical intervention. It all depends on the specific medical history.


The main goal of therapy is to eliminate the underlying disease, which, if successful, should ultimately solve the problem.

Infusion therapy (IVs) may be prescribed to prevent fluid loss, and blood transfusion may be required in patients with severe blood loss and anemia.Additional treatment will depend on other symptoms and the underlying cause of the condition. For example, dogs with gastrointestinal ulcers may be treated with dietary and medication changes to reduce gastric acid secretion, protect the gastrointestinal mucosa, and prevent vomiting (if necessary), while animals poisoned with rodenticides or anticoagulants will receive specific antidotes.

Summing up, it should be said that there are many reasons for the appearance of black stool in a dog, but they all require detailed diagnosis and immediate treatment.

Take care of yourself and your pets!

Kalevskaya J.F.
Veterinarian SVK “Svoy Doctor” branch Dzerzhinsky
90 420


Coprogram is a study of feces (feces, excrement, stool), analysis of its physical, chemical properties, as well as various components and inclusions of various origins. It is part of the diagnostic study of the digestive system and the function of the gastrointestinal tract.

Synonyms Russian

General analysis of feces.

English synonyms

Koprogramma, Stool analysis.

Research method


What kind of biomaterial can be used for research?


How to properly prepare for the study?

Eliminate the intake of laxatives, the introduction of rectal suppositories, oils, limit the intake of medications that affect intestinal motility (belladonna, pilocarpine, etc.) and on the color of feces (iron, bismuth, barium sulfate), within 72 hours before the delivery of feces.

General information about the study

Coprogram is a study of feces (feces, excrement, stool), analysis of its physical, chemical properties, as well as various components and inclusions of various origins. It is part of the diagnostic study of the digestive system and the function of the gastrointestinal tract.

Feces – the end product of food digestion in the gastrointestinal tract under the influence of digestive enzymes, bile, gastric juice and the vital activity of intestinal bacteria.

In terms of composition, feces are water, the content of which is normally 70-80%, and a dry residue. In turn, the dry residue consists of 50% live bacteria and 50% of the remains of digested food. Even within normal limits, the composition of feces is largely unstable. In many ways, it depends on nutrition and fluid intake. To an even greater extent, the composition of feces varies with various diseases. The amount of certain components in the stool changes with pathology or dysfunction of the digestive organs, although deviations in the work of other body systems can also significantly affect the activity of the gastrointestinal tract, and hence the composition of feces.The nature of changes in various types of diseases is extremely diverse. The following groups of faeces composition violations can be distinguished:

  • change in the number of components that are normally contained in the stool,
  • undigested and / or undigested food debris,
  • biological elements and substances excreted from the body into the intestinal lumen,
  • various substances that are formed in the intestinal lumen from metabolic products, tissues and cells of the body,
  • microorganisms,
  • foreign inclusions of biological and other origin.

What is the research used for?

  • For the diagnosis of various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract: pathologies of the liver, stomach, pancreas, duodenum, small and large intestine, gall bladder and biliary tract.
  • To evaluate the results of treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, requiring long-term medical supervision.

When is the study scheduled?

  • For symptoms of any disease of the digestive system: pain in various parts of the abdomen, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation, discoloration of feces, blood in the stool, loss of appetite, weight loss despite satisfactory nutrition, deterioration of the skin condition, hair and nails, yellowness of the skin and / or whites of the eyes, increased gas production.
  • When the nature of the disease requires tracking the results of its treatment in the course of therapy.

What do the results mean?

Reference values ​​


Reference values ​​


Dense, shaped, hard, soft


Decorated, cylindrical


Feces, sour


Light brown, brown, dark brown, yellow, yellow-green, olive


Neutral, weakly acidic




None, small amount

Undigested food residues


Modified muscle fibers

Large, moderate, small, absent

Muscle fibers unchanged



None, small, moderate, large

Digestible vegetable fiber

None, small amount

Fat neutral


Fatty acids

None, small amount


None, small amount

Intracellular starch


Extracellular starch



Single in the preparation


0 – 1


No, cholesterol, active carbon

Iodophilic flora



None, small amount

Intestinal epithelial cells

Single in the field of view or absent

Yeast-like mushrooms


Consistency / shape

Stool consistency is determined by the percentage of water in it.It is considered normal to have a water content of 75% in feces. In this case, the stool has a moderately dense consistency and a cylindrical shape, that is, feces decorated . Eating an increased amount of plant foods containing a lot of fiber leads to increased intestinal motility, while the feces become mushy. A thinner consistency, watery, is associated with an increase in water content to 85% or more.

Liquid, mushy stool is called diarrhea.In many cases, the liquefaction of feces is accompanied by an increase in its quantity and frequency of bowel movements during the day. According to the mechanism of development, diarrhea is divided into those caused by substances that disrupt the absorption of water from the intestine (osmotic), resulting from increased secretion of fluid from the intestinal wall (secretory), resulting from increased intestinal motility (motor) and mixed.

Osmotic diarrhea often occurs as a result of a violation of the breakdown and assimilation of food elements (fats, proteins, carbohydrates).Occasionally, this can occur with the use of certain indigestible osmotically active substances (magnesium sulfate, salt water). Secretory diarrhea is a sign of inflammation of the intestinal wall of an infectious and other origin. Some drugs and dysfunction of the nervous system can cause motor diarrhea. Often, the development of a disease is associated with the involvement of at least two mechanisms of the onset of diarrhea, such diarrhea is called mixed.

Hard stool occurs when the movement of feces through the large intestine slows down, which is accompanied by excessive dehydration (water content in feces is less than 50-60%).


Normal The faint smell of feces is associated with the formation of volatile substances, which are synthesized as a result of bacterial fermentation of protein elements of food (indole, skatole, phenol, cresols, etc.). An increase in this smell occurs with excessive consumption of protein products or with insufficient consumption of plant foods.

The sharp fetid odor of feces is due to the intensification of putrefactive processes in the intestines. An acidic odor occurs during increased fermentation of food, which may be associated with a deterioration in the enzymatic breakdown of carbohydrates or their assimilation, as well as with infectious processes.


The normal color of feces is due to the presence in it of stercobilin, the end product of the metabolism of bilirubin, which is excreted in the intestines with bile. In turn, bilirubin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin – the main functional substance of red blood cells (hemoglobin). Thus, the presence of stercobilin in feces is the result, on the one hand, of the functioning of the liver, and on the other hand, of the constant process of renewing the cellular composition of the blood. The color of the stool normally changes depending on the composition of the food.Darker feces are associated with eating meat, dairy and vegetable nutrition leads to lighter stools.

Discolored feces (acholic) is a sign of the absence of stercobilin in the stool, which can result from the fact that bile does not enter the intestines due to blockage of the biliary tract or a sharp violation of the biliary function of the liver.

Very dark stool is sometimes a sign of increased concentration of stercobilin in the stool. In some cases, this is observed with excessive breakdown of red blood cells, which causes increased excretion of hemoglobin metabolic products.

Red color stool may be due to bleeding from the lower intestines.

Black – a sign of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. In this case, the black color of the stool is a consequence of the oxidation of blood hemoglobin by hydrochloric acid of gastric juice.


The reaction reflects the acid-base properties of the stool. An acidic or alkaline reaction in feces is due to the activation of the activity of certain types of bacteria, which occurs when food fermentation is disturbed.Normally, the reaction is neutral or slightly alkaline. The alkaline properties of are enhanced by the deterioration of the enzymatic breakdown of proteins, which accelerates their bacterial decomposition and leads to the formation of ammonia, which has an alkaline reaction.

The acid reaction is caused by the activation of bacterial decomposition of carbohydrates in the intestine (fermentation).


Blood in the stool appears when bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract.


Mucus is a product of the secretion of cells lining the inner surface of the intestine (intestinal epithelium).The function of mucus is to protect intestinal cells from damage. Normally, some mucus may be present in the stool. With inflammatory processes in the intestine, the production of mucus increases and, accordingly, its amount in the feces increases.


Detritus is small particles of digested food and destroyed bacterial cells. Bacterial cells can be destroyed by inflammation.

Undigested food residues

Food residues in stool may appear with insufficient production of gastric juice and / or digestive enzymes, as well as with acceleration of intestinal motility.

Modified muscle fibers

Altered muscle fibers are a product of the digestion of meat food. An increase in the content of weakly modified muscle fibers in the feces occurs when the conditions for protein breakdown deteriorate. This can be caused by insufficient production of gastric juice, digestive enzymes.

Muscle fibers unchanged

Unchanged muscle fibers are elements of undigested meat food. Their presence in the stool is a sign of a violation of protein breakdown (due to a violation of the secretory function of the stomach, pancreas or intestines) or the accelerated movement of food through the gastrointestinal tract.

Digestible vegetable fiber

Digestible vegetable fiber – cells of the pulp of fruits and other plant foods. It appears in feces in violation of the conditions of digestion: secretory insufficiency of the stomach, increased putrefactive processes in the intestine, insufficient secretion of bile, and indigestion in the small intestine.

Fat neutral

Neutral fat is fatty components of food that have not undergone breakdown and assimilation and therefore are excreted from the intestines unchanged.For normal fat breakdown, pancreatic enzymes and a sufficient amount of bile are needed, the function of which is to separate the fat mass into a fine-droplet solution (emulsion) and to multiply the area of ​​contact of fat particles with molecules of specific enzymes – lipases. Thus, the appearance of neutral fat in the feces is a sign of insufficient function of the pancreas, liver or impaired flow of bile into the intestinal lumen.

In children, small amounts of fat in the stool may be normal.This is due to the fact that their digestive organs are still underdeveloped and therefore do not always cope with the load of assimilating adult food.

Fatty acids

Fatty acids are products of the breakdown of fats by digestive enzymes – lipases. The appearance of fatty acids in the stool is a sign of a violation of their absorption in the intestine. This can be caused by impaired absorption of the intestinal wall (as a result of the inflammatory process) and / or increased peristalsis.


Soaps are modified residues of undigested fats. Normally, 90-98% of fats are absorbed in the process of digestion, the rest can bind with calcium and magnesium salts contained in drinking water and form insoluble particles. An increase in the amount of soap in the stool is a sign of a violation of the breakdown of fats as a result of a lack of digestive enzymes and bile.

Intracellular starch

Intracellular starch is a starch enclosed within the membranes of plant cells.It should not be detected in feces, since during normal digestion, the thin cell membranes are destroyed by digestive enzymes, after which their contents are broken down and absorbed. The appearance of intracellular starch in feces is a sign of a digestive disorder in the stomach as a result of a decrease in the secretion of gastric juice, a disturbance in digestion in the intestine in the event of an increase in putrefactive or fermentative processes.

Extracellular starch

Extracellular starch – undigested starch grains from destroyed plant cells.Normally, starch is completely broken down by digestive enzymes and absorbed during the passage of food through the gastrointestinal tract, so it is not present in the feces. Its appearance in the stool indicates insufficient activity of specific enzymes that are responsible for its breakdown (amylase) or too rapid movement of food through the intestines.


Leukocytes are blood cells that protect the body from infections. They accumulate in the tissues of the body and its cavities, where the inflammatory process occurs.A large number of leukocytes in feces indicates inflammation in various parts of the intestine, caused by the development of infection or other reasons.


Erythrocytes are red blood cells. The number of red blood cells in feces can increase as a result of bleeding from the wall of the large intestine or rectum.


Crystals are formed from various chemicals that appear in the stool as a result of digestive disorders or various diseases.These include:

  • triple phosphates – formed in the intestine in a sharply alkaline environment, which may be the result of the activity of putrefactive bacteria,
  • hematoidin – a product of the conversion of hemoglobin, a sign of blood secretion from the wall of the small intestine,
  • Charcot-Leiden crystals – a product of crystallization of the protein of eosinophils – blood cells that take an active part in various allergic processes, are a sign of an allergic process in the intestine that can cause intestinal helminths.

Iodophilic flora

Iodophilic flora is a collection of different types of bacteria that cause fermentation processes in the intestine. In laboratory tests, they can be stained with an iodine solution. The appearance of iodophilic flora in the stool is a sign of fermentative dyspepsia.


Clostridia is a type of bacteria that can cause putrefaction in the intestines. An increase in the number of clostridia in the stool indicates an increase in intestinal putrefaction of protein substances due to insufficient fermentation of food in the stomach or intestines.


The epithelium is the cells of the inner lining of the intestinal wall. The appearance of a large number of epithelial cells in the stool is a sign of an inflammatory process in the intestinal wall.

Yeast-like mushrooms

Yeast-like fungi is a type of infection that develops in the intestines when there is insufficient activity of normal intestinal bacteria to prevent its occurrence. Their active reproduction in the intestine can be the result of the death of normal intestinal bacteria due to treatment with antibiotics or some other drugs.In addition, the appearance of a fungal infection in the intestines is sometimes a sign of a sharp decrease in immunity.

Download an example of the result

Also recommended

Who orders the study?

General practitioner, therapist, gastroenterologist, surgeon, pediatrician, neonatologist, infectious disease specialist.


  • Chernecky CC, Berger BJ (2008). Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures, 5th edition.St. Louis: Saunders.
  • Fischbach FT, Dunning MB III, eds. (2009). Manual of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests, 5th edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
  • Pagana KD, Pagana TJ (2010). Mosby’s Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests, 4th edition. St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier.


Scandinavian colors to be in your interior

We’ve been talking about Scandinavian style for quite some time now, and now it’s time to tell you about the most common colors and their combinations that can be found in almost any Scandinavian style interior.You don’t have to use all of them, but this material can be useful if you suddenly wonder if you have chosen the right color or shade for your home. Read and Get inspired by !

1. White – the basis of Scandinavian design

The simplest of all colors, representing calmness, purity and communication. It is impossible to imagine the Scandinavian style without furniture, walls and accessories in white.Isn’t it true that the word “white” is the first association that comes to mind when someone mentions Scandinavian design?

The beauty of white is that it allows you to play with small details and colors at any time – just choose the right accessories and change them depending on the season or the latest trends in interior design. However, white is invariably the main component of an ideal interior, so large surfaces and furniture (for example, wardrobes, bedside tables, chairs, sofas, sideboards, dining tables and shelves) should be white.If you want the room to resemble a house in a village and look more natural, then complement each item with several wooden details, and if you prefer a modern urban style, then pay attention to metal accessories.

By the way, accessories can also be white! For example, white decorative pillows and blankets of soft texture look great, or boxes for storing any little things, kitchen utensils and linen. You don’t have to surround yourself with white on all sides.Accessories look great with the addition of other colors, both neutral and bright. Photo frames, paintings, posters with your favorite sayings in black and white or colorful drawings on the walls will allow you to express your thoughts more clearly and accurately, as well as emphasize the power of art.

2. Scandinavian classics – gray and all shades of blue

Calm, pale and muted shades of blue and gray are the hallmark of Scandinavian design.Gray is the king of neutral colors: a timeless, classic and a win-win choice for any interior, because it allows any other color that matches it to illuminate the entire environment.

Gray is a great and practical choice when it comes to sofas, beds and carpets. Blue is also great for furniture, but we prefer original accessories or textiles in these colors, such as throws, bedspreads, throw pillows, chair cushions, curtains, rugs, towels and fabric storage boxes.Even little things like candles and candlesticks can be darker or lighter shades of blue.

Blue and gray colors are equally popular with men and women, therefore they are an excellent choice for a home where two different or different sexes live. Blue will bring the breath of the ocean and the infinity of the sky into your home, while gray will be the perfect backdrop to create harmony.

3. Bright splashes – accessories in red, yellow and green

Scandinavian design is not only about pale shades and neutral colors.They only represent an ideal light base, which can be supplemented with accessories of any possible shape, size and color; all you have to do is let your imagination and interior designer take a creative journey and find what works best for your home. We suggest you opt for red, yellow and green accessories – this trio of modern and trendy colors will energize any room.

The most daring can choose larger bright things for their interior in the Scandinavian style – for example, armchairs and sofas, and those who like to experiment and change small interior details from time to time will like colorful blankets, decorative pillows and cushions for chairs.Summer is the perfect time to experiment with flora and fauna themes and vibrant art prints, while the dark months of the year call for a more relaxed approach, expressed in simple geometric patterns or simple monochrome furnishings. Choose what you like best!

4. Bring nature into your home with brown and earthy shades

The theme of nature in the interior is becoming more and more popular.Wood is one of the materials most commonly used in Scandinavian color combinations. You can choose a heavy set made from natural oak or Hevea furniture, such as dining tables and chairs, wardrobes, sideboards, cute little bedside tables and coffee tables, shoe racks and shelves, as well as woolen, leather or fur blankets, blankets, bedspreads and decorative pillows of soft texture – all this will allow you to feel the power of nature and its gentle touch to your interior.

Wooden pieces of furniture stand out in a white interior, especially if they are darker tones. In rooms with white walls, ceilings and floors, accessories in brown or earthy shades look great, for example, all kinds of storage boxes, wicker baskets, lanterns, kitchen utensils, wall clocks and even faux leather poufs. A homely feeling can be enhanced with a set of scented candles and candlesticks. This fusion of wood with white will allow you to use natural textures as elegantly as possible.


Any color and its shade affect people in different ways, so choose the right color scheme for your home. We wish you a happy shopping! Share photos of your created interiors on social networks using the hashtag #myjyskinterior!

Dental stools | Planmeca

Dental stools | Planmeca

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Planmeca dental chairs are designed with anatomy in mind, providing optimal support and a high degree of comfort. The presented range of models will satisfy any user requirements. Easily accessible levers allow effortless adjustment while seated without distraction from treatment.

Planmeca Lumo ™

Follows the contours of your body

Planmeca Lumo ™ Anatomical Dental Chair is an excellent ergonomic option. Smoothly rotating wheels and numerous adjustment options provide optimal working positions for users of all sizes and sizes. The chair guarantees excellent support and comfort, even on the longest working day.

More details

Fully adaptable

Planmeca Lumo slides smoothly across any floor type.The reclining seat of the chair minimizes thigh stress, and the seat’s slide-adjustment mechanism provides ample space for oversized users.

Optimal back support

The height-adjustable backrest provides lumbar support for users of all sizes, as the Planmeca Lumo chair is designed with ergonomics and comfort in mind. When synchronized mode is activated, the backrest follows every movement, and its height is easily adjustable.

Ideal for Planmeca dental units

The characteristic Planmeca Lumo design is in harmony with all Planmeca dental units. The chair is available in two upholstery options (Comfy and Ultra Relax), each available in a wide range of colors.


Planmeca Olo

Back support in the most comfortable position

Saddle Chair Planmeca Olo ™ keeps your back in its most natural position during treatment.The height is easily adjustable for different users. The incomplete circumference of the leg ring allows it to get as close as possible to the patient and other chairs, if necessary. Exceptional handle seat design and one-piece construction contribute to reliable infection control.


Superior Ergonomics

Planmeca Olo provides the most natural back position. The adjustable seat angle provides the best working position, and the chair’s freely rotating casters glide smoothly across any material floor.

Comfortable and flexible leg ring

The optimal shape of the leg ring ensures that the Planmeca Lumo chair is close to the patient, dental unit and other chairs. The foot ring also allows users to easily adjust the height.

Perfect match with Planmeca dental units

The Planmeca Olo chair is available in a wide range of colors to match your Planmeca dental units. The one-piece design of the chair provides reliable infection control.


Stool for newborns

The problem of stool in newborns and infants is now of concern to almost all parents. Especially many questions and doubts arise for those who became a mom and dad for the first time.

If it seems to you that something is wrong with the baby, do not panic – it is better to first tell the doctor about the reasons for the concern.

What should be the stool for a newborn?

The first stool in newborns appears within the first twelve hours after birth and is called meconium, or original feces.It is a thick, viscous mass of dark green (olive) color. Meconium is released for one or two, less often – three days. Further, the nature of the stool of a newborn baby changes. It becomes more frequent, heterogeneous in consistency (lumps, mucus, liquid part) and in color (dark green areas alternate with greenish-yellow and even whitish), more watery. Stool frequency can be up to six or more times a day. Such a stool is called transitional, and the state is called transient intestinal catarrh

After two to seven days, the stool becomes homogeneous in consistency (mushy) and in color (yellow), ceases to contain mucus and occurs somewhat less frequently.Such a rapid extinction of inflammation in the intestines is facilitated by breastfeeding, the joint stay of the mother and the child, the refusal of bottles and nipples in the hospital. It is very important that the infant’s first and only food is breast milk. The first drops of colostrum received by a child immediately after birth and during the first days of life are invaluable for the formation of normal intestinal microflora. For a good formation of lactation in a mother, it is important to attach the baby to the breast as often as possible from the first days of life, not to limit the time and number of feedings.It is undesirable to add water to the child from a bottle, and even more so to feed him with a mixture. This will disrupt the process of normal intestinal adaptation and may further lead to a protracted course of the inflammatory process.

Nutritional Features and Newborn Stool

The nature of a newborn’s stool depends on several factors, and first of all, on the type of feeding. Stool in breastfed newborns is more frequent and in the first months may be after each feeding (up to seven to eight times a day).It is usually quite liquid, yellow in color, may contain white lumps and has a characteristic sour smell. As the child grows and his intestines mature, the stool becomes thinner, thicker, and homogeneous in consistency. By three to four months, it often acquires a certain regularity throughout the day. The stool of a breastfed baby depends on the food that the breastfeeding mother eats herself. This dependence decreases as the child grows up.

Artificial baby’s chair is rarer.By the end of the first month, it can be once or twice a day. It is thick, dark yellow and has a characteristic fecal odor. Both with natural and artificial feeding, there should be no admixtures of mucus or blood in the stool.

After the introduction of complementary foods, the character of the stool begins to change. It may contain remnants of vegetables and fruits that a child eats (slices of carrots, cabbage, banana threads), its frequency and color may change. The less milk the baby gets, the less yellow his stools.By the year, provided that a varied diet is formed in a child, his stool approaches in appearance to that of an adult.

Problems with stool in a newborn

Unfortunately, babies now have bowel problems quite often. The first signs of trouble are usually the anxiety of the baby, his high-pitched cry. At the same time, the baby is usually not hungry and latching on to the breast does not bring him relief. The child has a swollen belly, he twists his legs, screams loudly.He may calm down for a short time, and then everything starts all over again. The baby calms down only after the gas outlet tube is set: at the same time, a large amount of gas leaves, a chair appears, and then the tummy becomes soft and the child falls asleep.

Another common symptom of distress is crying while feeding .

When latching on to the breast, the child begins to suck greedily, but after a few minutes he drops the breast, worries. This is due to increased intestinal motility when food enters the stomach, which leads to the appearance of intestinal colic.The reason for the malaise usually lies in the fact that the child’s process of formation of normal intestinal microflora is disrupted. Conditionally pathogenic microorganisms appear in the intestine, which leads to an increase in fermentation processes and to increased gas production. Gases stretch the intestinal walls, peristalsis is disturbed, cramping pains in the abdomen appear. As a result, an inflammatory process develops in the intestines. All this leads to a change in the nature of the chair. It becomes watery, with an admixture of greenery or just green, with mucus, sometimes you can see streaks of blood.

In the future, the child may regurgitate, rashes on the skin, and a decrease in the rate of weight gain will begin. This indicates the development in the child of an acute inflammatory process in the intestine, accompanied by dysbiosis, and is the reason for the mandatory visit to the doctor. The situation may look different. The child is not worried about anything, he eats well, does not regurgitate, gains weight well. He rarely cries and mostly when he is hungry. In this case, the stool is liquid, watery, with an admixture of mucus and white lumps.As a rule, this condition does not require active treatment. The reason for the “bad” stool is the protracted process of adaptation of the intestine to the conditions of extrauterine life. The doctor may prescribe preparations of normal intestinal microflora (for example, bifidumbacterin) to facilitate and accelerate the adaptation processes. As the child grows, after the introduction of solid food (complementary foods) into the diet, the stool will return to normal.

Constipation in newborns

Usually it affects children who are bottle-fed.The frequency of stool in an infant receiving formula is once or twice a day. The older the child gets, the less often he has stools. However, it is impossible to judge the presence or absence of constipation in the baby only by the frequency of the stool. With constipation, the stool is dry, has a dense consistency, leaves with difficulty, the baby is pushing hard, worried, crying. Sometimes, without a gas tube, he cannot empty the intestines. This situation should alert parents, it in itself is the reason for the mandatory visit to the doctor.

Experts say that if you notice in time violations of the gastrointestinal tract in infants and take the necessary measures, the child will be spared a number of chronic diseases in the future.