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Sudden onset vomiting and diarrhea: Causes, No Fever, Risks, and Treatment

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Causes, No Fever, Risks, and Treatment

Having vomiting and diarrhea at the same time typically happens with a viral illness or bacterial infection that affects your digestive system. But these symptoms can occur with other health conditions as well.

Vomiting and diarrhea are common symptoms that affect people of all ages, from babies and toddlers to adults.

Most of the time, these two symptoms are the result of a stomach bug or food poisoning, and they resolve within a few days. Getting some rest and drinking plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration is usually the only treatment needed.

Though a virus is usually the culprit, there are other possible causes of vomiting and diarrhea at the same time, such as certain medical conditions and medications.

Vomiting and diarrhea can happen at the same time for a number of reasons.

A stomach virus or bacterial gastrointestinal (GI) infection is the most likely cause in children.

These infections can affect adults as well. But there are a number of other reasons why an adult may experience these symptoms simultaneously, such as drinking too much alcohol or being pregnant.

1. Viral gastroenteritis

Viral gastroenteritis is an intestinal infection. Viral gastroenteritis is often referred to as the stomach flu, but it’s unrelated to influenza (the flu) and is caused by different viruses.

The viruses that most commonly cause gastroenteritis include:

  • norovirus
  • rotavirus
  • adenovirus
  • astrovirus

While all of these viruses can affect people of any age, the latter three are most common in infants and toddlers, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.

These viruses are transmitted from person to person by contact with infected stool and vomit. This can happen when a person with the infection doesn’t wash their hands thoroughly after using the restroom and then touches surfaces used by other people or prepares food for others.

In addition to vomiting and watery diarrhea, symptoms of viral gastroenteritis include:

  • abdominal pain and cramping
  • nausea
  • fever, on occasion

Did you know?

There are several types of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

One type is known as post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). PI-IBS is caused by an infection (usually gastroenteritis).

One large survey, published in 2018, asked thousands of people with IBS about their experiences. Data was collected between 2008 and 2015. Respondents came from countries around the world, with almost half of them being Italian.

The researchers found that infection may have caused IBS in 13.3 percent of respondents. According to the researchers, this statistic was in line with previous surveys, where PI-IBS was reported to comprise 6 to 17 percent of IBS cases.

2. Food poisoning

Food poisoning is an infection of the GI tract. It’s most often caused by bacteria but can also be caused by parasites or viruses.

You can get food poisoning by eating contaminated food. This can happen at home or in restaurants when food is handled incorrectly or not cooked properly.

Several bacteria can cause food poisoning, including:

  • E. coli
  • Campylobacter
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Salmonella
  • Shigella
  • Staphylococcus aureus

Symptoms of food poisoning can start within hours of eating contaminated food and often resolve within a few hours to a few days. This usually happens without special treatment.

Vomiting and watery diarrhea are the most common symptoms. Other symptoms include:

  • abdominal pain and cramping
  • nausea
  • fever
  • bloody diarrhea

3. Traveler’s diarrhea

Traveler’s diarrhea is a digestive tract disorder that’s most often caused by viruses, parasites, or bacteria consumed in water or food. It’s most likely to occur when you’re visiting an area with a different climate or sanitation practices than what you’re accustomed to at home.

To see if there’s a health notice for the regions to which you’ve recently traveled, check the website of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Traveler’s diarrhea generally clears up within 1 week. Watery diarrhea and cramps are the most common symptoms, but traveler’s diarrhea can also cause:

  • nausea
  • fever
  • flatulence (gas)
  • bloating
  • tenesmus, or the urgent need to have a bowel movement

4. Stress or anxiety

Research shows that gastrointestinal function is influenced by stress, and that stress and anxiety commonly cause a number of gastrointestinal symptoms, including:

  • nausea
  • constipation
  • indigestion
  • heartburn

The stress hormones released by your body slow motility, or movement, in your stomach and small intestine. They also trigger an increase in motility in your large intestine.

Stress and anxiety have also been linked to the development and worsening of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) as well as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

5. Pregnancy

The body goes through numerous changes during pregnancy.

Morning sickness is the most common cause of vomiting in pregnancy. Despite its name, morning sickness can occur at any time of the day. It affects almost 75 percent of pregnant women, usually during the first 14 weeks of pregnancy.

Some people develop hyperemesis gravidarum, a condition that causes severe nausea and vomiting.

Vomiting and diarrhea in pregnancy can be caused by hormonal changes, new food sensitivities, and dietary changes. Prenatal vitamins also cause diarrhea in some people.

These symptoms can also be caused by gastroenteritis, which is common during pregnancy.

6. Overeating or overdrinking

Overindulging in food or drink can cause vomiting and diarrhea along with:

  • indigestion
  • heartburn
  • belching
  • a feeling of uncomfortable fullness

The type of food you eat also matters. Eating large amounts of greasy or sugary foods can irritate your stomach and cause vomiting and diarrhea.

Overeating is even more likely to cause these symptoms if you already have a gastrointestinal condition, such as IBS, stomach ulcers, acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

The relationship between alcohol and the gut is complex. Some types of alcohol, including sugary drinks, can cause diarrhea by inducing a quicker gut transit time. This decreases digestion, as the gut doesn’t have time to absorb the nutrients or other substances that are rapidly passing through it.

Excessive alcohol use can cause a condition known as alcoholic gastritis, which is an irritation of the stomach lining. Acute gastritis can occur after binge drinking, or gastritis can become chronic in people who drink alcohol regularly.

Gastritis can cause:

  • upper abdominal pain or burning
  • nausea
  • bloating
  • regurgitation
  • symptoms that improve or worsen after eating, depending on the food

7. Medications

Vomiting and diarrhea are side effects of many medications. Some are more likely to cause these symptoms than others. This can be because of the way the medication works or because they contain additives that irritate the stomach.

Your age, overall health, and other medications can also increase the risk of side effects.

Medications that commonly cause vomiting and diarrhea include:

  • certain antibiotics
  • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and aspirin
  • chemotherapy drugs
  • metformin (Fortamet, Glumetza)

One way antibiotics can cause vomiting and diarrhea is by killing the “good” bacteria that normally lives in your GI tract. This allows bacteria called Clostridioides difficile to become overgrown, which can result in symptoms similar to severe food poisoning.

Taking medication with food can sometimes relieve symptoms. Speak with a doctor about the best way to take your medication.

Vomiting and diarrhea that occur without a fever can be caused by:

  • stress and anxiety
  • pregnancy
  • medications
  • consuming too much food or alcohol

Mild cases of viral gastroenteritis can also cause vomiting and diarrhea without fever.

Dehydration is a complication of vomiting and diarrhea, and it occurs when the body loses too much fluid. Dehydration can prevent your cells, tissues, and organs from functioning properly, leading to serious complications, including shock and even death.

Mild dehydration can be treated at home, but severe dehydration requires emergency care in a hospital.

Symptoms of dehydration in babies, toddlers, and children include:

  • thirst
  • urinating less than usual, or going 3 or more hours without a wet diaper
  • dry mouth
  • sunken eyes or cheeks
  • decreased skin turgor, or elasticity
  • lack of energy
  • no tears when crying

Symptoms in adults include:

  • extreme thirst
  • urinating less than usual
  • dry mouth
  • sunken eyes or cheeks
  • decreased skin turgor
  • fatigue
  • lightheadedness
  • dark-colored urine

Most of the time, vomiting and diarrhea will resolve within a few days without treatment. Home remedies and medications can help you manage your symptoms and avoid dehydration.

Home remedies

Here are some ways you can treat vomiting and diarrhea at home to avoid dehydration:

  • Get plenty of rest.
  • Avoid stress.
  • Wash your hands with soap and water frequently.
  • Drink lots of clear fluids like water, broth, clear sodas, and sports drinks.
  • Eat saltine crackers.
  • Follow the BRAT diet, which consists of bland foods. BRAT stands for bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast.
  • Avoid foods that are greasy, spicy, or high in fat and sugar.
  • Avoid dairy.
  • Avoid caffeine.

Follow this advice if you have babies or toddlers:

  • Give your baby smaller feedings more often if needed.
  • Give sips of water between formula or solid food.
  • Give them an oral rehydration solution, such as Pedialyte.

Medications

There are over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications available for vomiting and diarrhea. While generally safe for adults, OTC medications should not be taken without first consulting a doctor.

OTC medications include:

  • bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol, Kaopectate)
  • loperamide (Imodium)
  • antiemetic drugs, such as Dramamine and Gravol, which often contain the ingredient dimenhydrinate

A doctor may recommend antibiotics to treat vomiting and diarrhea caused by bacterial infections, such as food poisoning.

When you’re experiencing vomiting and diarrhea, your aim should be to get some sustenance and avoid dehydration.

If an infection like gastroenteritis is causing your symptoms, start by trying home remedies. In other cases, professional medical care may be required.

For children

Take a child to the doctor if they:

  • are vomiting for more than 2 days or have diarrhea for more than 7 days
  • are unable to keep fluid down
  • are under 3 months old with a rectal temperature of 100.4°F (38°C)
  • are 3 months to 3 years old with a temperature of 102. 2°F (39°C)
  • are under 5 years old and appear to have symptoms of dehydration, such as:
    • dry mucous membranes
    • drowsiness
    • irritability that doesn’t go away when they’re consoled

It’s especially important to contact a doctor about possible dehydration if the child is too young to describe their own symptoms.

When to go to the emergency room

Take a child to the emergency room if they:

  • have symptoms of dehydration after using an oral rehydration solution
  • have green or yellow vomit, which can be a symptom of small bowel obstruction
  • are vomiting blood or what looks like coffee grounds
  • have blood in their urine or stool
  • are too weak to stand

Was this helpful?

For adults

See a doctor if:

  • you’re still dehydrated after rehydrating with fluids and an oral hydration solution
  • you are vomiting for more than 2 days or have diarrhea for more than 7 days
  • your vomit is green or yellow, which can be a symptom of small bowel obstruction
  • you’re vomiting blood or what looks like coffee grounds
  • you have bloody diarrhea or rectal bleeding
  • you’re unable to keep fluid down

Most of the time, vomiting and diarrhea are due to a stomach bug or food poisoning and clear up on their own within a few days. Getting plenty of fluids and eating a bland diet can help.

Keep an eye out for signs of dehydration, especially in infants and toddlers who are not able to communicate what they’re feeling. Talk with a doctor if you have, or your child has, severe symptoms or symptoms that last more than a few days.

Causes, No Fever, Risks, and Treatment

Having vomiting and diarrhea at the same time typically happens with a viral illness or bacterial infection that affects your digestive system. But these symptoms can occur with other health conditions as well.

Vomiting and diarrhea are common symptoms that affect people of all ages, from babies and toddlers to adults.

Most of the time, these two symptoms are the result of a stomach bug or food poisoning, and they resolve within a few days. Getting some rest and drinking plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration is usually the only treatment needed.

Though a virus is usually the culprit, there are other possible causes of vomiting and diarrhea at the same time, such as certain medical conditions and medications.

Vomiting and diarrhea can happen at the same time for a number of reasons.

A stomach virus or bacterial gastrointestinal (GI) infection is the most likely cause in children.

These infections can affect adults as well. But there are a number of other reasons why an adult may experience these symptoms simultaneously, such as drinking too much alcohol or being pregnant.

1. Viral gastroenteritis

Viral gastroenteritis is an intestinal infection. Viral gastroenteritis is often referred to as the stomach flu, but it’s unrelated to influenza (the flu) and is caused by different viruses.

The viruses that most commonly cause gastroenteritis include:

  • norovirus
  • rotavirus
  • adenovirus
  • astrovirus

While all of these viruses can affect people of any age, the latter three are most common in infants and toddlers, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.

These viruses are transmitted from person to person by contact with infected stool and vomit. This can happen when a person with the infection doesn’t wash their hands thoroughly after using the restroom and then touches surfaces used by other people or prepares food for others.

In addition to vomiting and watery diarrhea, symptoms of viral gastroenteritis include:

  • abdominal pain and cramping
  • nausea
  • fever, on occasion

Did you know?

There are several types of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

One type is known as post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). PI-IBS is caused by an infection (usually gastroenteritis).

One large survey, published in 2018, asked thousands of people with IBS about their experiences. Data was collected between 2008 and 2015. Respondents came from countries around the world, with almost half of them being Italian.

The researchers found that infection may have caused IBS in 13.3 percent of respondents. According to the researchers, this statistic was in line with previous surveys, where PI-IBS was reported to comprise 6 to 17 percent of IBS cases.

2. Food poisoning

Food poisoning is an infection of the GI tract. It’s most often caused by bacteria but can also be caused by parasites or viruses.

You can get food poisoning by eating contaminated food. This can happen at home or in restaurants when food is handled incorrectly or not cooked properly.

Several bacteria can cause food poisoning, including:

  • E. coli
  • Campylobacter
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Salmonella
  • Shigella
  • Staphylococcus aureus

Symptoms of food poisoning can start within hours of eating contaminated food and often resolve within a few hours to a few days. This usually happens without special treatment.

Vomiting and watery diarrhea are the most common symptoms. Other symptoms include:

  • abdominal pain and cramping
  • nausea
  • fever
  • bloody diarrhea

3. Traveler’s diarrhea

Traveler’s diarrhea is a digestive tract disorder that’s most often caused by viruses, parasites, or bacteria consumed in water or food. It’s most likely to occur when you’re visiting an area with a different climate or sanitation practices than what you’re accustomed to at home.

To see if there’s a health notice for the regions to which you’ve recently traveled, check the website of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Traveler’s diarrhea generally clears up within 1 week. Watery diarrhea and cramps are the most common symptoms, but traveler’s diarrhea can also cause:

  • nausea
  • fever
  • flatulence (gas)
  • bloating
  • tenesmus, or the urgent need to have a bowel movement

4. Stress or anxiety

Research shows that gastrointestinal function is influenced by stress, and that stress and anxiety commonly cause a number of gastrointestinal symptoms, including:

  • nausea
  • constipation
  • indigestion
  • heartburn

The stress hormones released by your body slow motility, or movement, in your stomach and small intestine. They also trigger an increase in motility in your large intestine.

Stress and anxiety have also been linked to the development and worsening of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) as well as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

5. Pregnancy

The body goes through numerous changes during pregnancy.

Morning sickness is the most common cause of vomiting in pregnancy. Despite its name, morning sickness can occur at any time of the day. It affects almost 75 percent of pregnant women, usually during the first 14 weeks of pregnancy.

Some people develop hyperemesis gravidarum, a condition that causes severe nausea and vomiting.

Vomiting and diarrhea in pregnancy can be caused by hormonal changes, new food sensitivities, and dietary changes. Prenatal vitamins also cause diarrhea in some people.

These symptoms can also be caused by gastroenteritis, which is common during pregnancy.

6. Overeating or overdrinking

Overindulging in food or drink can cause vomiting and diarrhea along with:

  • indigestion
  • heartburn
  • belching
  • a feeling of uncomfortable fullness

The type of food you eat also matters. Eating large amounts of greasy or sugary foods can irritate your stomach and cause vomiting and diarrhea.

Overeating is even more likely to cause these symptoms if you already have a gastrointestinal condition, such as IBS, stomach ulcers, acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

The relationship between alcohol and the gut is complex. Some types of alcohol, including sugary drinks, can cause diarrhea by inducing a quicker gut transit time. This decreases digestion, as the gut doesn’t have time to absorb the nutrients or other substances that are rapidly passing through it.

Excessive alcohol use can cause a condition known as alcoholic gastritis, which is an irritation of the stomach lining. Acute gastritis can occur after binge drinking, or gastritis can become chronic in people who drink alcohol regularly.

Gastritis can cause:

  • upper abdominal pain or burning
  • nausea
  • bloating
  • regurgitation
  • symptoms that improve or worsen after eating, depending on the food

7.

Medications

Vomiting and diarrhea are side effects of many medications. Some are more likely to cause these symptoms than others. This can be because of the way the medication works or because they contain additives that irritate the stomach.

Your age, overall health, and other medications can also increase the risk of side effects.

Medications that commonly cause vomiting and diarrhea include:

  • certain antibiotics
  • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and aspirin
  • chemotherapy drugs
  • metformin (Fortamet, Glumetza)

One way antibiotics can cause vomiting and diarrhea is by killing the “good” bacteria that normally lives in your GI tract. This allows bacteria called Clostridioides difficile to become overgrown, which can result in symptoms similar to severe food poisoning.

Taking medication with food can sometimes relieve symptoms. Speak with a doctor about the best way to take your medication.

Vomiting and diarrhea that occur without a fever can be caused by:

  • stress and anxiety
  • pregnancy
  • medications
  • consuming too much food or alcohol

Mild cases of viral gastroenteritis can also cause vomiting and diarrhea without fever.

Dehydration is a complication of vomiting and diarrhea, and it occurs when the body loses too much fluid. Dehydration can prevent your cells, tissues, and organs from functioning properly, leading to serious complications, including shock and even death.

Mild dehydration can be treated at home, but severe dehydration requires emergency care in a hospital.

Symptoms of dehydration in babies, toddlers, and children include:

  • thirst
  • urinating less than usual, or going 3 or more hours without a wet diaper
  • dry mouth
  • sunken eyes or cheeks
  • decreased skin turgor, or elasticity
  • lack of energy
  • no tears when crying

Symptoms in adults include:

  • extreme thirst
  • urinating less than usual
  • dry mouth
  • sunken eyes or cheeks
  • decreased skin turgor
  • fatigue
  • lightheadedness
  • dark-colored urine

Most of the time, vomiting and diarrhea will resolve within a few days without treatment. Home remedies and medications can help you manage your symptoms and avoid dehydration.

Home remedies

Here are some ways you can treat vomiting and diarrhea at home to avoid dehydration:

  • Get plenty of rest.
  • Avoid stress.
  • Wash your hands with soap and water frequently.
  • Drink lots of clear fluids like water, broth, clear sodas, and sports drinks.
  • Eat saltine crackers.
  • Follow the BRAT diet, which consists of bland foods. BRAT stands for bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast.
  • Avoid foods that are greasy, spicy, or high in fat and sugar.
  • Avoid dairy.
  • Avoid caffeine.

Follow this advice if you have babies or toddlers:

  • Give your baby smaller feedings more often if needed.
  • Give sips of water between formula or solid food.
  • Give them an oral rehydration solution, such as Pedialyte.

Medications

There are over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications available for vomiting and diarrhea. While generally safe for adults, OTC medications should not be taken without first consulting a doctor.

OTC medications include:

  • bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol, Kaopectate)
  • loperamide (Imodium)
  • antiemetic drugs, such as Dramamine and Gravol, which often contain the ingredient dimenhydrinate

A doctor may recommend antibiotics to treat vomiting and diarrhea caused by bacterial infections, such as food poisoning.

When you’re experiencing vomiting and diarrhea, your aim should be to get some sustenance and avoid dehydration.

If an infection like gastroenteritis is causing your symptoms, start by trying home remedies. In other cases, professional medical care may be required.

For children

Take a child to the doctor if they:

  • are vomiting for more than 2 days or have diarrhea for more than 7 days
  • are unable to keep fluid down
  • are under 3 months old with a rectal temperature of 100.4°F (38°C)
  • are 3 months to 3 years old with a temperature of 102. 2°F (39°C)
  • are under 5 years old and appear to have symptoms of dehydration, such as:
    • dry mucous membranes
    • drowsiness
    • irritability that doesn’t go away when they’re consoled

It’s especially important to contact a doctor about possible dehydration if the child is too young to describe their own symptoms.

When to go to the emergency room

Take a child to the emergency room if they:

  • have symptoms of dehydration after using an oral rehydration solution
  • have green or yellow vomit, which can be a symptom of small bowel obstruction
  • are vomiting blood or what looks like coffee grounds
  • have blood in their urine or stool
  • are too weak to stand

Was this helpful?

For adults

See a doctor if:

  • you’re still dehydrated after rehydrating with fluids and an oral hydration solution
  • you are vomiting for more than 2 days or have diarrhea for more than 7 days
  • your vomit is green or yellow, which can be a symptom of small bowel obstruction
  • you’re vomiting blood or what looks like coffee grounds
  • you have bloody diarrhea or rectal bleeding
  • you’re unable to keep fluid down

Most of the time, vomiting and diarrhea are due to a stomach bug or food poisoning and clear up on their own within a few days. Getting plenty of fluids and eating a bland diet can help.

Keep an eye out for signs of dehydration, especially in infants and toddlers who are not able to communicate what they’re feeling. Talk with a doctor if you have, or your child has, severe symptoms or symptoms that last more than a few days.

reasons, what to do, how to stop

The gag reflex is one of the protective reactions of the body, it is not always a sign of any disease. Vomiting helps the body get rid of toxins. Signals about the need to empty the stomach can come from various organs – the stomach, intestines, kidneys, liver, vestibular apparatus. These signals are sent to the vomiting center in the brain, which gives the command to empty the stomach.

Types of vomiting in a child

Vomiting can occur under various circumstances, such as traumatic brain injury, poisoning, motion sickness. In some cases, repeated vomiting occurs, sometimes it is accompanied by dizziness, fainting and loss of consciousness, abdominal pain and diarrhea.

Vomiting of bile Most often occurs with acute pancreatitis. Initially, it consists of the contents of the stomach, then bile is mixed with the main mass. By volume, vomiting is quite significant, because of this, the body can quickly fall into a state of dehydration. Traces of bile also appear with intussusception (obstruction) of the intestine. In addition to vomiting, in this case, there is episodic pain with spasms.
Vomiting of blood Severe vomiting of blood may occur due to chemical burns. For example, when a child swallows acid, alkali and other caustic or poisonous substances. In this case, he needs urgent medical attention. Vomiting with blood also occurs with bleeding from the dilated veins of the esophagus in children with cirrhosis of the liver, as well as with a stomach or duodenal ulcer. All of these conditions need to be treated promptly.
Yellow or green vomit This vomit has a bitter taste, which means that there are traces of bile in the mass. Perhaps there are problems with the functioning of the liver, gallbladder, or vomiting – a consequence of taking an excessive amount of fatty foods. The rotten smell of vomit indicates stagnation of food in the stomach.
Vomiting with mucus Occurs in acute and chronic gastritis, food allergies (gastrointestinal form) and bronchitis. Usually, children under 3 years of age swallow sputum, with a fit of coughing, vomiting may begin with an admixture of mucus or sputum.

Causes of vomiting in a child

If vomiting is not accompanied by fever, then the most likely cause of its occurrence may be disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, food poisoning (expired or poor-quality food, chemicals), intoxication after taking the medicine , dysbacteriosis.

Let’s look at some possible causes.

Pylorospasm or pyloric spasm

Gastric spasm, which most often occurs in newborns due to the underdevelopment of the nervous system. Vomiting may be profuse. Such a child is usually restless, poorly gaining weight. Pylorospasm should not be confused with regurgitation, which is most often observed when the stomach is full of food.

Intestinal obstruction

Accompanied by severe pain, bloating, spasms, blood in the stool. Intestinal obstruction in children is most often associated with worms or intussusception, which is the introduction of a section of the intestine into a segment of an adjacent section of the intestine. The vomit may contain bile.

Vomiting may be accompanied by anti-peristaltic bowel movements, which may contribute to the passage of intestinal contents into the stomach (2).

Inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (acute gastritis, gastroduodenitis, pancreatitis, cholecystitis)

These diseases can occur in violation of the diet, abuse of fried, smoked, fatty foods. In these cases, vomiting is often accompanied by diarrhea, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, and bloating. An increase in temperature is usually not observed, but in some cases it can reach 37°C.

Vomiting 10-15 minutes after eating is observed in functional dyspepsia, acute gastritis, tumor process of the cardiac part of the stomach. In some forms of gastritis, blood may be present in the vomit.

With gastroduodenitis, prolonged constipation may be replaced by diarrhea. In acute pancreatitis, the nature of vomiting attracts attention: it is repeated, plentiful. In this case, the contents of the stomach are first released, followed by bile and the contents of the duodenum. Such vomiting threatens with dehydration of the child’s body. Vomiting in acute cholecystitis is usually not accompanied by diarrhea. The child, as a rule, is disturbed by pain in the right hypochondrium, bitterness in the mouth. Vomiting of food eaten the day before and even 1-2 days before its occurrence is characteristic of pyloric stenosis (1).

Risk groups for the formation of functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in the first year of life:

  • children born prematurely, morphofunctionally immature,
  • children who did not receive breast milk at the first feeding,
  • children who received total parenteral (through injection) nutrition ( 3).

Foreign body in the esophagus

Because children often put things in their mouths, a foreign body in the esophagus can cause vomiting. If a foreign body damages the mucous membrane of the esophagus or stomach, an admixture of blood may be detected in the vomit.

Food poisoning

Vomiting is common with food poisoning, such as expired or poor quality food, unwashed fruits and vegetables. In such cases, vomiting may be accompanied by diarrhea, sometimes the temperature rises.

Dysbacteriosis

Violation of the intestinal microflora due to prolonged use of antibiotics is often accompanied by vomiting and diarrhea. It is important to carefully consider the intake of such drugs, since they are detrimental not only to pathogenic microbes, but also to normal microflora.

Other diseases

Vomiting may also develop in diseases not related to the gastrointestinal tract, such as:

  • traumatic brain injury, such as concussion or brain contusion;
  • psychogenic trauma – can be provoked by stress, anxiety, emotional upheavals;
  • disorders of the vestibular apparatus;
  • metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, lactose intolerance, etc.).

Photo: @karolina-grabowska, pexels.com

What to do and how to stop vomiting in a child

First of all, you need to call a doctor. Before his arrival, the child should be given plenty of fluids – warm, slightly salted or mineral water without gas. You can try herbal decoctions, for example, from chamomile, mint, etc. This will unload the digestive tract, help remove toxins and replenish fluid loss.

During an attack of vomiting, it is important to ensure that the child is in a position that facilitates the discharge of vomit and does not choke. For this, the baby needs to be turned on its side and held in a semi-vertical position. After vomiting, it is necessary to rinse the mouth and free from vomit. You do not need to give your child any drugs or do a gastric lavage. Only a doctor can give appropriate appointments, having established the causes of vomiting.

— Depending on the cause of the vomiting, there are several ways to stop it before the doctor arrives. Parents of a child should not be given antiemetic drugs, since vomiting most often has a protective function, says pediatrician Svetlana Ivanchenko . – To replace the lost fluid, parents can start drinking a solution to restore fluid and electrolyte balance, as well as give tea with lemon for children over 3 years old. Doctors do not recommend bottled “baby” water for drinking a child with vomiting, because. this can further worsen the water and electrolyte composition of the blood in the body. In addition, current fluid losses with loose stools and vomiting are taken into account: for each episode of diarrhea / vomiting, an additional 100-200 ml of fluid is given.

The child should be calmed down and placed in a cool, quiet place. Put a cool damp cloth on your forehead, stroke your stomach without pressure in a clockwise direction. You should pay attention to the frequency and volume of urination in a child.

The child’s thirst increases, dryness of the skin and mucous membranes appears. But with increasing dehydration, the child becomes lethargic, stops urinating, thirst disappears, the skin loses turgor (elasticity), and the eyes “sink”. In this case, there is no time to waste, it is necessary to call a doctor and hospitalize the child.

Daily fluid requirement per child weight:

9 0011 1000 ml + 50 ml/kg for each kg over 10 kg

2-10 kg 100 ml/kg
10-20 kg
> 20 kg 1500 ml + 20 ml/kg for each kg over 20 kg To stop vomiting if it occurs during feeding, you can hold the child in an upright position. Liquid food can be given no earlier than two hours after the end of vomiting.

Following vomiting, a sparing diet and sufficient fluid intake should be followed. A child can be given cereals from rice, buckwheat, oatmeal, low-fat vegetable soups, baked apples, boiled vegetables, crackers, kissels.

Prevention

“To prevent vomiting, you need to take some preventive measures,” says pediatrician Svetlana Ivanchenko. – Do not give your child fatty, fried foods, soda, foods that have expired or are suspected of their low quality.

During the hot season, offer to drink more often, stay in the shade of trees, and not under the rays of the scorching sun. Timely pass medical examinations in the decreed terms. Then, at the slightest change in laboratory and instrumental studies, the doctor can pre-diagnose and prescribe preventive or therapeutic measures.

Here are some more important rules:

  • you must follow the rules of personal hygiene, wash your hands before eating;
  • wash and process fruit and vegetables well, pay attention to product expiration dates;
  • monitor the child and limit access to medicines, household chemicals, wean putting foreign objects in the mouth;
  • limit the amount of junk food in the diet, confectionery in large quantities, etc. ;
  • Seek medical attention in time if a child complains of abdominal pain, stool disorders and other typical symptoms. Do not self-medicate.

Popular questions and answers

Svetlana Ivanchenko, a pediatrician at the MEDSI Clinic on Leninsky Prospekt, a doctor of the first qualification category, answered popular questions.

Vomiting in a child and stomach ache – what could be the reasons?

Abdominal pain in a child is one of the most common symptoms. In infants, it is associated with colic and the accumulation of gases in the intestines.

In children older than one year, it may occur due to food poisoning, acute inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. If your child has a stomachache, seek medical attention. The doctor will diagnose, determine the cause of the pain, prescribe the most appropriate treatment.

It is important to know that some diseases can be almost asymptomatic or atypical. Therefore, you should not prescribe treatment yourself, if pain occurs, you should immediately seek medical help.

What does vomiting with diarrhea mean?

Vomiting with diarrhea may be indicative of:

• food poisoning with products that have expired or with violations of storage rules, preparation technologies, etc.;
• intestinal infection (dysentery, rotovirus infection, salmonellosis, escherichiosis), which is transmitted by household contact from a patient to a healthy child;
• allergic reaction to foods.

Vomiting without abdominal pain or other symptoms – what could be the cause?

Vomiting in a child without fever and diarrhea is common. For parents, this condition causes serious concern, since they cannot find an explanation for what is happening.
The absence of temperature in a child against the background of vomiting should not lull the vigilance of parents. Nausea and vomiting do not normally occur.

Here are some examples of such conditions.

• Gastroesophageal reflux.
This condition is the backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus. In this case, the vomit will not be plentiful, often a sour smell comes from them. Vomiting is repeated after each meal.

Reflux is accompanied by the following symptoms: the child is restless, does not gain weight well, often hiccups, asthma attacks are possible. Also, children with gastroesophageal reflux are characterized by salivation and morning cough. If the pathology is not eliminated in a timely manner, then heartburn, belching, bouts of shortness of breath, night snoring, dysphagia will join in the future, and tooth enamel will suffer.

In children under three months of age, reflux is a normal physiological phenomenon and is often accompanied by vomiting and regurgitation. This is due to the underdevelopment of the distal esophagus and the small volume of the stomach. Over time, regurgitation will occur less and less, and then it should stop altogether.

• Pylorospasm is a disease that manifests itself as a spasm of the pyloric part of the stomach, which leads to problems with emptying it. As a result, the child periodically vomits. It is not abundant and is observed from the first days of life. Girls are more likely to suffer from the disease.

With pylorospasm, children gain weight worse, are more restless, and problems with stool are rarely observed.

• Pyloric stenosis is a condition that refers to congenital malformations of the muscular layer of the stomach and manifests itself in profuse vomiting. It usually occurs 20 minutes after feeding the baby. The vomit does not contain impurities and consists of undigested breast milk.

Manifests (manifests) a pathological condition already on the 2nd-3rd day of the baby’s life. In addition to vomiting, there is a sinking of the fontanel and weight loss, which is dangerous for infants.

• Intestinal intussusception is a variant of intestinal obstruction, which consists in the introduction of a portion of the intestine into the lumen of an adjacent segment. The disease occurs in 90% of cases in infants, it is detected mainly at 5-7 months, although it can also develop in older children.

• Diseases of the central nervous system. Diseases that affect the central nervous system are often accompanied by persistent vomiting, which is not associated with food intake. As a rule, cerebral vomiting occurs at the peak of the headache and does not bring relief to the child. The most common diseases of the central nervous system in infancy, accompanied by vomiting: cerebral ischemia and hydrocephalus.

In children older than one year, these are brain tumors and increased intracranial pressure. In pathologies of the central nervous system, vomiting is rarely the only symptom of the disease. Most often there are such signs as: headaches, coordination disorders, visual disturbances, dizziness.

• Psychogenic vomiting. Psychogenic vomiting occurs in a child after the age of three years. Provoking factors can be severe anxiety, fear, overexcitation and other emotional upheavals. Sometimes psychogenic vomiting is a way to attract attention, which is typical for children deprived of parental care.

There may be other causes of vomiting: sunstroke, being in a stuffy room, motion sickness.

Sources

  1. Vomiting syndrome in children – causes and features of clinical manifestations // Medical knowledge. 2018
  2. D.I. Trukhan. Differential diagnosis of the symptom of vomiting. 2013
  3. M.I. Dubrovskaya, Yu.G. Mukhin. Syndrome of regurgitation and vomiting in children of the first year of life: differential diagnosis and tactics of management. 2007. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/sindrom-srygivaniy-i-rvoty-u-detey-pervogo-goda-zhizni-differentsialnaya-diagnostika-i-taktika-vedeniya

first aid 🐈, causes, treatment and prevention

In this article we will try to understand the causes of vomiting, what signs can be deadly, and what can be dealt with at home, what to do if the cat vomits and how the owner can help your pet.

Common causes of vomiting in cats

Nausea and vomiting in cats may be associated with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (gastritis, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, duodenitis, enteritis and others), may be 9 a sign of surgical pathology (for example, intestinal obstruction), an infectious disease (panleukopenia), severe systemic diseases (chronic kidney disease), and may have a normal, physiological character (for example, vomiting when eating food too quickly, reflex vomiting when eating grass).

So, there are many reasons for nausea and vomiting in cats. Let’s try to understand this diversity.

Physiological (normal) vomiting

Vomiting can be normal, as strange as it may sound. For example, the owner of the animal was at work all day, did not leave food for his pet, and when he came in the evening, poured a whole bowl of food from the heart. In this case, the cat may greedily and quickly begin to eat food and the normal response of the body is to immediately vomit the undigested, just swallowed food. If this happens sporadically, not often, there is nothing to worry about. It is necessary to try to transfer the cat to a more physiological for the animal, “buffet” type of food, with such feeding, the cat approaches its bowl during the day and eats a little when it feels the need for food. Important remember to keep track of the amount of food you pour into the bowl and do not exceed the daily allowance indicated on the package.

However, some cats are not ready for this type of feeding. If the pet immediately eats the daily allowance and remains hungry for the whole day, you should feed it in portions. In order to avoid vomiting from eating a large amount of food too quickly, try to give food in several doses: 2 times in the morning and 2-3 times in the evening in small portions. This approach to feeding a cat will avoid physiological vomiting immediately after eating.

“Normal” can also be considered vomiting that occurs after eating a special sprouted grass for cats or grass from the lawn of a personal plot. Of course, “herbal medicine” for cats is a myth. Unfortunately, a cat is not able to cure itself, in case of serious illnesses, she needs help from a caring owner and a knowledgeable veterinarian. But sometimes self-medication helps. If a cat feels heaviness in the stomach and she has access to grass, she will definitely eat it in order to induce vomiting and get rid of painful discomfort.

Periodic regurgitation of hairballs can also be considered a normal variant. Long-haired cats are not always able to cope with their hair and remove it from the body in a natural way. It is known that cats are very clean animals, they wash and clean their skin with a rough tongue all day long, while, of course, part of the hair ends up in the stomach. For these cats, high-fiber foods are very useful for removing hair from the intestines (in a natural way for a cat), such as PRO PLAN® NUTRISAVOUR® for domestic cats. For owners of Maine Coons, Persian, Siberian cats, it is important to monitor grooming: such animals need help in caring for their coat, and accumulated hairballs in the stomach can cause a serious condition – obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract.

Gastrointestinal Vomiting

In this section, we look at common non-communicable gastrointestinal disorders in cats that present with vomiting. Starting from the esophagus and ending with the large intestine, almost any disease can be accompanied by vomiting.

Gastritis – inflammation of the mucous membrane (wall) of the stomach. It can be acute or chronic, associated with malnutrition or caused by other causes. Main symptom of gastritis – periodic vomiting, especially in the morning, on an empty stomach (the so-called “hungry vomiting”) and pain in the stomach. Gastritis is diagnosed by ultrasound and treated for a long time, with the use of dietary rations and medications, including painkillers. If your cat vomits 1-2 times a week for a long time, do not be too lazy to go through diagnostics and find out the cause.

Often in domestic cats pancreatitis occurs – inflammation of the pancreas. Like other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, it can be associated with malnutrition or not depend on nutrition at all. The disease is accompanied by severe pain, associated with pain apathy, lethargy and refusal to feed in a pet. With pancreatitis, the cat vomits 1-2 times a day, as a rule with white foam .

Enteritis – inflammation of the small intestine. Non-contagious enteritis in cats can be associated with poisoning, helminthic invasion, improper or inappropriate animal nutrition. Vomiting in a cat in this case is accompanied by diarrhea . The contents of the vomit may initially be undigested food. Further, with the development of the disease, vomiting can acquire yellow color due to admixture of bile from the duodenum. With repeated vomiting and diarrhea, increasing dehydration of the body is dangerous, in this situation urgent assistance is needed provided by a veterinarian in a clinic.

Lipidosis – a violation of the liver that occurs against the background of starvation in cats , especially overweight, overweight. Moreover, a cat can starve for any reason: both due to illness and simply, if she was suddenly left without food for several days. Unlike dogs and humans, fasting in cats can cause a serious disease called lipidosis. The disease occurs when normal liver cells are replaced by fat cells that cannot cope with the important functions of this gland in the body. Symptoms of lipidosis are anorexia, lethargy and vomiting. In this disease, an important point of treatment (after stopping vomiting) is forced feeding of the animal, that is, correction of anorexia.

Gallbladder disease in cats is rarely diagnosed separately from other diseases. As a rule, cholestasis or cholecystitis occur together with pathologies of the liver, duodenum, stomach. The yellow color of the vomit may indicate an admixture of bile, in which case an ultrasound of the abdominal organs is necessary to make a diagnosis.

Vomiting due to infectious diseases in cats

The most common infections in cats are respiratory diseases (similar to SARS in humans) and intestinal infections . It is for intestinal infections that vomiting is characteristic. Panleukopenia is a dangerous intestinal infection that is highly contagious and can be fatal in young kittens. It affects cats that have the opportunity to walk on the street, but pets can also become infected. A person becomes a passive carrier of the virus, for example, who brought fragments of the feces of a sick cat on his shoes. The main preventive measure to prevent this infection is vaccination.

Vomiting due to surgical pathologies

Dangerous condition requiring urgent veterinary care – mechanical intestinal obstruction in the presence of foreign bodies in the stomach or intestines. A typical symptom of intestinal obstruction is vomiting and no stool. In this case, vomiting occurs immediately after eating or drinking, as well as when the owners try to drink any medicine to the cat.

The peculiarity of the structure of the tongue of a cat is such that threads, rags, laces, New Year’s tinsel or rain, once in the mouth, will certainly be swallowed. Sometimes, the threads are wrapped around the root of the tongue, and the cat swallows them partially. With a thread, a needle can also get into the stomach of a cat. In this case, assistance begins to be provided immediately, the animal must be taken to a veterinary clinic for prompt removal of a foreign body.

Vomiting in severe systemic disease

In this section, we will talk about a common pathology in older cats – chronic kidney disease (CKD). Many cats over 8 years of age experience reduced appetite, lethargy and occasional vomiting precisely because the kidneys are no longer able to cope with their role of “detox” in the body of the animal. Those toxic metabolic products that are excreted in the urine in a healthy cat, enter the bloodstream in a cat with CKD and cause intoxication – poisoning of the body. Vomiting becomes a reaction to intoxication. If the cat vomited, but her activity and appetite were not affected, the reason is unlikely to be so serious. But if your pet is not young, it will be very useful to be examined and identify the disease at an early stage. Kidney function can be determined by donating blood for biochemical analysis. And support for a cat with CKD will be the right food – a dietary diet, such as PRO PLAN® VETERINATY DIETS NF Renal Function.

So, we have considered the main causes of vomiting in cats. Probably all pet owners have experienced such a symptom as nausea and vomiting in their pet. However, even in such a common phenomenon, there are nuances that you need to be aware of.

Symptoms of vomiting in cats

What can be confused with vomiting? How to understand that a cat is sick?

The main symptom of nausea in cats is salivation, drooling, the cat “champs”, licks its lips, often swallows saliva. Nausea may be accompanied by a gag reflex or be unproductive.

In this variant of the norm, increased salivation is considered when traveling in a car (cats also get sick), a little saliva may be released from pleasure when a cat purrs, tramples you with its paws and shows extreme satisfaction with its whole appearance. “Champing” and constant movements of the tongue can be symptoms of dental diseases. And the inability to swallow and salivation can be a symptom of a dangerous infection – rabies.

Vomiting in cats can be confused with belching (regurgitation) and coughing . If in doubt, record the process on video and show the doctor at the appointment. With true vomiting, the cat takes a characteristic pose, it arches, the muscles of the abdominal wall contract, vomiting may be accompanied by specific guttural sounds, the owners describe this with the words “the cat vomits”.

Varieties of vomiting

We have tried to describe the most common causes of vomiting in cats. Let’s try to consider various types of vomiting and suggest for which diseases they are characteristic.

  • Vomiting white foam. White foam is gastric juice and saliva. Such vomiting occurs with gastritis. Vomiting white foam is a typical variant of “hungry” vomiting in cats.
  • Vomiting of clear mucus. Most likely, saliva predominates in such vomit. Severe nausea and salivation can be with gastritis, pancreatitis, as well as with foreign bodies in the oral cavity.
  • Gray mass vomiting . Look closely, most likely in such a mass you will notice wool. Such vomiting can be a variant of the norm if it does not happen often and is not accompanied by a lack of appetite and apathy. If vomiting of gray mass becomes more frequent, it is possible that the cat is itching and licking too much, it may be pathological molting.
  • Vomiting of green liquid. This vomiting can be a dangerous symptom of intestinal obstruction in cats, especially if the vomit has a strong fetid odor.
  • Vomiting blood, vomiting red liquid. Scarlet blood in the vomit, most often a sign of burst blood vessels in the esophagus with severe tenesmus (tension during vomiting) and repeated vomiting. Also, such vomiting can be when swallowing blood from the oral cavity (gum disease, oral mucosa, neoplasms in the mouth).
  • Black vomit . Coffee ground vomit is digested blood in the vomit. Such vomiting can be with severe diseases of the stomach – ulcers, neoplasms.
  • Vomiting yellow liquid . This is vomit mixed with bile. It happens with cholecystitis, cholestasis (diseases of the gallbladder), with diseases of the liver, stomach and duodenum.

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Why vomiting is dangerous for a pet

As you already understood, vomiting can be a rather dangerous symptom. If your cat vomits repeatedly, vomits scarlet or digested blood, this condition is accompanied by lethargy and refusal to feed – this is a reason for immediate medical attention. Fluid loss with repeated vomiting, even with banal poisoning, can lead to dehydration and severe irreversible effects (especially if the cat simultaneously loses fluid with diarrhea).

Vomiting in kittens

In kittens, vomiting may be associated with a change in diet. When a small kitten is taken to a new home, where his diet changes: he used to be fed mother’s milk, now he must switch to self-feeding with kitten food. It is good if the breeder has accustomed the kitten to food, but even in this case, due to stress and a change of scenery, the baby may have vomiting and diarrhea. If this lasts no longer than 1-2 days, while the small pet remains active and has an appetite, there is nothing to worry about in this form.

But if the kitten becomes lethargic, does not play, vomiting is repeated , the reasons may be more serious. It can be a helminthic invasion: with it, kittens become infected with helminths from their mother, and this can be very dangerous. Therefore, taking a kitten into the house, it is necessary to immediately deworm it (give a remedy for worms, suitable for age and weight).

The cause of vomiting in an unvaccinated kitten may also be an infection – panleukopenia . Infections in kittens proceed rapidly and require the intervention of a veterinarian, and sometimes inpatient treatment.

In addition, kittens and young cats are active, curious and love to play. Therefore, they are more likely than adult sedate cats to have foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract , in which repeated vomiting is a symptom of intestinal obstruction.

What to do if the cat is throwing up

If the vomiting is caused by excessive grooming, the pet gets rid of hair in the stomach, offer the cat a paste to remove hair from the intestines. With physiological vomiting associated with the rapid and greedy eating of dry food, feed your pet often in small portions or switch to a “buffet” type of feeding. With repeated vomiting, especially with repeated vomiting, diagnosis is necessary in a veterinary clinic.

Cat vomiting treatment at home

Cat vomiting treatment at home is difficult. First of all, you need to stop drinking any medicines in your mouth. When vomiting, such actions can lead to aspiration (a condition where the fluid you drink enters the lungs and causes pneumonia). You can try offering your cat a hair removal paste and wet food. One feeding can be skipped, but fasting more than 6-8 hours can be harmful for cats. If the cat’s vomiting is due to an intolerance to a particular food or food component, you need to remove this food from the diet or change the food.

What to feed your pet

Since vomiting is a common symptom that accompanies diseases of the digestive tract, proper feeding of cats in this context is especially important. Complete food PRO PLAN® provides the cat with all the necessary nutrients in the right amount and ratio. For a cat, as an exclusively carnivorous animal that has changed little in the course of a thousand-year life with a person, it is very difficult to balance home nutrition.

It is the correct complete, easily biologically available nutrition that is the prevention of vomiting, as a symptom of various diseases.

PRO PLAN® FORTIFLORA® Cat Food Supplement is a probiotic supplement for the normalization of intestinal microflora, which is successfully used in the treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in cats. If the cause of vomiting is enteritis, poisoning, toxic infection – FortiFlora® will be a good help in the treatment of such conditions. In kidney disease, when a dietary diet is required that is not always tasty and desirable for fussy cats, FortiFlora® added to the food improves its palatability. Thus, the FortiFlora® probiotic can be considered a means of preventing gastrointestinal diseases in cats.

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