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Sweaty people: 11 Things Only Sweaty People Understand


11 Things Only Sweaty People Understand

Living with excessive sweating, or hyperhidrosis, can pose daily challenges — you may experience constant discomfort, have difficulty completing certain tasks, and struggle with social anxiety. But for many people with the condition, one of its worst aspects is that people often don’t understand or relate to what they’re going through.

People who have hyperhidrosis have many resources available to them, including several online groups and forums, where they can connect with each other and share their stories and frustrations. But the reality is that you may often encounter people who have misconceptions about what “excessive sweat” really means.

What Life Is Like for People With Hyperhidrosis

Many people who have hyperhidrosis share these common experiences that those who don’t sweat excessively can’t relate to.

1. You’re not necessarily sweating because you’re nervous.

While anxiety can trigger sweating for some people with hyperhidrosis, it doesn’t necessarily cause sweating for all people who have the condition.

“I like to say, ‘I’m not sweating because I’m nervous; I’m nervous because I’m sweating,’” says Maria Thomas, a Colorado resident who works as a marketing coordinator and blogs about living with hyperhidrosis at My Life as a Puddle.

And there are many situations, Thomas notes, in which excessive sweating can give you good reason to be nervous — work meetings, for example, in which your notes can get smeared, or holding a friend’s baby and being afraid you’ll get it wet.

2. Colder weather doesn’t always mean less sweating.

“I would say that most people tend to sweat less when it’s colder outside,” says Temitayo Ogunleye, MD, an assistant professor of clinical dermatology at the University of Pennsylvania’s Perelman School of Medicine in Philadelphia. However, there are some notable exceptions.

People who usually don’t sweat less when it’s colder, according to Dr. Ogunleye, are those with situational sweating — such as before job interviews or presentations — and those who have hyperhidrosis that mainly affects their hands and feet.

Colder weather can also sometimes mean more sweating, since you need to bundle up when you go outside.

“It can be 20 degrees outside and snowing, but I can still be sweating inside my gloves,” says Thomas. “I can’t get away from the sweat, because if I take the gloves off, I could potentially develop frostbite.”

3. Picking out clothing requires extra attention.

There are two added considerations for many people with hyperhidrosis when it comes to choosing what to wear: minimizing sweating, and trying not to let it show.

“Generally speaking, I prefer darker colors,” says Thomas. But, she adds, “some dark colors can still show sweat marks. I would say it depends on the type of fabric.” Thomas finds cotton and synthetic fibers that wick moisture to be among the best choices, and silk and satin fabrics to be among the worst.

Jeans are a favorite option for Caryn Toriaga, a classical flutist based in Albany, New York, whose hyperhidrosis mainly affects her hands and feet. “Denim is good because it usually doesn’t leave a handprint,” she notes, “and it soaks up sweat pretty well too.”

4. Everyday tasks can be more difficult with sweaty hands.

Sweat isn’t just a social concern or a nuisance — it can interfere with daily activities.

Working in an office environment, says Thomas, means that hyperhidrosis interferes with using a computer keyboard and mouse, carrying file folders, and taking meeting notes, among other everyday tasks.

Both Thomas and Toriaga note that on public transportation, sweaty hands make it more difficult to get a good grip on a rail or pole — on top of the anxiety of being afraid that your sweat will drip on someone else.

For Toriaga, sweaty hands can make being a flutist challenging. “Sweating affects the speed and accuracy of my fingers, because I need to hold the instrument differently to feel that I have more control,” she says. “Otherwise it feels like it’s going to slip out of my hands.

And meal preparation can be a constant challenge for people with hyperhidrosis. “I carry around paper towels to sop up my hands,” says Toriaga, “and I’ll wrap a paper towel around the handle of a knife. I’ll get stuff stuck on my hands, and I have trouble opening jars.”

But thankfully, for Toriaga, “my husband actually does most of the cooking because he loves it.”

5. You’re afraid to raise your arms too high.

Giving presentations and training people are occasional parts of Thomas’s job, and she often feels as though she can’t be as loose and relaxed as she’d like to be in these situations.

“If I’m doing any type of public speaking or giving a presentation to colleagues,” she says, “I’m definitely cognizant of [sweat marks] and not wanting to move my arms as much.”

And while not moving your arms might help conceal sweat, it can make the problem worse, since you’re essentially blocking airflow to your underarms.

6. You keep towels and backup clothes around.

Keeping extra clothing and towels on hand is a familiar strategy for many people who have hyperhidrosis.

Thomas usually has an extra blazer and shirt at work, in addition to a sweat towel in her desk drawer. “If my sweating gets really bad on my hands or my feet,” she says, “I’ll take out the towel and wipe myself down.”

Toriaga places towels strategically in a number of locations — “in my purse, in my flute bag, at work. I have towels everywhere.” This includes a designated black towel that she carries onstage during concerts, since any other color would look out of place.

7. You shower a lot, but it doesn’t always help.

When you have hyperhidrosis, showering often can remove dried sweat from your skin and make you feel more comfortable, but it doesn’t tend to do much to reduce the amount you sweat.

“Showering is a winning strategy in that it can help me feel fresh,” says Thomas. “But it’s not going to stop me from sweating.

Thomas usually showers only once a day, but she makes an exception on particularly sweaty summer days, when she’ll shower twice. But, she says, “I know other people [who have hyperhidrosis] who shower multiple times a day.”

8. Handshakes can be distressing.

“Shaking hands is an awful experience,” says Toriaga, “especially if it’s an interview situation where I’m nervous to begin with.”

Toriaga notes that fear of a negative reaction from the other person can be stressful, taking a toll even if that reaction never occurs. “First impressions are really challenging,” she says, adding that sweaty hands “make my confidence level drop right away.”

If she knows she’ll have to shake someone’s hand, Toriaga will sometimes go to the restroom and run her hands under cold water for a minute. “That will regulate my hand and body temperature a little bit,” she says, but it won’t stop the sweating completely.

While she’s in the restroom, Toriaga says, “I’ll take extra paper towels to put in my pocket” so she can wipe her hands on them right before an anticipated handshake.

9. Chairs can often add to the stress you feel.

Most chairs have a sitting surface made of plastic, wood, leather, or fabric. Very few are made from breathable, moisture-wicking materials — especially in institutional settings. That means they tend to either trap moisture or leave marks when you’ve been sweating.

On a recent occasion, Thomas recounts, “I was in a big group meeting, and there were plastic chairs. I got up and saw a coworker look down” to see the sweat mark she had left. “My coworker didn’t say anything,” says Thomas, “but I was mortified.”

10. You’ve used subterfuge or told white lies to cover up your sweating.

Thomas says that she’ll often hold a cold drink in her right hand at social gatherings so that when she shakes people’s hands, they’ll feel the cold condensation, not her sweat. “We sweaty people,” she notes, “can be pretty inventive.”

Toriaga has at times felt compelled to make up an excuse for why her hand is sweaty during a handshake. “I would say, ‘Oh, I’m sick,’” she says, “or ‘I just washed my hands’ or ‘I was just holding a cold drink.’”

Why the white lies? “I’m so worried they’re going to have a response,” says Toriaga, explaining that although people haven’t made comments, “seeing people’s eyes widen — that’s what sinks my heart.”

11. You’ve tried many different treatments.

Ogunleye says that by the time patients come to her about their hyperhidrosis, they’ve typically tried a variety of over-the-counter antiperspirants with limited success. “They’re looking more for medical management,” she explains — which can be a challenge to get right.

Ogunleye says she also often sees people who have tried absorptive and antifungal powders, which can help keep parts of the body dry and reduce odors; others have used antiperspirants on less typical areas of the body, such as in the groin area or on their feet.

Toriaga has tried several different treatments over the years, with mixed success. Some antiperspirants, she says, “were prickly and a bit painful,” so she couldn’t continue using them. She also took an oral drug that successfully reduced her sweating for four years before it stopped working.

Ultimately, though, no single treatment, or even mix of treatments,  works for everyone, so you may need to try a variety of options to find what works best for you.

One key to living better with hyperhidrosis, Thomas says, is to connect with other people who share your struggle. “Find people who understand what you’re going through,” she urges, “and find a dermatologist who understands what hyperhidrosis is.”

The Science of Sweat: Why Some People Perspire More

Sweating can be messy (and stinky), but it’s also your body’s natural cooling mechanism. When your body temperature rises from exercise, heat, stress or hormone shifts, sweating helps keep your internal temperature at a comfortable 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit.

“Sweating helps release heat, which helps maintain optimal body temperature,” says Pamela Webert, an exercise physiologist at Henry Ford Health System. “If we didn’t sweat, our bodies would literally cook from the inside out.”

Sweating Explained

Sweat is comprised mostly of water but it also contains sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Someone who is not very in shape tends to lose more sodium in their sweat than a person who is fit. But everyone’s sweat is slightly different.

“Some individuals will lose more sodium in their sweat than others,” says Webert. If your sweat is salty — meaning it stings your eyes, leaves a gritty feeling on your skin or produces a sting on an open wound — you’re losing sodium, which you can replace with a sports drink.

The volume of sweat you produce depends on a variety of factors:

  • Body size: Bigger people generate more heat because they have to move more body mass, so that means more heat generated and hence, more sweat. The greater surface area that comes with a larger body also requires more perspiration to cool it down.
  • Age: Your body becomes less tolerant to heat as you age. “Sweat glands change with age, reducing the body’s ability to cool itself effectively,” says Webert.
  • Muscle mass: Muscle mass produces more heat than fat. So even if two people have the same body weight, their sweat rate will differ based on their percentage of muscle mass.
  • Health status: A number of health conditions and life stages can impact how much you sweat. Colds, flu and even mental health conditions such as anxiety and depression can impact how much you sweat. Hormone fluctuations in particular are often linked with an increase in internal body temperature. (Just ask any perimenopausal or pregnant woman!)
  • Fitness level: People who are very fit sweat more than their less-fit counterparts. But if fit people and less-fit people are performing the same task, the less-fit person will sweat more because they have to expend more energy to perform the same task.

External factors also play a role in how much you sweat. If you’re running outside in 95-degree heat with 70% humidity, or participating in a hot yoga class, your body will sweat to keep your internal temperature down. Similarly, eating spicy foods or drinking caffeinated beverages can also increase your body temp, causing you to sweat out the excess.

Sweating and Fitness

During exercise in temperate conditions, the average person will lose about 1.5 to 2 liters of fluid through sweat. Add high humidity and heat to the mix and your rate of fluid loss can double.

If you’re exercising or playing sports for more than one hour, it’s important to replace the fluid you lose through sweat during the activity to prevent dehydration. Here’s how:

  • Sip on a sports drink containing carbohydrates and electrolytes (sodium chloride, potassium, calcium and magnesium).
  • Replenish lost fluids with 16 to 20 ounces of fluid per hour (four to six ounces for every 15 to 20 minutes)

Exercising for less than one hour? Opt for water over a sports drink, but make sure you hydrate sufficiently.

Don’t Sweat It

Even though sweating is normal, it isn’t always welcome. The smell of sweat and the appearance of sweat rings on your clothing can be embarrassing. You might use deodorant to cover up the odor or try an antiperspirant to dry out sweaty pits. Also try to steer clear of triggers, such as caffeine, spicy foods and hot beverages.

“Just keep in mind, sweating is an important mechanism that helps regulate your body temperature,” Webert says.

If you’re sweating excessively in specific areas, such as your palms or feet, you may have a condition called hyperhidrosis, which can be medically treated with prescription antiperspirants, Botox or surgery.

If you’re concerned about your sweating habits, talk to your primary care doctor to rule out medical causes and medication side effects.

To find a doctor at Henry Ford, visit henryford.com or call 1-800-HENRYFORD (436-7936).

Want more advice from our wellness experts? Subscribe today to receive weekly emails of our latest tips.

Pam Webert is an exercise physiologist who sees patients and athletes at the William Clay Ford Center for Athletic Medicine in Detroit.

Causes, Symptoms, Treatment & Lifestyle Changes


What is hyperhidrosis?

In hyperhidrosis, your body’s sweat glands overact. This overactivity causes you to sweat a lot, at times and places where other people wouldn’t.

Sometimes, a medical condition or emotion (like anxiety) triggers excessive sweating. For many people with hyperhidrosis, controlling symptoms can be a constant challenge.

What is focal hyperhidrosis?

Focal hyperhidrosis is a chronic skin disorder that you can inherit from your family. It results from a mutation (change) in your genes. It is also called primary hyperhidrosis. Most people who sweat excessively have focal hyperhidrosis.

Focal hyperhidrosis usually affects only the armpits, hands and feet, and head. It tends to start early in life, before age 25.

What is generalized hyperhidrosis?

Generalized hyperhidrosis is excessive sweating that happens due to another medical problem. Many medical conditions (like diabetes and Parkinson’s disease) can cause your body to sweat more than usual. Some medications, such as naproxen (Aleve®) and zinc supplements (Cold-Eeze®), cause extra sweating as a side effect.

Generalized hyperhidrosis, also called secondary hyperhidrosis, tends to occur in adults.

How common is hyperhidrosis?

Estimates suggest between 2% and 5% of people in the U.S. have hyperhidrosis. However, that number may be higher. Many people who sweat excessively don’t talk about their symptoms and never tell their healthcare provider. That makes it hard to gauge how many people hyperhidrosis affects.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes hyperhidrosis?

Sweating is how your body cools itself when it gets too hot (when you’re exercising, sick or really nervous). Nerves tell your sweat glands to start working. In hyperhidrosis, certain sweat glands work overtime for no apparent reason, producing sweat that you don’t need.

Focal hyperhidrosis commonly results from:

  • Certain odors and foods, including citric acid, coffee, chocolate, peanut butter and spices.
  • Emotional stress, especially anxiety.
  • Heat.
  • Spinal cord injury.

Generalized or secondary hyperhidrosis can result from:

In secondary hyperhidrosis, a medical condition or medication causes you to sweat more than usual. Medical experts haven’t uncovered what causes the body to produce extra sweat in focal hyperhidrosis.

Can hyperhidrosis be passed down in families?

Focal hyperhidrosis runs in families, which suggests a genetic link. While it’s common for multiple members of one family to have hyperhidrosis, you may not know it. That’s because lots of people with hyperhidrosis don’t feel comfortable talking about their symptoms.

What symptoms does hyperhidrosis cause?

Hyperhidrosis symptoms can range widely in their severity and impact on your life. Minor symptoms may ebb and flow over a long time. Or excessive sweating may be an everyday challenge, a constant source of frustration and insecurity.

Hyperhidrosis affects people differently. Sweat may:

  • Pool under your arms or around your back.
  • Soak your shirt to the point that you need to change clothes to feel comfortable.
  • Bead on your cheeks or forehead.
  • Dampen or drip down your hands or soak your socks.

Excessive sweating may also lead to:

  • Itching and inflammation when sweat irritates the affected area.
  • Body odor, when bacteria on the skin mix with sweat particles.
  • Residue from combinations of sweat, bacteria and chemicals (deodorants), leaving noticeable marks on clothing.
  • Skin changes, such as paleness or other discoloration, cracks or wrinkles.
  • Maceration (unusually soft or disintegrating skin) on the soles of your feet.

Your symptoms may offer clues to the type of hyperhidrosis you have. Excessive sweating due to focal hyperhidrosis usually affects both sides of the body (both hands or feet). Focal hyperhidrosis doesn’t cause night sweats and doesn’t go away without treatment. People with generalized hyperhidrosis may sweat while sleeping.

What parts of the body does hyperhidrosis affect?

Generalized hyperhidrosis makes you sweat all over. Focal hyperhidrosis mostly affects the:

  • Armpits (axillary hyperhidrosis).
  • Bottoms (soles) of the feet (plantar hyperhidrosis).
  • Face, including the cheeks and forehead.
  • Lower back.
  • Genitals.
  • Undersides (palms) of the hands (palmar hyperhidrosis).

Does sweat smell bad?

Sweat by itself is odorless, made up of mostly water. However, sweat can cause a noticeable body odor when bacteria on the skin come into contact with sweat droplets. Bacteria break down the molecules that make up sweat. The bacteria at work cause a pungent smell.

Diagnosis and Tests

How is hyperhidrosis diagnosed?

Excessive sweating can be embarrassing and uncomfortable. Many people never bring up the problem with their healthcare provider. By talking to a provider about their symptoms, many people find relief.

Your provider will review your health history and thoroughly evaluate your symptoms. Your provider may ask about how often or when you have symptoms.

Do I need testing to confirm hyperhidrosis?

You may need one or more tests to help pinpoint what’s causing your body to sweat too much. Blood or urine tests may confirm or rule out an underlying medical condition.

Your provider also may recommend a test to measure how much sweat your body produces. These tests include:

  • Starch-iodine test: Your provider applies an iodine solution to the sweaty area and sprinkles starch over the iodine solution. Where you have excess sweating, the solution turns dark blue.
  • Paper test: Your provider places special paper on the affected area to absorb sweat. Later, your provider weighs the paper to determine how much you sweated.

Management and Treatment

Can hyperhidrosis be cured?

There is no cure for focal hyperhidrosis. Treatments focus on reducing your symptoms and improving your quality of life.

How your healthcare provider treats secondary hyperhidrosis will depend on the underlying problem. When you can identify and treat the cause of excessive sweating, excessive sweating typically stops.

How is hyperhidrosis treated?

Your primary care provider may refer you to a dermatologist (skin specialist) for hyperhidrosis treatment. Your provider will ask about your symptoms (where and how often you sweat) and overall health. The provider may start by recommending lifestyle changes or medications.

Treatments include:

  • Lifestyle changes: Changing your routine (such as showering more often or wearing breathable fabrics) may improve minor hyperhidrosis symptoms. Your provider will discuss all your treatment options and help you decide what’s right for you.
  • Aluminum-based antiperspirants: Antiperspirants work by sealing up sweat glands so your body stops producing sweat. Your provider may recommend over-the-counter or prescription-strength varieties. Stronger antiperspirants may help more. But they are also more likely to cause side effects, such as skin irritation.
  • Oral medications: Anticholinergic drugs (glycopyrrolate and oxybutynin) can make aluminum-based antiperspirants work better. Potential side effects include blurred vision and problems peeing. Your provider may recommend an antidepressant, which may lessen sweating while also calming anxieties. Beta blockers may also be recommended by your provider.
  • Clinical-grade cloth wipes: Prescription-strength cloth wipes containing glycopyrronium tosylate (Qbrexza®) may reduce armpit sweating. Each single-use cloth comes in its own package. You should use the wipes daily for continued benefits.

What if medications or lifestyle changes don’t improve my symptoms?

If your symptoms don’t improve, your healthcare provider may recommend more specialized therapies:

  • Iontophoresis: You place your hands or feet in a shallow tub of tap water. A special device emits a low electrical current through the water, blocking sweat glands over time. Each treatment takes 10 to 20 minutes. You may need repeated treatments. Insurance may cover the equipment, enabling you to do the therapy at home.
  • Botox® injections: Injecting botulinum toxin (Botox®) into an overactive nerve can stop sweat production for months at a time. Treatments must be repeated and can be costly.
  • Microwave therapy: Your provider places a high-tech device (called MiraDry®) against the affected area. The device emits thermal energy (heat), which destroys sweat glands permanently. Providers perform this hour-long procedure in their office. It can significantly reduce underarm sweating for good.

Who has hyperhidrosis surgery?

When other treatments don’t work and your symptoms persist, your provider may consider surgery.

Surgeons treat some cases of excessive armpit sweating by removing sweat glands in the underarm. Carefully disconnecting the nerves responsible for symptoms (called a sympathectomy) may also provide relief for some people with hyperhidrosis.

Surgery has the potential to offer lasting benefits for persistent sweating that doesn’t respond to other therapies. But every procedure has risks. Many people have postsurgical side effects like sweating in other areas that surgery didn’t treat (compensatory hyperhidrosis). Discuss a procedure’s advantages and potential drawbacks with a provider you trust.

What are the complications of hyperhidrosis?

Over time, excessive sweating could put you at an increased risk of developing a skin infection. Hyperhidrosis can also impact your mental health.

You may find yourself changing how you act to hide your symptoms from others. Constant sweating may be so severe that you avoid routine actions (such as lifting your arms or shaking hands). You may even give up activities you enjoy to avoid problems or embarrassment from excessive sweating.

In some cases, extreme sweating may be due to a severe and life-threatening problem. See a healthcare provider right away if you ever have chest pain or feel queasy or dizzy along with sweating symptoms.


Can I prevent hyperhidrosis?

Focal hyperhidrosis cannot be prevented. You may be able to prevent some cases of generalized hyperhidrosis. The key is getting a precise diagnosis and treatment for an underlying condition that is causing symptoms.

Outlook / Prognosis

What is the prognosis (outlook) for people with hyperhidrosis?

While hyperhidrosis has no cure, you have options for controlling your symptoms. And treatments today are varied and evolving.

Still, while hyperhidrosis isn’t life-threatening, it can seriously disrupt how you live. Worrying about excessive sweating can affect your relationships, social life and career. Reaching out to a mental health provider may provide valuable support. A hyperhidrosis support group can connect you with people who have faced similar challenges. The support can help you embrace what makes you unique.

Living With

When should I call the doctor?

You should call your healthcare provider if sweating:

  • Negatively impacts your life.
  • Causes you to avoid activities or people you love.
  • Worsens over time.
  • Happens overnight while you sleep.

What questions should I ask my doctor?

If you have hyperhidrosis, you may want to ask your healthcare provider:

  • What caused my sweating symptoms?
  • What are my treatment options?
  • Which treatments do you recommend I try first?
  • Can I do anything else to improve symptoms or my overall health?
  • How can I support my mental health?

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Excessive sweating due to hyperhidrosis can be a short- or long-term problem. It affects some people for most of their lives. Concern over how someone may react to your symptoms (like shaking your sweaty hand) may make you want to withdraw. There is no cure for hyperhidrosis, but help is available. Your provider may recommend a prescription-strength antiperspirant. Newer therapies offer you even more ways to lessen symptoms.

What Causes Excessive Sweating? Primary and Secondary Hyperhidrosis

What Is Hyperhidrosis?

Hyperhidrosis is excessive sweating that may or may not have an underlying cause. People who have hyperhidrosis sweat to the point that moisture may literally drip from their hands.

Normally, your sweat glands produce perspiration that’s carried to the skin’s surface when the air temperature rises, you develop a fever, you’re exercising, or you’re feeling anxious, nervous, or under stress. When those factors are no longer an issue, the nerves that signal sweating are put on hold.

For the 1% to 2% of the population who have hyperhidrosis, the sweat glands don’t shut off. They sweat even when the circumstances don’t call for it: when they’re in air conditioning, or while they’re sitting and watching television. Some people even tell their doctors that they sweat in a swimming pool.

The causes of hyperhidrosis depend on the type of sweating that’s happening. Most times, excessive sweating is harmless. In some cases, doctors don’t know why people sweat too much. In other cases, the causes of hyperhidrosis may be a medical condition that you need to be aware of.

Hyperhidrosis Types

There are two types of hyperhidrosis.

  • Primary hyperhidrosis (also called focal, or essential, hyperhidrosis) causes excessive sweating in the hands, underarms, face, and feet without any apparent reason.
  • Secondary hyperhidrosis (also called generalized hyperhidrosis) causes excessive sweating all over the body or in a larger area of the body and can be caused by excessive heat as well as a medical condition or medication.

Primary Hyperhidrosis Causes

If your sweat glands had an “on” switch, the glands of someone with primary hyperhidrosis would always be flipped up.

People with primary hyperhidrosis generally sweat from a certain type of sweat gland called eccrine sweat glands. These sweat glands make up the majority of the 2-4 million sweat glands in your body. Eccrine sweat glands are numerous on the feet, palms, face, and armpits.

When your body is overheated, when you’re moving around, when you’re feeling emotional, or as a result of hormones, nerves activate the sweat glands. When those nerves overreact, it causes hyperhidrosis. For instance, someone may only need to think of a situation that causes anxiety in order to break out in a sweat.

Doctors aren’t sure why people have primary hyperhidrosis, although it may be inherited. Many people tell their doctors they’ve had excessive sweating since they were a child.

People with primary hyperhidrosis may be able to cope with nonsurgical treatments, including:

  • Over-the-counter or prescription-strength antiperspirants that contain aluminum
  • Medications called anticholinergics that affect the nerve signals to sweat glands. You may take them in pill form or apply them to your skin as a cream or with a medicated wipe.
  • A low-intensity electrical current treatment called iontophoresis
  • Botox injections for underarm sweating
  • Anti-anxiety medications to manage the stress than can cause you to sweat

Surgery is usually only considered as a last resort for people with severe sweating in their hands and underarms. Surgery may involve removing sweat glands from the area. During another procedure, called thoracic sympathectomy, a surgeon cuts and destroys the nerves responsible for sweating.

One common side effect is excessive sweating in other parts of the body, such as the chest, back, or legs. Other possible risks include bleeding into the chest and nerve problems.

Secondary Hyperhidrosis Causes

Sweating from secondary hyperhidrosis is different from primary hyperhidrosis in that it tends to happen all over or in one general area instead of just the hands, underarms, face, or feet. Unlike primary hyperhidrosis, this type is more likely to cause sweating during sleep.

And in this case, there is something that’s causing hyperhidrosis: a medical condition or a medication.

A number of medical conditions have the potential to cause hyperhidrosis. Some of them include:

Many medications can also cause excessive sweating. Tell your doctor if you take:

Uncovering the underlying condition and getting the proper treatment for it will help decrease the sweating of secondary hyperhidrosis. That’s why it’s best to tell your doctor when you’re having a problem with sweating, so that you can uncover the reasons behind it and get it treated.

Home – International Hyperhidrosis Society

Focused on Sweating? So Are We.

Hyperhidrosis is a serious medical condition characterized by excessive, uncontrollable sweating and the International Hyperhidrosis Society is the only global non-profit organization dedicated entirely to improving the lives of those affected by it.

We are your source for reliable, up-to-date information about hyperhidrosis treatments and research. We’re also here to provide you with understanding and support. If your life is being ruined by sweating – you are NOT alone. Studies show that hyperhidrosis is common, severe, and emotionally damaging. And…

Research shows that nearly 5% of the world’s population suffers from excessive sweating or hyperhidrosis. That’s right, 365 MILLION people are struggling with extreme sweating — just like you!

Of course, no one’s hyperhidrosis is exactly the same. Some people fill their shoes with sweat, some have dripping no-handshakes-please palms, some sweat through their shirts, others sweat through their jeans, and most have a combination of sweaty body areas to contend with. Regardless of whether you sweat dramatically on your head or your toes or anywhere in between, we know the embarrassment, anxiety, and crippling effects are real and we want to help.

As the only independent, global, non-profit advocacy and education organization serving the hyperhidrosis community, we encourage you to use this website to get smarter about excessive sweating. Read, print, participate, download, and sign-up today.

While you are doing that, we’ll be running medical education courses in hyperhidrosis to help healthcare providers provide the best hyperhidrosis care possible, supporting new hyperhidrosis treatment research, talking to journalists around the world to encourage empathy and awareness, providing you with useful news alerts, and applying for grants so we can keep going. 

Here are a few of the useful things you’ll find on the following pages: comprehensive treatment option information, U.S. insurance codes, hyperhidrosis clinical trials recruiting now, a Clinician finder, an award-winning free blog newsletter dedicated to sweat news, and amazing product discounts on the most useful sweat-management products. Your sweat is nearly always with you. We want to be there too.

Feeling the love? Share it! We are stronger when we work together. Donate today to help us find a cure and increase public awareness. Yes, tomorrow CAN be better than today.  

Night Sweats: 7 Reasons You May Be Sweating at Night

Whether you’re exercising, it’s hot outside or you’re just overdressed, you expect to sweat — sometimes a lot. When you’re sound asleep, you do not.

If you experience night sweats, you’re probably all too familiar with waking up damp (or drenched) in sweat. You’ve probably also said to yourself, more than once, “This can’t be normal.”

“It’s normal to experience variations in your body temperature while you sleep, and sometimes this can lead to sweating,” says Dr. Aarthi Ram, neurologist and sleep medicine expert at Houston Methodist. “While they’re understandably annoying, night sweats are sometimes harmless — and there are steps you can take to reduce the amount you sweat while you sleep.”

Here are seven things that may be causing your night sweats, as well as ways to counteract them.

1. Drinking before bedtime

Having a drink or two in the evening may sound relaxing, but it can lead to increased body temperature — and therefore sweating.

“While alcohol is often referred to as a ‘depressant,’ it’s not really that simple,” Dr. Ram explains. “Alcohol relaxes the airways, which can make breathing harder. In addition, it also acts as a stimulant in that it leads to increased heart rate. Both of these can increase your body temperature.”

If you suffer from night sweats, Dr. Ram recommends limiting alcohol before bedtime.

2. Your stress level

If you’re feeling anxious or stressed, you’ve probably experienced the dread that comes with trying to fall asleep (or back to sleep after waking up).

“An overactive mind revs up your brain and body, which can result in sweating,” says Dr. Ram.

Dr. Ram’s tips for reducing stress before bedtime:

  • Build in time to wind down. Before bed, take a warm shower, avoid screen time and devices, or try reading a book.
  • Set up a relaxing atmosphere. Make sure the lights are low, sound is limited or soft, and the room is cool.
  • Talk to your doctor. Recurrent or long-lasting stress and anxiety could be a sign of a more serious mental health issue, such as anxiety disorder or depression.


3. Your sleepwear and sleep environment

Everyone likes a cozy sleep environment. But, sometimes, there’s a fine line between being cozy and overheating.

Dr. Ram says that the most common reason for night sweats are:

  • Bedding, sleepwear or even a mattress that doesn’t “breathe”
  • A sleep environment that’s too warm


“In fact, if you’re sweating excessively at night for these reasons, we don’t actually consider it true night sweats,” says Dr. Ram.

Dr. Ram’s tips for avoiding overheating while sleeping:

  • Keep your bedroom cool. Lower your thermostat and/or leverage a fan.
  • Dress light. Don’t overdress and choose moisture-wicking materials if you need to.
  • Choose lightweight bedding. Avoid fleece, flannel, down and synthetic fibers.
  • Consider your mattress. Foam materials can limit airflow.


4. The medications you’re taking

“Some medications can affect the parts of your brain that control your body temperature or your sweat glands,” explains Dr. Ram. “This means these medications can also induce night sweats.”

The types of medications associated with night sweats include:

  • Antidepressants
  • Antiretrovirals
  • Hormone therapy drugs
  • Hypertension drugs
  • Hypoglycemia medications


“Talk to your doctor if you’re experiencing night sweats as a result of a drug you’re taking for another health condition,” Dr. Ram advises. “In some cases, your doctor may be able to prescribe an alternative version of the drug.”

5. You’re going through menopause (or you’re about to)

You’ve heard of hot flashes, right? Well, menopause also comes with night sweats.

“About 75% of perimenopausal women report having night sweats,” says Dr. Ram. “The frequency typically peaks in the first few years following menopause and then declines over time.”

Dr. Ram’s tips for reducing menopausal night sweats:

  • Avoid triggers. Things like alcohol, spicy foods, caffeine and smoking can be sweating triggers.
  • Keep your bedroom cool and sleepwear light. Adjust the thermostat, use fans, open windows (if it’s cold outside), wear breathable pajamas and use lightweight bedding.
  • Cool yourself down. If you wake up in a sweat, uncover your feet and neck, drink a glass of cold water, place a cool washcloth on your head or run cold water over your wrists.
  • Consider lifestyle adjustments. Watching your weight and limiting stress can reduce the frequency or severity of night sweats.


“Talk to your doctor if the above home remedies don’t help limit the amount you’re sweating at night during or after menopause,” says Dr. Ram. “There are some medications that can be prescribed to reduce night sweats.”

6. You have a sweating disorder

While incredibly rare, it’s possible you may suffer from hyperhidrosis — a condition in which your body produces excessive sweat for unknown reasons.

Dr. Ram’s tips for individuals with hyperhidrosis:

  • Invest in quality antiperspirants. Also, keep in mind, deodorants do not reduce sweating.
  • Consider your clothing. Opt for loose-fitting clothes that are more breathable, such as those with open knit or loose weave, made with thin materials, moisture-wicking or quick-drying properties, or containing mesh panels or air vents.
  • Avoid heavy shoes and tight socks. If you sweat from your feet, choose shoes that use little to no synthetic materials and socks that are moisture-wicking.


“Less than 3% of the population suffers from primary hyperhidrosis, and the cause is typically unknown. This isn’t a serious condition, but it can be embarrassing,” says Dr. Ram. “However, several medical conditions, some of which are potentially serious, can cause what’s called secondary hyperhidrosis.”

7. You have an underlying medical issue

In some cases, night sweats occur as a result of a medical condition or disease, including:

  • Autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis
  • Cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma and prostate cancer
  • Depression
  • Heart disease
  • Hyperthyroidism (also known as an overactive thyroid)
  • Obesity
  • Prostate cancer
  • Serious infections, such as endocarditis and tuberculosis
  • Sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea


“Sleeping and sweating are both very complex processes that respond to many cues, and they can definitely influence one another,” says Dr. Ram. “If you’re regularly waking up soaked in sweat, experiencing sudden night sweats accompanied by weight loss or if your night sweats are keeping you from getting quality sleep, it’s time to talk to your doctor.

Blame Your Childhood for How Sweaty You Are — Science of Us

Photo: Jordan Kleinman/This content is subject to copyright.

The annoying thing about being a sweaty person — and I am, I am a bit ashamed to admit, a fairly sweaty person — is the way it sneaks up on you. It’s never “Oh, the temperature is rising, therefore I am about to get sweaty.” Rather, it’s always, “How the hell did I get sweaty? It isn’t even that hot!” For we sweaty folks, there’s a certain helplessness to our condition, and this is right around the time of the year when it manifests itself the most, because the population’s distribution of sweatiness seems so randomly, unfairly determined. All around us, we see friends, co-workers, family, and strangers with enviously dry skin. How do they do it? Why can’t we be like them?

To find out more about why some people sweat more than others, and whether there’s anything that can be done about it, I reached out to Dr. Laure Rittié, a researcher in dermatology at the University of Michigan Health System. Five really interesting points came out of our email conversation.

1. Yes, you start sweating before you get that hot. The evolutionary purpose of sweating is, of course, to keep our temperature regulated. So the body responds pretty quickly even to subtle changes in temperature. As Rittié explained, “we sweat before we feel uncomfortably hot, and at lesser rates (instead of all of the sudden and profusely).” So that clamminess that comes before you even feel noticeably hot may be annoying, but it’s normal and by design.

2. A lot of your sweatiness comes down to stuff you can’t control, and was partially “set” when you were really young. Explaining why some people sweat more than others, Rittié said that “[w]e think this is because of the following interesting fact. Everyone is born with virtually the same number of sweat glands, but sweat glands mature during the first 2 years of life. Not all sweat glands become able to produce sweat (it depends on the need during that time). So people who grew up in warm climates tend to have more active sweat glands than people who grew up in a climate-controlled environment or in cold climates. As adults, we keep all our sweat glands but only a portion of them are able to produce sweat. This percentage varies between individuals.”

I asked her if she was aware of any genetic factors contributing to this, and she said no. So that leaves the environment you spend your early years in as a major contributing factor to how sweaty you are later in life. And parts of the developed world are so carefully and obsessively climate-controlled that it’s easy to imagine that many of today’s adults grew up in situations where their “climate” indoors had little connection to the part of the world they were from. All things being equal, one might expect people who grow up in hot parts of Africa without air conditioning to be much more sweaty than those who grow up in, say, the American Southwest with access to AC.

3. Your sweat glands also help your wounds to heal. Rittié’s research has shown, as one recent press release put it, that “eccrine sweat glands, which are located throughout the body, are important for wound closure. They are major contributors of new cells that replace the cells that were lost due to injury.” What this means is that the sweat glands that don’t get “switched on” during those early years still have an important function. But as Rittié and her colleagues recently discovered, that wound-fixing function degrades as we age — “100 percent of sweat glands contribute to wound healing … in young adults,” she told me, but that number dips as we age.

4. You can maybe become less sweaty by not overdoing it with the AC all the time. “If you’re exposed to 85 degrees often, the body will respond by starting sweating at maybe 82 instead (please note that in fact the body responds to internal temperatures, not external),” Rittié explained. “This is why 65 degrees in the spring usually feels warm while 65 degrees in the fall feels chilly. Why? The body is trained at the end of the summer but not in the spring.”

I asked if our summertime behavior might have an impact here: Since scurrying from air-conditioned building to air-conditioned building prevents us from acclimating to hot temperatures, could going easier on the AC help out people who feel they sweat too much? “Definitely!” she said. “That would be part of sweat-gland training to achieve more regular and controlled sweating.”

5. If you want to sweat less, cold water is probably a much better bet than an ice pack. This isn’t all that surprising, but it points to an important, underappreciated fact about sweating: Our body is responding to our internal temperature, not our external temperature, as Rittié pointed out. Holding a cold pack up to your forehead (or anywhere else) “would cool you off somewhat by cooling down the blood that circulates in the skin that is in contact with the cold pack,” and “might also provide a sense of relief, especially when applied to areas where skin blood flow is the highest (cheeks for instance). But a cold pack remains a relatively small surface area compared to the rest of the body so this may not be obviously the most efficient way.”

Drinking cold water is much more effective, though, because of that external/internal thing — you get a lot more internal cooling out of a cup of chilled water heading down your throat and into your stomach. “Visualize cooling down the content of your stomach and thereby cooling down internal organs,” Rittié suggested. For those of us not looking forward to being drenched for large portions of the next three months, it’s definitely worth a shot.

(Correction: This article originally read that “All things being equal, one might expect people who grow up in hot parts of Africa without air conditioning to be much less sweaty than those who grow up in, say, the American Southwest with access to AC.” It should have read that Africans who grew up without air conditioning would likely be more sweaty later in life – as children, they’d have developed more active sweat glands to cope with the heat. The language has been corrected.)

90,000 What science knows about the smell of sweat

How a good mood is transmitted through the smell of sweat, what determines the individual characteristics of a person’s sense of smell and in which case the smell from dirty clothes seems less unpleasant, says the science department of Gazeta.Ru.

The degree of aversion to the smell of sweat depends on the relationship between people and their belonging to one or different social groups. Women are biologically predisposed to smell sweat more intensely, and the human genome is responsible for what this scent will be.In general, who knows, maybe with the smell you will convey the good mood of a sweating?

The study, the results of which were published in the latest issue of the journal PNAS, was aimed at finding differences in the perception of sweat odor of people belonging to or not belonging to a certain group (“friends” or “outsiders”). The work was carried out by a team of scientists from the University of St Andrews and the University of Sussex (UK). The authors of the work, using the example of sweaty T-shirts, showed that

Smelling dirty jerseys from your sports team is less disgusting than your opposing jerseys.

As subjects for the first experiment, 45 students from the University of Sussex were invited to sniff sports jerseys with the emblems of a competing university (University of Brighton). At the same time, the researchers took into account the following types of students’ self-determination: personal, university (in this case, belonging to rival universities played an important role) and student’s common for all (belonging to a large group of persons united by common interests).

In the second experiment, 90 participants in the control group were asked to test the flavors from T-shirts with the logo of their university or another, and, moreover, without a logo at all.Scientists paid attention to whether people would wash their hands after the experiment: since a person tries in any way to distance himself from the irritating object, the measure of disgust in this case was the frequency of hand washing, the amount of soap used and even the speed of going to the sink. It turned out that

subjects went to wash their hands faster and spent much more soap on it in the case when the T-shirt belonged to a representative of another group or an individual individual.

The results of the first experiment also confirmed this conclusion.Thus, the authors concluded that people belonging to the same social group are more pleasant to each other than people united in another group, or individualists who do not belong to a group.

Looking back at the earlier work on the perception of odors, one may find that the perception of smells is not so simple.Today, the sense of smell is considered the least studied sense, although evolutionarily it is one of the oldest. So, each person has 400 olfactory receptors in the nose, which allow us to feel about 10 thousand smells. Smells usually bind to their corresponding receptors, and then the information is sent to the brain for processing.

The set of receptors that perceive the same smell can differ in two different people by up to 30%, but it cannot be completely identical at all.

Research, published in the journal Nature, shows that an individual’s perception of odors is largely due to genetically derived information. In addition to DNA, many subjective factors affect the sense of smell. According to research by psychologists from the University of Wisconsin Madison,

Negative emotions strongly distort the perception of smells: under the influence of anxiety, scents that were previously neutral for a person seem unpleasant to him.

In addition, excessive consumption of fatty foods in healthy people leads to partial loss of smell, according to the study published in the Journal of Neuroscience from the University of Florida.

Despite all the difficulties associated with the study of odors, the scientific community does not give up trying to comprehend the essence of the human sense of smell and sometimes conducts very remarkable research for this.

Women turned out to be more sensitive

American scientists determined that only two out of 32 fragrances were able to interrupt the irritating smell of sweat in the case of women versus 19 out of 32 odors in men.But this ratio worked only when the smell came from the human body, otherwise the sensitivity of both sexes is the same. A possible reason is that females are evolutionarily more adapted to a more acute perception of the smell of sweat, since the information received can influence the choice of a mate for creating offspring.

Men’s sweat: from vanilla to urine

It turns out that men’s sweat can have a whole spectrum of odors, from vanilla to urine, and this is influenced by the DNA of the inhaler.Researchers at Duke University Medical Center published an article in the journal Nature Neuroscience. Scientists have focused on two chemicals, androsterone and androstadienone, produced in sweat and urine when the male sex hormone testosterone is released. As subjects, 391 volunteers were recruited, who were required to describe their feelings from the smell of the above substances. The descriptions received ranged from “vanilla and sweet” to “disgusting as piss.”After analyzing the DNA of the participants in the experiment, a correlation was found between the descriptions of the aroma and the genetic information of the subject.

This means that, along with the theories of smell perception, which emphasize belonging to a particular culture, his personal experience and personal memory, the DNA of the individual plays an important part in the variability of smell.

How to convey happiness

Hormones released from sweat can transmit both negative (as was previously known) and positive emotions, is described in study , published in the journal Psychological Science.It turns out that when a person is happy, their body produces chemical compounds, or chemosignals, that can be detected in the smell of sweat by other people.

Sweat reveals a communicative function: getting on the olfactory receptors, the smell of “happy” sweat at the hormonal level causes a feeling of happiness in the “receiver” person.

Men of the Caucasian race took part in the experiment. Particular attention was paid to the health of the subjects: they all should not smoke, take any medications and not have mental disorders.During the study, they were contraindicated to take alcohol, consume spicy and fatty foods, and exercise excessive physical activity. The essence of the experiment was that male donors watched video clips that evoked certain emotions in them (fear, happiness, or a neutral state). The armpits were thoroughly cleaned beforehand, and the sweat generated in each emotional state was collected on special tampons. As we already know, the female sense of smell is more sensitive to the smell of sweat, so it was women who evaluated the smell.The experiment used a double-blind method: neither the subjects nor the researchers had information about the smells tested. Observations of the reaction of female “receivers” led to the conclusion that good mood is transmitted through sweat, one might even say that it is contagious, like a smile, only now it is transmitted in a very specific way.

90,000 Scientists have figured out how to get rid of sweat odor without deodorant


Scientists have figured out how to get rid of sweat odor without deodorant

Scientists have figured out how to get rid of sweat odor without deodorant – RIA Novosti, 13.04.2019

Scientists have figured out how to get rid of sweat odor without deodorant

A solution containing particles of zinc oxide has proven to be a much more effective remedy for combating sweat odor than the most popular deodorants. About … RIA Novosti, 13.04.2019

2019-04-13T01: 00

2019-04-13T01: 00

2019-04-13T01: 00



Health – Society





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MOSCOW, April 13 – RIA Novosti. The solution containing particles of zinc oxide has proven to be much more effective in combating sweat odor than the most popular deodorants. At the ECCMID 2019 conference in the Netherlands, scientists spoke about the results of a test of this agent. Contrary to conventional wisdom, human sweat does not have its own odor. Its unique “aroma”, as well as the smell of worn socks and clothes, arises due to the vital activity of microbes that live on our skin.Some of them “eat” the organic matter contained in sweat and release various volatile compounds instead. Many modern deodorants kill these microbes in the armpits and other vulnerable parts of the body, where this smell usually comes from. Scientists recently discovered that such products radically change the skin microflora and make it vulnerable to inflammation, which led them to look for alternative ways to get rid of unpleasant odors. Agren and his colleagues, as the scientist himself puts it, actually accidentally created a replacement for deodorants, experimenting with zinc oxide (ZnO).As scientists have known for a long time, this substance has rather strong antibacterial properties, and it has long been used in dentistry, in the production of toothpaste and various medical instruments. Recently, it has begun to be considered as a disinfectant for open wounds and surgical sutures. In such experiments, Agren noticed that the emulsion solution of ZnO not only eliminated inflammation, but also destroyed all colonies of bacteria from the genera Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus. These microbes, according to the biologist, produce large amounts of fatty acids, which are now considered the main source of the unpleasant odor of sweat.This idea prompted him to test what would happen if this solution was treated not with a wound, but with the armpits of healthy people. Recruiting a group of three dozen volunteers, Agren and his colleagues asked them not to use deodorants for three weeks. Seven days after giving up antiperspirants, the scientists invited volunteers to their laboratory, collected sweat and microbial samples, and then treated their armpits with two “new deodorants.” In half of the cases, one of them was replaced with a dummy, which neither the participants in the experiments nor the experimenters knew about.Repeating this procedure every three days, the researchers asked the volunteers what their armpits smelled like and which remedy they thought was more effective. These experiments unexpectedly showed that the zinc oxide solution was very effective in this task, destroying all colonies of Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus on the skin of the volunteers. … The strength of its action was independent of the sex of the participants in the experiments, the level of acidity of their skin and its other properties, which were initially feared by Agren and his colleagues. Such successes, he said, had already attracted the attention of Colgate-Palmolive, one of the largest manufacturers of hygiene products in the world. …Scientists plan to conduct larger-scale experiments with its specialists in the near future.




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denmark, health – society, health, bacteria, hygiene, skin

MOSCOW, April 13 – RIA Novosti .The solution containing particles of zinc oxide has proven to be much more effective in combating sweat odor than the most popular deodorants. Scientists spoke about the results of testing this tool at the ECCMID 2019 conference in the Netherlands.

“The participants in our experiment constantly asked us,” Where can we buy this fantastic product? ” Notes Magnus Agren from Bispeberg Hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark.

Contrary to popular belief, human sweat does not have its own odor. Its unique “aroma”, as well as the smell of worn socks and clothes, arises due to the vital activity of microbes that live on our skin. Some of them “eat up” the organic matter contained in sweat and release various volatile compounds instead.

Many modern deodorants kill these germs in the armpits and other vulnerable parts of the body, where this smell usually comes from. Scientists recently discovered that such remedies radically change the microflora of the skin and make it vulnerable to inflammation, which led them to look for alternative ways to get rid of unpleasant odors.

19 May 2016, 17:23

Agren and his colleagues, as the scientist himself puts it, actually accidentally created a replacement for deodorants, experimenting with zinc oxide (ZnO). As scientists have known for a long time, this substance has rather strong antibacterial properties, and it has long been used in dentistry, in the production of toothpaste and various medical instruments.

Recently, it has begun to be considered as a disinfectant for open wounds and surgical sutures. Carrying out similar experiments, Agren noticed that the emulsion solution of ZnO not only eliminated inflammation, but also destroyed all colonies of bacteria from the genera Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus.

These microbes, as the biologist notes, produce large amounts of fatty acids, which today are considered the main source of the unpleasant odor of sweat. This idea prompted him to check what would happen if this solution was treated not with a wound, but with the armpits of healthy people.

After recruiting a group of three dozen volunteers, Agren and his colleagues asked them not to use deodorants for three weeks. Seven days after giving up antiperspirants, the scientists invited volunteers to their laboratory, collected sweat and microbial samples, and then treated their armpits with two “new deodorants.”

In half of the cases, one of them was replaced by a dummy, which neither the participants in the experiments nor the experimenters knew about. Repeating this procedure every three days, the scientists asked the volunteers how their armpits smelled and which remedy they considered more effective.

28 February 2018, 12:59 Science Biologists have found a connection between the sense of smell and the political ideals of people

These experiments showed unexpectedly that zinc oxide solution was very effective in this task, destroying all colonies of Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus on the skin of volunteers. The strength of its action did not depend on the gender of the participants in the experiments, the level of acidity of their skin and its other properties, which were initially feared by Agren and his colleagues.

Such successes, he says, have already caught the eye of Colgate-Palmolive, one of the largest manufacturers of hygiene products in the world.Scientists plan to conduct larger-scale experiments with its specialists in the near future.

sweaty shirt closer to the body

It is generally accepted that walking in sweat-smelling clothes is not only uncivilized, but also, to put it mildly, unattractive. However, British psychologists argue that wearing dirty clothes is the best way to attract the attention of the opposite sex, according to the Daily Mail.

If you are lonely on Valentine’s Day, do not despair: put on a sweaty shirt or T-shirt and go in search of new love.Chances are, luck will smile on you, says psychologist Gabrielle Froebes, who works closely with the British Royal Society of Chemistry. She published a study that says the odor of opposite sex sweat is incredibly attractive to both men and women.

The scientist writes that, as a teenager, she loved to wear the things of her young man, not realizing exactly why she was doing it. Moreover, her boyfriend also loved to walk in her T-shirts that fit his size.After discovering many years later that her 19-year-old son was also changing clothes with his girlfriend, Gabrielle Froebes came to the conclusion that people like to smell their partners. Breathing in the “scent” of the sweat of our beloved, we automatically strengthen the relationship, writes Frobes.

Such cases of “sweaty attraction” are known to history. So, Napoleon Bonaparte wrote to his wife Josephine, so that three days before his arrival, she would stop washing. Sweat odor also plays an important role in deodorant use.It is impossible to completely get rid of this “ambergris”, writes Gabriel Froebes, so people using the same perfume may smell differently.

However, you shouldn’t overdo it with the smell of sweat, the psychologist writes. Sweaty armpits, visible from under the shirt, hardly seem attractive to anyone. The best thing is for the smell of sweat to be just one component of the aromas emanating from you, says Froebes. Nice smells, of course.

90,000 Remedies for perspiration: 7 rules and 4 effective deodorants

The enemy needs to be studied, so let’s start with theory.Two types of glands are involved in the process of sweating: eccrine (located throughout the skin) and apocrine (concentrated mainly in the armpits and groin). By the way, sweat is odorless – 99% of it consists of water. The rest is salt and protein. But the secretion produced by the apocrine glands creates a breeding ground for bacteria that cause odor.

Your shirt gets wet from heat and stress. When sweat evaporates, it cools the body, preventing it from overheating, so it is released more in the heat.But why a person sweats when worried, no one really knows yet. There are several theories, but none of them have been proven. And if the whole body sweats from the heat, then from stress, as a rule, only the palms, face and armpits. In addition, “stress” sweat contains about 20% more nutrients for bacteria than thermal sweat, and therefore smells stronger.

There are two types of sweat control products. Deodorants do not get rid of sweat itself and are only meant to fight odor with fragrances and antibacterial ingredients.Antiperspirants, on the other hand, contain aluminum salts, which react with a little sweat to form a plug that simply blocks the release of fluid. Their effect usually lasts one to two days. For those who want everything at once, antiperspirant deodorants are suitable. Roll, solid, aerosols and even creams – choose the format to your liking. Unfortunately, deodorants can overpower the scent of a perfume, but many manufacturers – for example, in the Guerlain and Acqua di Parma lines – produce deodorant with the same scent in addition to eau de toilette or perfume.And antiperspirants, which practically do not smell, are produced by Lab Series and Clinique. They need to be applied to clean, dry skin and given a little time to absorb and dry, and in the middle of the day it can be useful to renew the layer of protection – for greater reliability.

If sweat is pouring from you in streams and conventional products cannot cope with this scourge, there are more serious options – antiperspirants with a high content of aluminum salts.

The most popular brands are Dry Dry. One use is usually enough for several days, but they can severely irritate and dry out the skin.Therefore, it is worth using such antiperspirants only if the problem really does not bother you. And it is better to use them at night, so that the aluminum salts have time to react and reliably block the secretion of sweat.

An even more radical way to fight sweat is injections of botulinum toxin, popularly known as botox. It is usually used as an anti-aging agent (it paralyzes muscles and prevents wrinkles from forming). But in the nineties, scientists accidentally (and what just did not happen in the nineties!) Noticed that botox reduces sweating.Since then, it has been injected for this purpose, usually in the armpits and less often in the palms and feet. According to dermatocosmetologist Natalia Lapatina, such a procedure is prescribed to correct excessive sweating, which is not based on a disease. For complete confidence in the state of his own health, before the appointment of the procedure, the patient undergoes certain laboratory tests. Botulinum toxin injections block the transmission of a nerve impulse that tells the glands to secrete sweat. It is important for patients to know that the sweat glands located in the armpits, on the palms and soles are more activated during excitement or stress and less responsive to an increase in body temperature.That is, the introduction of botulinum toxin does not affect the thermoregulation process. This means that you will not overheat even in summer. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia, the effect develops within one to two weeks and lasts for four to eight months. Such injections are made in clinics and salons that specialize in rejuvenation.

Stop List

You don’t have to inject yourself with Botox to regulate sweating. Instead, you can follow some simple rules.


In order not to interfere with the natural process of thermoregulation and to allow sweat to evaporate from the surface of the body, in summer it is worth wearing clothes made from natural fabrics – cotton, linen or silk. Synthetic materials interfere with evaporation, the body temperature rises, so sweat becomes more and more.


Wet spots are especially noticeable on plain light-colored clothing, so in order to hide them, it is better to choose T-shirts and shirts in dark or bright colors.And they will be least noticeable on clothes with a print.


If you work in an office, you should wear a T-shirt or T-shirt under your shirt. They will absorb sweat and keep your shirt clean. If you are sweating a lot, then carry spare T-shirts with you and change them throughout the day.


Since sweat does not smell on its own, it is not difficult to get rid of the smell with constant hygiene. Shower regularly, especially after exercise, and carry a pack of wet wipes with you to wipe your armpits from time to time.Any wipes will do – the main thing is that they do not irritate the skin.


Spicy foods should be avoided because they contain a substance called capsaicin, which sends a signal to the brain that the body is overheated. In response, the body begins to produce more sweat for cooling.


Drink cool, not hot drinks. This will help your body cool down without having to produce sweat for thermoregulation.


If you have already dabbed your sweaty forehead with a handkerchief several times before reaching this point, the problem may be worse than we thought.In this case, you cannot postpone a visit to the doctor: increased sweating can be a symptom of several diseases, and the doctor will prescribe tests to understand what caused it.

+ 4 effective remedies

What you need to know about underarm care?

Armpits permanently
undergoes various procedures to help remove hair: shaving, waxing, epilation.Moreover, on
they are constantly being treated with deodorants or antiperspirants. However, many
forget that in this area the skin is very delicate and requires care with moisturizing and
sedatives, as well as sunscreen.

Let’s first
find out why an unpleasant odor appears in this area. Presently
the bacterium Staphylococcus hominis is believed to be the main cause. These bacteria have
there are more of us under the arms than there are people on Earth. They recycle human sweat
which by nature is practically odorless.As a result of their
vital activity, hydrocarbon radicals of thiols are formed, which cause
the appearance of an unpleasant odor. At the moment, scientists are working on funds
which can force bacteria not to produce these substances, while not
by killing the bacteria themselves.


Armpits require
daily care. In addition to the fact that an unpleasant odor is formed in it, this is a zone
with very delicate and sensitive skin. There accumulates dirt, dead
skin cells and deodorant residues that need to be removed.

The first and the most
a simple rule of armpit care – this area must be washed daily.
Second, you should do a light scrub. For someone, a regular scrub is suitable for
body, but if the skin is very sensitive, then you can try a remedy for
faces. It is good if the scrub contains ingredients that soothe the skin, such
like scarlet faith. After a shower, apply a moisturizer all over the body,
including armpits.

It is believed that
clothing made from natural fabrics allows the skin to breathe and sweat evaporates faster.Therefore, it is worth giving preference to clean clothes made of cotton, silk and wool.

By the way, if you
noticed a change in smell or began to sweat much more than usual, it is worth
see a doctor. This could be one of the signs of a serious problem with the
organisms that are known to be the easiest to treat early


Getting rid of
hair in the armpit area has long been commonplace for almost everyone
girls.But to keep your skin soft and healthy, you should stick to
certain rules.

1. Shave

Shave should be done in
shower under warm water and in the direction of hair growth, while it is imperative
use a shaving gel or other product. Also worth changing frequently
a blade that is best kept dry when not in use.
We advise you to shave in the evening so that your skin recovers and rests at night. To that
immediately after shaving, the skin is especially sensitive, and the application of deodorant
may cause irritation or redness.

2. Hot wax

Hair removal
waxing is a rather painful procedure for such a delicate area. More
in addition, the skin is softer and therefore stretches more during removal
wax strips from the skin.

3. Laser

The best method for
armpit hair removal can be called laser hair removal. Unlike shaving
it does not damage or stretch the skin. It also causes less irritation and
considered a safe procedure.


Hyperpigmentation and
discoloration of the skin under the armpits
– frequent occurrences. There can be many reasons, but one of the most common
– excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays. Even if sun exposure
does not cause pigmentation, armpits may simply burn out.

carefully read how to properly protect yourself from the sun, and do not
forget about armpits! Other causes of hyperpigmentation can be malfunctioning
hormonal background or allergies.To find out the exact reason, you should
see a doctor.

and antiperspirants

First you should
figure out what is the difference between the two tools. Deodorant
neutralizes the smell of sweat. The remedy suppresses this process due to
antibacterial ingredients. Antiperspirants contain aluminum salts,
which partially block perspiration, preventing sweat from reaching the surface

Armpits – such
the same part of the body, like everyone else, which many forget to care for.This
the delicate area requires daily gentle care, which includes moisturizers
products and a gentle scrub, as well as protection from ultraviolet rays.

90,000 Andrei Konchalovsky disgusts sweaty people – Rambler / cinema

The organizers, under the leadership of the president of the show, Nikita Mikhalkov, who is absent from public events, put together a large and bright program.

The documentary film by Andrei Konchalovsky “Cheerful Man” – a kind of modern version of Nekrasov’s poem “Who Lives Well in Russia”, took part in the competition.Only in prose.

– Andrey Sergeevich, there are many legends about you. Your brother’s friend Alexander Adabashyan called you a changeable person in a recent interview with Express Gazeta. Do you agree?

– I am a cheerful person – otherwise I would not have presented my film during the pandemic at the Moscow Film Festival, and, yes, I am volatile. During his long life, he himself changed many times, and my views changed. He made many mistakes and was often wrong. My favorite author Chekhov is the expression “man of the field,” and I consider myself that kind of person.

– Do you consider yourself a common people?

– Despite the fact that I am a representative of the golden youth and so on, I have always felt good and feel near those who do not smell of sweat. From those who work in the field, sweat does not smell. And it smells from those who ride the subway and do not use deodorant. I don’t have a huge distance with ordinary people. Russia is a peasant country and our consciousness is peasant.

– How did Chekhov manage to diagnose Russia?

– When Anton Pavlovich was asked: “What is the Russian person lacking?”, He said: “Desire to desire.”And this is a very, very important quality. One English journalist, who worked for 15 years in Moscow, wrote in his influential newspaper that “the whole world cannot forgive the Russians for being first.” We are the first, but at the same time we are also the last.

– In your play “Uncle Vanya” based on Chekhov on the stage of the Theater. Mossovet’s wife Yulia Vysotskaya plays a kind, hardworking, bright girl Sonya, and in The Cherry Orchard she plays the depraved aristocrat Ranevskaya. Who is Julia in essence?

– Incomprehensible woman.For two decades of our marriage, I still do not understand who she is, and therefore I offer her different roles. And in my film “Dear Comrades!”, Which was shown in Venice, Yulia played a Soviet official, and some of her own features are also present in the heroine.

Non-contact fingerprint scanning and sweat drip detection

Everyone is more or less familiar with fingerprint scanners, and many use them on their smartphones every day. But even if you are used to unlocking the screen in a different way, you probably happened to encounter them when applying for a visa, when going through border control or in other situations – this method is very popular.

We have already discussed the advantages and disadvantages of using fingerprints for identity verification in terms of convenience and security risks, as well as other aspects. In this article, we will introduce two new fingerprint scanning methods that were presented at the largest mobile technology exhibition Mobile World Congress 2018.

How fingerprints are verified

There are many ways to check fingerprints, but they all usually require the person to put their finger on the sensor.A sensor can, for example, measure a small difference in electrical resistance across different parts of the fingertip and then draw a unique pattern of it using that data – or it can simply take a photo of the finger. Some sensors emit ultrasonic waves and capture their reflections in order to build an accurate 3D finger model based on the reflected echolocation signals. In general, there are plenty of options.

When asked to press your finger against the sensor to verify your identity, the device takes a fingerprint and compares it with the one stored in the database.If a sufficient number of certain lines in the image in the database coincide (or almost coincide) with the lines in the image that the scanner has just taken, your identity will be confirmed: you can unlock your smartphone, enter the country – in general, do what you need to do to be tested.

Do not touch with your hands

All of the above methods require you to touch the sensor for a second or two. But the technology is flawed: sometimes you have to wipe your finger and reapply it.The capacitive sensor does not work on damp skin, and the camera may smear the picture if you move your hand too quickly. It can also interfere with ultrasound scanning. In addition, unlocking your own smartphone this way is quite normal, but touching a sensor that thousands of people have touched before you will seem unhygienic to many. In addition, finger-kicking delays the queue too much where crowds need to be checked.

At MWC 2018, the French company Idemia presented a new fingerprint scanning method that does not need to touch anything.It is enough to move your hand a couple of centimeters above the surface of the scanner (you do not touch the sensor, so you are not afraid of bacteria) – and several built-in cameras will take a video of your hand in motion. After that, a machine learning based algorithm will create a 3D model of your fingers.

Cameras only work well in certain lighting conditions, so Idemia lights your hand green. You’ve probably seen similar scanners using cameras and green illumination before, however, unlike them, Idemia creates a 3D model rather than a 2D model.

Multiple cameras and 3D modeling give Idemia two significant advantages over a single camera that can only create an in-plane image. First, it is a combination of speed and accuracy: each camera takes more than ten images (recall that any video can be viewed as a sequence of photos), and the algorithm is fast enough to process them all in a split second. As a result, high-definition images are created incredibly quickly.Typically, the process of scanning, processing and comparing four fingerprints takes less than a second.

The second advantage, of course, is that you don’t have to touch anything. To take a good photo with a conventional scanner, you need to keep your fingers steady, that is, press them against the surface of the scanner. However, video shooting allows you not to worry about the quality of each individual frame: by analyzing them all together, the system will create a much higher quality image.Therefore, it is quite easy to quickly move your hand over the scanner.

Idemia believes that scanners of this kind will be used where fingerprints need to be checked as quickly as possible, such as at airports. They can also be used to screen employees at the entrance to the office so that they do not waste time and create queues at the door.

Will the scanner stop a zombie invasion?

Despite the high image quality, Idemia admitted that their method was not completely reliable.Such a scanner can be fooled, for example, by using a high-quality 3D copy of a hand. For reliability, French experts suggest using several types of authentication at the same time: for example, face or retina recognition along with fingerprint scanning. In addition, hardly anyone will be in full view of everyone at the airport waving an artificial hand, so an ordinary scanner and human eyes should be enough in most cases.

But there is another method that allows you to distinguish an inanimate object, such as an artificial (or cut off – you probably thought about it) hand, from the hand of a living person using a fingerprint scanner.This method was shown at Mobile World Congress 2018 by the Chinese company Real iDentity.

Its specialists suggest using traditional capacitive sensors and means of detecting microscopic drops of sweat. People, it turns out, sweat all the time: sometimes more, sometimes less, but there is always some amount of sweat. The scanner only confirms the identity if it sees the correct location of grooves and mounds on the pad of the finger, and microscopic beads of sweat. He cannot be fooled by a three-dimensional fake or a cut off finger: of course, there can be no sweat on them.

Real iDentity does not disclose the method used to detect sweat microdroplets. However, judging by previous publications in scientific journals, for this, an X-ray source and a photosensor can be used together with a capacitive sensor. Human sweat includes not only water and salt, but other chemical elements as well. For example, potassium, which absorbs X-rays and emits light in the process. By analyzing the radiation with a spectrometer, sweat can be distinguished from water or other substances.Theoretically, there is nothing to prevent combining the detection of microdroplets with the non-contact verification method, however, in the Real iDentity demo, it was necessary to touch the scanner.

No one has tested this method on zombies yet, but we are almost sure that zombies do not sweat, which means that the sensor will allow you to easily determine that a valuable employee has turned into a walking corpse.

Ah, those naughty fingers

These two technologies represent a step forward in fingerprint scanning techniques.While Idemia and Real iDentity technologies are unlikely to be used in all scanners, they will be able to use fingerprint verification in areas where it has not yet been used.