About all

Swollen gland on chest: Sarcoidosis | NHLBI, NIH


Sarcoidosis | NHLBI, NIH

If you have been diagnosed with sarcoidosis, it is important that you continue your medicine, follow up with your doctor when directed, and make healthy lifestyle changes. Also get support and take care of your mental health.

Some people may have life-long remission (where you do not have symptoms). Others may go into remission for a while and then have a flare, or return, of the disease. Read on below if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant.

Manage your condition

Even if you do not have symptoms, you should see your doctor for ongoing care. For example, your doctor will monitor you for side effects from long-term use of corticosteroids or other medicines. 

If the disease is not worsening, your doctor may watch you closely to see whether the disease goes away on its own. If the disease does start to get worse, your doctor can prescribe treatment.

Remission and flares

If your sarcoidosis goes into remission, your doctor may carefully stop your medicines. However, you will still need to watch for a flare. See your doctor if this happens. You may need another round of treatment.

Flares can be hard to predict. Most often, they happen within six months of stopping treatment. The longer you go without symptoms, the less likely you are to have a flare.

Tests for complications

Some people have sarcoidosis that persists or recurs for many years after diagnosis. This may be called chronic, severe, advanced, refractory, or progressive sarcoidosis. Your doctor may order tests to keep track of your condition and check for complications. Visit the Diagnosis section to learn about these tests.

Know when to seek medical care

Watch for the warning signs of complications that may require emergency medical treatment. These include signs of changes in vision that may be a sign of or brain tumors. Other complications that require immediate medical attention include kidney failure, sudden cardiac arrest, and sudden shortness of breath or muscle weakness.

Make healthy lifestyle changes

A healthy lifestyle may help you feel better and prevent sarcoidosis from getting worse.

  • Choose healthy foods. Eating more fruits and vegetables can provide important health benefits.
  • Aim for a healthy weight
  • Get regular physically activity. Fatigue can make it hard to exercise if you have sarcoidosis. However, physical activity can actually improve energy and help with other symptoms, such as shortness of breath and muscle weakness. Try to stay active but talk with your doctor about what level of physical activity is right for you.
  • Manage stress
  • Quit smoking. If you smoke, quit. Also, try to avoid other lung irritants, such as dust, chemicals, and secondhand smoke. Visit Smoking and Your Heart and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s Your Guide to a Healthy Heart. For free help quitting smoking, you may call the National Cancer Institute’s Smoking Quitline at 1-877-44U-QUIT (1-877-448-7848).
  • Try to get enough good quality sleep. Experts recommend that adults get 7 to 9 hours of sleep per day.

Learn more about these healthy lifestyle changes in our Heart-Healthy Living Health Topic.

Take care of your mental health

Sarcoidosis may make you feel lonely, anxious, or depressed. You may continue to feel fatigued even after your treatment has ended. But certain activities or treatments may help improve your mental health.

  • Counseling, particularly cognitive therapy, can be helpful.
  • Joining a patient support group may help you adjust to living with sarcoidosis. You can see how other people manage similar symptoms and their condition. Talk with your doctor about local support groups or check with an area medical center.
  • Medicines or other treatments. Your doctor may talk to you about medicines, such as antidepressants, or other treatments that can improve your quality of life.
  • Support from family and friends can help relieve stress and anxiety. Let your loved ones know how you feel and what they can do to help you.

Treating complications

If you have complications, your doctor may recommend the following medicines or procedures. Ask your doctor about the benefits and risks of any treatment.

Lung problems:

Heart problems:

Hormone problems:

  • If you have too much calcium in the blood or urine, you may need to avoid sunlight, drink plenty of fluids, and eat fewer foods with calcium.
  • Hormone replacement treatment for some types

Brain, nerve, or muscle problems:

  • Anti-seizure medicines if sarcoidosis affects your brain and causes seizures
  • Medicines for nerve or muscle pain
  • Physical therapy to improve muscle strength
  • Surgery to remove brain tumors

Severe organ damage. Transplant surgery may be needed if your sarcoidosis causes life-threatening lung, heart, or liver damage.

Pregnancy and sarcoidosis

Most women who have sarcoidosis give birth to healthy babies. However, there is a higher risk of certain complications, including:

  • Heavy bleeding after giving birth
  • Preterm delivery
  • Preeclampsia, which is high blood pressure and too much protein in the urine
  • Venous thromboembolism, which is a blood clot in the lungs or deep veins, usually in the legs

If you have sarcoidosis and are pregnant or planning to become pregnant, talk with your doctor. It is important to get good prenatal care and regular sarcoidosis checkups before, during, and after pregnancy. Talk to your doctor about any medicines you take. Some sarcoidosis medicines are not safe to take during pregnancy.

Enlarged Lymph Nodes in the Chest – laparoscopyindia.com

Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped glands throughout the body. They are part of the lymphatic system, which carries fluid (lymph fluid), nutrients, and waste material between the body tissues and the bloodstream. The lymphatic system is an important part of the immune system, the body’s defense system against disease. The lymph nodes filter lymph fluid as it flows through them, trapping bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances, which are then destroyed by special white blood cells called lymphocytes.

Lymph nodes in the chest (marked in green)

Lymph nodes may be found singly or in groups. And they may be as small as the head of a pin or as large as an olive. Groups of lymph nodes can be felt in the neck, groin, and underarms. They are also present throughout the chest adjacent to all the blood vessels to and from the internal organs.

Lymph nodes generally are not tender or painful. Most lymph nodes in the body cannot be felt. Lymph nodes often swell in one location when a problem such as an injury, infection, or tumor develops in or near the lymph node.

The main causes of enlargement of the lymph nodes in the chest are:

  1. A bacterial illness including tuberculosis
  2. Cancer, such as leukemia, Hodgkin’s disease, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
  3. Lung cancer
  4. Sarcoidosis

Enlarged lymph nodes inside the chest are usually suspected and diagnosed when tests such as a chest-ray or a CT scan are carried out during an illness such as fever for which no obvious cause is found (pyrexia of unknown origin). The patient may also have symptoms such as cough, diminished appetite or weight loss. In addition, the doctor may order certain blood tests to find out the cause of the enlarged lymph nodes.

Arrow points to enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes

As many diseases cause the lymph nodes in the chest to be enlarged and there is no certain way of knowing which disease is causing them to be enlarged doctors often require a small sample (biopsy) from the lymph nodes to make a clear diagnosis. Only after the diagnosis can the treated be started.

If along with enalarged lymph nodes in the chest there are lymph nodes in easily accessible areas such as the neck, under the armpits or groin doctors often get a needle sample from these (called fine needle aspiration cytology or FNAC) and send it to a pathologist. For diagnosis of certain diseases, e.g. lymphoma, the pathologist requires a large piece of the lymph node (biopsy). The biopsy may be carried out under local or general anaesthesia depending on the site of the enlarged nodes and patient and surgeon preference.
In patients who only have enlarged lymph nodes in the chest but no nodes elsewhere that can be easily biopsied, the situation is slightly different. It may be possible to biopsy lymph nodes at some locations inside the chest under the guidance of a CT scan. The doctor pass a fine needle to the area of the enlarged lymph nodes under local anaesthesia as the area is being monitored on a CT scanner.

CT-guided biopsy of mediastinal lymph nodes

Sometime the sample obtained using a CT guided biopsy is too small for the pathologists to give a definite diagnosis of the cause of enlarged lymph nodes. In some patients the enlarged lymph nodes may be located so close to important blood vessels or internal organs that it is risky to attempt putting a needle into them under CT guidance.

Traditionally such patients required an open operation on the chest to obtain a sample from the lymph nodes. Today many of the enlarged lymph nodes in the chest that cannot be biopsied under CT guidance (which is naturally the preferred method) patients can have a thoracoscopic biopsy of the lymph nodes.

Thoracoscopic lymph node biopsy is carried out under general anaesthesia. The surgeon makes a small (about 1-cm) incision and places a short tube called a cannula in the chest. To look inside the chest, the surgeon passes a telescope connected to a miniature video camera through the cannula. The telescope that picks up the picture of the inside of the chest and transmits it to a television screen. The surgeon then exposes the area of enlarged lymph nodes and obtains a biopsy with the help of special, long instruments introduced inside the chest through two other cannulas and by observing the picture of the operative site on the television screen. At the end of the procedure a small tube may be placed in the chest.
Usually the sample is sent to a pathologist immediately for processing (called frozen section) when the patient is under anaesthesia. This helps the surgeon, as the pathologist is able to indicate whether or not the sample is adequate and also is able to point to a tentative diagnosis. The final diagnosis often takes five to seven days as the sample has to be processed in a particular manner and special tests carried out on it. In case the sample is deemed inadequate the surgeon can obtain more samples before the patient is brought out of anesthesia.

Thoracoscopic mediastinal lymph node biopsy

  1. Ability to obtain adequate sample from lymph nodes under the magnified view
  2. Ability to remove even a single, small lymph node identified on the CT scan which may be difficult to biopsy under CT-guidance
  3. Less pain from the incisions after surgery
  4. Shorter hospital stay
  5. Shorter recovery time
  6. Faster return to work or normal activity
  7. Better cosmetic healing

Download Enlarged Lymph Nodes in the Chest Brochure

When Do Swollen Lymph Nodes Mean Cancer?

When you have swollen lymph nodes, your first thought shouldn’t be, “I have cancer.” They’re much more likely to be caused by infections or a disease that affects your immune system, and they will often clear up as your body heals.

But sometimes, cancer cells will travel through your bloodstream and end up in your lymph nodes, or even start there.

Your doctor can help you figure out what’s causing the changes in your body.

Why Lymph Nodes Swell

There are more than 600 small, kidney bean-shaped lymph nodes in clusters throughout your body — under your neck, in your armpits and groin, and in the middle of your chest and belly. These store immune cells and act as filters to remove germs, dead and damaged cells, and other waste from your body.

Swollen lymph nodes are a sign that they’re working hard. More immune cells may be going there, and more waste could be building up. Swelling usually signals an infection of some kind, but it could also be from a condition like rheumatoid arthritis or lupus, or rarely, cancer.

Often, swollen lymph nodes will be close to where the problem is. When you have strep throat, lymph nodes in your neck may swell. Women who have breast cancer may get swollen lymph nodes in their armpit.

When several areas of lymph nodes are swollen, that suggests the problem is throughout your body. It could be something like chickenpox, HIV, or a cancer such as leukemia or lymphoma.

When to See a Doctor

You’ll often have a good idea why a lymph node is swollen — you’ve got a cold, your tooth is infected, or you have a cut that isn’t healing well. If you can’t come up with an explanation, it may be time to get checked out.

Lymph nodes that are around 1/2 inch or bigger aren’t normal. They shouldn’t feel hard or rubbery, and you should be able to move them. The skin over them should not be red, irritated, or warm. And the swelling should go away within a couple of weeks. You should see your doctor if your lymph nodes appear abnormal.”

Other symptoms are also a reason to make an appointment:

Getting a Diagnosis

Your doctor will probably try to rule out reasons other than cancer first. They’ll do a physical exam and ask about things that have happened, like if you’ve:

  • Been scratched by a cat
  • Been bitten by a tick
  • Eaten undercooked meat
  • Had risky sex or injected street drugs
  • Traveled to certain places or areas

They’ll want to know what medications you’re taking and other symptoms you have.

Swollen nodes that are close to your collarbone or the lower part of your neck when you’re over 40 are more likely to be cancer. On the right side, related to the lungs and esophagus; on the left, organs in your belly. Swollen lymph nodes in your armpit when you don’t have a rash or sores on your arm can also be suspect.

If your doctor thinks your swollen lymph nodes could be cancer, tests and imaging can confirm the diagnosis or point to something else. Based on where the cancer might be, you could get a chest X-ray, an ultrasound, a CT scan, or an MRI. A scan called FDG-PET, which stands for fluorodeoxyglucose with positron emission tomography, can help find lymphoma and other cancers. And you’ll probably get a biopsy. They’ll take either a sample of cells from a node, typically using a needle, or remove a whole node. The sample gets sent to a lab so a specialist can check it with a microscope for cancer.

Otherwise, you’ll usually start with a complete blood count (CBC) to get a picture of your general health as well as more detailed information about your white blood cells, which fight infection. Depending on your other symptoms and your history, your doctor may want additional blood tests or x-rays, too.

If these tests don’t show another cause and the swollen nodes don’t go away in 3-4 weeks, your doctor will probably do a biopsy. Since the swelling will often go away or another cause will be found while you’re waiting to do a biopsy, the delay prevents people from getting procedures they don’t need. And even if it is cancer, you should still be able to treat it effectively.

When you have swollen lymph nodes throughout your body, your doctor will ask for a CBC, a chest X-ray, and an HIV test. If these are normal, you might get other tests, perhaps for tuberculosis or syphilis, an antinuclear antibody test (which checks your immune system), or a heterophile test (for the Epstein-Barr virus). The next step is a biopsy of the most abnormal node.

What Does Cancer in a Lymph Node Mean?

Cancer in your lymph nodes may point to lymphoma or another blood cancer, or may be a cancer that has spread from another site. 

Based on the source of the cancer cells and how far away that is from the swollen nodes, your doctor will recommend a treatment plan. It could include surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy, or a combination of treatments.

Signs and Symptoms of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) can cause many different signs and symptoms, depending on the type of lymphoma and where it is in the body. Sometimes it might not cause any symptoms until it grows quite large.

Having one or more symptoms doesn’t mean you definitely have lymphoma. In fact, many of the symptoms listed here are more likely to be caused by other conditions, such as an infection. Still, if you have any of these symptoms, have them checked by a doctor so that the cause can be found and treated, if needed.

Some common signs and symptoms include:

  • Enlarged lymph nodes
  • Chills
  • Weight loss
  • Fatigue (feeling very tired)
  • Swollen abdomen (belly)
  • Feeling full after only a small amount of food
  • Chest pain or pressure
  • Shortness of breath or cough
  • Severe or frequent infections
  • Easy bruising or bleeding

Some people with Non-Hodgkin lymphoma have what are known as B symptoms:

  • Fever (which can come and go over several days or weeks) without an infection
  • Drenching night sweats
  • Weight loss without trying (at least 10% of body weight over 6 months)

Swollen lymph nodes

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma can cause lymph nodes to become enlarged. Enlarged lymph nodes close to the surface of the body (such as on the sides of the neck, in the groin or underarm areas, or above the collar bone), may be seen or felt as lumps under the skin. These are usually not painful. 

Although enlarged lymph nodes are a common symptom of lymphoma, they are much more often caused by infections. Lymph nodes that grow in reaction to infection are called reactive nodes or hyperplastic nodes and are often tender to the touch.

Symptoms from lymphoma in the abdomen

Lymphomas that start or grow in the abdomen (belly) can cause swelling or pain in the abdomen. This could be from lymph nodes or organs such as the spleen or liver enlarging, but it can also be caused by the build-up of large amounts of fluid. 

An enlarged spleen might press on the stomach, which can cause a loss of appetite and feeling full after only a small meal.

Lymphomas in the stomach or intestines can cause abdominal pain, nausea, or vomiting. 

Symptoms from lymphoma in the chest 

When lymphoma starts in the thymus or lymph nodes in the chest, it may press on the nearby trachea (windpipe), which can cause coughing, trouble breathing, or a feeling of chest pain or pressure.

The superior vena cava (SVC) is the large vein that carries blood from the head and arms back to the heart. It passes near the thymus and lymph nodes inside the chest. Lymphomas in this area may push on the SVC, which can cause the blood to back up in the veins. This can lead to swelling (and sometimes a bluish-red color) in the head, arms, and upper chest. It can also cause trouble breathing and a change in consciousness if it affects the brain. This is called SVC syndrome. It can be life-threatening and must be treated right away.

Symptoms from lymphoma affecting the brain 

Lymphomas of the brain, called primary brain lymphomas, can cause headache, trouble thinking, weakness in parts of the body, personality changes, and sometimes seizures.

Other types of lymphoma can spread to the area around the brain and spinal cord. This can cause problems such as double vision, facial numbness, and trouble speaking.

Symptoms from lymphoma in the skin 

Lymphomas of the skin may be seen or felt. They often appear as itchy, red or purple lumps or bumps under the skin. For more details, see Lymphoma of the Skin.

Identify Symptoms and Signs of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

The human body has more than 500 lymph nodes connected through a network of lymph vessels. The neck, armpits, groin, abdomen, pelvis and chest have clusters of lymph nodes. These bean-shaped glands produce immune cells and filter impurities from the lymphatic system and bloodstream. It is possible for non-Hodgkin lymphoma to develop anywhere in the body where lymph nodes exist. The disease also may affect organs, such as the liver, stomach and lungs.

Early warning signs of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Because many types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma involve different organs, signs and symptoms may vary depending on the type, location and stage of the disease. Symptoms tend to be fairly non-specific and may share similar characteristics with other illnesses, such as a cold, the flu or a respiratory infection. About two-thirds of people with non-Hodgkin lymphoma experience swelling in their lymph nodes, according to an article in StatPearls. Some people may not experience any apparent symptoms until the cancer becomes advanced.

One of the most common signs of non-Hodgkin lymphoma is enlargement of one or more of the lymph nodes, which causes a non-painful lump under the skin. Most commonly, this occurs on the side of the neck, under the arm or in the groin region. Sudden and unexplained weight loss is also a common early warning sign of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Other common non-Hodgkin lymphoma symptoms include:

  • Fever
  • Night sweats (often soaking the sheets) and/or chills
  • Persistent fatigue, lethargy, weakness
  • Loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting
  • Abdominal pain or swelling, or a feeling of fullness
  • Skin rash or itchy skin
  • Coughing or shortness of breath
  • Headaches
  • Difficulty moving parts of the body
  • Pain in the chest, abdomen or bones for no known reason

When the lymph system detects an infection, lymph nodes produce more immune cells,which may cause them to swell. Swollen lymph nodes, a fever and night sweats may also be symptoms of the cold and flu. However, unlike the cold and flu, non-Hodgkin lymphoma symptoms typically do not go away. If you have symptoms that persist for more than two weeks, or symptoms are recurring and becoming more intense, you should see your doctor.

Sudden and dramatic weight loss, such as losing more than 10 percent of your normal weight in less than six months, is also a sign that deserves medical attention. Sometimes, a patient’s only sign of non-Hodgkin lymphoma is constant fatigue.

Symptoms based on location and type

Symptoms may be different depending on the location and type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. For example, lymphoma that develops in the abdominal area may cause belly pain or swelling. Cancer in the stomach or intestines may come with belly pain, nausea or vomiting. If the spleen is affected, such as in mantle cell lymphoma, patients may experience feelings of fullness or poor appetite due to the enlarged spleen putting pressure on the stomach.

Lymphoma in the chest, such as primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, may put pressure on important areas such as the windpipe or the superior vena cava, a large and crucial vein. A tumor that presses on the windpipe may lead to symptoms such as coughing, difficulty breathing and chest pain. Pressure on the superior vena cava may result in symptoms such as difficulty breathing, swelling and color changes in the head, arms and upper chest.

Lymphoma that occurs in the central nervous system, such as the brain and spinal cord, may result in double vision, numbness in the face and difficulty speaking. Primary brain lymphomas may come with headaches, muddled thinking, weakness, changes in personality and seizures. Lymphoma in the skin may be apparent to the eye and show up as masses or bumps under the skin that are itchy, red or purple.

Also, some lymphomas occur in the female reproductive system, such as the ovaries, uterus, cervix, vagina and vulva. Lymphoma in this region may cause a mass in the pelvis that may be seen or felt, as well as pelvic pain or pressure, vaginal bleeding and discharge.

Other types of lymphoma

All lymphomas start in a particular type of cell called a lymphocyte. Some affect B lymphocytes (B cells), while others affect T lymphocytes (T cells) and, rarely, natural killer (NK) cells. While most lymphomas start in B cells, a minority—less than 15 percent of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas—are T-cell lymphomas, and fewer than 1 percent affect natural killer cells.

T-cell lymphomas and natural killer T-cell lymphomas may have different symptoms depending on the subtype and location of the cancer. Below are some of the different types of T-cell lymphomas and their associated symptoms.

  • Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCLNOS) often causes symptoms such as fever, night sweats and unintentional weight loss.
  • Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) may come with symptoms such as fever, backache, painless swelling of lymph nodes, poor appetite, itchy skin, rashes and fatigue.
  • Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) often causes symptoms such as fever, night sweats, rashes and itchy skin.
  • Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) may cause skin changes, which may include flat, rash-looking patches; thick, raised and itchy eczema-like plaques; and raised bumps.
  • Aggressive natural killer (NK) cell leukemia may come with symptoms such as fever, yellowing of the skin (jaundice), swollen lymph nodes, swelling of the liver or spleen, and potentially skin changes.
  • Extranodal natural killer (NK) T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, often causes a blocked nose, bloody nasal discharge, swelling of the cheek, sore throat, hoarseness, fever and weight loss.

SVC syndrome

Lymphomas may occur anywhere in the network of lymph vessels throughout the body. Tumors or swollen lymph nodes in the chest area may squeeze the superior vena cava, a major vein feeding into the heart.

When this happens, blood from the head, arms and chest may get backed up and cause swelling, or turn the skin to a bluish-red color. This condition may become severe and require medical treatment, especially if the oxygen supply to the brain becomes restricted.

B symptoms

B symptoms are a group of general symptoms that may be indicators of an aggressive lymphoma. B lymphoma symptoms are often identified during the staging process to help determine an overall prognosis and guide treatment decisions.

The staging process generally measures the extent and spread of cancer using the numbers 1 through 4. The staging of non-Hodgkin lymphoma is unique in that it also assigns the letters A and B to each stage. The letters indicate whether certain symptoms are present.

The letter B indicates that the patient is experiencing one or more of the following symptoms: drenching night sweats, fever or unexplained weight loss. If none of these symptoms has developed, the letter A is used. B symptoms may be signs of a more advanced cancer.

Conditions that may cause similar symptoms

Having one or a couple of symptoms associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma doesn’t mean that you have cancer. Many of these symptoms, particularly the swelling of lymph nodes, are often due to more common problems.

Inflammation in the lymph nodes and other lymphoma-like symptoms may be caused by different types of infections, according to an article in The Oncologist. These infections include those caused by streptococcal bacteria (which causes strep throat and other illnesses) and viruses like the Epstein-Barr virus (which causes mononucleosis and other illnesses). Autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and Sjogren’s syndrome may also cause enlarged lymph nodes.

Drug hypersensitivity reactions (allergic or abnormal responses to medicines) may cause lymphoma-like symptoms including lymph node swelling, fever, rash and high white blood cell counts. Anticonvulsants, penicillins and aspirin are some examples of drugs that are more likely to cause these types of reactions.

Rarer conditions may also be confused with lymphoma, such as:

  • Sarcoidosis
  • Amyloidosis
  • Kikuchi’s disease
  • Rosai-Dorfman disease
  • Castleman’s disease
  • Lymphomatoid granulomatosis
  • Lymphomatoid papulosis

What to do if you notice symptoms

If you’re experiencing symptoms that may indicate non-Hodgkin lymphoma, it’s important to see a doctor who may help you discover the cause. At the appointment, your doctor will likely ask questions about your symptoms and decide how to proceed.

The doctor may want to conduct a physical exam focused on feeling for swelling or abnormalities in your lymph nodes and other areas that are commonly affected by lymphoma. Depending on your symptoms, your doctor may recommend a blood test or other tests. At this stage, when you’re experiencing lymphoma-like symptoms but are unsure of the cause, some of the questions you may want to ask your doctor include:

  • What are some of the potential causes of my symptoms?
  • How will you determine the cause of my symptoms?
  • How will you determine whether or not I have lymphoma?
  • What kind of tests may I need?

Swollen Glands Can Signal Illness

If you’ve ever had strep throat, chances are you’ve experienced swollen glands.

Your body has a system of lymph nodes, or lymph glands, that can be found primarily in your neck, chin, armpits, chest and groin. The lymph nodes act as a filter for your body, trapping viruses and bacteria before they can affect other parts of your body.

Generally speaking, when your lymph nodes are swollen, it’s due to an infection or underlying disease.

You may first notice pain or tenderness around the affected lymph node, which may swell to the size of a pea or kidney bean. Other symptoms that often accompany swollen lymph nodes can include runny nose, sore throat, coughing and other signs of an upper respiratory infection; fever or night sweats.

Some of the more common causes for swollen lymph nodes include viral or bacterial infections such as the common cold, mono or strep throat. As the infection clears up, the swelling goes down.

Your doctor may prescribe antibiotics to treat an underlying bacterial infection or recommend ibuprofen or acetaminophen to lower a fever or ease pain. Warm compresses may also help reduce swelling.

In other cases, swollen lymph nodes may indicate an underlying disease such as auto immune disorders including lupus or rheumatoid arthritis. In those cases, your doctor will work with you to treat the underlying disease.

Though not as common, swollen lymph nodes can also indicate cancer, in which case treatment could include surgery, radiation or chemotherapy.

In the most common cases, swelling should go down as the infection clears up. This could take about two weeks. In more serious cases, such as cancer, swelling may be chronic and not resolve.

You should contact your doctor if the swelling persists and does not resolve within two to four weeks, if the lymph nodes feel hard or rubbery, if the swelling occurs with unexplained weight loss, night sweats or a persistent fever or if the swelling appears with no cause.

When your medical needs can’t wait, Edward-Elmhurst Health has board-certified providers ready to treat your non-emergency urgencies. Find a Walk-In Clinic or Immediate Care Center near you.

Swollen Lymph Nodes | HealthLink BC

Topic Overview

What are lymph nodes?

Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped glands throughout the body. They are part of the lymph system, which carries fluid (lymph fluid), nutrients, and waste material between the body tissues and the bloodstream.

The lymph system is an important part of the immune system, the body’s defence system against disease. The lymph nodes filter lymph fluid as it flows through them, trapping bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances, which are then destroyed by special white blood cells called lymphocytes.

Lymph nodes may be found singly or in groups. And they may be as small as the head of a pin or as large as an olive. Groups of lymph nodes can be felt in the neck, groin, and underarms. Lymph nodes generally are not tender or painful. Most lymph nodes in the body cannot be felt.

What causes swollen lymph nodes?

Lymph nodes often swell in one location when a problem such as an injury, infection, or tumour develops in or near the lymph node. Which lymph nodes are swollen can help identify the problem.

  • The glands on either side of the neck, under the jaw, or behind the ears commonly swell when you have a cold or sore throat. Glands can also swell following an injury, such as a cut or bite, near the gland or when a tumour or infection occurs in the mouth, head, or neck.
  • Glands in the armpit (axillary lymph nodes) may swell from an injury or infection to the arm or hand. A rare cause of axillary swelling may be breast cancer or lymphoma.
  • The lymph nodes in the groin (femoral or inguinal lymph nodes) may swell from an injury or infection in the foot, leg, groin, or genitals. In rare cases, testicular cancer, lymphoma, or melanoma may cause a lump in this area.
  • Glands above the collarbone (supraclavicular lymph nodes) may swell from an infection or tumour in the areas of the lungs, breasts, neck, or abdomen.

Common sites for swollen lymph nodes include the neck, groin, and underarms.

What does it mean when lymph nodes swell in two or more areas of the body?

When lymph nodes swell in two or more areas of the body, it is called generalized lymphadenopathy. This may be caused by:

  • A viral illness, such as measles, rubella, chickenpox (varicella), or mumps.
  • Mononucleosis(Epstein-Barr virus), which results in fever, sore throat, and fatigue, or cytomegalovirus (CMV), a viral infection that causes symptoms similar to those of mononucleosis.
  • A bacterial illness, such as strep throat (caused by the streptococcus bacterium) or Lyme disease (a bacterial infection spread by certain types of ticks).
  • Side effects of phenytoin (Dilantin), a medicine used to prevent seizures.
  • Side effects of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination.
  • Cancer, such as leukemia, Hodgkin’s disease, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
  • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which develops after a person contracts HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). This virus attacks the immune system, making it difficult for the body to fight off infection and some disease.
  • Syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection.

How are swollen lymph nodes treated?

Treatment for swollen glands focuses on treating the cause. For example, a bacterial infection may be treated with antibiotics, while a viral infection often goes away on its own. If cancer is suspected, a biopsy may be done to confirm the diagnosis.

Any swollen lymph nodes that don’t go away or return to normal size within about a month should be checked by your doctor.

How long will lymph nodes remain swollen?

Lymph nodes may remain swollen or firm long after an initial infection is gone. This is especially true in children, whose glands may decrease in size while remaining firm and visible for many weeks.

Lactostasis | Women’s consultation number 22

Lactostasis – stagnation of milk in the ducts of the mammary glands. A woman’s mammary gland, on average, consists of 15-25 acini, in which milk is synthesized. The acini are connected to the nipple by ducts. If any acinus does not get rid of its production for several days or one of the ducts is compressed, a milk plug is formed, which prevents the secretion of the gland from secreting into the external environment. Thus, milk stagnation occurs in one or more segments of the mammary gland.Long-term lactostasis ends in mastitis.

Causes of lactostasis:

– Insufficient emptying of the mammary glands, due to improper attachment of the child, as a result, not all breast lobes are emptied.
– Inappropriate adherence to the breast when feeding with two fingers, while the index finger can squeeze some of the ducts.
– Irregular and insufficient emptying of the breast
– Tight bra, sleeping on the stomach
– Incomplete emptying of the breast due to sagging of the lower part of it
– Cracked nipple
– Narrow ducts of the mammary glands
– Excessive production of breast milk by the mammary gland – overlactation

– Stress, overwork and lack of sleep
– Injuries and bruises of the mammary glands
– Hypothermia of the mammary glands

Symptoms of lactostasis:

– Painful sensations in the mammary gland
– You can feel the lumps (dense lumps) in the breast in some places
– Sometimes reddening of the skin on the mammary gland
– After or during the process of emptying the breast, painful sensations, discomfort occur.

Measures to eliminate lactostasis:

1. Pay attention to the correct attachment of the baby to the breast. If the baby does not suckle or suckles poorly, it is necessary to express milk by hand or with a breast pump.
2. More often attach the baby to the sore breast, not forgetting about the healthy one.
3. Before applying, apply dry heat to the breast to facilitate milk flow.
4. Massage your breasts regularly with gentle and smooth movements from the periphery to the center. 5.Never crush fabrics
6.Start taking a warm shower or warm bath before breastfeeding to help milk flow.
7. Apply cold for 15-20 minutes after feeding. It reduces swelling, pain, and inflammation. You can apply cool, cleanly washed cabbage leaves to your chest
8. Adequate water-salt regime, you cannot limit the liquid – you need to drink enough so that you do not feel thirsty.
9. It is advisable to express the diseased breast before feeding.
10. When the body temperature rises to 38 degrees, it is necessary to seek advice from a specialist: a mammologist.

Remember that lactostasis that is not eliminated within two days can lead to mastitis.

Prevention of lactostasis:

– Free feeding (feeding on demand)
– Correct attachment to the breast, where the baby can suck milk from different areas of the breast. The baby must grasp the breast correctly

– Hold the breast without pressure when feeding.
– Sleep on your back and on your side
– Wear supportive but not constricting underwear
– Protect your chest from bumps and bruises, severe hypothermia

When is urgent straining required?

– a lump or painful area has appeared in the mammary gland, which you cannot eliminate on your own for more than a day;

– redness of the skin appeared over the area of ​​compaction or soreness, the mammary gland became hot to the touch;

– a flu-like syndrome appeared (body aches, fever, general malaise) against the background of compaction or soreness in the mammary gland;

– against the background of the above symptoms, milk is separated sluggishly, drop by drop.

The help of our mammologists will allow not only to preserve lactation, but also to make breastfeeding painless and comfortable for you and your baby!

How much does it cost?

You can see the actual prices for services in the section “Services and prices”. And also, learn about the current discounts in the “Promotions” section.

What is included in the price?

Consultation with a mammologist, examination of the mother, identification and prevention of lactation problems, breast pumping, training in breast care, breast self-massage, effective attachment and expression, practicing attachment skills in different positions, practical recommendations, telephone support.

How does it happen?

During the consultation, the doctor will assess the general condition of the nursing mother, examine the mammary glands. Based on the results, he will give an opinion and recommendations on restoring normal lactation and preventing problems in the future. He will teach you how to properly attach the baby to the breast, self-massage, self-pumping, and answer all your questions.

Straining is performed after examining the mammary glands. It is necessary in all cases of violation of the outflow of milk from the breast.
For lactostasis, physiotherapeutic methods of treatment are also used (according to indications).

Physiotherapy treatments:

Ultrasound therapy for lactostasis allows you to quickly and painlessly eliminate congestion in the mammary gland. In our work we use professional ultrasound equipment. Ultrasound improves milk flow, blood and lymph flow, has an anti-inflammatory effect, which is important for the prevention of mastitis. The ultrasound probe is used to massage the breast over the lump.After the procedure, milk leaves much easier. The use of ultrasound is effective and safe for breastfeeding.

To eliminate lactostasis, the effect of laser radiation on the area of ​​the mammary glands is especially effective. The unique properties of the laser increase local immunity, reduce the intensity of pain, reduce tissue edema, eliminate inflammation, improve overall well-being, and significantly increase the quality of milk and its outflow.
The procedure is absolutely safe and comfortable for patients.

What will be the result?

You will feel better immediately. In the mammary gland, tension, a feeling of heaviness and pain will go away. The outflow of milk will be restored, the temperature will return to normal. You will receive knowledge, skills and personal advice for further successful breastfeeding!

Complex use of modern equipment, unique techniques, medical approach and professionalism of breastfeeding specialists allow us to achieve high results!

90,000 The main questions are answered by the oncologist-mammologist R.A. Temnikov

Ask yourself: When was the last time you had your breast exam? Do it now without delay. Every year in Russia more than 57 thousand women are diagnosed with breast cancer, and about 40 percent of them are in advanced stages. Check yourself – and be healthy!

Breast cancer is well diagnosed and treated effectively if it can be detected early. Timely diagnostics helps to preserve the life and health of many patients.

If diagnosed early, up to 98% of women recover.

Let’s ask questions on such an important topic as the health of the female breast, to the candidate of medical sciences, surgeon, oncologist-mammologist, member of the Association of Oncologists of Russia, doctor of the highest category of the SOVA medical clinic, Roman Aleksandrovich Temnikov.

– Roman Alexandrovich, let’s start with the main thing: when and how often do you need to see a mammologist? What symptoms should alert a woman in the first place?

– All girls and women from adolescence should undergo a preventive examination by a mammologist at least once a year, especially if you are going to take hormonal medications or you are planning a pregnancy.A visit to a mammologist is mandatory if you are concerned about pain in the mammary glands; any discharge from the nipples; you have a chest injury; feeling the mammary gland, they noticed a seal; felt soreness in the axillary lymph nodes; one breast has become noticeably larger than the other or has changed its usual shape; breastfeeding, and the mammary glands became painful, swollen, the body temperature rose to 38 degrees or more. These symptoms may indicate mastitis, mastopathy, breast cancer, neoplasms, and other diseases.

– What are the modern methods of diagnosing breast diseases?

– Women between the ages of twenty and forty must be examined at least once every two years – to do an ultrasound of the mammary glands, women over forty – once every two years to do a mammogram, an X-ray examination of the mammary glands, even in the absence of complaints and symptoms … Today, all the necessary examinations, which complement each other, can be carried out in our medical clinic on high-precision equipment of an expert class – a digital X-ray machine “Clinomat” by “Italray” and the latest mammography “Giotto Image”.The advantage of multidisciplinary clinics, such as SOVA, is that doctors work in one bundle. Examination and diagnosis will take you a minimum of time.

– What are the most common diseases of the mammary glands today?

– According to medical statistics, every third woman is faced with diseases of the mammary glands. Most often it is mastopathy, which is also called “fibrocystic disease”. Mastopathy is a diagnosis that may precede cancer.I often hear from patients: “I am being observed about mastopathy.” This is fundamentally wrong. Mastopathy should not be observed, but treated. And to be more precise – to treat not the mastopathy itself, but its cause – hormonal disorders in the woman’s body.

– In addition to mastopathy, fibroadenoma is often found in women under 35 years of age. What is breast fibroadenoma?

– Fibroadenoma is a benign breast tumor, one of the forms of nodular mastopathy.It occurs against the background of hormonal imbalance. It is felt as a dense, painless formation of a rounded shape, mobile and not associated with the skin. It can be from 0.2–0.5 mm to 5–7 centimeters in diameter. They are most often found in their breasts by young women.

– How is the operation to remove fibroadenoma and how long does it take to stay in the hospital?

– To begin with, the operating room at the SOVA clinic is equipped with the latest technology from the world’s leading manufacturers, up to the point that the walls can change color depending on the patient’s wishes.Someone likes green more, someone calms blue. Removal of a fibroadenoma takes 15 to 40 minutes. Most often, only the fibroadenoma itself is removed, the breast tissue does not suffer. The seams are applied cosmetic, unobtrusive. Subsequently, the patients cannot find the place on the chest where the surgery was performed. You only need to stay in the hospital for one day.

– If the fibroadenoma is not removed, what are the consequences?

– Firstly, fibroadenoma is a precancerous disease, so you shouldn’t risk it.Secondly, fibroadenoma should be removed when it is small. If tightened, it may increase. Then the cosmetic effect will be worse.

– When does a mastectomy (removal) of the mammary glands occur?

– The main diagnosis requiring the removal of the mammary gland is its cancerous lesion. True, very rarely such an indication has a purulent lesion, but only if the abscess occupies the entire mammary gland, and there are no ways to clean it.First of all, a woman must understand: the earlier a diagnosis of cancer is made, the more effective the treatment result. If at the first stage of breast cancer the five-year survival rate is 95–98 percent, then at the fourth stage it is 0–10 percent. If the diagnosis is made early, there are chances to save the mammary gland, that is, during the operation, only part of the gland is removed.

– How do you feel about folk remedies for the treatment of breast diseases?

– If we are talking about cancer, then my attitude is negative.While a woman goes to various healers, she loses precious time. It is in this case that the delay is like death. – What recommendations could you give to women? – The most important thing for me and my colleagues is to prevent and diagnose the initial forms of diseases, primarily breast cancer. But women themselves should be interested in this, because it is so easy to make it a rule to visit a gynecologist once every six months and a mammologist once a year. And if for some reason you cannot come to our clinic (recent birth, breastfeeding, high fever and other reasons), you can always call a mammologist at home.

– Roman Alexandrovich, what would you wish your patients the most?

– Of course, female happiness, a positive attitude towards life and health for my patients and their loved ones.

You can make an appointment with surgeons, oncologists-mammologists of the SOVA clinic by calling +7 (8452) 911-112.

“Breasts can be preserved in the early stages.” Mammologist – About Cancer Prevention | HEALTH: Events | HEALTH

October – World Breast Cancer Month.Breast cancer is in the first place among oncological diseases of women, and the incidence is constantly growing. Nevertheless, in 94% of cases, early diagnosis leads to a complete cure. Artur Keshabyan, head of the mammology department of GBUZ CODE №1, Candidate of Medical Sciences, tells how to preserve women’s health and not get cancer.

Many who have overcome the disease

Tatiana Zakharova, AiF-Yug: Artur Aramovich, preventive actions are taking place in medical institutions in October.What is their purpose?

Artur Keshabyan : Breast cancer is a problem of social significance, since it ranks first in the structure of cancer incidence in women. Month of the fight against breast cancer is held to inform as many women as possible about this disease, to tell how serious the risk is, and also about the main weapon against breast cancer – regular check-ups with a doctor.

– Who is at risk?

– Breast cancer affects the body of women of all ages, both young and old.Every 20 minutes, one woman in the world falls ill. A quarter of all cases are of childbearing age. More than 23 thousand women diagnosed with malignant formation of the breast are registered with regional oncologists.

This is due, first of all, to chronic stress, improper selection of contraceptive drugs, diseases of the pelvic organs, gastrointestinal tract and endocrine system. However, not only the number of patients has increased, but also the number of those who have conquered the disease, since early diagnosis has improved significantly.

Over the past five years in the Kuban, oncologists have detected on average about 2.5 thousand new cases of malignant breast tumors per year. Most of it, thanks to regularly conducted preventive actions, is detected in the early stages.

Whether to delete or not depends on stage

– Many people call mastopathy a harbinger of breast cancer. Is it so?

– Mastopathy is a generalized name for benign neoplastic diseases of the breast.The overgrowing cells form seals and cysts of different sizes, causing pain, a feeling of heaviness and other unpleasant sensations. With the right treatment, the tumor can be shrunk or completely removed. Without a modern approach, the condition can worsen.

– Can new lesions appear after removal of these tumors?

– There is a risk, since the tumor does not arise from scratch. Most often, hormonal changes lead to this pathology.Naturally, during the operation, the changes will not disappear anywhere, we only remove the consequences. Therefore, women who have been operated on for any benign formations of the mammary glands should be constantly monitored by a mammologist.

– When do you have to completely remove the mammary glands?

– This operation is performed for breast cancer. First of all, a woman should understand that the earlier she was diagnosed with “cancer”, the more effective the treatment result will be.

If at the first stage of breast cancer 98% survive, then at the fourth stage – less than ten. If the diagnosis of breast cancer is made at an early stage, there is a chance to save the breast, it is not necessary to remove it completely.

“Be friends with the mammologist”

– Most women first go to a mammologist after pregnancy and childbirth. And as doctors think: when is it necessary to see this specialist for the first time?

– The breast must be monitored from the moment it begins to grow.In adolescence, when the mammary glands begin to form, the girl needs to be shown to a specialist. At the age of 14-15, due to hormonal disorders in the body, fibroadenomas (benign tumors) may appear. Therefore, mothers should carefully monitor the health of their daughters so that they do not have problems in the future.

– Is there a difference between breast ultrasound and mammography? How often do you need to undergo medical examinations? And how to conduct self-diagnosis correctly?

– All women, regardless of age, need to examine the mammary glands on a monthly basis.This should be done while lying on the bed and standing under the shower: then the mammary gland becomes softer, and deeper areas are palpated. If you find some kind of seal in yourself, you must definitely consult a mammologist.

In addition, from the age of 18, you should undergo a gynecological examination once a year, from the age of 25 – an ultrasound of the pelvic organs and mammary glands every two years. After 40 years, mammography every two years, and after 50 years – annually.

Concerning ultrasound and mammography.Ultrasound of the mammary glands is prescribed for women under 40 years of age, when they are dense enough and the results of mammography in this situation are not indicative.

Initial symptoms of breast cancer

Nipple wounds. The oncological process causes the appearance of small wounds that do not heal for a long time. They turn into ulcers. Some of them merge together. They can form on the nipple, areola, skin.

Nipple discharge . They can be the norm during pregnancy and breastfeeding.In other cases, it is a sign of the disease. The color of the discharge depends on how the disease proceeds: transparent; dull whitish; bloody; purulent; yellowish.

Nipple retraction . Changes often indicate the presence of a pathological process. The tumor invades the tissue, causing it to be pulled inward. The nipple can also become deformed and flattened.

Lumps on the chest, visible on palpation. Statistics say that about 70% of women who have been diagnosed with cancer have noticed a lump on palpation.This is what made them turn to a specialist. This is often a benign tumor. But it is dangerous with the likelihood of being reborn into cancer.

Slight breast tenderness . Pain in women of childbearing age is caused by the stimulation of hormones. However, along with other signs, it serves as a reason to see a doctor.

Change of shape. Breasts may vary slightly in size. This asymmetry is only noticeable upon close examination.In a malignant process, it is so visible that it catches the eye.

Chest discomfort. The feeling of swelling, soreness is often associated with the menstrual cycle. However, if the discomfort persists, this is a reason for a more detailed examination.

Changes in the skin. The skin of the breast may redden. Many women ignore this symptom. The peeling is caused by various toxins that irritate the skin.

If you find some kind of seal in yourself, you must definitely consult a mammologist.

Swollen and tender lymph nodes. The second stage of pathology involves the defeat of malignant particles in the lymph nodes of the armpit. They increase in size, cause discomfort and soreness. Possible swelling of the armpit itself.

90,000 Breast cancer. Symptoms and Risk Factors

October 15 is World Breast Cancer Day. This type of oncology in women in developed countries of the world is the most common malignant tumor.

In the Krasnodar Territory, the incidence of breast cancer is in the first place in the structure of malignant neoplasms in women.

Today we do not know all the causes of cancer, but some of the risk factors are known. First of all, it is a predisposition to malignant neoplasms of the mammary gland. Breast cancer can occur on the maternal side in women of the first degree of relationship – from a mother, grandmother, sister, aunt.This does not mean at all that something like this awaits you, but there is a possibility, and therefore you should treat yourself more attentively, more carefully. Once a year, you need to visit a doctor and once a month self-examination of the mammary glands.

Of course, the older a woman is, the more likely she is to get sick. The incidence of breast cancer increases sharply after 40 years, reaching a maximum at 55–65 years. The latter circumstance is due to the fact that in the period from 40 to 60 years, significant hormonal changes occur in a woman’s body, due to the onset of the development of menopause and the onset of menopause.The development of menopause is a normal physiological process, but during this period there is a certain decrease in the ability to adapt to new conditions and the stability of the endocrine system to the effects of various factors that disrupt the hormonal balance in the body. Therefore, the likelihood of developing breast tumors during this period increases.

Once a year, you need to visit a doctor and once a month self-examination of the mammary glands.

There is a connection between the development of breast cancer and impaired fertility (absence or late pregnancy, spontaneous or induced abortion, absence or very short period of breastfeeding of the child), late onset of puberty.

All gynecological diseases are also risk factors for the appearance of a breast tumor.

Stress plays an important role. Often it is after it that all forms of benign breast diseases become aggravated and the growth of oncological pathology begins aggressively.

Sometimes a malignant neoplasm causes trauma to the chest. After many years, you do not even remember that someone once accidentally hit you in the chest, but it is in this place that a tumor may form in the future.Therefore, try to protect your chest from all kinds of injuries.

Environmental pollution with toxic substances is also a risk factor in the development of malignant neoplasm. Exposure to ionizing radiation can increase your risk of developing breast cancer.

The role of solar activity cannot be underestimated either.

In this regard, the development and implementation of preventive methods that allow stopping the growth of morbidity are extremely urgent.

Self-examination of the mammary glands plays an important role in the early detection of breast cancer. Women who use this technique have higher medical activity and oncological alertness, they more often find tumors of a smaller size in themselves than women who are not trained in this technique. Self-examination is recommended to be carried out systematically, once a month, in the first week after the end of menstruation (during this period, the mammary gland is physiologically softened), and for those who have menopause, every first day of the month.First of all, you need to pay attention to the underwear (bra), whether there are any stains on it. When a discharge from the mammary gland appears, it is necessary to urgently consult an oncologist.

Experts advise the following self-diagnosis method

Examination of the mammary glands is performed in two positions: standing and lying.

Strip to the waist, stand in front of a mirror and carefully examine the mammary glands – their location, increase or decrease in the size of one gland in relation to the other.

Place your hands behind your head and once again take a close look to see if there are any retractions, wrinkles, folds, scars, spots and swellings on the skin of the mammary gland that you did not notice before. Turning first with the right side, then with the left, examine the entire skin of the mammary glands. Take a closer look at how identical and symmetrical the nipples and circles around them are – areolas. It should be alerted if one nipple is retracted, and the other is of a normal shape.

Then lie on your back with a small roller (rolled towel) or pillow under the scapula of the side to be inspected.Raise the hand on the side of the breast to be examined and place the back surface on the forehead. Thanks to this, the mammary gland is flat on the chest wall and facilitates examination. Move your hand gently, but persistently enough to carefully, slowly (clockwise or counterclockwise), check everything. At the same time, constantly dig deeper with your fingers: is there something hard rolling there, are there any seals, painful zones. Now move on to the other chest.

It is imperative to probe the armpits – with the left hand with the right and vice versa.Gently grip the nipple with two fingers – make sure there are no seals behind it. Squeeze the nipple slightly. See if there is any discharge. If you are not pregnant or breastfeeding, there should be no discharge. Do not panic and mothers of young children who are not three years old – after the birth of a baby, traces of lactation can appear for two to three years (then the discharge is transparent or resembling milk, colostrum). In other women, discharge of any color should cause anxiety: transparent, white, grayish, greenish, and especially brown, bloody.

Of course, it is important to conduct self-examinations regularly. But self-diagnosis does not replace a medical examination, so do not forget about regular annual visits to a gynecologist or mammologist. In addition to self-examination, an examination by a mammologist is required once a year. Women after 35 years of age need to have mammography. Between the ages of 40 and 49, mammography is done every two years (unless the doctor recommends a different regimen), and after 50 years, every year.

Breast cancer risk factors

  • Hormonal factors: abortion, absence of pregnancy and childbirth, late first childbirth, various kinds of hormonal disorders, early onset of menstruation, late menopause.

  • Hereditary factors: oncological diseases in relatives.

  • Lifestyle factors and comorbidities such as smoking, alcohol consumption, unhealthy food intake, insufficient physical activity, overweight, diabetes mellitus, hypertension.

Timely diagnosis, appropriate treatment in the early stages contribute to recovery, improve the quality of life (by preserving the gland), which is important for a modern woman!

With these symptoms, you urgently need to see an oncologist

  • If there is a palpable lump in the breast or armpit.

  • With diffuse compaction of the entire breast.

  • In case of deformation of the skin in the area of ​​the mammary glands with areas similar to the “lemon peel”.

  • With swelling, redness, soreness of the mammary gland, an increase in its size.

  • With thickening, retraction of the nipple, the appearance of dry or weeping crusts on it.

If you have any changes in the mammary gland or if you experience sensations that are not characteristic of the previous self-examination, you should immediately consult a doctor. If a medical diagnosis has already been made or you are referred to an oncologist at an oncological dispensary, do not worry or despair. It is necessary to treat the disease in time. Residents of the region receive a full examination and treatment of breast diseases in the regional oncological dispensary at the address: Krasnodar, st.Dimitrova, 146. Tel. polyclinic registry +7 (861) 233-66-04.

Do not self-medicate, see a doctor!

Chest pain before menstruation :: Clinician

The following specialists are engaged in the treatment of chest pains before menstruation, leading the reception in our centers: gynecologist, gynecologist-endocrinologist, endocrinologist.

Call the number of the single reference service of all our centers +7 (861) 231-1-231 and indicate which specialist you would like to make an appointment with, after which you will be connected to the selected center.Administrators will select a convenient day and hour for you to visit the doctor.

Chest pain before menstruation is a fairly common complaint of patients. Most women experience engorgement (enlargement) of their breasts 5-10 days before their period. “Is it normal” – this is the question asked by the overwhelming majority of women, experiencing chest discomfort before menstruation.

Every woman experiences changes in her breasts during her period.Depending on the phase of the cycle, the breasts of the same woman can significantly change their structure. In each menstrual cycle, a few days before ovulation (the second phase of the cycle), there is an increase in the volume and density of the tissue of the glands due to the blood filling of the organ and edema. It is this circumstance that explains the feeling of engorgement, compaction, expansion and increased sensitivity. In a normal mammary gland, this process is moderately expressed. In preparation for lactation, breasts also enlarge due to the proliferation of glandular tissue.If pregnancy does not occur, the newly formed structures atrophy within a few months. At the end of menstruation, the described phenomena decrease or disappear.

In the tissues of the mammary gland (and it consists of glandular, adipose and fibrous tissue) there are receptors for ovarian hormones (estradiol and progesterone), so the state of the mammary gland changes during the menstrual cycle. In the second phase of the cycle, under the action of progesterone, more glandular tissue becomes in the mammary gland, which makes the breast harder, but there should be no painful sensations.It is important to remember that the condition of the female breast directly depends on the proper functioning of the ovaries.

Which doctor should I contact if there is a pain in the breasts before menstruation:

What research can help determine the cause of pre-menstrual pain in the breasts:

Do you have chest pain before your period? Do you need an inspection? Make an appointment with a specialist – the Clinician network of medical centers is always at your service! The leading doctors of Krasnodar will examine you, study the external signs and help determine the disease by symptoms, advise you and provide the necessary assistance.

How to contact our centers:
Call the number of the single reference service of all our centers +7 (861) 231-1-231 and indicate which specialist you would like to make an appointment with, after which you will be connected to the selected center. Administrators will select a convenient day and hour for you to visit the doctor.

You can also contact any of the centers of the Clinicist network of medical centers, where the specialists recommended for you are received.Detailed information about our centers and the location on the city map are indicated here. Check out the presentation of our activities on this page.

If you have previously taken any research or have already been with a specialist, be sure to take their results for a consultation with a doctor. If you have not had experience attending studies or seeing a doctor, we will do everything necessary at our centers.

You must be very careful about your health.People do not pay enough attention to the symptoms of diseases and do not realize that they can develop into a life-threatening condition. There are many diseases that at first do not manifest themselves in our body, but in the end it turns out that it is too late to treat them. Therefore, identifying symptoms is the first step in diagnosing diseases in general. To do this, it is necessary at least once a year to be examined by a doctor , in order not only to prevent a terrible disease, but also to maintain a healthy state of all internal organs and systems.

If you want to ask a question to our specialists – use the section of the online consultation. You will also find answers to frequently asked questions there. If you are interested in reviews about visiting our centers, there is a special Reviews section for you, where you can also help other patients and leave your message after visiting our centers. We will be grateful to you!

90,000 Diagnostics of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 stages of breast cancer

Breast cancer.Symptoms and signs

Causes of breast cancer

Stages of breast cancer

Diagnosis of breast cancer

Breast cancer treatment

Treatment of breast cancer at various stages

Surgical treatment of breast cancer

Radiation therapy for breast cancer

Chemotherapy for breast cancer

Hormone therapy for breast cancer

Targeted therapy for breast cancer

Palliative treatment of breast cancer

Predicted results and prevention

Early detection of breast cancer gives the patient more chances for a full recovery.It is rather difficult to detect breast cancer at stages 0 and 1 on your own due to the small size of the neoplasm, which is why regular examinations by specialists and screening methods of examination are so important.

Diagnostics of 0 and 1 stages

The main method of early diagnosis is ultrasound of the mammary glands and mammography (X-ray of the mammary glands using a special apparatus), in addition, magnetic resonance imaging is used as a screening study.The final diagnosis is established on the basis of an aspiration biopsy of the tumor, sentinel or peripheral lymph nodes with further histological and immunohistochemical analysis. After the diagnosis is made, the level of expression of hormone receptors is determined to develop a treatment regimen, and a FISH test is performed to detect HER2-positive tumors (HER2 is a protein that can affect the growth of cancer cells).

Signs of stage 1 breast cancer:

  • Tumor size less than 2 cm.
  • Tissues and organs adjacent to the tumor are not affected, metastases to the lymph nodes are absent.

Diagnosis of stage 2 breast cancer

The characteristic signs of the 2nd stage of the disease are: the size of the tumor is up to 5 cm, the involvement of the lymph nodes of the axillary zone from the affected side in the pathological process is noted. This stage of cancer is considered early, unless the metastases have already affected many lymph nodes. Then it is referred to as a later form of the disease.When the lymph nodes begin to form adhesions between themselves and with adjacent tissues, losing mobility, we can talk about entering the 3rd stage of the disease.

Stage 2 is divided into categories A and B.

At stage 2A, the tumor size does not exceed 2 cm, there is a metastatic lesion from 1 to 3 lymph nodes in the axillary zone. Another option is the size of the tumor is from 2 to 5 cm, but the lymph nodes are not affected.

At stage 2B, the tumor is not more than 5 cm in diameter, 1-3 axillary lymph nodes are involved in the process, or the tumor size exceeds 5 cm., but there is no damage to the lymph nodes.

A tumor larger than 2 cm can be detected by palpation. Therefore, the monthly self-examination of a woman is so important. Regular visits to a mammologist and follow-up examinations can help identify malignant tumors at an even earlier stage.

If the primary diagnosis of breast cancer is established, extended complex diagnostics, including computed tomography, is performed. The prevalence of the process in the mammary gland and beyond is found out.The final diagnosis and stage of the disease, the sensitivity of the tumor to hormones, chemotherapeutic and targeted drugs are established.

Stage 3 breast cancer

At 3 stages, several lymph nodes in the axillary region may be affected at once, merging with each other and with adjacent tissues into sedentary conglomerates. Metastases to distant organs are still absent. The third stage is also called locally advanced breast cancer.

According to the international TNM system, there are 3 subcategories of this stage:

  • Stage 3A.The size of the tumor exceeds 5 cm in diameter, 1-3 axillary lymph nodes are affected. Another option is a tumor of a smaller size, but at the same time the lymph nodes affected by metastases are welded together and with the surrounding tissues;
  • Stage 3B. The tumor has grown into nearby tissues (pectoral muscles, skin). The size of education at this stage can be any. Axillary lymph node metastases may be absent, or several of them may be affected. Stage 3B also includes a rather rare form of the disease – inflammatory breast cancer.It is characterized by an extremely aggressive course.
  • Stage 3C. The tumor can be of any size, but the malignant process has already affected a large number of lymph nodes. At this stage of the disease, more than 10 axillary lymph nodes can be affected, supraclavicular and subclavian lymph nodes are affected, as well as nodes located in the thickness of the chest and in the neck.

Stage 3 is most often diagnosed in women who are already undergoing treatment for stage 1 or 2 breast cancer.The prevalence of the disease and its stage are determined using chest x-ray, magnetic resonance and computed tomography, positron emission tomography (PET, PET / CT), bone scintigraphy, etc.

Stage 4 breast cancer

At stage 4, the tumor metastasizes to distant organs and tissues. Most often, metastases affect the lungs, liver, adrenal glands, bones, brain.

Despite this, subject to an active fight against the disease, a woman has a chance to extend her life for years.Modern methods of treatment can significantly improve the patient’s quality of life, even in the advanced stages of cancer.

90,000 what to do to protect yourself from breast cancer

Evaluate risk factors

A person can influence some risk factors, but not others. For example, excessive alcohol consumption and obesity significantly increase the risk of breast cancer. Smoking can increase the risk to some extent. To find out exactly what risk factors you have, get tested on the Cancer Prevention Foundation website.

However, one must understand that the presence of even several risk factors does not allow us to say with confidence that a woman is guaranteed to face breast cancer. If you do not have any significant risk factors, it is not necessary to undergo medical examinations before age 50.

Know about risk mitigation factors

Breastfeeding and childbirth reduce the risk of breast cancer. Each year of feeding reduces the risk by about 7%, each birth by 9%. Moreover, all these percentages add up.

If a woman gave birth twice and breastfed her children for three years in total, the risk of cancer will decrease by almost 40% – this is decent.

But it’s important to understand that this calculation doesn’t work for women who have mutations that increase their risk of cancer.

Do not do ultrasound

There is an opinion that in order to detect breast cancer, it is necessary to do an ultrasound of the breast every year up to 40 years. This is not true. Ultrasound is generally not intended for cancer screening – it does not have sufficient specificity and sensitivity for this.Ultrasound examination can be used for differential diagnosis of formations identified by another method, however, in the absence of complaints and symptoms, there is no reason to do this procedure. Instead of the desired effect, ultrasound can reveal cysts and fibroadenomas, which are absolutely safe. But the woman will be scared and more likely to undergo unnecessary interventions.

Do mammography after 50 years

Mammography is considered the most common breast examination method and is an examination of the mammary glands using a mammograph – in other words, an X-ray machine.However, there is compelling evidence that the benefits of mammography outweigh the harm only if it is done by a woman over 50.

At the age of 40 to 49 years, the balance of benefits and harms is rather doubtful, and in this case, the doctor should tell the patient about the possible risks and provide a solution to herself. The practitioner should explain in detail both the likelihood of benefits and the possible unwanted effects of screening.

If we talk about the harm from screening, then we are talking about false positive diagnoses, unnecessary biopsies, the risk of unnecessary surgery to remove a suspicious mass, which does not necessarily turn out to be cancer.The benefits of mammography and any other screening before age 40 are very small and do not outweigh the risk of unwanted side effects of screening.

The fact is that breast cancer is, in principle, relatively rare before the age of 40. At this age, it is generally quite difficult to examine the mammary gland using standard methods, at least not by mammography.

In addition, breast cancer before the age of 40 is quite aggressive, since it is often associated with tumor syndromes caused by mutation, and even its early detection does not significantly affect the fate of a woman.

Debunk Myths

Many believe that a blow to the chest can trigger the development of cancer. This is a myth that arose due to the fact that people always strive to find the cause of any events – this is called causal attribution (the phenomenon of interpersonal perception, which consists in interpreting, attributing the reasons for the actions of another person. – Approx. Ed. ).

In fact, breast cancer has been developing for decades and certainly has nothing to do with the blow to the chest last week.But if a woman was diagnosed with breast cancer, she, of course, begins to think about what it could be connected with, looks for a reason and will certainly find it.

And since blows to the chest are a common thing, for example, on the subway at rush hour, many women decide that this is the cause of the development of the disease. There are many myths: they say that tight underwear or topless tanning cause breast cancer. All these are myths that do not have the slightest scientific basis.

Carefully choose a clinic

The choice of a clinic for mammography and any other procedure should be considered carefully.An indirect sign that the clinic is doing a high-quality procedure is the form of the conclusion. If the conclusion is given on the BI-RADS scale, then there is a chance that the clinic controls the quality of the procedure. The BI-RADS scale is designed to standardize descriptions of mammographic examinations and eliminate discrepancies when abnormalities are detected.