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Swollen tongue and lymph nodes: Enlarged Or Swollen Glands And White Patches On Tongue


Swollen Tongue – Asthma & Allergies Center

Your tongue can swell for a number of reasons, most commonly due to medications, allergies, and underlying medical problems. The swelling may be referred to as angioedema, which means the swelling occurs in the deeper layers of the skin.

Sometimes, it is not only the visible part of the tongue that swells, but also the back of the tongue, the mouth, the gums, and occasionally the larynx or voice box, says Lorraine Smith, MD, of the Osborne Head and Neck Institute in Los Angeles.

The tongue is primarily a muscular structure covered by layers of cells called epithelium. Its surface is lined with taste buds, which allows us to differentiate tastes like bitter, sweet, and salty. Like the tongue, the taste buds on your tongue can swell.

Because a swollen tongue can interfere with your airways and cause serious problems with your breathing, it is usually a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.

What Causes a Swollen Tongue?

Swelling is an important defense mechanism in our bodies. Swelling fights off harmful bacteria and parasites, and helps with injury and healing. However, inappropriate swelling or swelling that persists can be harmful.

There are multiple chemical pathways that turn swelling on and off, which are complicated and only partially understood, says Anna Feldweg, MD, a clinical instructor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and attending physician in allergy and immunology at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. A swollen tongue can happen when something — a medication, allergen (something that causes an allergic reaction), or medical problem — interferes with these pathways. Here’s a look at some common causes.

  • Medications. Many cases of a swollen tongue are the result of a reaction to a medication such as an ACE inhibitor, used to treat high blood pressure, or an NSAID, or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, such as aspirin, ibuprofen [Advil, Motrin], or naproxen [Aleve, Naprosyn]. A swollen tongue due to a reaction to ACE inhibitors usually occurs during the first year of taking the medication, but can also happen after years of taking it, says Dr. Feldweg.
  • Allergens. In addition to allergic reactions to medications, allergic reactions to other substances — such as foods or bee stings — can cause swelling. In food allergies and bee sting allergies, the tongue can swell, but it is less common to have a swollen tongue than it is to have a swollen throat or lips.
  • Infection. Another possible cause of a swollen tongue is an infection deep inside the tongue or in the floor of the mouth. This usually develops over a day or two — more slowly than the allergic type of swelling.

Some people develop fungal infections in the mouth known as thrush. Fungal infections are caused by the fungus Candida and usually occur after a course of antibiotics. It’s the same fungus that can cause vaginal yeast infections. People with compromised immune systems, like those with HIV, also are susceptible to this yeast, also called simply candida thrush, that can cause the tongue to swell. Candida thrush can be treated with thrush medications that you swish and swallow, or swish and spit, Dr. Smith says. An oral medication often used to treat recurring thrush is fluconazole (Diflucan).

Herpes viruses also can cause infections that result in swelling of the tongue. “While there is no treatment for viral infections, recovery can sometimes be enhanced with the medicine acyclovir (Zovirax),” Smith says. Other similar drugs may also help. Herpes tongue lesions or ulcers are often extremely painful. They present as a red sore with a white overlying layer that can be wiped off with a cotton swab.

  • Medical illness. Very slow swelling of the tongue over weeks or months can occur in a condition called amyloid, a disease in which harmful amyloid proteins are deposited into tissues and organs. “With [amyloid], the tongue gets bigger and bigger over time,” says Feldweg.
  • Irritants and trauma. You may find that your tongue swells if you accidentally bite it or burn your tongue with hot liquids or hot foods. Dental appliances also can irritate your tongue and cause it to swell. Tobacco is yet another irritant that can cause tongue pain and swelling.
  • Tongue cancer. Tongue cancer is a common cancer of the head and neck — more than 10,000 new cases are diagnosed in men and women in the United States each year. Highly curable if caught early, tongue cancer usually starts as a lump, ulcer, or white spot or patch on the outer layer of the tongue or a surrounding area.

“Cancer of the tongue is often painful,” Smith says. An infection tends to be self-limiting and will go away, whereas tongue lesions associated with cancer often persist and increase in size with time. Suspicious lesions need to be biopsied and treated appropriately if found to be cancerous, Smith says. “Some tongue cancers may not involve pain but any mass that persists for more than two weeks needs to be biopsied.”

Other tongue cancer symptoms include pain when chewing or swallowing, ear pain, numbness in the mouth, bleeding in the mouth, and a persistent sore throat.

A red patch on the tongue is often painless, but has a higher chance of being associated with cancer than a white patch on the tongue. But both patches need to be biopsied to get a definite diagnosis, Smith says, and to be able to apply the appropriate treatment.

Both tongue disorders and cancers of the tongue may present with swollen lymph nodes — under the chin and in the mandible region. If you have an infection, the swollen lymph nodes or swollen taste buds near the tongue will eventually go away after the infection clears. But another tongue cancer sign is if the swelling continues to progress and doesn’t go away, Smith says.

Related Conditions

In addition, a swollen tongue can be caused by:

Treating a Swollen Tongue

Because a swollen tongue can lead to breathing problems, it should be looked at as an emergency situation. Medical personnel usually treat a dangerously swollen tongue with an injection of epinephrine, which may or may not work, depending on the cause. Once the person arrives at the hospital, “we usually give people steroids and antibiotics in the emergency room,” says Feldweg, adding that treatment for a swollen tongue ultimately depends on the cause.

If the swollen tongue is caused by a drug reaction, the person must stop taking the medication. In food allergies, foods that trigger the swelling must be avoided. Anyone who has a history of a swollen tongue due to an allergic reaction will probably be advised to carry an injectable dose of epinephrine with them, which may help control the swelling if the tongue begins to swell again. If the cause is infection or amyloid, those will be treated accordingly.

There are many different causes of a swollen tongue. Most are straightforward to treat and the swelling goes away. If your tongue swells and interferes with your breathing, you need to go to the ER for treatment. If it’s a persistent problem, see your doctor so he can determine the cause of your tongue swelling and find the most appropriate treatment.

Persitent sore throat for 3 months with sore tongue and glan

Hello Mjb31.

Sorry to hear about your health concerns. I am new to this forum aswell.

I’m not sure what part of the country you are in. But where i live my doctors surgery (well GP or nurse ) have been able to look inside my throat recently. I think they were hesitant before a few months back, because the coronavirus was so new and they did have a lack of PPE. So they were saying they shouldn’t look because the virus could travel out of the mouth. At the time i kept thinking i don’t have it and my temperature was done before going inside which was normal, and i had stayed at home and hadn’t gone anywhere in 10 weeks due to having a very young baby and because of lockdown. I know that it was their guidelines to protect everyone. Now we have to wear a mask everytime we go in.

I had a throat problem ( still do) and my GP looked inside after a nurse said that she wasn’t allowed a few months back. I did understand but at the time it was difficult because i needed help and was scared because i had a feeling of a lump in my throat.

I did go back a few weeks later and my GP said that if I have a problem then she can’t leave me and so she had a look.

Try your doctors again and if they refuse and your worried. give 111 a call for advice and explain to them your concerns. or if you are able to you could go to your local A&E (walk in or urgent care centre) to see if they can help you. I don’t see why they won’t. I think it is wrong of them not to have a look at your throat If you have a major concern, then it should be checked out by a doctor.

I think some clinics are opening up now again for referrals like ENT etc that i need. Maybe you could ask for one from your doctor if that’s something you think that you might need? and if your not 100% satisfied with what they tell you when you eventually are seen. They may even do it for you anyway due to your symptoms. 

At the end of the day there are other health issues out there not just covid-19. I feel for you i really do and i hope you get some help.

Please let us know how you get on. 

Anxious about pain in jaw – anyone with similar experience?


I decided to post here to ease my anxiety about my symptoms – and ask for advice on what to think/do.

I already made the mistake of going on the internet about my symptoms, which freaked me out, so now trying to find ways of calming myself, whilst waiting for something to happen. 

I’ll start with saying that I have a weird smell coming and going in my nose, it smells like dust and I’ve had it for 6-8 months now. No sinus problems otherwise and no significant headaches or anything related in the past 6-8 months…

Then it all started with a cough and on and off sore throat mainly on the left side about 6-8 weeks ago. Then a week later I went through a very stressful period (not sure it’s relevant or not) and developed loaads of painful little sores all over my tongue and mouth. They just kept coming out, going away, coming out again. Then that settled, and I started to feel pressure in my left ear, sore throat on left kept creeping back, cough still on. No stuffy nose, no fever, a couple of swollen lymph nodes on the left, not massive, just persistent… 

About two weeks ago I started to feel like there is something in my throat on the left, as if I had a swollen tonsil (and my left tonsil is slightly larger than the right but doesn’t look inflamed) and on and off started having pains under my jaw – again on the left. After prodding around a bit, I found that under my tongue on the left there is a bit of swelling and pressing down on it really hurts. Now there is a constant feeling of pressure, like something is pushing on my left ear/throat/jaw and headaches around my left temple/forehead. 

I have been to the Gp about 3-4 times already, of course as I mentioned the strange smell and cough and ear pressure, he is treating me for sinus infection. He is ignoring all my other symptoms. Two days ago he gave me antibiotics, still convinced of a sinus infection causing all this mysery.

BUT if it was an infection spreading onto my throat/ear/glands, shouldn’t it feel warm, shouldn’t I have fever and other signs of infection? And shouldn’t a salivary gland infection hurt more when I eat? I don’t have those symptoms and the GP completely ignores my complaints about swollen glands under tongue/throat.

I feel I really need to be seen by an ENT specialist, but how do I get there? Should I wait another 4-5 days until the gp is satisfied that the antibiotics won’t solve the problem? Can anybody give me an idea if this could really be just an infection presenting this way, or am I right to worry?

I have three little children and the thought of cancer absolutely freaks me out. I have started to lose sleep and could do with some reassurance/advice. Please…

Symptoms of lymphoedema | Coping with cancer

The most common symptom of lymphoedema is swelling. Some people also feel heaviness or aching. Symptoms can appear any time after cancer treatment.

What lymphoedema is

Lymph fluid is in all body tissues. It comes from the tiny blood vessels into the body tissues. Normally it drains back into the bloodstream through channels called lymph vessels. These are part of the lymphatic system.

Blocked, removed or damaged lymph drainage channels or lymph nodes cause a build up of lymph fluid. This is the swelling called lymphoedema.

First symptoms of lymphoedema

One of the first symptoms you might notice is swelling in part of the body. Your clothes, shoes or jewellery may become tighter.

There are other reasons why people develop swelling. But if you notice any swelling that doesn’t go away, contact your doctor.

Other symptoms can include heaviness, tightness or stiffness. You might feel this before they develop any swelling. The area may also ache.

Swelling may be soft and easy to push in with your fingers, leaving a dent (called pitting oedema). The swelling may also be non-pitting.  

Lymphoedema in the head and neck

Lymphoedema in the head or neck can also cause symptoms inside your mouth and throat. This may include swelling of your tongue and other parts of your mouth.

Tell your doctor if you:

  • have any swelling or a feeling of fullness or pressure
  • find it difficult to swallow
  • have changes in your voice

Lymphoedema in the genital area

Lymphoedema in the genital area can cause a feeling of heaviness. Men who have swelling in their scrotum or penis might have difficulty passing urine. Women might find that their genital area feels uncomfortable and tight.

What to do if you have symptoms

Contact your doctor or specialist nurse if you know you’re at risk of lymphoedema and you have any of the symptoms above. Early treatment can help to control swelling and stop it getting worse. Your doctor or nurse can refer you to a lymphoedema specialist.

The Lymphoedema Support Network can tell you how to get lymphoedema care within the NHS.

The British Lymphology Society has a directory of lymphoedema services.

Severe lymphoedema symptoms

Without treatment, your symptoms might change over time. The swollen area could become more swollen, harder, and more painful.

You might also have:

  • pins and needles or tingling
  • a numb feeling
  • reddening of your skin, which may become hard and stiff
  • more difficulty moving the affected area
  • pain
  • pitting – indents in your skin
  • a change in shape of your arm or leg
  • skin infections and a change in the texture of your skin
  • watery fluid (lymph fluid) leaking from your skin

See your doctor as soon as possible if you have any of these symptoms. Treatment can reduce the swelling and make you more comfortable.

Important points

It usually takes some time for lymphoedema to develop after cancer treatment. Symptoms can take many months or a few years to appear. 

Some people have swelling immediately after surgery. This is not lymphoedema. It’s part of the healing process and should get better within a few weeks.

Swelling is not always due to lymphoedema. See your doctor if you have any swelling that doesn’t go away.

Support for you

Lymphoedema can also affect you emotionally. You can get help and support with this, so ask for help from your treatment team if you need it.

Tongue Cancer | Cedars-Sinai

What is tongue cancer?

Several types of cancer grow in the tongue, but squamous cell carcinoma is the most common. Squamous cells are thin, flat cells that line the mouth and other organs.

There are two types of tongue cancer: 

  • Cancer of the oral tongue. The front two-thirds of the tongue that you can stick out is called the oral tongue. 
  • Cancer of the base of the tongue. The base is the back one-third of the tongue that extends down the throat.

Related Cancers

What causes tongue cancer, and what are the risk factors?

Some people develop cancer of the tongue with no risk factors. The cancer is more common in older age groups, age 40 and up, although it may be found in young people. It is twice as common in men. Other risk factors are:

  • Smoking and drinking alcohol. Smokers are five times more likely to develop tongue cancer than nonsmokers.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted disease. HPV 16 and HPV 18 increase the risk of tongue cancer.
  • African-American men are at greater risk than Caucasians.

How is tongue cancer diagnosed?

To make a diagnosis, the doctor will take a medical history and ask specific questions about symptoms. A patient’s tongue and neck will be examined and a small, long-handled mirror will be used to look down the throat.

Several tests are used to aid in the diagnosis. These tests include:

  • X-rays of the mouth and throat, including CT (computed tomography) scans (X-rays that show images in thin sections).
  • PET scans (positron emission tomography), which use radioactive materials to identify excessive activity in an organ. This may indicate the tumor is growing.
  • Tongue cancer usually requires a biopsy, a small sample of tissue that is removed from a tumor to diagnose cancer. After the surgeon removes the tissue, a pathologist will examine the cells under a microscope. There are different methods to obtain a biopsy:
    • Fine needle aspiration biopsy. A thin needle is inserted into the tumor mass and a sample is drawn out by suction into a syringe.
    • Incisional biopsy. A sample is removed with a scalpel (surgical knife).
    • Punch biopsy. A small circular blade removes a round area of tissue.

How is tongue cancer treated?

Surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are used to treat tongue cancer.


Oral Tongue
Surgical removal of the primary tumor might be the only treatment needed for small oral tongue cancers. If the tumor is large, it may have spread to lymph nodes in the neck. When this occurs the surgeon may recommend removal of the affected lymph nodes in the neck.

Most small cancers of the oral tongue leave little cosmetic or functional changes after they are removed.

Larger tumors can spread and make it hard to swallow. Surgery for large tumors also affects speech and swallowing. With the latest reconstructive techniques, our doctors are able to restore most speech and swallowing problems.


Base of the Tongue
Tumors on the base of the tongue are usually larger when diagnosed because in the early stages the tumor is difficult to see. The only early symptom is ear pain. Voice changes and difficult swallowing occur later.

Because base of the tongue cancer is diagnosed later, the cancer may have already spread to the neck. The affected lymph nodes frequently need to be removed.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy, including intensity modulated radiation therapy, stops cancer cells from dividing and slows the growth of the tumor. Radiotherapy also destroys cancer cells and can shrink or eliminate tumors. Intensity modulated radiation therapy allows the use of more effective radiation doses with fewer side effects than conventional radiotherapy techniques.

Radiation therapy involves five to six weeks of daily treatments.


Chemotherapy is prescribed for different reasons:

  • Together with radiotherapy as an alternative to surgery (called chemoradiation)
  • After surgery to decrease the risk of the cancer returning
  • To slow the growth of a tumor and control symptoms when the cancer cannot be cured (palliative treatment)

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:

  • Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
  • Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
  • Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
  • If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.

© 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions.

When Are Swollen Glands a Sign of Cancer in the Lymph Nodes? – Health Essentials from Cleveland Clinic

‘Tis the season for runny noses and swollen glands (groan). More often than not, you can blame symptoms on a virus that’s spreading like wildfire.

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But occasionally, a lump on the side of the neck can signal something more dangerous. In this Q&A, internist Daniel Sullivan, MD, explains when swollen glands may be a sign of cancer — and how to know if you’re at risk.

Q: What are lymph nodes, or glands?

In the neck, there are two areas that we call glands:

  • The salivary glands
    provide saliva to the mouth to keep it moist. They’re under the jaw and on the
    side of our face.
  • The lymph glands,
    also known as lymph nodes, are mostly on the side of the neck. 

The lymph glands are the body’s sophisticated sewer
system. They get rid of things that our body doesn’t want, such as bacteria,
viruses and other things that enter our system.

There are about 600
pea- to bean-sized lymph nodes throughout your body, from your legs to your

Q: Why do lymph nodes sometimes swell up?

A: When a lymph node notices something harmful in the body, it uses its resources to try to destroy it. Inside the lymph nodes are blood cells that fight infection and disease. When the lymph nodes start using them, the gland gets bigger.

Colds, sore throats and ear infections all lead to swollen lymph nodes. We treat the infection, it goes away, and the lymph node shrinks.

Location matters: The glands under your jawline are rarely
a problem. They may swell because one of the ducts of saliva entering the mouth
gets narrowed or blocked. The chance of cancer developing on those glands is
small. We’re more concerned about the lymph nodes on the side of the neck.

Q: When would swollen lymph nodes be a sign of cancer?

Often, lymph glands are painful when they’re swollen from an infection. We get
concerned when someone has a lymph node in their neck that:

  • Is enlarged (measuring 1 centimeter
    or more in diameter).
  • Isn’t tender or painful.
  • Isn’t getting better and has been
    there for longer than two weeks.

Two weeks is a rough guide for us to start considering
cancer as a possibility. If it’s been there for more than two weeks and
continues to get larger, that’s an even bigger red flag.

There are some other factors
that may point to cancer:

  • The patient’s background. Cancers are a little more common as we get into our middle years. The likelihood of cancer is higher in someone over 40 with swollen glands than in a 20-year-old.
  • A history of skin cancer. If you had skin cancer that was treated, we’d consider the possibility that the cancer traveled beyond the skin.
  • Lifestyle choices. We also pay attention to any lifestyle choices that raise the risk for cancer, including smoking and excessive alcohol use.
  • Having HPV. The human papillomavirus, or HPV, is another factor that pushes the dial toward cancer. HPV is known for its risk for genital warts, but people can also develop HPV in their mouth or throat. That can lead to squamous cell cancer in the mouth or throat that can cause enlarged lymph nodes.

Q: What cancers are more often associated with swollen glands?

A: Squamous cell cancer is a big one. Skin cancers that started on the face or scalp can be a concern, too. And there are sometimes oral cancers that a dentist would recognize. If someone said to me, ‘A dentist once removed an early cancer from my mouth or cheek area,’ that may be a sign that something’s going on. We’d also consider lymphoma, cancer of the lymph nodes.

Patients’ health history is an important part of the conversation so we can plan the best next steps in their care.

Causes, types, symptoms, and treatment

People get salivary gland infections when bacteria or viruses get into the salivary glands, which are a group of glands in the head and neck.

Salivary gland infections most commonly develop in the two main glands, which are located in the front of the ear (the parotid gland) and under the chin (the submandibular gland).

A salivary gland infection, also called sialadenitis, can cause a blockage in the saliva ducts due to inflammation. This can lead to pain, tenderness, and swelling.

In this article, we discuss the types, causes, and treatments of salivary gland infections.

A salivary gland infection occurs when bacteria or viruses infect a gland that produces saliva.

People can get a salivary gland infection from having:

  • a reduced flow of saliva due to medical conditions, such as dry mouth
  • poor oral hygiene which increases the growth of bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus or Haemophilis influenzae
  • a blockage in their salivary glands from a tumor, abscess, or salivary gland stone
  • severe dehydration, which may be due to illness or surgery

Blockages in the salivary glands can cause inflammation, making the glands more vulnerable to infection.

Also, inflamed salivary glands tend to produce less saliva, which flows more slowly than usual. As a result of this, the saliva sometimes pools in the glands, allowing the concentration of bacteria or viruses within the saliva to increase.

Some of the more common causes of salivary gland obstructions include:

  • salivary gland stones
  • kinks in the salivary ducts
  • tumors
  • abnormally formed salivary glands

Bacteria tend to cause more salivary gland infections than viruses do. But some of the more common viruses known to cause of salivary gland infections include:

People of all ages, including newborn babies, can develop salivary gland infections. They are especially common in older adults and people with chronic illnesses.

There are three pairs of major salivary glands, with one of each pair located on either side of the face. Any of these six glands can develop an infection. The major salivary glands are the:

  • Parotid glands, which are inside the cheek and extend from the top of the ear into the jaw. These are the largest salivary glands.
  • Submandibular glands, which are behind the lower jawline under the tongue and chin. These are the second largest salivary glands.
  • Sublingual glands, which are on either side of the tongue deep under the floor of the mouth. These are the smallest of the major salivary glands.

The parotid and submandibular glands tend to become infected most often.

Most salivary gland infections are acute or develop suddenly. Infections related to obstructions or narrowed tubes may develop over time.

Most of the symptoms of salivary gland infections only last around a week, though some minor swelling may linger for a few weeks.

Acute salivary gland infections rarely cause additional complications.

The specific symptoms of a salivary gland infection may differ between people and will depend on their location and severity.

The symptoms usually affect parts of the head or neck and may cause:

  • pain
  • skin redness
  • gradual swelling around the area
  • tenderness
  • pus in the mouth
  • a terrible taste in the mouth that does not go away with good dental hygiene
  • trouble or pain opening the mouth, chewing, or swallowing
  • fever
  • chills

For many people, symptoms become worse after eating.

People with tumors that cause obstructions may develop a hard, firm, immobile lump in the affected area.

Seek emergency medical attention if the symptoms:

  • are very severe
  • interfere with eating, drinking, swallowing, or breathing
  • are very painful
  • last longer than two weeks
  • do not get any better with primary care, such as hydration and good oral hygiene

Many salivary gland infections resolve on their own without the use of medications.

The best way to treat salivary gland infections depends on the cause.

People with bacterial infections will usually need to take antibiotics.

There are no specific antiviral medications, but there are medications that can help reduce or manage symptoms of herpes, influenza, and HIV.

When blockages, such as stones or tumors, cause salivary gland infections, a doctor may recommend surgery to resolve the problem.

People may also need surgery to repair or remove kinks or narrowed tubes that affect the flow of saliva.

People with salivary gland infections triggered by underlying medical conditions will require additional specialized treatment.

If a person has an infection caused by a large abscess, a doctor may need to open and drain the abscess.

For people taking medications linked to salivary gland infections, a doctor may need to switch their medication or change the dosage.

Aside from medications, there is a variety of home remedies that may help the body clear salivary gland infections. People can try:

  • boosting fluid intake to treat dehydration
  • massaging the impacted area several times daily if caused by obstruction to encourage the flow of saliva
  • sucking on sugarless lozenges or sour hard candy to encourage the production of saliva
  • consuming sour foods and drinks that promote the production of saliva, such as lemonade, pickles, or sauerkraut
  • applying a warm compress to the affected area for 10 to 15 minutes several times daily
  • using mouth rinses and washes containing carboxymethylcellulose, a saliva substitute

To diagnose salivary gland infections, a doctor will often ask a person questions about their symptoms, review their medical history, and perform a physical exam of the area.

Where a tumor or growth has caused the infection, a doctor may also take a sample to send to a lab for testing.

If there is a blockage in the salivary gland, a doctor may also order imaging tests to get a better view of the area, such as a:

  • ultrasound
  • computed tomography (CT) scan
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan
  • salivary endoscopy (sialoendoscopy)
  • sialography, involves injecting a dye into the salivary glands that shows up on X-ray scans

A wide range of lifestyle factors, medications, and medical conditions can reduce the flow of saliva and trigger salivary gland infections, such as:

In many cases, there are no specific ways to prevent salivary gland infections entirely.

However, a few lifestyle tips may help reduce the risk of infections forming. These include:

  • staying hydrated and sipping on fluids throughout the day
  • brushing the teeth two times daily
  • flossing daily
  • rinsing out the mouth with water after eating or drinking sweetened or carbonated drinks or foods
  • getting a dental cleaning every six months
  • chewing on sugarless gum or suck on sugarless hard candies
  • limiting alcohol intake
  • avoiding tobacco products
  • eating foods in small bites to encourage saliva production

Overall the outlook for salivary gland infections is excellent in most cases.

A majority of salivary gland infections clear up on their own or with the aid of medications, self-care, and at-home remedies.

People with severe or chronic salivary gland infections will need ongoing medical care, especially if the infection is related to underlying medical conditions.

Always talk with a doctor about head and neck symptoms of any kind that are severe, last for more than two weeks, do not respond to primary care or interfere with the mouth opening and closing.

90,000 from what appears and how the disease manifests itself in the mouth


  1. What is
  2. Forms of manifestation
  3. Stomatitis in a child
  4. Where is stomatitis
  5. Methods for treating stomatitis
  6. How to avoid illness

How often do you check your mouth to see if it is healthy? Do you rinse your mouth regularly after eating? For some reason, most people do not have the habit of watching their teeth, apparently thinking that everything is in order there.In fact, there are many different bacteria here, and not always beneficial. If you do not follow hygiene, symptoms of stomatitis may appear at any time. Together with the specialists of the Dentica clinic, we will deal with the problem in more detail.

What is it

This is what medicine calls the result of inflammatory processes in the oral mucosa. With the help of special enzymes contained in saliva, it protects the entire digestive tract, processing food so that it does not harm health.Inflammation appears both in a prominent place, for example, on the lip or cheek, and deep in the throat, where it is not always and not immediately possible to detect it. Different people are exposed to it at different intervals: some – once every few years, others – annually, and still others – monthly. It depends on the strength of the immune system and the internal characteristics of the body.

How contagious is this disease

It is possible to judge the degree of its infectivity only if the reasons for the appearance are known, and there are quite a few of them.Only a doctor can determine what caused you to get sick with the help of the necessary equipment and tests. Therefore, do not delay the trip to the hospital – what if you infect your loved ones? If the causes of the disease are allergic reactions, mechanical damage (bite, cut) or intoxication, then you should not be afraid of infection. It is transmitted only as a result of the penetration of an infection, which causes inflammatory processes in the mucous membrane.

Children are more susceptible to its appearance, so it develops even as a result of chickenpox (chickenpox), adenovirus, influenza or parainfluenza.And it is transmitted easily with the help of common toys (especially if babies take them in their mouths), dishes, cutlery, hygiene items, towels and others. Those with a weakened immune system are also at risk of getting sick, especially if they take antibiotic drugs.

How stomatitis manifests itself: first signs and treatment

It can always be identified visually:

  • at first there is a slight edema, accompanied by redness;
  • then the affected area may swell, and the patient feels a burning sensation;
  • after a while a white speck forms.

Some, seeing this, immediately understand what kind of illness has overtaken them, and rush to the pharmacy for ointments and pills. But this does not always help, since the speed of recovery depends on how correctly the drug is selected. It is difficult for an ordinary person without medical education to correctly determine the nature of the disease, and therefore – to choose medicines.

Do not be lazy and make an appointment with the dentist, so you will save yourself from possible complications and deal with the problem faster.

What caused the manifestation of stomatitis

Specialists have identified several factors leading to the appearance of this pathology:

  1. Solid food, fish bones, fragments of a tooth – all this damages the mucous membrane. If a person has strong immunity, then the wounds heal quickly and without consequences. But those who have it weakened get complications in the form of an ulcer.
  2. Some toothpastes and rinses containing sodium lauryl sulfate dehydrate the mouth, making it less resistant to harmful bacteria.
  3. High-carbohydrate foods increase the acidity of saliva, which increases the risk of disease. To avoid it, the body must have vitamins of group B, C, A, iron, zinc and selenium. If you don’t eat right and these substances are in short supply, then the chances of getting sick will be higher.
  4. Some people are susceptible to allergic reactions caused by any food, chemicals, pollen from flowers, trees and other factors.Allergy, in turn, can manifest itself in the form of stomatitis.
  5. In females, as a rule, hormonal disruptions occur more often, the causes of which are puberty, a change in the phases of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy or childbirth. All this leads to inflammation in the mouth.
  6. There are people in whom this pathology is explained by a genetic predisposition. If parents or grandparents have sores in the oral cavity, then there is a possibility of its occurrence in children.
  7. Due to bad habits, various toxins from alcohol and nicotine poison tissues and disturb the microflora.
  8. Many microbes and viruses live in the human body, which are at rest. If they are not provoked by other factors, then they do not cause harm for a long time, otherwise their effect leads to inflammatory processes. This is especially often manifested after other past diseases, when the immune system does not have time to recover.
  9. It has long been proven that even a deterioration in the emotional state can cause illness, including problems with the oral mucosa.


The manifestation of stomatitis is usually associated with painful sensations and unpleasant formations on the skin:

  1. A small red area appears at first, accompanied by edema and swelling. Basically, the patient feels a burning sensation.
  2. When inflammation is provoked by the ingress of bacteria, a round or oval white spot with a thin film on the surface forms at the site of redness.
  3. Profuse salivation, gingival bleeding and bad breath may occur.
  4. In especially difficult situations, the tongue and lips lose motor activity, since severe pain does not allow them to move.

The period of illness usually lasts from a week to two, sometimes it takes only 4 days. The duration depends on why it arose and how strong the patient’s immunity is.

Forms of manifestation

There are many factors provoking inflammatory processes, their difference is the basis for the creation of a special classification.


Aphthae are called small ulcers up to 5 millimeters in size. They usually have a white or grayish bloom in the form of a small bubble, which is then deflated and forms a single erosional area. These aphthae grow as a result of advanced viral, bacterial or chronic diseases of an internal organ.

This type has several forms:

  • fibrinous, which occurs when the blood begins to circulate poorly;
  • necrotic (rare), in which tissues die off;
  • granular, affecting the salivary glands;
  • deforming the soft palatine part;
  • scarring, damaging acinus and connective tissue.


In children, the herpes simplex virus type I often appears, actively developing in the epithelium and lymph nodes and then affecting the skin. With it, the temperature can rise, which kills the viral cells. But the immune system weakens, and it takes at least one to two weeks to recover.


Only 20 percent of patients experience it. Usually, yellowish-gray ulcers form on the root of the tongue, throat tissues, and palate.Swelling of the ligaments with this form is very dangerous, as it makes it difficult to breathe and eat. There may be pain in the larynx, cough and runny nose.


When no remedial measures are taken for problems with the gastrointestinal tract and poisoning, ulcers appear in the mouth. Then the mucous membrane is damaged to very deep layers, and during chewing or speaking, severe pain and perspiration are felt.


This form is more difficult to cure, since it raises the temperature, which requires taking an antipyretic agent, and also enlarges the lymph nodes.In the case when the disease occurs again (recurs), it develops into a permanent form, and it becomes easier for the body to cope with it.


Many people are interested in the question of why stomatitis often appears in the mouth. With a weakened immune system, even after a complete recovery, he easily returns again. And more often – in late autumn, winter and early spring, when the body suffers from a lack of vitamins. Usually it complements colds and viral diseases: ARVI, flu, sore throat and others.

But it can also occur together with pathologies of the endocrine glands or the gastrointestinal tract.


In this form, ulcers are not formed, only slight redness and swelling are observed. The pain syndrome is not as obvious as in other forms, and the temperature in an adult remains at a normal level. Children, on the other hand, suffer from fever for the first two days, but it goes away if timely treatment begins.


Some people are hypersensitive to various external factors: certain types of food, medicines, dust, wool fibers, cosmetics and others.Then dryness occurs in the oral cavity, the taste buds reduce sensitivity, and the mucous membrane becomes inflamed.

Stomatitis in a child

Children, as a rule, are less resistant to bacterial and other diseases, since their body is still poorly resistant to external influences.


There are many viruses that cause this disease. It depends on which of them got into the child’s body, how hard he will endure it and how quickly he will recover.The child may feel a sore throat that gets worse when swallowing or chewing. The body temperature rises to 37-39 degrees.

This form is accompanied by swollen lymph nodes, cough and runny nose, so it is often confused with the common cold, regardless of mouth ulcers.


Small children love to put various objects in their mouths, in this way they learn about the world. Therefore, the risk of contamination of harmful bacteria is higher, especially if you do not keep your hands clean.Sometimes parents forget to wash the fruits they bought in the store, and then it is difficult for children’s immunity to cope with microbes. This leads to inflammatory processes on the mucous membrane: ulcers and areas with a white coating appear, having a curdled texture. With mechanical damage, they begin to bleed.

Where is stomatitis

It is not so easy to find signs of the disease at once, since inflammations can appear in absolutely any area.

On the lip

Here the skin is very thin and sensitive, especially on the lower part.There are several causes of ulcerative formations:

  • herpes virus;
  • burns;
  • strong chapping and dryness;
  • consequences of chickenpox, measles or scarlet fever;
  • gestation period.

On the gum

Most often it affects newborns, preschoolers and adults. In this place, the affected area is visible only at an early stage, later it spreads over the entire inner surface of the cheek and lip.At the same time, small cracks are covered in the corners of the mouth.

In the sky

Young children are more likely to experience this because they are not able to take care of their hygiene on their own. They take other people’s toys from the floor, stones and branches from the ground and then gnaw, taste. All this leads to the formation of white plaque, especially if the body is not resistant to bacteria.

In language

In this area, the disease occurs not only due to lack of hygiene procedures, but also due to sleep disturbance.If a person, especially a small child, has little rest and is under great stress, his health deteriorates.

Methods for the treatment of stomatitis

There are many options for coping with this disease. But in any case, it is impossible to do without consulting a doctor, only he will be able to correctly determine the pathogen and correctly prescribe the necessary drugs.

Home treatments

Often people do not go to the dentist’s office, but try to relieve inflammation on their own with the help of rinsing with various means, maintaining hygiene and other things.Sometimes it helps, but a good result cannot be guaranteed – it is not always possible to find medicines.

Therefore, do not neglect the examination by a specialist, even if one day you manage to remove the ulcers, they will come back again.

Folk remedies

There are some universal natural antiseptics with anti-inflammatory effect: chamomile flowers, chicory, honey, burdock, potatoes, yarrow, cloves of garlic and others. But they are effective only when inflammatory processes are associated with a decrease in immunity or a lack of vitamins.In the presence of other pathogens, it is unlikely that it will be possible to get rid of the problem in this way, first go through a dental examination.

Doctor’s office

This is the most adequate method, as it guarantees the correct diagnosis. The doctor will select exactly those medicines that will fight not only the symptoms, but also eliminate the prerequisites for their return.

How to avoid illness

There are some preventive measures that will preserve the health of not only the oral cavity, but also the whole body:

  • regular hand washing, especially before eating;
  • annual visit to the dentist;
  • balanced nutrition and avoiding harmful high-carbohydrate foods;
  • selection of suitable dental care products.

In this article we have shown what causes stomatitis in the mouth, causes of the disease, symptoms and treatment. It depends only on you whether you face it or not, a responsible approach will save you from health problems.

Inflammation of the cervical lymph nodes | Reasons for development

Inflammation of the submandibular lymph nodes can occur for various reasons and at different ages. Correct and timely treatment will help avoid the development of complications.

What is this pathology

Lymphadenitis – inflammation of the lymph nodes. Most often, it is the submandibular lymph nodes that become inflamed. This is due to the reaction of the immune system to the penetration of infection into the human body.

Specialists distinguish three stages in the development of pathology:

  • initial;
  • medium;
  • purulent stage.

Important to know! The presence of pus in the lymph nodes requires immediate surgery.

Inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck is an alarming symptom that suggests that some pathological process is developing in the body.


Symptoms of lymphadenitis on the neck are identical to the inflammatory process of the salivary glands, phlegmon or abscess. That is why, if any signs of pathology are found, you must immediately consult a doctor.

Reasons for the development of pathology in adults

  • Infection.Inflammation of the lymph nodes occurs due to infection in the organs located near the neck. When it enters the body, the pathogenic microflora changes the structure of human cells. The enlargement of the nodes on the neck is precisely the body’s defensive reaction.
  • Immune pathologies. HIV infections, AIDS, leukemia in the initial stages of development are manifested by enlarged lymph nodes in the cervical nodes.
  • Dental diseases. Flux, abscess, alveolitis and other purulent inflammation of the oral cavity are characterized by an increase in lymph nodes in the neck.
  • Toxoplasmosis. An infectious disease caused by Toxoplasma, which affects the lymphatic system.

In children, the development of pathology can be caused by:

  • scratches from animals;
  • colds;
  • infection of the respiratory system, ENT organs, throat, eyes;
  • dental diseases.

Treatment is based on etiology. Therapy is prescribed only after a thorough diagnosis.

Preventive measures

  • Carrying out timely treatment of infectious diseases of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract.
  • Regular oral hygiene.
  • Visit your dentist every six months.
  • Strengthening general immunity.
  • Proper nutrition.

Careful, scarlet fever !!!

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Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever is an infectious disease characterized by angina with lymphadenitis, general intoxication, fever, small-dot rash with further lamellar skin scaling.Refers to childhood diseases, in adults it is extremely rare. Scarlet fever in children occurs most often between the ages of 2 to 6-7 years.

Scarlet fever in children: symptoms

The incubation period of scarlet fever: from 1 to 12 days, usually from 3 to 7. The disease begins acutely. The general condition of the patient is deteriorating rather quickly. Together with the chills, the temperature rises quickly, which already in the first hours reaches 39 – 40 ° C, such a temperature can last for 3 – 5 days.With mild forms of the disease, vomiting can be single, with severe – multiple, persistent. Some children may experience irritation, delirium, anxiety, insomnia, convulsions. Others have drowsiness, apathy, lethargy. Scarlet angina is associated with a sore throat, there is a bright hyperemia, which has a clear border along the edge of the palate. The tonsils are greatly enlarged, loosened. Scarlet fever in children has its own specific symptom; a yellow-white plaque forms on the surface of the tonsils and tongue. This plaque disappears after 5 days from the moment of infection.Together with the plaque, the filiform papillae of the tongue are exfoliated, a smooth surface of bright red color is exposed, against which the mushroom papillae of the tongue are visible. This symptom is called Raspberry Tongue .

The main distinguishing symptom of scarlet fever.
Raspberry tongue

The first signs of scarlet fever also include necrosis (necrosis), which can be found on the tonsils in the first 3-4 days of illness. Necrosis extends to the uvula, palatine arch, pharyngeal wall and soft palate.They quickly penetrate the tonsils. The mucous membrane around the necrosis takes on a bright red hue.

If the nasopharynx is affected, symptoms of necrotizing nasopharyngitis are observed, that is, nasal breathing is difficult, purulent mucus is released from the nose, cracks and redness are formed around the nasal openings. Possible inflammation of the paranasal cavities, mastoiditis, otitis media. Necrotizing tonsillitis is accompanied by pain when swallowing and bad breath. Scarlatinal lymphadenitis is characterized by compaction, enlargement, soreness of the upper cervical nodes.The likelihood of developing purulent lymphadenitis or phlegmon is not excluded. Tongue covered with off-white dry coating.

Rash with scarlet fever

The rash is one of the most common symptoms that scarlet fever has. It appears literally in a couple of hours, and maybe on the 2nd – 3rd day of illness. First, the rash covers the neck and upper body, and then very quickly spreads to the entire face, trunk and limbs. The nasolabial triangle remains unaffected by the rash.A rash with scarlet fever begins as small red spots with a bright color in the center and fades towards the border. The spots are located very densely, merging with each other and creating a picture of continuous erythema. If you lightly press on the speck, it disappears, but a white speck forms in its place. White dermographism is clearly formed, which is better manifested in milder forms of the disease.

On the patient’s skin, multiple wounds are possible – scratching, since the rash is accompanied by itching.The skin is very dry, with a bright red rash – rough. The rash is more pronounced in the articular folds and folds. With a bright rash in the folds, punctate hemorrhages are found. Sometimes, small bubbles filled with a clear or cloudy liquid may appear.

Scarlet fever passes into the second period, starting from the 4-5th day, when the first signs disappear. The temperature gradually returns to normal, the state of health improves. On the 4-5th day, the tongue acquires a bright red color with a raspberry tint and swollen papillae, on the 9-10th day it acquires a completely natural look.Sometimes this symptom is poorly expressed or absent altogether. The rash becomes pale, takes on a brownish tint. Pigment stripes are present in the articular folds of the skin for several days. After the rash has completely disappeared, peeling of the skin begins, peeling lasts 2-3 days, starting from the neck, moving to the chest, face, trunk, on the face the peeling is very small, and while the body is covered with larger scales. Then the process of peeling spreads to the auricles, ending with the limbs, where the epidermis falls off in wide layers, especially on the palms and soles.Children under 2 years of age may not have peeling.

There are some peculiarities associated with changes in blood composition. Already from the first days of the disease, an increase in the number of leukocytes is observed, neutrophilia is noted (from 60-70 to 90). From the 3rd day, the number of eosinophils increases (sometimes up to 15-30%). The maximum eosinophilia occurs at the end of the first week. But in severe forms of the disease, it may be absent altogether. There is a decrease in erythrocytes and hemoglobin, an acceleration of erythrocyte sedimentation (20-50 mm / h).

Scarlet fever in children has three degrees:

  1. – mild,
  2. – medium,
  3. – severe.

The main distinguishing features of a mild form are mild intoxication, a slightly disturbed general condition of the patient, a slight and short-term fever. Angina is repressive. With a mild form of the disease, the rash is typical, but scanty, moderate lymphadenitis. Small changes are observed in the periphery of the blood. The mild form includes the so-called erased scarlet fever, the symptoms of which are mild and short-lived, however, some of them may not be present.

The following symptoms are characteristic of the average form of scarlet fever: intoxication, high temperature (up to 39 ° C), tachycardia, repeated vomiting, tonsillitis with a white-yellow coating. The rash with an average form of the disease is bright, profuse.

Rashes and tonsillitis

A severe form of the disease is diagnosed by a combination of pronounced standard symptoms with symptoms of a toxic and septic nature. Here the temperature rises to 40 ° C and more, lymphadenitis with periadenitis, tonsillitis with the spread of necrosis to the soft palate and nasopharynx appear.The rash is profuse, hemorrhagic. Very often, streptococcus is found in the blood, causing septicopyemic metastases. In severe cases, hematological changes are clear, pneumonia, myocarditis (damage to the heart muscle), enlargement of the spleen and liver, septic endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart), glomerulonephritis (kidney disease) are possible. The severe form includes hypertoxic scarlet fever, in which intoxication develops very quickly before the typical signs of the disease appear.

Scarlet fever in adults and causes of scarlet fever

The causative agent of the infection is beta-hemolytic streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes). The infection is transmitted by airborne droplets. The source of infection is a person who is sick with scarlet fever or any other disease that is caused by beta-hemolytic streptococcus (erysipelas, nasopharyngitis, tonsillitis), a bacillus carrier. The incubation period for scarlet fever: 7 – 10 days. As mentioned earlier, the infection is transmitted by airborne droplets, however, the transmission of the pathogen is also possible through objects (clothes, toys).Scarlet fever in children occurs between the ages of 2 to 6-7 years, at this age children are most susceptible to this disease. Scarlet fever in adults may appear if they were not sick in childhood. As with other “air” infections, the peak incidence of scarlet fever occurs in winter and autumn. Disease leaps recur every 5 to 7 years. A person who has had scarlet fever acquires lifelong immunity, that is, he cannot get sick a second time.

The gates of infection are the palatine tonsils.Inflammatory-necrotic changes are observed at the site of infection. The causative agent of the disease enters the lymph nodes through the blood and lymph tracts, causing lymphadenitis (inflammation of the lymph nodes).

Treatment of scarlet fever

With a mild form of scarlet fever, treatment is carried out at home. In the case of moderate and severe forms, the sick should be treated in an infectious diseases hospital. Hospitalization is carried out in separate wards when they are instantly filled (to exclude cross-infection).Regardless of the severity of scarlet fever, patients should receive antibiotics for 5-7 days. Symptomatic therapy is prescribed, a diet that corresponds to the age of the patient and enriched with vitamins with the exception of spicy, salty and fried foods. For the first 5-7 days, it is important to stay in bed, gradually switching to a general one. Discharge is made after the disappearance of the clinical manifestations of the disease.

Prevention of scarlet fever

With scarlet fever, active immunization is not carried out.Young children and those who were first in contact are injected with 3-6 ml of gamma globulin. In children’s institutions, from the moment the patient is isolated, quarantine is established for 7 days. Those who have been ill are admitted to the collective 2 days after the onset of the disease, discharged from the hospital – 12 days after the end of the isolation period. Scarlet fever, although an unpleasant disease, does not arise in the prevention and treatment of problems.

What you need to know about laryngeal cancer

The problem of malignant neoplasms is one of the most pressing and most serious problems in biology and medicine.The number of patients with tumors of various localizations and cancer of the larynx, in particular, is constantly increasing all over the world.

According to the World Health Organization, more than seven million people fall ill with cancer in the world every year, of which 5 million die. According to oncologists, the main problem is not that malignant neoplasms are difficult to cure, but that patients go to the doctor late and cancer is detected in advanced stages. This explains the majority of deaths.

There are still many misconceptions and judgments that cancer is an unexplored and incurable disease. Until now, a number of people will have an opinion about the infectivity of patients with tumors, etc.

Tumor diseases have been known for a long time. Even in the written records of ancient Egypt and India, there are references to cancerous tumors. The name “cancer” was given to this disease by the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates.

In the everyday concept, cancer is the general name for malignant tumors of various morphological structure.The human body consists of various tissues from which tumors of various structures can arise. Therefore, it is wrong to call all tumors cancer. True cancers arise from the skin or mucous membranes.

What is a tumor in general? It has now been established that a tumor cell is an altered own cell of the body, which differs from the normal one in less maturity, rapid growth and does not obey the regulatory influence of the body. All types of cells and tissues of the human body can undergo tumor transformation.The proliferation of such cells leads to the formation of a tumor, its growth into neighboring tissues, destruction of the organ and the death of the organism. Malignant tumor cells can grow anywhere in the body. Separated from the main array of individual tumor cells, blood and lymph can be brought into regional lymph nodes, such as the neck, and then into distant organs: lungs, liver, bones and other organs and give new growth there. This property of tumors is called metastasis.

Considering that cancer arises from the patient’s own cell, and not from any introduced one, it will be clearer that cancer is not contagious.This is evidenced by the experience gained by medicine over hundreds of years and a number of special studies. Doctors, nurses and other personnel working in oncological institutions work without protective equipment, but they do not get cancer more often than people of other professions.

Tumors are divided into benign and malignant. Benign tumors in their structure differ little from the normal tissue from which they originate, are surrounded by a capsule, grow slowly (over years and even tens of years), squeezing and pushing back adjacent organs and tissues.In most cases, up to a certain size, these neoplasms do not harm a person.

Most malignant tumors are characterized by rapid, uncoordinated growth with invasion and destruction of surrounding tissues and metastasis.

Laryngeal cancer is a serious disease. Among the total number of patients with malignant diseases, laryngeal cancer takes the 10th place, and among the tumors of the upper respiratory tract – the 1st. Until recently, the number of patients with laryngeal cancer, like most tumors of other localizations, increased by 8-10% annually.However, over the past 10 years, the number of new cases of laryngeal cancer in Belarus has practically not changed. The disease usually occurs at the age of 40-60, and men still get sick 15-20 times more often than women. However, in 10-20 years, an increase in the incidence of cancer of the larynx and lungs due to women who smoke is expected.


Among the factors contributing to the onset of cancer, environmental factors, bad habits, working conditions, lifestyle, diet, etc. are of great importance.However, in all developed countries of the world, smoking is considered to be the main and theoretically easily removable carcinogenic factor in the onset of cancer in a number of localizations.

Smoking is a very common bad habit of mankind. Currently, 42.3% of the population in Belarus smokes, while the number of smokers is constantly increasing, mainly due to young women. So, according to the Ministry of Health, in Belarus, among smokers, 56% are women and 53% are men, and 15 thousand people die from smoking-related diseases a year.Many researchers view the problem of smoking and drinking as the biggest real threat to humanity.

Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of over 1000 different substances. The most famous among them is nicotine – a substance that has a strong effect on the body (such as narcotic) and is the main reason for addiction to tobacco. However, being a powerful poison, nicotine is not considered to be the main cause of tumors. Nicotine has only a slight sedative or stimulating effect, depending on the dose of nicotine and the state of the smoker’s body.

Cigarette smoke contains tar, as well as many different toxic and irritating substances, a large amount of soot particles, radioactive substances. From 20 to 50 components of tobacco smoke are carcinogenic, i.e. contribute to the appearance of tumors. With smoke, these carcinogenic substances enter the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, lungs, with saliva – into the stomach and interacting with tissues, cause their degeneration. The smoke, reaching the lungs, is deposited in the form of resins, and when these substances are absorbed into the blood, they enter all organs.

In order to establish the influence of smoking on the occurrence of cancer in a number of countries, special commissions were created, whose members, after a long study, came to the conclusion that smokers develop cancer of the larynx and lung 10 times more often than non-smokers. It has also been found that there is a direct relationship between the duration of smoking, the number of cigarettes smoked and the likelihood of laryngeal and lung cancer. For example, people who have smoked up to 40 cigarettes a day for 10-20 years developed cancer of the larynx and lungs 40-50 times more often than people who smoked no more than 10 cigarettes daily.The same studies proved that the overall risk of death from cancer directly related to smoking is 45%.

More than 130,000 people die each year in the United States as a result of cancer due to smoking. American researchers also believe that among adult men, smoking is the cause of 90% of all deaths from cancer of the lungs, oral cavity and larynx, cancer of the pharynx, stomach and other localizations. In the EU, one person dies from smoking-related diseases every minute.

The number of women who smoke has increased in recent decades.As a result, the number of cases of laryngeal and lung tumors in women increased by 2-3 times. In America, in 1970, researchers predicted that by 1990, lung cancer in smoking women in the United States would increase by 20% and 1991 data confirmed that among this population of women, cancers increased by 19%. The same studies have shown that the sensitivity of women to tobacco carcinogens is 2 times higher than that of men. In addition to the noted, smoking and consumption of even low-alcohol drinks by women during pregnancy, in addition to the possibility of giving birth to a mentally incomplete child, increases the child’s tendency to alcoholism after 20 years.

You should also be aware that non-smokers who are in the same room with smokers also suffer from smokers, as they also inhale tobacco smoke (this is the so-called “passive smoking”) and are at risk of contracting cancer. According to US experts, “secondhand” smoking increases the likelihood of cancer by 10 times. The risk of developing respiratory cancer in passive smokers exceeds the baseline level by 70%. The same data indicate that 53 thousand people die from secondhand smoke in the United States every year.The result of these works is the prohibition of smoking in public places in many countries.

In France, 150 thousand people die of cancer every year, while 60 thousand are the direct victims of “blue fragrant smoke”. According to experts, by 2020-2025 in France, mortality from cancer of the lungs, larynx and other organs will sharply increase due to the increase in the number of women who smoke. The data of American researchers observing 120 thousand representatives of the “fairer sex” indicate that heavy smokers are 30% more likely to get a breast tumor than non-smokers.

The influence of the irritating effect of tobacco on the likelihood of contracting cancer is also confirmed by the fact that in a number of Asian countries (Afghanistan, Iran, India, Turkey, etc.), where tobacco is not smoked, and its various mixtures (betel nut, us, etc. ) are placed behind the lip or cheek, laryngeal cancer is very rare, but tumors arise in the oral cavity, in the places where the mixture is laid, i.e. where these persons have mucosal irritation.

However, it would be incorrect to believe that tobacco is the only cause of cancer of the larynx, pharynx and other organs.To a large extent, the emergence of cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx contributes to the second bad habit of mankind, excessive consumption of alcohol. Currently, numerous epidemiological studies have collected irrefutable evidence of the high carcinogenic activity of alcohol abuse, and not only strong, but also low-alcohol drinks. Studies have shown a clear relationship between the increased risk of cancer and the amount and frequency of alcohol consumption.The risk of cancer is also increased in cases of early onset of alcohol consumption.

Occupational hazards play a very important role: inhalation of various gases, physical factors. Gases and dust of asbestos-cement and pulp and paper enterprises, paint and varnish, aniline and aluminum industries, exhaust gases of cars, vapors of gasoline and various oils, gases during welding and many others pose a high carcinogenic hazard. These studies are confirmed by our clinical observations indicating a significant number of drivers of vehicles, tractor drivers, gas welders among patients with laryngeal cancer, who smoke a lot and often consume alcohol and are exposed to the above-listed occupational hazards.

Thanks to human activity, the air we inhale contains a lot of harmful, including carcinogenic, substances. Inhalation of polluted air is very harmful, but everyone inhales the air, but cancer of the larynx and lungs occurs much more often in smokers. It should also be noted that all epidemiological studies of Belarusian scientists do not indicate the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the incidence of laryngeal cancer.

So, tobacco alone, and especially in combination with alcohol, according to researchers from all countries, is the most important cause of cancer of the larynx, oral cavity, lungs, etc.Studies have shown that reducing the number of cigarettes smoked, even by heavy smokers, reduces the risk of illness. This is confirmed by the data of British researchers who showed that within 2-3 years after stopping smoking, the likelihood of contracting cancer decreases by 10-15%, and after 10 years – by 70%. So smoking cessation is the simplest, most reliable, cheap and safe prevention of many inflammatory diseases and especially cancer of the larynx and lungs.


The reasons for the degeneration of a normal cell into a tumor in general and the larynx in particular are still unknown. However, it has been established that tumors do not appear suddenly. At the present stage of oncology development, it has already been firmly established that malignant tumors do not arise in healthy tissues, their appearance is always preceded by long-term pathological tissue changes that contribute to the development of the tumor. These changes usually last for years and are called “precancerous”. These diseases of the larynx include: papillomas, adenomas, leukokeratosis, pachydermia, cysts and chronic inflammation.Not all chronic processes turn into a tumor, but they all reduce the resistance of the mucous membrane of the larynx and the whole organism to the disease.

Long-term inhalation of dusty, hot air, especially in the presence of various gases, fumes of acids, alkalis, gasoline and oils, has a harmful effect on the mucous membrane of the larynx. Therefore, compliance with the rules of individual prevention when working with gases, dust and harmful chemicals in factories is also important to prevent the possibility of developing malignant neoplasms.

A tumor is easier to prevent than to cure. However, there are difficulties here, which are explained by the fact that the causes of cancer, in general, and of the larynx in particular, have not yet been fully studied. Therefore, an effective fight is possible only with known factors. All factors contributing to chronic inflammation and cancer must be eliminated. It is necessary to treat chronic diseases in a timely, systematic and persistent manner, to stop smoking, it is imperative and possible to remove all benign neoplasms earlier, and eliminate all occupational hazards.All these measures make it possible to prevent cancer. It should be remembered that tumors appear imperceptibly without any special signs. Therefore, patients should be attentive to any diseases of the larynx and, if hoarseness or other sensations appear, consult a doctor in a timely manner.

Preventive examinations are of great help in identifying precancerous diseases and neoplasms. Taking into account the possibility of malignancy of precancerous diseases in the corresponding offices of polyclinics, such patients should be monitored regularly in order to timely detect the occurrence of a tumor.These measures make it possible to timely identify a precancerous disease, to carry out the necessary treatment and thereby prevent the possibility of cancer. If a tumor is detected, treatment can be carried out at an earlier stage and a better result is achieved. Therefore, do not shy away from preventive examinations, come to the control examinations in a timely manner. Remember, comrades, these measures are needed not by the doctor, but by you.


The larynx performs important physiological functions in our body, the main ones are voice-forming and respiratory functions.In addition, when passing through the larynx, the air is warmed up, humidified and cleaned of dust. The protective function of the larynx is also significant, which consists in preventing foreign bodies from entering the respiratory tract. The laryngeal cavity is divided into three sections: upper (vestibular), middle and lower (subglottic). The middle section consists only of the vocal folds, located approximately in the middle of the larynx.

Signs of a tumor of the larynx are very diverse and depend on the shape, place of growth and degree of spread.The initial period of the disease is accompanied by minor symptoms: a feeling of tickling, tickling, a feeling of “foreign or foreign body in the throat”, inconvenience when swallowing, rapid fatigue when talking, ie. symptoms and complaints observed in a number of non-neoplastic diseases – subatrophic pharyngitis, etc. Further complaints depend on the localization of the tumor within the larynx. So with the defeat of the epiglottis, especially its edge, early inconvenience occurs when swallowing, difficulty and pain when swallowing food.Most often, tumors arise in the upper part of the larynx and do not cause sensations disturbing the patient for a long time. Only when the tumor reaches a significant size do sensations of a foreign body appear in the throat, the timbre of the voice changes, it becomes deaf, compressed, and hoarseness periodically appears. These changes are often noticed by the people around the sick person, and not by the patient himself. Hoarseness in cancers of this part of the larynx occurs when the tumor spreads to the vocal folds. Hoarseness is initially inconsistent and uneven in tone.However, patients rarely immediately pay attention even to hoarseness, explaining it by hypothermia, smoking and other reasons. As the tumor grows, the hoarseness increases until the voice is completely lost. In the future, there is choking while eating, difficulty and pain when swallowing, difficulty breathing. The pain often radiates to the ear. Further growth of the tumor narrows the glottis. Therefore, many patients complain of shortness of breath when walking or exercising. Respiratory distress develops slowly, gradually, so the body gets used to it and patients do not feel a lack of air for a long time.In some patients, difficulty breathing appears after hypothermia, when inflammation and swelling of tissues occurs around the tumor. With large ulcerated tumors, patients develop abundant salivation, sometimes with blood, bad breath, cough, especially while eating.

Above, we noted that the vestibular larynx contains a large number of lymphatic vessels. Separate tumor cells, breaking away from the main tumor, can enter the lymph nodes in the neck through the lymphatic vessels.In the nodes, tumor cells give rise to a new tumor, as a result of which dense, painless, constantly increasing formations (metastases) appear on the neck. Cancer of the vestibular region early and often metastases, sometimes even with small tumors. Therefore, in some cases with laryngeal tumors, before the appearance of pronounced symptoms from the larynx, painless, dense formations appear on the neck and patients seek help with complaints of the appearance of a tumor on the neck from one or both sides.Very often, sick people explain the increase in lymph nodes with a cold and inflammation and do not seek help, prolonging the disease.

Tumors of the vocal cords appear much earlier than neoplasms of other parts of the larynx. Even a small formation the size of a millet grain on the vocal fold leads to a violation of the voice. Hoarseness appears first, and then persistent, progressive hoarseness. Vocal fold neoplasms grow relatively slowly and the voice gradually deteriorates.Metastases in cancers of the vocal folds appear very rarely, usually when the tumor grows outside this section.

Tumors in the subglottic larynx occur rarely and for a long time do not show either subjective or objective symptoms. The most common complaint with neoplasms of this localization is difficulty breathing or hoarseness if the tumor grows into the vocal fold. However, this indicates that the patient already has a large tumor covering most of the lumen of the trachea or glottis.There are usually no other symptoms with these tumors. Metastases in tumors of the subglottic space are rare and late.

All the symptoms described above are characteristic of a certain part of the larynx, but having arisen in any part of the larynx tumors grow into the adjacent formations of the larynx or pharynx (tongue root, pear-shaped sinuses, trachea, etc.) with such common tumors, regardless of the place of growth tumors, pain when swallowing, impaired voice formation and breathing can be observed.When the tumor grows into the thyroid cartilage, the configuration of the larynx changes. It becomes wide and painful when touched. The spread of cancer to the pharynx causes difficulty in swallowing and pain.

Some or all of the above symptoms are not yet indicative of laryngeal cancer. Difficulty breathing, pain when swallowing, hoarseness and swelling of the cervical lymph nodes can also be observed in a number of inflammatory diseases. To find out the cause of the disease, it is necessary to seek help from a doctor for ear, throat and nose diseases as early as possible, and not to a therapist.The laryngologist will be able to quickly figure it out and, if necessary, will be able to carry out the appropriate treatment. All this will allow you to start treatment earlier, without expecting severe symptoms of the disease.


If a tumor of the larynx is suspected or before starting treatment, each patient is carefully examined. The neck, oral cavity, oropharynx and laryngopharynx, larynx are examined; produce: X-ray examination of the lungs and other studies.In case of complaints of hoarseness and the slightest suspicion of a tumor of the larynx or pharynx, the patient must carefully examine the larynx with a mirror or a fiberscope. You cannot be satisfied with examining the oral cavity with a spatula or “peeping” into the therapist’s mouth. If necessary, a number of special studies are performed, including computed tomography. For each patient, a small piece of tissue (biopsy) is taken from the suspicious area of ​​the larynx and from the tumor for microscopic examination. Some patients are afraid of a biopsy and refuse to take it and the examination.Practice and many observations have proven that a biopsy cannot be the cause of the deterioration and spread of the process. It is impossible to confirm the presence or absence of a malignant process without data from the morphological examination of the taken piece of the tumor. If the patient refuses a biopsy, treatment is not carried out.

Treatment of patients with laryngeal tumors presents a number of difficulties and can be conservative and operative (surgical). The conservative method includes various combinations of chemotherapy, radiation therapy and other effects, but without surgical intervention.The combined method includes various combinations of chemotherapy and radiation therapy and various types of operations. What treatment will be applied depends on the location and extent of the neoplasm, the presence or absence of metastases, the morphological structure of the tumor and the general condition of the patient. At present, it is no longer enough to cure a patient by any method, leaving him disabled, it is necessary to leave a person able to work, socially useful.

The oldest, purely surgical method of treating laryngeal cancer, is now used very rarely.Modern equipment for radiation treatment (telegamma devices, betatron, linear accelerator) allows this method to be used as an independent type of treatment. In the last decade, chemotherapy has been increasingly used in the treatment of tumors. However, chemotherapy is not used as an independent treatment for laryngeal cancer. This is explained by the lack of drugs that are sufficiently effective for this localization of the tumor. Combining certain drugs with radiation or surgery improves treatment outcomes.Therefore, at present, the treatment of laryngeal cancer, in most cases, begins with chemotherapy or radiation therapy, or a combination of both. The number of courses of chemotherapy and the dose of radiation depends on the size of the tumor, its localization and the speed of its reverse development. With early treatment, the results are good. In the initial stages of laryngeal cancer, a stable cure after chemoradiation therapy is achieved in 85-95%. Similar treatment of common laryngeal tumors is much less effective – 30-40%.As the above data show, the outcome of treatment depends on the prevalence of the process. The smaller the tumor, the better the results and vice versa. There is also a definite dependence of the results of treatment on the location of the tumor. Cancer of the vocal fold is best amenable to radiation treatment, tumors of the upper section are worse, and they practically do not lend themselves to the conservative influence of neoplasms of the lower (subglottic) localization. The results of treatment also largely depend on the general condition of the body, its biological characteristics and on the psychological mood of the patient.A person who trusts a doctor, firmly believes in a favorable outcome, treatment is much more successful. And vice versa, mistrust, pessimism in relation to treatment, mental relaxation, and in some cases, even a panic mood of the patient, greatly harm the treatment. In the first patients, even huge tumors are well cured, in the second, small formations do not disappear.

In some patients, tumor shrinkage occurs very quickly and after a half dose of radiation, the tumor disappears, a clear, sonorous voice appears.Feeling good, a number of patients, instead of consolidating the success of treatment, refuse to continue treatment. After a few months, the growth of the tumor in such patients resumes, but it is no longer possible to irradiate this place. It is necessary to operate, sometimes several times, but it is not always possible to save the patient’s life.

During chemotherapy and radiation treatment, patients are systematically monitored, since these types of exposure are accompanied by local and general reactions. These changes often occur in weakened, emaciated patients, which is usually observed with large neoplasms.

The general reaction of the body is manifested in weakness, poor appetite, loss of taste and weight, occasionally headaches and blood changes appear.

Local reactions occur in the radiation zone, in this case in the larynx (epitheliitis) and on the skin of the neck. The noted reactions on the mucous membrane and skin are “legitimate”, occur in many patients and are not the result of inattention or “burns.” Skin reactions are now less common. Changes in the larynx are observed more often and are manifested by inflammation and edema of the mucous membrane of the larynx, which is manifested by increased hoarseness to a complete “loss” of voice.Epitheliitis is almost inevitable in all patients who are treated with the radiation method. The time of occurrence of reactions and their intensity depend on the general condition of the patient, the size of the tumor and the biological characteristics of the patient’s body. To reduce the reaction of the mucous membrane of the larynx, a number of therapeutic measures are carried out (injections, infusions, rinsing, diet, etc.).

In many patients admitted for treatment with large tumors narrowing the glottis and making breathing difficult, a tracheotomy must be performed before irradiation.This small, safe operation consists in inserting a special breathing tube into the trachea, below the location of the tumor. The larynx does not suffer from the operation. After the tumor is healed, the cannula is removed and the opening into the trachea is closed. In many patients, this operation is absolutely necessary, since after the first sessions of radiation in the larynx, tissue edema can quickly develop. If the tumor is small and the glottis is wide, edema is usually not terrible for such a patient. With a large swelling of the covering part of the glottis (stenosis of the II-III degree), the edema closes the rest of the lumen of the larynx and the person may suffocate.Therefore, if doctors consider tracheotomy necessary, they should not refuse this small operation, since it saves life and it is impossible to start treatment without it. Edema causes smoking, drinking alcohol, spicy food, colds, etc.

After radiation treatment, patients may experience complications in the form of laryngeal edema and inflammation of the cartilage of the larynx. The disease is accompanied by pain when swallowing, fever, swelling of the tissues of the anterior surface of the neck and laryngeal mucosa.Usually this complication is observed in patients with large tumors growing into the cartilage and in violation of the regimen after treatment (alcohol consumption, smoking, etc.).

After the tumor has been cured by the radiation method, the function of the larynx is practically not impaired. Soon after the end of treatment, a sonorous voice is restored and the patients continue their previous work activity.

In cases where radiation treatment was not effective enough, surgical intervention is performed.The combination of radiation and surgical treatment is called combined. As a rule, the operation has to be done on patients arriving for treatment with large tumors. Radiation treatment prior to surgery results in a shrinkage of the tumor. In addition, after irradiation, tumor cells are less viable and the operation is performed in better conditions than without irradiation. However, from all of the above, it does not follow that all patients should be irradiated with a full dose, hoping for a greater reduction in the tumor. After high doses of radiation, the postoperative wound may heal worse.Therefore, if doctors recommend stopping the irradiation after half the radiation dose and performing an operation, one should not abandon it, motivating the improvement of the voice and the disappearance of pain.

There are various operations. If the tumor is small, then only part of the larynx is removed (various types of resections). After such an operation, the person breathes as usual and his voice is preserved. For large tumors, the larynx must be completely removed. This is a big operation. After this intervention, the person loses a sonorous voice and breathes only through a tube inserted into the trachea in the lower parts of the neck, but his life is saved.3-4 weeks after the operation, the patient begins classes with a speech therapist to develop a sonorous voice. Speech in such patients develops due to the air swallowed into the stomach. After some time of training, the operated person develops a sonorous speech, which allows him to communicate with people around him and even continue working. In addition to the noted method, the restoration of a sonorous voice is currently possible by installing a voice prosthesis. During the removal of the tumor or through any period after the operation, it is possible to install a small “cannula”, which allows you to direct air from the trachea into the esophagus, and after the inflammation subsides, the patient begins to speak loudly.

If the patient had a very large tumor, then sometimes it is necessary to remove not only the larynx, but also parts of the surrounding organs (tongue, pharynx, trachea, etc.), after such operations it is not always possible to completely suture the wound. Such interventions usually have to be done in patients with very large tumors, more often in patients who initially refused the operation and agreed to it only after the appearance of severe pain. For large neoplasms, the combination of radiation and surgery gives significantly better results than either method alone.The cure with the combined treatment of large tumors is achieved in 40-60%. However, the possibilities of combined treatment are also limited, because the tumor can grow into large vessels and other formations and surgical intervention becomes impossible, since not everything can be removed. Patients do not always understand this when they refuse a timely proposed operation, hoping that it is “never too late” to operate. The tumor grows imperceptibly and painlessly. Pain appears only when the tumor invades the surrounding tissues and large nerves, and often it is no longer possible to remove such a tumor.

It was noted above that tumors of the larynx can metastasize to the lymph nodes of the neck. Treatment of metastases of cancer of the larynx, as well as the main focus, can be conservative, but more often it is necessary to operate. With radiation treatment for laryngeal cancer, the enlarged lymph nodes in the neck are also irradiated. If, after the treatment, the “nodes” have not disappeared or soon reappeared, they must be removed surgically. The operation consists in removing the lymphatic apparatus and tissue of the lateral surface of the neck in a single block together with the muscle and vein.The operation is large, but not disabling for a person. After the intervention, the patient continues to perform the same work. Many patients who find a small painless lymph node on their neck do not seek help and are treated with home remedies. Others do not agree to the proposed operation, believing that the “node” is still small and that it is “never too late” to operate. This tactic is wrong and very dangerous. Metastases in the lymph nodes of the neck are located next to a large artery that supplies blood to the brain.When the “knot” reaches a large size, and sometimes at a small size, it grows together with this vessel and it is already very difficult to remove such a metastasis. It is necessary to operate while the node is small, then the operation is performed radically and is easily tolerated by the patient. Expectation, in addition to an increase in metastasis and its germination into the surrounding formations, can lead to the appearance of new metastases in the neck or in other organs (lungs, liver). As a result, the operation becomes larger and sometimes impossible.

So, all of the above shows that cancer of the larynx and its metastases in the cervical lymph nodes are curable.The results of treatment depend entirely on the size of the tumor. The sooner the patient seeks help, the more guarantees for a cure. The treatment of large tumors of the larynx and large metastases is extremely difficult. The results of their treatment are unsatisfactory.

All patients after treatment require careful systematic supervision of a specialist for 5 years or more. This is necessary in order to timely detect the resumption of tumor growth, the appearance of possible complications or metastases.During the first year after the end of treatment, the patient should be examined at first monthly, then once every 2-3 months. Subsequently, the patient must appear for examination 1 time in 4-6 months. After 5 years, control is carried out once a year. If necessary, and more often.


After the radiation treatment, the tissues of the larynx and neck change. Therefore, patients are not recommended to overcool, smoke, consume any alcoholic beverages, very sour, salty and spicy foods for 0.5-1 years.Irritating food will increase dryness and cause swelling of the larynx lining. Hypothermia, as a rule, leads to swelling of the tissues of the larynx. Those who have recovered after radiation treatment for some time should also avoid overloading the vocal apparatus (speak softly and possibly less). Very dry, hot, dusty air is also harmful to them, especially in the presence of chemicals.

After irradiation, all patients develop severe dry mouth and throat.To reduce dryness, patients are recommended alkaline rinsing with sage, chamomile, eucalyptus leaves, 1 teaspoon of baking soda in a glass of warm water, instilling 10-15 drops of vegetable oils into the nose at night.

After removal of the larynx, many patients are forced to wear a tracheotomy cannula. To prevent inflammation of the tissues around the tracheostomy and tracheal mucosa, the tracheotomy tube should be replaced after 1–2 days. Better daily. This is done by the patients themselves.

Due to the absence of the larynx, the air enters the trachea dry and dusty.Therefore, in the summertime, a moistened gauze pad should be worn in front of the tracheotomy tube. In case of dryness and the presence of crusts on the walls of the trachea, it is necessary to instill alkaline or oil drops on the walls of the trachea. In case of skin irritation around the tracheostomy, the skin should be lubricated with any ointment (petroleum jelly, zinc ointment, etc.).

A person’s ability to work after treatment depends on his specialty, type and scope of treatment. After radiation treatment, most patients return to their previous place of work.Among the patients we operated on, many also continue to work in state and collective farms, factories, construction foremen, accountants and engineers, and even lawyers.

All the above data indicate that cancer of the larynx is a serious disease, but with timely treatment, it is completely curable. You should not only self-medicate and refuse the proposed treatment.

A.V. Wacker

“I felt tired, but no one even suspected that I was sick”

Aytana’s life changed in a few months.In June 2018, after a blood test she was prescribed for lymph node inflammation , she visited her pediatrician to see the result. A primary care physician explained to a 15-year-old girl and her family that the analysis showed significant abnormalities and that the immunoglobulin (or antibody) level of was very low. For this reason, the doctor referred the patient to the Department of Immunology and Primary Immunodeficiency at the Hospital Sant Joan de Deu Barcelona.

A teenage girl was admitted to Sant Joan de Daewoo a little later, where she underwent hematological, immunological, infectious and diagnostic tests to find the source of the problem. In July, Aytana underwent surgery to examine swollen lymph nodes and rule out lymphoma.

“We were very scared, but from the very beginning they gave us all the information and explained that an operation is necessary to rule out other diseases,” , recalls Aytana.

Rapid diagnosis is the key to the patient’s treatment

After surgery, lymphoma was ruled out, however, it was confirmed that the cause of inflammation of the lymph nodes in Aitana was a viral infection, which was difficult for her body to fight due to a decrease in the level of immunoglobulins and insufficient antibody response . The patient’s diagnosis was also confirmed: common variable immunodeficiency (CVI).

. “As a child, I already had low immunoglobulins in my blood test and, once, I was admitted to the hospital due to platelet deficiency .For several years I have been treated for stunting. The truth is that we did not associate it with a possible illness, ” explains Aytana.

In fact, JVI is the most common symptomatic primary immunodeficiency , a disease that in many cases is not diagnosed until adulthood. According to the patient, she suffered from minor infections and always felt very tired, but neither she nor her family ever suspected that they were symptoms of a possible pathology until Dr. Laya Alsina confirmed the diagnosis…

The cause of this disease in most cases is still not known, although there have been several genetic studies for this diagnosis. Thanks to the experience of the Clinical Immunology and Primary Immunodeficiency Team of the Hospital Sant Joan de Daewoo and other departments of the hospital, it became possible to quickly diagnose and prescribe treatment for Aytana.

“Everything went very quickly and very well, soon I already knew what was happening to me and what the immunodeficiency treatment would be like ,” sums up the girl, who claims that she has grown a lot in recent months after the experience.

Home Treatment to Reduce Hospital Visits

“The first thing I asked myself was this disease for my whole life?” – Aytana was very worried about her future and the consequences of immunodeficiency for her daily life . The immunological team explained that this is a disease that requires long-term treatment with immunoglobulins . The goal of this therapy, which the patient should do once a month, is to prevent possible infections or their complications .Given that this is a chronic treatment, the family was encouraged to do the procedures subcutaneously (at home, after the relatives were trained in the procedure) rather than intravenously (this is done in a hospital).

Aytane has already performed the second procedure subcutaneous treatment in the day hospital, where she was taught to independently inject immunoglobulin so that she could do it without having to visit the hospital.

“After the third session I can do it myself.Now I’m still learning and getting used to it because I think I’ll have to punch myself a little, ” says Aytana, who hopes not to visit the hospital too often.

This will be the main immunodeficiency treatment she will receive at this stage, although her immunodeficiency may sometimes require other treatments .

The patient sums up: “Communication helped me a lot: with my friends and family, and especially with my middle sister.I think the best thing to do when you have been diagnosed with a difficult diagnosis is to express your feelings, to share your concerns and doubts.

Diseases of the tongue in children

The state of the patient’s tongue has long been one of the markers for diagnosis by doctors. Indeed, even before the patient’s symptoms of a certain disease are clearly manifested, the language often “sends” a signal about disturbances in the body. That is why patients often ask specialists about if the tongue is white and what it means.

Even in antiquity, it was believed that a person cannot be called healthy until his tongue takes on a healthy appearance. White bloom appears if the processes of keratinization of the cells of the filamentous papillae are disrupted. As a result, the amount of horny masses increases, they become thick, and it is difficult to clean them.

What does the tongue look like in normal state ?

  • The sizes are average, not increased.
  • Surface color pale pink.
  • Moderate humidity, moderately pronounced papillae.
  • Normal sensitivity, tongue functioning normally.
  • An acceptable option is a pink-white bloom, which is easy to clean.
  • No unpleasant odor.

Changes to worry about.

  • The size changes, the organ swells, and teeth imprints can be seen on it.
  • The color of the back of the tongue changes to grayish, yellow, white or other, and the lateral surfaces turn red.
  • Dryness is noted.
  • The papillae on the tongue, especially at the root, enlarge, they look like small red spots.
  • A burning sensation is constantly felt, as well as pain, disturbed perception of taste, there is a sensation of irritation and hair in the mouth.
  • Overlapping is noted – a profuse bloom is formed, which is very difficult to clean. Some time after removal, the person notes that the tongue is again covered with a plaque.
  • Not only a white coating appears on the tongue: bad breath becomes unpleasant.

The reasons for language changes in adults and children may be as follows.

  • Directly affecting the tongue, acute and chronic: inflammatory processes, the effect of drugs.
  • Various diseases – infectious, fungal, oncological, ailments of internal organs, dysbiosis, hypovitaminosis, etc.
  • Others: inappropriate approach to hygiene, smoking, alcohol consumption, inadequate hygiene products, consumption of white food.

Glossitis – external inflammation of the tissues of the tongue – superficial or deep. The nature and degree of change is determined not only by the form of the disease, but also by the state of the whole organism. It occurs as a result of impaired capillary circulation in the mucous membrane. The cause may be an injury (cut, burn with boiling water), with the formation of wounds. As a rule, this causes only unpleasant sensations, and saliva, which has a bacteriostatic effect, provides a quick regeneration process.

The most common cause of diseases of the oral mucosa and tongue is the action of pathogenic microflora: herpes viruses, staphylococci, streptococci, yeast-like fungi.

If diseases of other organs in the body are displayed on the tongue, these are symptoms and it is necessary to treat the root cause of the onset of the disease.

However, it should be understood that even a constant plaque is just a secondary sign of a disease, so it is impossible to draw conclusions about diseases based on it alone. The diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the oral cavity in adults and children, first of all, is carried out by general practitioners – a therapist and pediatrician, and, of course, a dentist.If there is such a need, the doctor refers the patient to other specialists – an infectious disease specialist, a gastroenterologist, etc.

Also, during the examination, it is necessary to pass blood and urine tests. If necessary, bacterial sowing of plaque from the mucous membrane is carried out. Sometimes other tests are prescribed.

Among the forms of pathological processes of the language characteristic of the child’s body, one can single out:

  • galvanic stomatitis;
  • geographic language in a child.

Galvanic stomatitis – manifests itself as a consequence of the presence of metal prostheses, braces, braces, etc. in the oral cavity. With this disease, a white plaque appears, as well as small pimple spots. With a severe course of the disease, erosion and burning are noted. If dentures are made of poor quality, teeth marks appear on the sides, and as a result, permanent teeth marks can provoke irritation. Also, this can be noted if the patient has an incorrect bite.In this case, the dentist or orthodontist should determine the causes of the teeth marks on the tongue on the sides and eliminate them.

Ulcers in the tongue, the causes of which are associated with different types of stomatitis, disappear if you practice the correct treatment. The doctor should tell how to treat ulcers, determining the features of the course of the disease.

Geographic tongue in a child is the most common cause for concern for parents, a disease of the mucous membrane of the tongue of an inflammatory-dystrophic nature.It manifests itself as follows: on the mucous membrane of the tongue, areas of desquamation (scaly peeling) of the red epithelium appear, which are surrounded by a rim of a peeling white epithelium. This disease occurs among children quite often.

Geographic tongue is the result of malnutrition of the tissues of the tongue. Today, there is no exact answer among doctors for what reasons this violation occurs. But a connection was noted between the occurrence of the disease in question and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract:

  • helminthic invasion;
  • kidney disease;
  • liver;
  • pancreas;
  • spleen.

When teething occurs, babies often have a “geographic tongue”. It is common in adolescent girls when their period comes (or just before it). This feature can accompany the child through life or pass later. Geographic language in children can be the result of anemia and vitamin deficiency. Also among the causes of this disease are infectious diseases in an acute form, vegetative-endocrine changes, collagenoses. Factors of heredity are also important.

The epithelium of the geographic tongue can be exfoliated for 2-3 days minimum and 3-4 months maximum. But in some cases, it peels off even longer. In this case, the child may not feel anything, nothing bothers him. With increased desquamation of the epithelium, a tingling, burning or tingling sensation appears on the tongue, which become more intense during meals.

The reaction of the tongue to spicy, spicy, hot is noted. Sometimes a child may have a taste disorder.In this case, disorders of taste disorders include the loss or perversion of the perception of some taste stimuli, the emergence of a certain taste in the mouth for no reason. For example, a child may taste citrus fruits even though they are not currently eating them. Gustatory disorders in children with geographical language are rare. In addition, these symptoms may indicate another disease or disorder.

The sloughing foci on the tongue are not covered with normal mucous membrane, which deprives them of their protection against infections.The geographic tongue fissures, causing difficulty swallowing. Then the submandibular lymph nodes enlarge.

If the geographical language has become a manifestation of the changes in the body, which are mentioned above, treatment is not prescribed, since it will go away on its own. If there are parallel diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, helminthic invasion, etc., then the goal of therapy should be to treat the underlying disease.

After establishing the cause, you need to carry out an absolute sanitation of the oral cavity.Caries is treated by removing dental calculus, etc. If a child has disturbing sensations with a geographical language, then doctors may prescribe pain relievers. Pain is also relieved with sterile sunflower oil baths. The bath is done for 15–20 minutes. To sterilize the oil, it must be boiled for 20 minutes in a water bath and allowed to cool.

Such food is excluded from the child’s diet (to avoid irritation of the tongue):

  • hotter;
  • rough dishes;
  • salted;
  • with a lot of spices;
  • ice.

If an infection occurs against the background of a geographic tongue, antibiotic treatment may be required – as directed by the attending physician.

Speaking about the prevention of diseases or various kinds of changes on the part of the tongue, one should not be careless about caries in a child, even if it has arisen on milk teeth. It is important to treat or remove diseased teeth on time. If you notice caries or other incomprehensible manifestations on the teeth in a child, this is a reason for a visit to the dentist. Teach your child to practice good dental and tongue hygiene.

It is better to brush your teeth with a paste, not a powder. Powders contain menthol or peppermint oil, which can negatively affect the condition of the tongue. It is best for children to use special pastes for children. If you feel dry, you need to rinse your mouth, this must be done before going to bed and after eating. For rinsing, you can use herbal decoctions. For these purposes, they buy St. John’s wort, chamomile, calendula, sage. There are hygienic dental elixirs for rinsing your teeth in pharmacies.

If you feel dry on the tongue, you can apply gauze napkins moistened with peach or vaseline oil.They are also moistened with unsalted butter or fish oil. The napkin is left on the tongue for no longer than 5 minutes. Avoid eating food that is too hot or too cold. It is best for adolescents to get rid of bad habits – first of all, from smoking and drinking alcohol.

A change in diet and the use of vitamin supplements will be a good prevention. If the cause of micro-cracks is a poorly fitted denture, this should be corrected by a dentist.

90,000 Within the framework of the campaign for the prevention of head and neck tumors from September 21 to September 25, 2015 “TONGUE CANCER”

Cancer of the tongue is a malignant tumor that affects the body of the tongue and destroys its tissues. Like any cancer, tongue cancer requires competent and immediate treatment. The difficulty is that at first it can be almost asymptomatic, or the symptoms can be confused with signs of another disease: tonsillitis, caries.


Examination of the tongue and oral cavity Consider the main symptoms of tongue cancer: Pain in the tongue and oral cavity as a whole. This symptom can occur both at the last stage of the disease, and at the initial stage. At first, the pain is mild, but at stages 3-4 of cancer, the pain becomes very noticeable. It hurts not only when swallowing and speaking, but also in a calm state. If metastases have already reached the lymph nodes, pain may also be in the neck, ears, and head areas.Ulcers. Quite often, with tongue cancer, patients complain of a painful sore on the tongue. Even before going to the doctor, patients begin to treat it on their own with various ointments and lotions, taking a dangerous disease for just inflammation from the bite (or, as the people say, pips). However, despite this, the ulcer does not heal. Usually, the ulcers are small, no more than 1 cm, but during the course of the disease they can grow. Sealing of part of the tongue. This symptom is detected by palpation and examination by the dentist.Part of the tongue becomes hard to the touch, loses sensitivity. The mucous membrane in this place may become thinner. Strong breath. If the disease is at a rather advanced stage, the tissue of the tongue dies off in the place where the cancerous tumor (ulcer) is located. In this case, the odor from the oral cavity is even more than unpleasant. Difficulty opening the mouth. If the cancerous node is located on the back of the tongue, this will especially complicate speech, swallowing food, saliva, and in general any manipulation of the tongue and jaw.Cancer, as you know, promotes the proliferation of metastases to other organs of the body, while the throat, palate, and lymph nodes can also suffer. Muscles, skin, teeth are destroyed. Difficulty eating. The tumor can become large, cause tissue edema, and painful sensations when swallowing. At an advanced stage, food intake becomes completely impossible. Swelling of the neck and face. This is a sign of tissue edema, inflammatory processes provoked by cancer cells. Lymph nodes in the neck can also become thickened and sore.


Cancer can affect different parts of the tongue. There are 3 types of tongue cancer: Cancer of the root of the tongue is on the second line in frequency of occurrence (among the types of cancer of the tongue). It is not so easy to diagnose it, because the root of the tongue does not lend itself to palpation and is poorly visible. It seems to the patient that he has a sore throat, as with a cold, there are unpleasant sensations during swallowing. However, in addition to pain, other signs appear: bad breath, swollen and sore lymph nodes, bleeding sores.Cancer of the root of the tongue proceeds quickly and quite aggressively. The tumor can affect not only the tongue itself, but also the auditory nerve, cachexia develops over time. Cancer of the lower surface of the tongue is not common. It is usually accompanied by growths, lumps, or sores on the lower part of the tongue as well as the lower jaw. The tumor grows into muscle tissue. The pain is felt on the body of the tongue, in the lower jaw, head, neck. Tumors are usually of an infiltrative nature. Cancer of the body of the tongue. This is the most common variety.It is easy to spot during a dental examination. At first, sores and spots on the tongue can be confused with ordinary inflammation or mechanical damage. The tumor can be located on the tip or lateral surface of the tongue, and also spread over the entire surface. If the ulcers are on the side, in the last stages, possible immobility of the tongue. There are three forms of tongue cancer, which were already mentioned above: The ulcerative form is accompanied by the appearance of non-healing ulcers on the surface of the tongue. They may be small in size and bleed occasionally.Infiltrative form – the appearance of dense formations in the body of the tongue. They may be painful, but painful sensations may not be present. Papillary form – the formation of papillomas on the body of the tongue. They have a papillary surface and can be dense or soft. Depending on how the neoplasm grows, there are 2 types of tongue cancer. An exophytic tumor protrudes into the lumen of the oral cavity, outwardly it looks like a tubercle or growth. An endophytic tumor grows inside the body of the tongue, it looks more like a seal.


There are different forms and stages of tongue cancer. Cancer of the tongue occurs in the fairer sex 6 times less often than in men. It is difficult to say what is the reason for such statistics. Perhaps men are more susceptible to addiction to bad habits or occupations that are hazardous to health. It would seem that it is not difficult to detect cancer of the tongue, because it is located on the surface and is clearly visible. But unfortunately, when it is already clearly visible and palpable, this is far from the initial stage.A person does not always go to the doctor with mild pain, lumps and sores. Sometimes the doctor can make a wrong diagnosis, because the outwardly cancerous growth looks like an inflammatory process from mechanical damage or a symptom of purulent sore throat. The doctor is obliged to identify the presence of hereditary burden, collect anamnesis, and also conduct an instrumental examination using mirrors, if required. The presence of metastases is determined by biopsy of the lymph node, CT, MRI of the brain.The ultrasound result will tell you how much the tumor has grown. It is also necessary to conduct a cytological analysis of the tumor. What can lead to such a terrible disease as tongue cancer? Systematic smoking and alcohol abuse. Many do not believe that smoking can lead to tongue cancer, believe that this is a myth for intimidation of smoking teenagers. However, the reality is that it is the carcinogens released with cigarette smoke that provoke the development of this disease. And alcohol significantly aggravates their effect and increases the risk of cancer in 2 times.Permanent injury to the mucous membrane of the tongue. A place that is constantly traumatized becomes potentially dangerous, as well as accessible to bacteria and infections. This concerns the constant biting of the tongue in the same place, damage to the mucous membrane of the edge of the tooth or a poor-quality denture. Chronic viral infection caused by human papillomavirus, herpes virus, HIV. All of the above affects the development of cancer cells and requires special attention and observation, as well as systematic examination.Hereditary predisposition. Of course, this does not mean that if one of your relatives suffered from cancer, then now you cannot avoid it. You just need to remember that there is a potential danger, so it is important to avoid provoking factors and keep the body in shape.


A disease can have different symptoms, but the development of the disease is always approximately the same. During the course of the disease, three stages are distinguished: Initial stage. It can take three different forms: ulcerative, nodular and papillary.The ulcerative form occurs more often than others and proceeds more slowly. The nodular form manifests itself in the form of seals on the body of the tongue, the so-called cancerous nodules. The papillary form is characterized by the presence of outgrowths on the tongue. They are usually dense, light in color. The initial stage is sometimes completely asymptomatic, may be accompanied by the appearance of light spots on the tongue, which can be confused with plaque, seals or redness. The lymph nodes under the jaw may enlarge and sometimes become painful to touch.Stage of cancer development. At this stage, numerous symptoms begin to appear, such as intense pain radiating to the temporal region and ears, bad breath, salivation. There may be no pain even with a fairly large tumor. They manifest themselves individually. Ulcers can be either flat or cracked. The slit form of the tumor, as a rule, has a more malignant character. At the same stage, there is difficulty in swallowing, partial numbness of the tissues of the tongue, sore throat, as with angina, inability to clearly pronounce sounds, the tongue may bleed.Advanced stage of tongue cancer. At this stage, the cancer has already spread enough and began to actively destroy the nearest tissues. Cancer of the back of the tongue is more malignant than cancer of the front and is much more difficult to cure. Cancer cells multiply rapidly, there are distant metastases in the bones, brain, and lungs. In some cases, the disease progresses rapidly, tongue cancer is generally characterized by rapid growth, so it is important to do an examination on time, correctly diagnose and start treatment.The sooner the disease is detected, the more likely it is to achieve a positive result. Moreover, you should not diagnose yourself via the Internet, comparing yourself with pictures. It is better to trust a professional, only he will be able to make a correct and accurate diagnosis. Often, cancer of the tongue is preceded by various diseases that cause thinning of the mucous membrane of the tongue, such as leukokeratosis, ulcers, cracked tongue, hemangiomas.


Treatment is prescribed depending on the stage of the disease and the general condition of the body.It is very difficult to cure any cancer, therefore it is extremely important to follow all the doctor’s recommendations and be regularly examined, even if the disease was defeated. Treatment for tongue cancer is possible and can go without complications if the diagnosis is timely and correct. Of course, the patient’s mood, his general well-being and the desire to follow all the doctor’s recommendations play an important role. Inaction and the resulting depression can make things worse. Most often, complex treatment methods are used in the treatment of tongue cancer.Radiation therapy is used both as a separate method and as part of a complex therapy. Radiation therapy is a local effect of ion radiation on cancer cells. At the onset of the disease, contact gamma therapy is usually used, in the last stages – remote (in a specially designated room). Radiation therapy alone can be effective if there is no metastasis. However, with radiation therapy, healthy cells also die, and a burn of the face is possible. Chemotherapy is an aggressive treatment that involves taking chemotherapy drugs that kill cancer cells.That in essence is the introduction of toxic substances into the body intravenously or intramuscularly. These substances affect all cells in the body, but younger cancer cells are the first to die. Side effects are of course possible. To allow the body to recover, chemotherapy is given in courses. With a particularly severe course of the disease, surgical intervention is possible. With the primary manifestation of a tumor of cancer of the tongue, excision of parts or organs of the oral cavity is used. If the percentage of metastases in nearby organs is high enough, they resort to removing the entire area affected by the tumor.Usually, the surgical method is used if the focus of the disease cannot be approached and if the bottom of the oral cavity is affected by the tumor. If there are metastases in the lymph nodes under the jaw, then not earlier than 2 weeks after the removal of the tumor itself, the Kraille operation is performed. It consists in removing the lymph nodes using a special technique, which is considered the best in this area at the moment.


Tongue hygiene should be given due attention There is no exact recipe for what to do to avoid cancer.However, the general strengthening of the body, playing sports, a healthy lifestyle will not interfere with anyone. This will reduce the likelihood of cancer. Try not to burn yourself with hot food or liquid, do not injure the oral mucosa. It is also necessary to carefully monitor oral hygiene: brush your teeth at least twice a day, but not damage the gums so as not to cause inflammation. It is important to brush your tongue when brushing your teeth. Caries, tartar, inflammation and bleeding of the gums should be avoided.It is also necessary to select high-quality dentures, monitor the processing of fillings after their installation, and treat chipped teeth. In short, the more often you visit the dentist, the better. The doctor can replace the neoplasms in the tongue or palate in time and refer them to the oncologist. The consequences can be both after the disease itself, and after treatment: Removal of a part or complete amputation of the tongue. This is an extreme measure, used only with a particularly severe course of the disease. The percentage of surgeries is not that great, and modern medicine often avoids this.Weakening of the body after radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The consequences of cancer treatment can be dire. Immunity is markedly reduced, so during the period of treatment, you should try to avoid infections. The heart, liver, kidneys can suffer from chemotherapy, hair falls out, nails and teeth deteriorate. Pronunciation difficulties.