Symptoms of blot clot in leg: Symptoms in Legs, Lungs, and More
Symptoms in Legs, Lungs, and More
Ever get a paper cut or nick yourself while shaving? When that happens, a blood clot saves the day. It quickly stops the bleeding, and when it’s done its job, it usually breaks up. Sometimes, though, things can go wrong.
When blood clots don’t fall apart, they can be dangerous and lead to serious medical conditions. You can get them in blood vessels in just about any part of your body. They’re most likely to affect a leg, especially if you sit for long periods of time.
You might get a clot in your arteries, which carry oxygen in your blood from your heart to all the cells of your body. The result can be really serious. It can keep oxygen from getting to your heart, lungs, or brain, and cause a life-threatening emergency, like a heart attack or stroke.
You could also get a clot in the veins that carry blood back to your heart. When that happens, symptoms usually come on more gradually, but can still mean trouble.
If you learn the warning signs, you’re more likely to get quick medical help that can make a huge difference in keeping you out of the danger zone. But it’s important to know that in some cases, clots can happen with few symptoms or none at all..
See More: Dos and Don’ts of a Blood Clot
When a blood clot forms in one of the deep veins in your arm or leg, way beneath your skin’s surface, it could be something called a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). That’s dangerous because the clot could travel to your heart or lungs.
You’re more likely to get a DVT if you haven’t moved around for a long time, say after surgery or during a long plane trip. Get medical help right away if you notice any of these symptoms:
- Swelling. This can happen in the exact spot where the blood clot forms, or your entire leg or arm could puff up.
- Change in color. You might notice that your arm or leg takes on a red or blue tinge, or gets or itchy.
- Pain. As the clot gets worse, you may hurt or get sore. The feeling can range from a dull ache to intense pain. You may notice the pain throbs in your leg, belly, or even your arm.
- Warm skin. The skin around painful areas or in the arm or leg with the DVT may feel warmer than other skin.
- Trouble breathing. If this happens, it could mean that the clot has moved from your arm or leg to your lungs. You may also get a bad cough, and might even cough up blood. You may get pain in your chest or feel dizzy. Call 911 to get medical help right away.
- Lower leg cramp. If the clot is in your calf or lower leg, you may feel like you have a cramp or charley horse.
- Pitting edema. DVT can cause fluid buildup (edema) in the arms or legs. It typically happens quite quickly with DVT. When you press on the swollen area, it can cause a dimple or “pit” (pitting) that remains for a few seconds.
- Swollen, painful veins. The pain may increase with touch.
A blood clot that forms in or around your ticker may cause a heart attack. Watch out for symptoms like these:
A blood clot in your lung usually starts out in a deep vein in your arm or leg, then breaks off and travels to your lung. When this happens, you get what’s called a pulmonary embolism, an extremely dangerous condition.
Get medical help right away if you:
- Feel short of breath or have problems breathing
- Get pain in your chest
- Start to cough
- Begin to sweat
- Feel dizzy
Blood clots here may be caused by fatty deposits in the walls of the blood vessels that bring blood to your brain. Or sometimes, they may form because of a blow to your head that leads to a concussion.
In other cases, a clot that starts out in a different part of your body, like your chest or neck, might enter your bloodstream and travel to your brain, where it can cause a stroke.
Watch out for these symptoms:
- Problems with your vision or speech
- A seizure
- General feeling of weakness
Blood clots can happen in the veins that drain blood from your intestines. They can be caused by conditions like diverticulitis or liver disease, or even by birth control pills.
How will you know if this is going on? Check with your doctor if you have problems like these:
A blood clot in your kidneys can keep them from removing waste from your body. That can cause high blood pressure or even kidney failure.
This is dangerous, so look out for these symptoms:
Blood Clot Info: Risks, Symptoms, and Prevention
Blood Clot Info: Know Your Risk, Recognize Symptoms, and Prevent Blood Clots
Get all the blood clot info you need from the National Blood Clot Alliance. Here is all the main information you need to know about blood clots, all in one place.
Know Your Risk for Blood Clots
Blood clots do not discriminate. They affect people of all ages, race and gender. One of the most important things you can do to prevent blood clots is to know if you are at risk. The risk factors for blood clots include:
- Hospitalization for illness or surgery
- Major surgery, particularly of the pelvis, abdomen, hip, knee
- Severe trauma, such as a car accident
- Injury to a vein that may have been caused by a broken bone or severe muscle injury
- Hip or knee replacement surgery
- Cancer and cancer treatments
- Use of birth control methods that contain estrogen, such as the pill, patch or ring
- Pregnancy, which includes the six weeks after the baby is born
- The use of hormone therapy, which contains estrogen
- A family history of blood clots
- Confinement to bed or wheelchair
- Sitting too long, especially with legs crossed
- Age 55 or older
- Long-term diseases such as heart and lung conditions, or diabetes
Recognize Signs and Symptoms of Blood Clots
There are several important signs and symptoms of blood clots. If you can recognize these signs and symptoms, you can save your life or the life of a friend or family member.
Symptoms of a Blood Clot in the Leg or Arm (Deep Vein Thrombosis or DVT)
- Pain or tenderness not caused by injury
- Skin that is warm to the touch
- Redness or discoloration of the skin
If you have these signs or symptoms, alert your doctor as soon as possible.
Learn more about how DVT is diagnosed: How is DVT diagnosed?
Symptoms of a Blood Clot in the Lung (Pulmonary Embolism or PE)
- Difficulty breathing
- Chest pain that worsens with a deep breath or lying down
- Coughing, or coughing up blood
- Faster than normal or irregular heartbeat
Seek immediate attention if you experience these signs or symptoms.
Learn more about how PE is diagnosed here: How is PE diagnosed?
Prevent Blood Clots
Blood clots are preventable and can be safely treated. You can reduce your risk by learning some of the best ways to protect yourself from life-threatening blood clots.
- Know your risk for blood clots.
- Recognize the signs and symptoms of blood clots.
- Tell your doctor if you have risk factors for blood clots.
- Before any surgery, talk with your doctor about blood clots.
- See your doctor as soon as possible if you do have any symptoms of a blood clot. Blood clots can be safely treated.
- Get up and move if you’ve been sitting for a long time or traveling for a long time by plane, train, or car. Stand up, walk around, and stretch your legs every two to three hours.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Don’t smoke or take steps quit smoking
Learn About Blood Clot Treatment and Care
Find a Doctor
Finding a healthcare professional who understands fully the complexities of blood clotting disorders, and who you can trust and consider a good partner in your care, is one of the most important decisions you will make if you think you may be at risk for blood clots, or if you have been diagnosed with blood clots in your legs (deep vein thrombosis or DVT) or blood clots in your lungs (pulmonary embolism or PE). If you need help finding a doctor who specializes in blood clots or blood clotting disorders visit here: Find A Doctor Resources
Blood Clot Treatment
The prevention and treatment of blood clots primarily involves the use of anticoagulant medications or, as they are commonly referred to, “blood thinners.” While these medications do not actually “thin” the blood, they do slow the body’s ability to form new clots and keep existing clots from getting bigger. Learn more about blood clot treatment here: Blood Clot Treatment.
Get More Life-Saving Information to Share
Stop the Clot, Spread the Word™
You’ll find great information, including
important downloadable checklists that you can share, at Stop the Clot, Spread the Word™.
Share our infographic as a guide to information about risk factors, signs/symptoms, and prevention and watch our short video with the most important blood clot info people need to know.
Women and Blood Clots
Help women understand the blood clot risks connected to several important life stages, including birth control and family planning, pregnancy and childbirth and the treatment of menopause symptoms.
Share our Women and Blood Clots Infographic with the women you know or watch our entire Women and Blood Clots Video Series.
Your Recovery and Peer Support
If you have been diagnosed with a blood clot, or clotting disorder, you may be wondering, “Now what?” While recovery from blood clots can be difficult, overwhelming, and even life-changing, most people do recover completely from blood clots and go on to resume their normal lives and activities. Get the tools to help you through blood clot recovery from NBCA’s e-Magazine dedicated to VTE recovery and lifestyle issues: Personal Perspectives: My Blood Clot, My Life.
If you’re feeling alone or anxious after a blood clot diagnosis, or you just want to connect with others who share your same experience, come talk with us at our Stop the Clot® Online Support Group & Discussion Community, powered by Inspire. The National Blood Clot Alliance is your community connection. For four years now, this remarkable online peer-to-peer community has grown dramatically, and demonstrated day-in and day-out the strength and inspiration that we derive from one another. Today, more than 4,000 members of this group share experiences and information in a safe and supportive space moderated 24/7 by NBCA staff. Please join us. It only takes a few minutes to learn more at the link below and then register: Peer Support
Personal storytelling is one of the most successful awareness-building tools we have to improve understanding about blood clots. It’s also one of the best ways for us to come together as a community. For more than 15 years, NBCA has been telling your stories – on our website, in our educational programs, and with our day-to-day efforts to advocate for all people affected by blood clots and clotting disorders. You can read these stories here: Personal Perspectives
Connect and Share
Connect with NBCA on social media today for more information to share: Share to Stop the Clot®
What causes blood clots? Conditions and treatments
A blood clot can form when the blood comes into contact with substances in the skin or on vessel walls. Several specific health conditions can cause blood clots.
Blood clots can be stationary. The development of these is known as thrombosis. However, clots can also break loose. These are called embolisms.
Medical complications can arise if blood clots do not dissolve.
In this article, learn about the causes, treatments, and prevention advice associated with blood clots. The article also outlines some possible related conditions and describes when urgent treatment is necessary.
Share on PinterestPeriods of prolonged sitting, such as during long-haul flights, can cause blood clots.
The seriousness of the blood clot depends on what type it is. There are two: arterial clots and venous clots.
Also known as an arterial thrombus, an arterial clot is one that develops in an artery. These can stop the flow of blood to major organs and lead to tissue damage. Treatment is often essential and will depend on where the clot is.
A venous clot, or a venous thrombus, forms within a vein. These develop slowly and can restrict blood flow. If a venous clot breaks loose, it can move to other parts of the body.
According to the Texas Heart Institute, almost 6 million people in the United States have a blood clot in their veins.
Although blood clots can be harmless, they are sometimes associated with serious medical conditions.
The sections below will outline some of these in more detail.
Deep vein thrombosis
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a venous clot develops deep within the leg, pelvic area, lungs, or brain.
DVT is the third most common cause of death from cardiovascular disease. It also accounts for most cases of pulmonary embolism.
DVT does resolve itself in many cases, but it can be life threatening if it travels to the lungs and blocks blood flow (pulmonary embolism).
Although it can occur if someone has an underlying health condition, DVT can also develop if a person remains stationary for a long time.
Some symptoms of DVT include:
- gradual leg pain, which can feel like cramp or soreness
- red or discolored skin on the leg
- warmth or tenderness in the leg
- foot or calf pain
- swelling in the arm
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report that DVT and pulmonary embolism could affect as many as 900,000 people each year. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential.
Excessive blood clotting in the heart can lead to pulmonary embolisms. This blockage of the pulmonary artery, which supplies blood to the lungs, is dangerous and can be life threatening.
Some symptoms include:
- sharp, stabbing chest pain and difficulty drawing a breath
- pain in the left arm
- an irregular or faster heartbeat, rapid breathing, and sweating
- a cough that produces blood or mucus
The symptoms are similar to those of a heart attack, which occurs when blood flow to the heart suddenly becomes restricted.
Blood clots can also restrict oxygen to the heart. If the blood flow to the heart muscle does not return within 20–40 minutes, there is a risk of death.
A blood clot in the brain is also known as a stroke and can cause many symptoms. These include:
- severe headaches
- facial weakness
- speech and vision difficulties
- pain and numbness in the arms and legs
Symptoms occur on the opposite side of the body from the location of the blood clot.
A blood clot in the brain cuts off the blood supply, leading to an embolism. People should seek medical assistance immediately if they suspect a blood clot in the brain.
Abdominal blood clot
A blood clot in the abdomen occurs in the veins that drain blood from the intestines. It is a type of DVT that can lead to symptoms including severe stomach pain, nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting.
There are many causes of an abdominal blood clot. These include:
Kidney blood clot
A blood clot in the kidney is dangerous, as it can prevent the removal of waste from a person’s body. Key symptoms include:
- blood in the urine
- pain in the abdomen, legs, or thighs
The symptoms of blood clots are similar to those of many other conditions. For this reason, diagnosis can sometimes be challenging. A doctor will usually need to take a person’s medical history to be sure.
People at moderate risk of experiencing a blood clot include those who:
- have recently engaged in a lengthy period of travel or bed rest
- have obesity
- are pregnant
- have a family history of blood clots
However, most cases of DVT are related to specific, identifiable trigger events. These include hospitalization, major surgery, trauma, and periods of immobility.
Treatment options depend on the location and severity of the blood clot.
In general, options include a venous ultrasound or a CT angiography scan. In extreme cases, a surgical procedure known as catheter-directed thrombolysis may be necessary.
A doctor may also prescribe medication such as anticoagulants, or blood thinners.
Research into blood clot diagnosis and treatment is ongoing.
If a person suspects a blood clot or has symptoms in their leg, they should immediately see a doctor. The doctor’s aim will be to prevent the clot from expanding or breaking loose.
It is impossible to eradicate the potential for blood clots completely, but there are some ways to lower the risk.
For example, people can:
- Exercise often: Physical inactivity can lead to the formation of blood clots.
- Travel safely: Stretch the legs regularly on long-haul flights. If there is a layover, taking a walk can get the blood moving again.
- Stay hydrated: Drinking water regularly is good for general health, but it is especially important when traveling. Avoid caffeine and alcohol, if possible.
- Quit smoking: Cigarettes can negatively affect blood circulation.
- Maintain a moderate weight: Obesity increases the risk of blood clots, as excess weight increases pressure in the veins.
- Be aware of birth control pills: These can increase the risk of blood clots. A doctor can offer advice on alternative contraception.
Although blood clots can have serious consequences, various medications and straightforward surgical procedures can usually treat them.
With DVT, redness or swelling will often appear on the leg and require treatment. Symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, loss of speech, and dizziness will require assessment by a healthcare professional.
Blood clots are quite common, but adopting a healthful lifestyle can help prevent them. Anyone with concerns about blood clots can speak to a doctor about lowering their risk.
Know the 5 Warning Signs of a DVT Blood Clot in Your Leg
Last Updated: September 18, 2020
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Recognizing a DVT blood clot early can prevent potential complications.
Everyone needs to know about DVT (deep vein thrombosis) blood clots because anyone can get one. If your risk is higher than normal, you need to be especially diligent about paying attention to the warning signs. Catching the problem early and seeking prompt treatment can prevent dangerous complications. It can also help you avoid long-term problems and disability. But it’s not always easy to recognize DVT symptoms. In fact, some people experience very mild symptoms. They may not realize they have a potentially life-threatening disease. Here are the five symptoms you shouldn’t ignore.
1. Leg Swelling
Pain is another warning sign of a DVT blood clot. Like swelling, it usually only affects one leg and commonly starts in the calf. The pain may feel more like soreness, tenderness or achiness rather than a stabbing kind of pain. You may notice the pain is worse when you are walking or standing for periods of time. People sometimes mistake the pain for a pulled muscle or another muscle injury. But pain from a DVT blood clot will tend to get worse and not better with time or rest.
2. Leg Pain
Pain is another warning sign of a DVT blood clot. Like swelling, it usually only affects one leg and commonly starts in the calf. The pain may feel more like soreness, tenderness or achiness rather than a stabbing kind of pain. You may notice the pain is worse when you are walking or standing for periods of time. People sometimes mistake the pain for a pulled muscle or another muscle injury. But pain from a DVT blood clot will tend to get worse and not better with time or rest.
3. Muscle Cramping
Most people have experienced muscle cramping in a leg at some point in time. Typically, it’s a charley horse that strikes at night and only lasts a few minutes. A DVT blood clot can cause a calf cramp that feels a lot like a charley horse. Like leg pain, the cramping sensation with DVT will persist and even worsen with time. It won’t clear up with stretching or walking it off like an ordinary charley horse. Some people get thigh cramps or feel a throbbing sensation along with the cramping.
4. Skin Warmth
Many of the symptoms of DVT are due to blocked blood flow. Skin warmth is one of them. This is because instead of blood circulating normally, it backs up and fills progressively more of the outer veins, which warms the area. The skin in the region of a DVT blood clot may feel warm to the touch. The warmth may be limited to the area right over the vein. It may be noticeably warmer than surrounding skin that has a normal temperature. Sometimes, the whole calf or limb will be warmer than the other one.
5. Color Changes
A DVT blood clot can cause color changes in the skin over and surrounding the vein. You may notice skin redness along with the pain or swelling. But the skin can also have different discolorations, such as a bluish or dark appearance. This is due to blocked blood flow in the area. Like other DVT symptoms, the color change will persist instead of resolving with time.
Seek immediate medical care if you suspect a DVT blood clot.
Many of the symptoms of DVT, such as redness, swelling and pain, are common to other conditions. However, a DVT blood clot is a medical emergency. It can lead to a life-threatening complication called a pulmonary embolism (PE). If you have symptoms that could mean a blood clot, err on the side of caution and seek immediate medical care. It’s better to get care and it turn out to be nothing serious than to delay care and risk your health, or even your life.
Know the 5 Warning Signs of a DVT Blood Clot in Your Leg
Sarah Lewis is a pharmacist and a medical writer with over 25 years of experience in various areas of pharmacy practice. Sarah holds a Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy degree from West Virginia University and a Doctor of Pharmacy degree from Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. She completed Pharmacy Practice Residency training at the University of Pittsburgh/VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System.
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Medical Reviewer: William C. Lloyd III, MD, FACS
Last Review Date: 2020 Sep 18
THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for informational purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.
Blood Clots – Diagnosis, Evaluation and Treatment
Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood that can be stationary (thrombosis) and block blood flow or break loose (embolism) and travel to various parts of the body. Blood clots can be life-threatening depending on their location and severity.
Your doctor will likely perform a physical examination, and you may undergo a venous ultrasound or a CT angiography (CTA) scan of the chest, abdomen/pelvis or head to help diagnose your condition. Treatment may depend upon whether the clot is located in an artery or a vein. Your doctor may prescribe medication, catheter-directed thrombolysis, surgery or inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement to treat your condition.
What are blood clots?
Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood. Normally, blood flows freely through veins and arteries. Some blood clotting, or coagulation, is necessary and normal. Blood clotting helps stop bleeding if you are cut or injured. However, when too much clotting occurs, it can cause serious complications.
When a blood clot forms, it can be stationary (called a thrombosis) and block blood flow or break loose (called an embolism) and travel to various parts of the body.
There are two different types of clots:
- Arterial clots are those that form in the arteries. Once arterial clots form, they cause symptoms immediately. Because this type of clot prevents oxygen from reaching vital organs, it can cause a variety of complications like stroke, heart attack, paralysis and intense pain.
- Venous clots are those that form in the veins. Venous clots typically form slowly over a period of time. Symptoms of venous clots gradually become more noticeable.
Blood clots can occur in many different parts of the body, each area having different symptoms:
- Legs and arms: Symptoms of blood clots in the legs and arms vary and may include pain or cramping, swelling, tenderness, warmth to the touch and bluish- or red-colored skin. Clots that occur in larger veins are called deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Blood clots can also occur in smaller, more superficial (closer to the skin) veins.
- Heart: Common symptoms for blood clots in the heart include pain in the chest and left arm, sweating and difficulty breathing.
- Lungs: The most common symptoms include shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, chest pain and cough. Other symptoms that may or may not appear are sweating, discolored skin, swelling in the legs, irregular heartbeat and/or pulse and dizziness.
- Brain: Patients with blood clots in their brains can experience problems with their vision or speech, seizures and general weakness.
- Abdomen: Symptoms of abdominal blood clots can include severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea and/or bloody stools.
A blood clot can be life-threatening depending on the location and severity.
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How are blood clots diagnosed and evaluated?
Evaluation of your condition differs depending on the location and type of your blood clot. Your doctor will usually begin by obtaining your medical history, as this may provide information about factors that caused the clot, and will also perform a physical examination. In an emergency situation where patients may be unable to describe their symptoms, doctors may send patients for testing immediately after a physical examination.
You may be sent for one or more of the following tests:
- Venous ultrasound: This test is usually the first step for confirming a venous blood clot. Sound waves are used to create a view of your veins. A Doppler ultrasound may be used to help visualize blood flow through your veins. If the results of the ultrasound are inconclusive, venography or MR angiography may be used.
- CT Angiography of the chest: If your doctor suspects you have a pulmonary embolism, you may undergo a CT angiography scan. The most common cause of a pulmonary embolism is a fragment from a leg or pelvic clot that has broken off and traveled through the veins to the lung. You may be sent for a chest x-ray if your doctor believes you may have a condition other than a blood clot.
- CT angiography of the abdomen and pelvis: This type of CT scan may be used if your doctor suspects a blood clot somewhere in your abdomen or pelvis. It may also be used to rule out other conditions that cause the same symptoms as blood clots.
- CT angiography of the head and neck: If you are exhibiting the symptoms of a stroke, your doctor will order an emergency CT scan of the head in order to confirm the presence of a clot. In some cases, your doctor may order a cerebral angiography exam. A carotid ultrasound could also be performed to see if a fragment from a blood clot in your neck has traveled to your brain.
Blood clots may cause symptoms that mimic other diseases or conditions. You may undergo additional testing to rule out other conditions.
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How are blood clots treated?
Your doctor may recommend that you undergo catheter-directed thrombolysis, a procedure that delivers “clot busting” drugs to the site of the clot, or have surgery to remove the clot. These treatments are meant to manage clots aggressively since arterial clots can block blood flow to vital organs. They are typically only used in life-threatening or emergency cases.
If you are diagnosed with a deep venous clot, you will be put on blood thinning medication to help thin your blood and allow it to pass more easily past the site of the clot.
Your doctor may ask you to undergo a procedure called inferior vena cava filter placement. This is recommended for patients who are at high risk for blood clots. A filter is placed into your vein to help prevent blood clot fragments from traveling through the veins to the heart or lungs.
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Which test, procedure or treatment is best for me?
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This page was reviewed on January, 17, 2020
Goshen Health | Innovative Care for Blood Clots in the Leg
Blood clots in the leg often form in the deep veins of the thigh and calf. These types of blood clots are usually deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Because these clots can break away and travel to the lung, they can lead to a pulmonary embolism (PE) and become life-threatening. To prevent serious complications, Goshen Hospital Emergency Department uses the latest technology to treat blood clots in Goshen, IN.
For communities in Elkhart County, our emergency room provides 24/7 care for a wide range of acute illnesses, including blood clots in the arm, lung and brain. When you and your family need expert emergency services, visit our ER on High Park Avenue.
When to seek emergency care
Many people don’t know they have a blood clot until they have symptoms of PE, including coughing up blood and shortness of breath.
Symptoms of a blood clot in the leg include:
- Redness and swelling
If you experience signs of a blood clot in the leg or a pulmonary embolism, seek immediate medical care.
Causes and prevention
Blood clots have a higher chance of forming when blood pools in the legs. Immobility is a leading cause of blood accumulating in the veins.
Other risk factors include:
- Injury to the inside of a vein from surgery, vasculitis and serious fractures
- Medical conditions that increase the blood’s capacity to clot
- Medications that increase the risk of clotting such as birth control pills and hormone replacement therapy
Staying active, maintaining a healthy weight and following your doctor’s recommendations for caring for a chronic condition can keep your veins healthy and help prevent blood clots.
Treating blood clots in the leg at Goshen Hospital Emergency Department
Emergency treatment for a blood clot may focus on stopping the clot from growing, preventing it from reaching the lung and lowering your risk for having another blood clot. Personalized treatment depends on your specific diagnosis. At Goshen Hospital Emergency Department, our interventions include noninvasive compression stockings, inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement and medications.
For advanced treatment for a variety of medical emergencies, come to our ER for compassionate care.
Goshen Hospital Emergency Department diagnoses and treats blood clots in the leg in Goshen, IN.
Blood Clots and Travel: What You Need to Know
Blood Clots and Travel: What You Should Know
This podcast is designed to help people reduce their risk of blood clots during long-distance travel of four hours or more.
More than 300 million people travel on long-distance flights (generally more than four hours) each year.1 Blood clots, also called deep vein thrombosis (DVT), can be a serious risk for some long-distance travelers. Most information about blood clots and long-distance travel comes from information that has been gathered about air travel. However, anyone traveling more than four hours, whether by air, car, bus, or train, can be at risk for blood clots.
Blood clots can form in the deep veins (veins below the surface that are not visible through the skin) of your legs during travel because you are sitting still in a confined space for long periods of time. The longer you are immobile, the greater is your risk of developing a blood clot. Many times the blood clot will dissolve on its own. However, a serious health problem can occur when a part of the blood clot breaks off and travels to the lungs causing a blockage. This is called a pulmonary embolism, and it may be fatal. The good news is there are things you can do to protect your health and reduce your risk of blood clots during a long-distance trip.
Understand What Can Increase Your Risk for Blood Clots
Even if you travel a long distance, the risk of developing a blood clot is generally very small. Your level of risk depends on the duration of travel as well as whether you have any other risks for blood clots. Most people who develop travel-associated blood clots have one or more other risks for blood clots, such as:
- Older age (risk increases after age 40)
- Obesity (body mass index [BMI] greater than 30kg/m2)
- Recent surgery or injury (within 3 months)
- Use of estrogen-containing contraceptives (for example, birth control pills, rings,patches)
- Hormone replacement therapy (medical treatment in which hormones are given to reduce the effects of menopause)
- Pregnancy and the postpartum period (up to 3 months after childbirth)
- Previous blood clot or a family history of blood clots
- Active cancer or recent cancer treatment
- Limited mobility (for example, a leg cast)
- Catheter placed in a large vein
- Varicose veins
The combination of long-distance travel with one or more of these risks may increase the likelihood of developing a blood clot. The more risks you have, the greater your chances of experiencing a blood clot. If you plan on traveling soon, talk with your doctor to learn more about what you can do to protect your health. The most important thing you can do is to learn and recognize the symptoms of blood clots.
My name is Amaris White and I want to share my personal experience with blood clots. My hope is that by sharing this information, you will learn the signs and symptoms of this potentially fatal condition and know how to protect yourself and others.
Recognize the Symptoms
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
About half of people with DVT have no symptoms at all. The following are the most common symptoms of DVT that occur in the affected part of the body (usually the leg or arm):
- Swelling of your leg or arm
- Pain or tenderness that you can’t explain
- Skin that is warm to the touch
- Redness of the skin
If you have any of these symptoms, contact your doctor as soon as possible.
Pulmonary Embolism (PE)
You can have a PE without any symptoms of a DVT. Symptoms of a PE can include:
- Difficulty breathing
- Faster than normal or irregular heartbeat
- Chest pain or discomfort, which usually worsens with a deep breath or coughing
- Coughing up blood
- Lightheadedness, or fainting
If you have any of these symptoms, seek medical help immediately.
For more information on blood clots
Blood Clots and Long Distance Travel: Advising Patients
View this videoexternal icon to learn more about how healthcare providers can advise their patients on long-distance travel and blood clots.
Protect Yourself and Reduce Your Risk of Blood Clots During Travel
- Know what to look for. Be alert to the signs and symptoms of blood clots.
- Talk with your doctor if you think you may be at risk for blood clots. If you have had a previous blood clot, or if a family member has a history of blood clots or an inherited clotting disorder, talk with your doctor to learn more about your individual risks.
- Move your legs frequently when on long trips and exercise your calf muscles to improve the flow of blood. If you’ve been sitting for a long time, take a break to stretch your legs. Extend your legs straight out and flex your ankles (pulling your toes toward you). Some airlines suggest pulling each knee up toward the chest and holding it there with your hands on your lower leg for 15 seconds, and repeat up to 10 times. These types of activities help to improve the flow of blood in your legs.
- If you are at risk, talk with your doctor to learn more about how to prevent blood clots. For example, some people may benefit by wearing graduated compression stockings.
- If you are on blood thinners, also known as anticoagulants, be sure to follow your doctor’s recommendations on medication use.
1Gavish I, Brenner B. Air travel and the risk of thromboembolism. Intern Emerg Med 2011 Apr;6(2):113-6.
90,000 7 signs that there may be blood clots in the body
Blood clots are blood clots. Normally, they protect us from scratches and other wounds: blood clots, a blood clot stops bleeding from a damaged capillary or vein. And then, having completed the task, within a few hours or days it safely disintegrates and disappears. But sometimes things don’t go according to plan .
Why are blood clots dangerous?
Blood clots can also occur inside the veins. This condition is called thrombosis.It most often affects the legs, especially if you are sedentary. But any part of the body can be at risk.
If such a blood clot breaks off, it will enter the general bloodstream and can block blood vessels in the heart, brain or lungs. This is a life-threatening situation that can lead to a heart attack, stroke or pulmonary embolism – lung failure.
Therefore, it is extremely important to know the symptoms of blood clots.Your life may depend on it.
Now reading 💔
When you need to immediately call an ambulance
Urgently dial 103 or 112, if :
- suddenly it became difficult to breathe, there is a lack of oxygen;
- there is chest pain or discomfort that is aggravated by coughing or taking a deep breath;
- coughing up sputum with blood;
- have difficulty speaking;
- vision deteriorated – double vision began to appear, blind spots, “fog” appeared;
- blood pressure has dropped sharply, and this is accompanied by dizziness, blurred consciousness, fainting.
This is how a heart attack, stroke, and pulmonary embolism manifest themselves. It is not a fact that they are provoked precisely by a detached blood clot. But in any case, there is no time to think about the reasons: if the above symptoms appear, immediately seek help.
How to understand that you may have blood clots
It is better not to bring the matter to critical, deadly manifestations – this is understandable. It is important to catch thrombosis at the earliest possible stage in order to prevent complications.
The problem is that it is difficult to suspect the presence of blood clots in the vessels. According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about half of people have little to no blood clots.
Nevertheless, it is still possible to assume a blockage of the vessels. Here are some signs indicating possible thrombosis in different parts of the body.
1. Swelling in the leg or arm
Edema can occur in the place where the vessel is directly blocked, or spread to the entire limb.Moreover, in this case, only one hand or leg suffers – the one in the vessels of which the alleged thrombus is located.
2. Leg cramps
Regular cramps can be a symptom of poor circulation. Blood clots can also cause it.
3. Sudden leg pain
This is one of the main symptoms of deep vein thrombosis. Often pain in the area of the gastrocnemius muscle, sharp or throbbing , is almost the only sign of acute circulatory disorders.
4. Changes in skin color
Thrombus impedes normal blood circulation. As a result, some of the blood vessels are overflowing with blood, and some, on the contrary, suffer from a lack of it. This can be manifested by changes in skin color: in some areas of the affected limb, it turns red or cyanotic, in others, on the contrary, it turns pale.
5. Changes in skin temperature
In the area of a blood clot, the skin may regularly heat up and itch. The rise in temperature has a chance to feel it by touch.
6. Unmotivated attacks of nausea or vomiting
If you feel nauseous regularly, this may be a symptom of thrombosis of the mesenteric vessels – those that supply blood to different parts of the intestine. It is possible to assume the condition if vomiting appears, but does not bring relief, and you continue to feel nauseous.
7. Abdominal pain
It can also be a sign of blockage of mesenteric vessels. Especially if the stomach aches almost constantly, and the pain intensifies after eating.Also among the indirect signs of thrombosis are diarrhea and bloating.
What to do if you have signs of thrombosis
If you have the slightest suspicion, be sure to consult a physician as soon as possible. The doctor will conduct an examination, ask you about the symptoms and, if necessary, send you to a narrow specialist – a phlebologist or vascular surgeon.
Treatment will depend on where the clot is located and how high the risk is that it may come off.One option is to wear compression stockings to reduce swelling and pain and prevent the clot from growing in size. Medications may also be required: thromboembolytics (they dissolve blood clots) and anticoagulants (reduce blood clotting and prevent new blood clots from forming). The last resort is surgery.
We remind you once again: only a qualified doctor can decide which method of treatment will be most effective in your case.Self-activity in this matter is mortally dangerous.
And don’t relax. According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3 out of 10 people who get rid of thrombosis will have blood clots again within the next 10 years. Therefore, train yourself to monitor your well-being. Life can depend on it.
Read also 🦵🛌😭
British doctors: a third of patients with coronavirus have dangerous thrombosis
- Richard Galpin
- BBC News
Photo author, Brian McClure
Brian McClure was admitted to the hospital with pneumonia caused by coronavirus
Up to 30% of patients seriously ill with coronavirus show signs of dangerous thrombosis – British medical experts have come to this alarming conclusion.
Blood clots can be responsible for many deaths. They result from severe pneumonia, which is the body’s natural response to the presence of a virus.
At the same time, patients around the world suffer from many complications caused by the virus that can lead to death.
In March, when the coronavirus pandemic was rapidly gaining momentum around the world, doctors began to note a noticeably increased incidence of thrombosis.
Among other unpleasant discoveries – hundreds of microthrombi in the lungs of some patients with coronavirus.
The virus also causes deep vein thrombosis, which usually affects the legs. When blood clots break off, they move to the lungs, blocking blood vessels, which is extremely life-threatening.
Artist Brian McClure was admitted to hospital in April with severe pneumonia caused by the coronavirus. However, soon after the scan, it turned out that an even greater threat loomed over his life.
“I went for an X-ray of my lungs, and then it turned out that I had blood clots in my lungs.I was told that it is very dangerous, – says Brian. “That’s when I started to get really worried. I realized that if I don’t feel better, it will be a big disaster. “
Fortunately, Brian is already at home.
Photo author, Brian McClure
The picture showed dangerous blood clots in Brian’s lungs
“There has been a lot of information in recent weeks and it has become clear that thrombosis is a big problem,” says Professor Rupen Aria at King’s College London Hospital.“This is especially true of critically ill patients with coronavirus, because recent studies show that almost half of these patients suffer from pulmonary embolism, or blood clots in the lungs.”
Professor Aria believes that the number of seriously ill coronavirus patients who develop blood clots , significantly higher than the 30% reported by official data for Europe.
A team of scientists under his leadership in a hospital setting is investigating how the coronavirus changes the blood of patients, making it thicker.And thickening blood leads to the formation of blood clots.
Such changes in the blood occur as a result of severe pneumonia, which is the body’s response to the virus.
“In seriously ill patients, we observe the release of chemicals into the bloodstream that activate the formation of blood clots,” explains Professor Aria.
And this, in turn, leads to a deterioration in the condition of patients.
According to thrombosis specialist Professor Beverly Hunt, thick blood is dangerous not only because it leads to blood clots – it also increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes.
“And yes, thick blood leads to higher mortality rates,” says Professor Hunt.
Photo author, Getty Images
Lung scans in patients with coronavirus revealed an unusually high presence of blood clots
Testing blood thinners
Added to all these problems is the fact that blood thinners used today are not always work. And a significant increase in their dose can lead to bleeding, which can be fatal.
According to Professor Aria, there is a delicate balance between treating thrombosis and causing bleeding.
Fortunately, medical professionals around the world are now united in the search for the safest and most effective treatment for thrombosis caused by the virus.
Clinical trials are already underway on the optimal dose of blood thinners that can be used everywhere.
However, some experts believe that the problem can be solved in another way: to find an opportunity to reduce acute pneumonia, which leads to blood clots.
Vein thrombosis. Treatment and diagnosis of thrombosis of the lower extremities in the clinic EMC
Vein thrombosis is a condition in which blood clots (thrombi) form in the veins. Distinguish between superficial and deep vein thrombosis. Superficial vein thrombosis is always accompanied by inflammation of the vascular wall. In this case, the correct name for this condition is thrombophlebitis. Deep vein thrombosis may not be accompanied by phlebitis, although it carries a significantly greater risk to the patient’s life.In the case of deep vein thrombosis, another term is often used – phlebothrombosis.
Blood clots can form in any veins, but the most common localization of thrombosis is the veins of the legs and pelvis. Deep vein thrombosis is always a life-threatening condition, as it can cause serious complications – the migration of blood clots and embolization of the vessels of vital organs (lungs, intestines, kidneys). Most often, embolization occurs in the pulmonary artery system, which can lead to the development of heart (right ventricular) failure and even death.That is why knowledge of preventive measures and modern methods of treating this disease is relevant.
Symptoms of deep vein thrombosis depend on the severity and location of the thrombosis. As a rule, the following symptoms prevail in the clinic:
With thrombosis of the inferior vena cava, symmetrical edema of both legs develops, a feeling of heaviness in the legs appears, the patient’s movement causes discomfort. In the case of thrombosis of the iliac vein or the proximal segment of the femoral vein, unilateral edema with cyanosis of the skin develops, accompanied by pain in the leg.With thrombosis of the popliteal segment and veins of the lower leg, these symptoms develop in the area of the lower leg and foot. It should be remembered that in persons prone to thrombosis, the symptoms of the disease are often erased or may be practically absent.
Vein thrombosis of the upper extremities and neck is much less common. The development of thrombosis of this localization should always force a thorough diagnostic search and exclude diseases of the mammary glands, chest organs and mediastinum.
Venous thrombosis develops when the following factors are combined: increased blood clotting activity, decreased speed of blood flow through the veins and / or damage to the venous wall.
The following can be identified as predisposing factors:
History of venous thrombosis
Age> 70 years
Central vein catheterization
Surgical interventions (especially in orthopedics or with prolonged anesthesia and immobilization)
Injury (especially fractures of the lower extremities)
Immobilization (long trip in a car, air travel, plaster cast, hospitalization, long bed period)
Obesity (body mass index> 30 kg / m2)
Pregnancy and the puerperium
Hormone replacement therapy in gynecology, oral contraceptives containing estrogen.
In addition, the risk of venous thromboembolic complications is significantly increased in a number of diseases:
Cancer and its treatment (hormonal treatment, chemotherapy, radiotherapy)
Thrombophilia (deficiency of proteins C and S, antithrombin III, mutations in the prothrombin gene, carriage of factor V-Leiden mutations, etc.)
Myeloproliferative diseases (polycythemia, thrombocytosis)
Kidney disease accompanied by nephrotic syndrome
Inflammatory diseases of the large intestine
Unfortunately, in a number of patients, deep vein thrombosis develops in the absence of provoking factors.Such “unprovoked” thrombosis represent a special group of conditions that require careful monitoring and more prolonged anticoagulant therapy. If you have several risk factors for venous thrombosis, consult a specialist about the methods of preventing this disease.
Diagnosis of thrombosis
If a venous thrombosis is suspected, laboratory and instrumental (imaging) research methods are used. Diagnosis of thrombosis using laboratory methods (D-dimer determination) may be beneficial in the case of a questionable diagnosis of venous thrombosis.This test has extremely low specificity (
With a high probability of venous thrombosis, you should immediately choose instrumental diagnostic methods:
Ultrasound duplex scanning of veins is the “gold standard” in the diagnosis of thrombosis, as it allows you to quickly, highly informative and non-invasively obtain information about the state of venous blood flow. The limitation of this study is the ability to adequately visualize only the veins of the limbs and neck.In case of suspicion of thrombosis of the veins of the pelvis, abdominal cavity, chest, multispiral computed tomography is the method of choice. Modern computed tomographs allow obtaining high-quality images of the vascular bed, visualizing the vessel wall and thrombotic masses. In addition, computed tomography is the “gold standard” for diagnosing a dangerous complication of deep vein thrombosis – pulmonary embolism. MRI angiography is mainly used to diagnose thrombosis of the intracranial veins and sinuses or when inflammation of the tissues surrounding the thrombosed vein is suspected.
If you suspect a vein thrombosis, you should consult a doctor as soon as possible. Untimely medical care can lead to dangerous embolic complications and significantly worsen the patient’s quality of life. During an ultrasound examination, the doctor evaluates the thrombus’s ability to displace and embolize. If mobile blood clots are detected, strict bed rest is prescribed and the indications for implantation of a cava filter are specified. In the case of a high risk of thrombus rupture, in case of previous pulmonary embolism, or planned surgical interventions, implantation of a temporary cava filter is recommended.During the implantation procedure, a catheter with a cava filter is passed through the femoral vein. When the guidewire reaches the desired level, the filter is opened and the catheter is removed from the vein. The operation is performed under local anesthesia and is not burdensome for the patient. In the postoperative period, X-ray control of the position of the cava filter is carried out.
Drug therapy for deep vein thrombosis involves the use of blood-thinning drugs (anticoagulants). Both tableted and injectable forms of drugs can be used.The choice of treatment tactics is carried out by the doctor based on data on the size and flotation of the thrombus, concomitant diseases, and patient preferences. The duration of anticoagulant therapy, as a rule, cannot be less than 3 months. In some cases, anticoagulant therapy is carried out for many months and even years (with thrombophilia, repeated pulmonary embolism, etc.).
We must not forget about the non-drug treatment of deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities, which involves the mandatory use of compression hosiery.Compression stockings can improve venous blood flow and significantly reduce the risk of thrombosis progression and the likelihood of thromboembolism.
The following can be suggested as measures for personal prevention of deep vein thrombosis:
Daily physical activity (running, cycling, swimming, walking)
Wearing comfortable shoes and orthopedic insoles
Avoid prolonged static loads (standing, carrying weights)
Avoid prolonged immobilization (stops during road trips, special exercises for long flights)
Wearing compression hosiery (for varicose veins, air travel)
Sufficient fluid consumption
Avoid overheating (sauna) and dehydration
In the presence of diseases predisposing to venous thrombosis or multiple risk factors, non-drug prevention measures are often inadequate.In these clinical cases, drug prophylaxis is used with a regular medical assessment of the indications for anticoagulant therapy and the risk of possible complications.
Heart and Vascular Clinic EMC , located at Moscow, st. Schepkina, 35 – one of the few specialized centers for the comprehensive diagnosis and treatment of deep vein thrombosis and life-threatening complications – pulmonary embolism.
90,000 Thrombophlebitis (superficial vein thrombosis), phlebothrombosis, deep vein thrombosis: symptoms, causes, treatment, surgery, complications
Thrombophlebitis, or superficial vein thrombosis, is a serious complication of varicose veins of the lower extremities, which is not safe to ignore.The disease is characterized by an inflammatory process of the vascular walls with thrombus formation, as a result of which the limbs swell.
How to detect thrombophlebitis?
A blood clot is a clot of blood cells that stick together and interfere with free blood flow. Such formations cause swelling of the lower extremities and painful sensations. To pay attention to the fact that the patient can be diagnosed with thrombophlebitis, the following symptoms will help:
- increase in body temperature,
- pain in the legs of a pulling and bursting character,
- redness of areas of the skin,
- visual seals.
Causes of thrombophlebitis
The following risk factors can lead to blood clots:
- injuries and surgical interventions in the area of veins of the lower extremities,
- varicose veins,
- hereditary factors,
- infectious diseases,
- contraceptives for a tendency to form blood clots,
- deficiency of vitamins of group B,
- increased blood clotting,
- type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Who is at risk of getting thrombophlebitis?
The following patients are at risk:
- pregnant women,
- bedridden patients who severely restrict physical activity,
- people with venous diseases,
90,022 postpartum women, 90,023
90,022 overweight patients.
Active movement and a healthy lifestyle promote normal circulation of blood flow, and this prevents the formation of blood clots.
If the patient notices signs of venous disease or thrombophlebitis, you should immediately consult a doctor for a more thorough diagnosis. Among the modern diagnostic methods:
- angiography of vessels,
- Vein ultrasound,
An experienced specialist diagnoses signs of thrombophlebitis by visual examination. However, additional ultrasound and instrumental methods make it possible to assess the patient’s condition and determine the degree of the disease, as well as the level of danger of the pathological process for life.
Why is thrombophlebitis dangerous?
If superficial thrombophlebitis provokes the development of deep vein thrombosis, complications may appear that threaten the patient’s life. One of them is the migration of fragments of blood clots in the area of the lungs and cardiovascular system. Such conditions in some cases lead to instant death.
How is thrombophlebitis treated?
Treatment of superficial vein thrombosis can take place both in inpatient and outpatient settings.The patient is recommended anti-inflammatory drugs, elastic bandages and compression hosiery, phlebotic drugs. Physiotherapy methods are often included in the treatment process.
With a disease of mild or moderate severity and proper treatment by a competent specialist, improvement occurs quite quickly. However, if superficial thrombophlebitis progresses under the influence of concomitant factors, surgery may be required, the volume and nature of which is determined by the vascular surgeon.
Diet for thrombophlebitis
For a patient who has signs of the disease or has a hereditary tendency to it, it is important to follow a certain regimen, lead a healthy and active lifestyle with periods of rest, avoid static loads, and also adhere to the correct diet. Eat fresh vegetables and fruits, nuts, cereals, garlic, ginger, hawthorn berries, valerian root, flaxseed oil, foods rich in vitamins C, A, E and B6, calcium and magnesium.It is important to use compression hosiery and orthopedic shoes that reduce the load on the lower extremities.
You can consult about the diagnosis and treatment of thrombophlebitis and make an appointment with a specialist by calling our clinic or signing up through the form on the website.
How to recognize thrombosis and thrombophlebitis
Thrombosis and thrombophlebitis are common venous diseases that can cause serious complications. Up to 20% of people face thrombosis of the legs, and in half of the cases the disease occurs against the background of varicose veins.About 70% of cases are women.
What is thrombophlebitis and thrombosis?
Thrombophlebitis is a disease in which the walls of blood vessels become inflamed and a blood clot forms – a thrombus. Most often, the disease affects the superficial vessels, saphenous veins and their tributaries. Deep vein thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities is less common and accounts for up to 10% of all diagnosed cases. Pathological changes occur in the veins of the lower leg and thigh.
The main causes of thrombophlebitis are:
- neglected varicose veins;
- circulatory disorders with low physical activity;
- transferred infectious diseases;
- Mechanical damage to blood vessels during intravenous fluids or injections;
- hereditary predisposition;
- tumor lesion of the vascular walls;
- intake of hormonal and diuretics.
The risk of developing thrombophlebitis of the legs increases during pregnancy and after childbirth.
Thrombosis is a disease in which the patency of the veins is impaired due to the formation of a blood clot. Pathology develops against the background of increased blood clotting, which leads to a decrease in blood flow velocity. The causes of vein thrombosis are:
- blood stagnation with varicose veins, decreased physical activity;
- inflammatory processes in the walls of blood vessels;
- pathological changes in the circulatory system in case of cancer, metabolic disorders, severe cardiovascular diseases.
An increased risk of blood clots is associated with age-related changes in people over 40. Particular attention to the health of the veins should be paid to those who lead a lot of sedentary lifestyle.
Signs of thrombophlebitis
Thrombophlebitis is accompanied by pain in the affected area, which increases with touching and walking. Patients notice redness and thickening of the skin, persistent edema of the legs. Acute thrombophlebitis is manifested by an increase in temperature to 39 ° C and chills, accompanied by an increase in lymph nodes.
What are the main symptoms of thrombosis?
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT):
- Leg pain is the main symptom of deep vein thrombosis;
- Limb edema If you notice that one of your bones is suddenly swollen, this may be an early symptom of DVT;
- The appearance of red streaks on the skin;
- chest pain;
- lack of air;
- abdominal pain;
About the symptoms of thrombosis
The signs of thrombosis are similar to those of thrombophlebitis. Patients are worried about pain, aggravated by walking, standing still and touching the affected area. There is swelling of the limb, which is accompanied by a feeling of fullness and heaviness. A pronounced venous pattern is visible under the skin. The temperature of the affected limb is slightly higher than that of the healthy one. The skin around the inflamed area becomes pale with a specific shine, cyanosis may appear.
Thrombosis does not always have clear symptoms. In some cases, the disease does not manifest itself with pronounced symptoms.
Acute thrombosis is accompanied by a sharp rise in temperature, general malaise, fever and chills. Such changes require urgent medical attention to diagnose and treat the disease. Detachment of a blood clot and its entry into deep veins can lead to dangerous complications.
What is the difference between thrombophlebitis and varicose veins?
Thrombophlebitis and varicose veins have similar symptoms, but a different nature.With varicose veins, the vessels are constantly dilated, and their walls become thinner. The disease leads to impaired blood flow and the formation of nodes in the vessels. With thrombophlebitis, the walls of the vein become inflamed and a blood clot forms. Blockage of the vessel lumen causes impaired blood circulation and swelling of the affected vessel.
How to treat thrombophlebitis at home?
If you suspect inflammation of the walls of blood vessels, you should contact a phlebologist who will diagnose and prescribe treatment.Only mild forms of the disease, in which superficial vessels are involved in the inflammatory process, can be treated at home. Deep vein thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities requires mandatory hospitalization due to the risk of embolism.
The patient is prescribed anti-inflammatory drugs and drugs that reduce blood clotting (anticoagulants). In the process of taking them, it is necessary to regularly take tests to monitor blood counts. Medication is aimed at preventing new blood clots from forming.For external use, drugs are used based on heparin, which promotes the resorption of blood clots.
For outpatient treatment, the patient must be kept in bed. In the prone position, the legs should be raised up. Drinking plenty of fluids is recommended to thin the blood.
Thrombosis – treatment with folk remedies
The possibility of treating thrombosis with folk remedies should be discussed with your doctor. Patients with a tendency to form blood clots need to eliminate the causes of leg edema.Regular physical activity prevents vascular congestion. The most useful for varicose veins and venous insufficiency are walking, cycling, swimming.
Avoid overheating and prolonged exposure to the sun. To relieve tension from diseased vessels, you need to lift your legs up so that they are above the level of the heart with support along the entire length of the lower leg.
How long does one live with deep vein thrombosis?
Deep vein thrombosis is life threatening only with the development of complications.The most serious of them are pulmonary embolism and the transition of the disease to a purulent form, leading to phlegmon (acute subcutaneous infection caused by the spread of pus), gangrenous lesions. Seeing a doctor when the first signs of venous pathology appear, timely diagnosis and treatment allow you to avoid complications that can lead to death.
Acute thrombosis and thrombophlebitis may recur. This primarily applies to people who have a sedentary job or activities associated with long trips.Smoking, lack of fluid in the body, taking medications that increase blood clotting also contribute to the formation of blood clots.
Patients with varicose veins are at increased risk. If the diagnosis is thrombosis, it is necessary to be regularly monitored by a doctor, to follow his recommendations. The duration and quality of life for venous diseases directly depends on the patient’s lifestyle. The combination of drug therapy and moderate exercise prevents blood clots from forming.
The diet should have a sufficient amount of vegetables and fruits that help thin the blood and prevent blood clots. Garlic and kiwi are natural anticoagulants, and they also tend to thin the blood. Citrus fruits and red grapes help to strengthen the walls of blood vessels.
Treatment of deep vein thrombophlebitis
Methods of treatment of deep vein thrombophlebitis depend on the nature of the disease. If the inflammation does not pose a threat to life, drug therapy is prescribed.It consists in taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and venotonic drugs, using external agents. During the treatment period, it is recommended to wear special compression stockings.
Surgical operation is necessary when there is a threat of purulent complications with the appearance of abscesses in the area of the affected vein or pulmonary embolism (PE), if the inflammation passes from the leg to the thigh. With PE, the artery is blocked by a thrombus. In 9-11% of cases, thromboembolism is fatal.
Another serious complication of inflammatory venous disease is chronic venous insufficiency. Violation of the patency of the veins causes pain, cramps in the legs, ulcers on the skin.
Treatment of thrombosis
Conservative methods of therapy for thrombosis include wearing compression stockings, taking medications that thin the blood and promote the resorption of blood clots. With purulent complications, the risk of blockage of the pulmonary artery or vessels supplying blood to the intestines, surgical treatment is indicated.
Thrombosis and thrombophlebitis are diseases that are successfully treated by modern medicine. Taking care of your health and a timely visit to a doctor will help to identify vascular diseases at an early stage and avoid dangerous complications.
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Ask your question to the proctologist
90,000 symptoms, causes, treatment of venous thrombosis of the lower extremities, arteries (deep / superficial) – Department of Phlebology – Central Clinical Hospital of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow
What is it?
Thrombosis is a pathological condition in which dense blood clots (thrombi) form in the vessels, slowing down or even stopping the normal flow of blood.As a result, there may be a lack of nutrition of organs (ischemia), which in turn can lead to tissue death (necrosis, heart attack) and death. There are two types of thrombosis: venous and arterial. From the names you can see where the formation of blood clots occurs. In the first case – in the veins, in the second – in the arteries. The disease can be acute or chronic. Arterial thrombosis is the most dangerous.
Main causes of occurrence
There are three main factors for blood clots.
- Damage to the vessel wall (as a result of trauma, surgery and improper diet (cholesterol plaques are formed), infection, heavy lifting, childbirth, etc.).
- Blood clotting disorder (tendency to increased coagulability). Changes in blood clotting can occur due to metabolic disorders or hormonal imbalances.
- Blood congestion . It occurs when a person stays in one position for a long time (for example, in front of a computer, in an airplane seat, or bedridden).
The risk group also includes people with varicose veins, overweight, bad habits, leading a passive lifestyle, as well as people over 60 years old.
Symptoms of thrombosis
For arterial thrombosis , the following symptoms are characteristic:
- Severe pain that occurs in one place and spreads to the adjacent areas in the form of a pulsating stream
- Feeling of numbness of the limbs, depending on the location of the thrombus, as a result of which they lose sensitivity and become cold
- Shortness of breath, heart rhythm disturbance, chest tightness (with blockage of the pulmonary artery)
- Dizziness, speech disorder (when the cerebral arteries are blocked)
With venous thrombosis , the following is observed:
- Increasing pain in the affected area
- Swelling and thickening of veins at the site of the thrombus
- The skin color in this area becomes blue
- Swelling and bulging of superficial veins.
When contacting a medical institution, the doctor diagnoses and prescribes treatment. Basic diagnostic methods:
Specialists to contact:
Depending on the severity of the ongoing disease, conservative and surgical treatment is possible. During surgery, the following is carried out: removal of blood clots, suturing of a vessel, ligation of veins, arteriovenous bypass grafting or other necessary operation.
Conservative treatment includes:
- Drug therapy (anticoagulants, administration of blood clot dissolving agents, etc.)
- Diet therapy
- UHF therapy.
- Use of elastic bandages and compression garments
- Smoking cessation
- Rational and proper nutrition
- Vitamin therapy
- Physical activity
- Timely treatment of concomitant diseases
- Monitor cholesterol and blood glucose levels
- Weight loss.
If symptoms of the disease appear, you can seek advice and examination in Moscow from the specialists of the Central Clinical Hospital of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Recording is made by phone …
What is thrombosis – venous and arterial thrombosis
Many biological systems are responsible for the vital functions of our body. One of them
– hemostasis. Its task is to keep the blood in a liquid state, to stop bleeding in case
damage to the walls of blood vessels, as well as dissolve blood clots.Thrombus formation is one of the mechanisms of hemostasis. Education
a blood clot is the body’s defense reaction when it is necessary to stop bleeding. When damaged, it forms
a blood clot (thrombus), which, like a patch, closes the damaged area, i.e. protects the body from
blood loss. In the language of doctors, this process is called thrombosis. 
On the one hand, thrombosis protects the body from large blood loss. On the other hand, it can provoke
severe diseases associated with impaired blood flow.This is a stroke, myocardial infarction, ischemic organ damage
abdominal and retroperitoneal space, gangrene of the extremities. 
Until the middle of the 19th century, thrombosis was a mystery for doctors, they were trying to understand what it is.
The German pathologist Rudolf Virchow managed to unravel the mystery. He studied the mechanisms of thrombosis, identifying
three basic principles. A century and a half have passed since then, but the discovery of the Berlin doctor is still relevant. This
the theory is usually called the Virchow triad.
Rudolf Virchow formulated three main causes of thrombosis. The first one is
deterioration of the condition of the walls of blood vessels. These can be the consequences of trauma or surgery. Virchow
noticed that blood clots most often form where the internal structure of the vessels is damaged. The second reason –
slowing down blood flow. Blood clots accumulate where the blood flow rate changes. The change in blood viscosity is also
provokes thrombosis. In “thick” blood, thrombi are formed more often than in “liquid” blood.
Thrombosis is of two forms – venous and arterial. The names suggest where exactly
blood clots are formed: in the first case in the veins, in the second – in the arteries.
Venous thrombosis belongs to acute diseases, there are many reasons for its occurrence, the main ones are
this is a violation of the structure of the venous wall during surgery, trauma, radiation and chemotherapy, slowing down
blood flow, increased blood clotting. 
Arterial thrombosis (atherothrombosis) – a pathological condition, almost
all patients have atherosclerotic plaques.These are cholesterol deposits, they narrow the lumen in the artery and lead
to circulatory deficiency. Over time, the plaques become overgrown with a blood clot. 
Pulmonary embolism (PE) – severe, deadly
a disease in which there is a complete or partial closure of the lumen of the pulmonary artery by a thrombus. As a rule, TELA
is a complication of deep vein thrombosis of the legs. 
You can familiarize yourself with the list and map of treatment and prophylactic
institutions where it is possible to consult with specialized specialists.
- S.M. Strukova Fundamentals of the physiology of hemostasis (2nd ed. Revised and supplemented) – Moscow: Publishing house of Moscow State University, 2013.- 186
- Schiffman F.J. Blood pathophysiology. Per. from English – M.-SPb .: “Publishing house BINOM” ¬ “Nevsky Dialect”,
2000.-448 p., Ill.
- V.P. Nefedov et al. Practical Medicine 2011; 1 (49): 58-61
- Russian clinical guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolic
complications (VTEC).Phlebology, 2015: 4 (2): 3-52
Click on the numbers to watch the video
4 Pulmonary embolism
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious, deadly disease,
in which there is a complete or partial closure of the lumen of the pulmonary artery by a thrombus. As a rule, TELA
is a complication of deep vein thrombosis of the legs.
1 Cardiovascular system
The cardiovascular system is one of the most important systems of the body,
providing his vital activity.The cardiovascular system ensures blood circulation in the body
person. Blood with oxygen, hormones and substances is transported through the body along the way.
this wealth with all organs and tissues. Then it takes away all that is left of the metabolism for further
3 Deep vein thrombosis
Deep vein thrombosis occurs when a blood clot forms in the deep veins of the lower
2 Superficial vein thrombosis
Superficial vein thrombosis usually affects the superficial veins in the legs, sometimes in the groin.