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Symptoms of gas and acidity: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) – Symptoms and causes

Acid Reflux and Gas: What’s the Connection?

Acid reflux and gas or bloating often occur together. Some treatments help both conditions.

Passing gas, while potentially awkward, is generally normal and not a cause for concern. Acid reflux, however, cannot only be uncomfortable, but it can lead to health complications if left untreated. Both conditions involve the digestive tract, but is there really a link between acid reflux and gas? It’s possible that the two are related. Certain treatments may relieve symptoms for both.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux disease, affects about 20 percent of people in the United States, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). It’s a more serious form of the common condition known as gastroesophageal reflux (GER). GER occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) either relaxes spontaneously or doesn’t tighten properly. The LES is a ring of muscles located in the esophagus that works as a valve between the esophagus and stomach. With GER, the acidic contents of the stomach go back up into the esophagus. The LES relaxes in an inappropriate manner. Digestive juices rise up with the food, causing the most common symptom: a frequent, burning pain known as acid indigestion or heartburn located in the middle abdomen and chest.

You’re considered to have GERD when reflux symptoms are persistent and chronic, occurring more than twice per week. People of all ages may experience GERD. Complications from GERD can be serious and may include the following:

  • scarring
  • ulcers
  • precancerous changes known as Barrett’s esophagus
  • cancer

It’s unclear why some people develop acid reflux and others don’t. One risk factor for GERD is the presence of a hiatal hernia. A larger-than-normal opening of the diaphragm allows the upper part of the stomach to move above the diaphragm and into the chest cavity. Not all people with hiatal hernias will have GERD symptoms.

Other factors that make acid reflux more likely are:

  • drinking alcohol
  • smoking
  • obesity
  • pregnancy
  • connective tissue diseases

Several medications can contribute to acid reflux as well. These include:

  • anti-inflammatory medications and NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen (Advil), aspirin (Bayer), and naproxen (Naprosyn)
  • certain antibiotics
  • beta-blockers, which are used for high blood pressure and heart disease
  • calcium channel blockers, which are used for high blood pressure
  • medications for osteoporosis
  • some birth control
  • sedatives, which are used for anxiety or insomnia
  • antidepressants

Whether we admit it or not, everyone has gas at some point. Your digestive tract produces gas and eliminates it either through the mouth, via belching, or the rectum, via flatulence. The average person passes gas about 13 to 21 times per day. Gas is made up mostly of carbon dioxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and methane.

Gas in the digestive tract is caused by either swallowing air or from the breakdown of foods by bacteria in the colon. Foods that cause gas in one person may not do so in another. This is because common bacteria in the large intestine can eliminate the gas that another type of bacteria produces. It’s a delicate balance, and researchers believe that the small differences in this balance cause some people to produce more gas than others.

Most foods are broken down in the small intestine. However, some people cannot digest certain foods and substances, such as lactose, due to a lack or absence of certain enzymes that help digestion. Undigested food moves from the small intestine to the colon, where it’s worked on by harmless bacteria. The unpleasant smell associated with flatulence is caused by sulfurous gases released by these bacteria.

Foods that are notorious gas producers include:

  • apples
  • asparagus
  • beans
  • broccoli
  • Brussels sprouts
  • cabbage
  • cauliflower
  • onions
  • peaches
  • pears
  • some whole grains

So, can acid reflux cause gas? The short answer is maybe. Many of the things that contribute to gas also lead to acid reflux. Making lifestyle changes to treat acid reflux may help reduce excessive gas. For instance, you can eliminate carbonated beverages such as beer to relieve symptoms. Eating smaller meals more often may reduce the symptoms of both conditions, too.

The reverse also can be true — attempting to release gas may trigger acid reflux. Belching both during and after meals to release air when the stomach is full is normal. However, some people belch frequently and swallow too much air, releasing it before it enters the stomach. Many people mistakenly believe that belching will relieve the symptoms of acid reflux, but they may be doing more harm than good. Studies have shown that swallowing air increases stretching of the stomach, which triggers the LES to relax, making acid reflux more likely.

A small number of people who’ve had fundoplication surgery to correct GERD may develop a condition known as gas-bloat syndrome. The surgery prevents normal belching and your ability to vomit. Gas-bloat syndrome usually resolves on its own within two to four weeks of surgery, but sometimes it persists. In more serious cases, you may need to change your diet or receive counseling to help break your belching habit. In the most serious cases, additional surgery may be required to correct the problem.

Learn more: Acid reflux/GERD surgery options »

Although the connection between acid reflux and gas isn’t completely clear, lifestyle changes may be helpful in reducing the symptoms of both. Keeping a record of foods that cause acid reflux and gas can help you and your doctor figure out the right dietary changes to make.

Getting treatment for acid reflux may also help you avoid swallowing more air, which can reduce gas and bloating.


Answers represent the opinions of our medical experts. All content is strictly informational and should not be considered medical advice.

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Gas in stomach: Symptoms, causes, and treatments

Reasons for gas in the stomach range from swallowing air to colon cancer. Burping often helps reduce gas, bloating, and discomfort. However, people with persistent or worsening gas may need medical attention for an underlying condition.

Mild or infrequent episodes of stomach gas are not usually a cause for concern. However, frequent or persistent stomach gas can sometimes indicate an underlying gastrointestinal condition that requires treatment.

This article outlines the symptoms of stomach gas and its various causes. It also outlines the different treatment options for stomach gas and provides information about when to see a doctor.

Share on PinterestStomach gas can cause issues ranging from burping and flatulence to heartburn and indigestion.

According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), the most common symptoms of gas in the stomach include:

  • burping
  • flatulence
  • bloating
  • abdominal pain or discomfort

In some cases, other symptoms may accompany gas in the stomach, such as:

  • indigestion
  • heartburn
  • diarrhea
  • constipation

There are various reasons why a person might experience gas.

Gas in the stomach and upper abdomen

Reasons for gas in the stomach and upper abdomen include:

Swallowing air

People usually swallow a little bit of air while eating, and this can make the stomach or upper abdomen feel full. Burping generally helps to release the gas and reduce bloating and discomfort.

The NIDDK note that a person swallows more air during the following:

  • eating or drinking too fast
  • chewing gum
  • sucking on hard candy
  • drinking carbonated drinks, such as soda, sparkling water, and beer
  • smoking
  • wearing ill-fitting dentures that reduce chewing efficiency
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

GERD is a condition in which stomach acid and other stomach contents frequently leak out of the stomach and up into the esophagus. The esophagus is the tube that connects the mouth and stomach.

The most common symptoms of GERD are acid reflux and heartburn. As a 2015 case study notes, stomach gas and belching are other common symptoms of GERD.

People who experience GERD-related stomach gas may notice that their burps have a foul taste or cause them to regurgitate food.

Gas in the lower abdomen

Below are some potential causes of gas in the lower abdomen.


A person experiencing symptoms of gas in the lower part of their belly or abdomen may be experiencing gas from fermentation.

Stomach acid helps to break down food and pass it on to the intestines. The intestines break down the food even further in a process that sometimes releases gases.

These gases either make their way to the stomach and leave the body as a burp or travel through the intestines and leave the body as flatulence.

Some foods may produce gas more than others. The NIDDK list some common foods that may cause gas, including:

  • greens, such as kale, cabbage, and Brussel sprouts
  • vegetables, such as onions, cauliflower, and broccoli
  • beans, including black, pinto, and kidney beans
  • dairy products, such as cheese, yogurt, and ice cream
  • high fiber foods, such as whole grains and fruits
  • sugar substitutes and sweeteners, such as sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an umbrella term for a group of digestive symptoms that can cause pain, discomfort, and changes in bowel movements.

A person with IBS may experience an excessive amount of intestinal gas. This excess gas may lead to abdominal pain, bloating, and flatulence. Other possible symptoms of IBS include:

  • constipation
  • diarrhea
  • bowel incontinence
  • nausea
  • back pain

The exact cause of IBS remains unknown. However, experts believe that it may be due to food passing through the intestines too quickly or too slowly.

Bacterial overgrowth

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is the medical term for excess bacteria in the small intestine. Experts believe that the condition is due to a lack of movement in the small intestine.

Excessive intestinal bacteria can cause a build-up of gas, which may lead to bloating and flatulence.

Other possible symptoms of SIBO inlcude:

  • abdominal pain
  • diarrhea or constipation
  • nausea
  • fatigue

In extreme cases, the small intestine may be unable to absorb sufficient nutrients from food. This may lead to complications, such as weight loss and anemia.

A 2020 study notes that SIBO is a common but underdiagnosed condition, as the symptoms appear similar to other digestive disorders.

Food intolerances

Frequent bloating and intestinal gas can sometimes indicate a food intolerance. This is where the body is unable to digest certain foods properly.

Common food intolerances include:

  • Lactose intolerance: Inability to digest the sugar “lactose,” found in milk and dairy products.
  • Fructose intolerance: Inability to digest the fruit sugar “fructose.”
  • Gluten intolerance: Inability to digest gluten proteins that exist in cereal grains.

Celiac disease is similar to gluten intolerance but more severe. Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition in which consuming gluten causes the immune system to attack healthy cells in the small intestine.

Some general symptoms of food intolerances include:

  • bloating
  • flatulence
  • abdominal pain
  • diarrhea
  • skin rashes and itching

Other potential causes

Some less common causes of stomach gas include:

  • chronic constipation
  • peptic ulcers
  • hernias
  • intestinal blockages
  • colon cancer

Some causes of stomach gas may improve with home remedies alone. Others may require over-the-counter (OTC) or prescription medications.

Home remedies

A person who experiences mild or infrequent episodes of stomach gas may want to try home remedies before seeking a medical diagnosis and treatment. Below are some general tips for alleviating stomach gas at home.

Lifestyle changes

Some lifestyle changes that may help to alleviate stomach gas include:

  • chewing food thoroughly
  • avoiding chewing gum and hard candy
  • avoiding carbonated beverages
  • avoiding smoking
  • ensuring that dentures or other dental devices fit correctly

People may also benefit from keeping a food journal to record what and when they eat and when they experience symptoms. This will help to identify any trigger foods. After identifying the foods, a person can alter their diet to avoid those foods in the future.

Herbal remedies

Anecdotally, some people report relief from stomach gas using various herbs, such as:

  • peppermint
  • chamomile
  • fennel
  • clove


In some cases, people may require OTC or prescription medications to help alleviate stomach gas and associated symptoms.

OTC medications

People with certain food intolerances can take digestive enzymes before a meal to help their body digest problematic foods. Common examples include taking lactase to help digest milk products or taking alpha-galactosidase (Beano) to help break down carbohydrates, fiber, and protein from beans and vegetables.

For someone already experiencing gas, OTC products containing simethicone can help combine gas bubbles, making the gas easier to pass. Examples of such products include:

  • Gas-X
  • Imodium
  • Mylanta
Prescription medications

Doctors may recommend prescription medications for people who cannot find relief from home remedies and OTC options.

The type of medication a doctor prescribes will depend on the underlying condition causing the gas. Some medications a doctor may prescribe include:

  • medications to manage GERD, such as:
    • antacids to alleviate heartburn
    • h3 blockers to decrease the production of stomach acid
    • proton pump inhibitors to reduce the production of stomach acid and help heal the esophagus
    • prokinetics to help the stomach empty faster
  • medications to manage IBS, such as:
    • antispasmodics to alleviate abdominal pain and cramping
    • laxatives to help relieve constipation
    • antimotility medications to help alleviate diarrhea
  • antibiotics to help treat SIBO

In many cases, gas in the stomach is not a cause for concern, and symptoms will pass with little or no treatment.

However, anyone experiencing frequent or persistent stomach gas should see their doctor for a full diagnosis.

Stomach gas that occurs alongside other symptoms, such as weight loss or changes in bowel movements, also warrants medical attention. These symptoms could indicate an underlying medical condition that requires treatment and management to prevent any long-term complications.

Mild or occasional stomach gas is usually not a cause for concern. In such cases, people can usually find relief using simple home remedies and OTC medications.

However, a person should see their doctor if they experience frequent or persistent stomach gas. This could be a sign of an underlying medical condition that requires treatment or careful management.

Treatment should help alleviate symptoms while preventing the risk of further health complications.

Gastritis: symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment


The information in the article is for reference only and cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-treatment.
If you have symptoms of the disease, contact your doctor.


  • Symptoms and signs of gastritis
  • Causes of gastritis
  • Types of gastritis
  • Diagnosis of gastritis
  • Treatment of gastritis
  • Prevention of gastritis
  • Output

Gastritis (ICD code – K 29) – damage to the gastric mucosa. With it, dystrophic-inflammatory changes in tissues, a disorder in the regeneration process, and atrophy of epithelial cells occur.

In the course of the disease, the affected glands are replaced by fibrous tissue. With a long-term disease, a breakdown of all functions of the stomach occurs.
Before others, its secretory activity is disrupted.

Symptoms and signs of gastritis

Distinguish between low and high acidity – this explains the difference in the symptoms of the disease. The acute form and exacerbation of the chronic form are manifested by typical symptoms:

  • Soreness. The pain is localized in the epigastric zone. The pain is constant aching in nature, less often it is periodic and cramping and alternates with cutting attacks.
  • Heartburn. This symptom is characteristic of reflux gastritis. It also often appears with lesions caused by high acidity.
  • Nausea, vomiting – the body is trying to reduce excess acidity.
  • Bloating. It appears due to increased gas formation in the intestines, which occurs if the food has not been processed with the necessary enzymes and acid. Enters the intestine
    excess untreated organic matter. This leads to an increase in the activity of microflora and an increase in gas emission.
  • Change in appetite. An increase in appetite occurs with gastritis with high acidity, as the acid content in the stomach after eating is temporarily reduced. With low acidity and severe mucosal damage, food increases pain, which leads to a decrease in appetite.

Chronic gastritis does not show severe symptoms. Often the patient does not feel anything at all. The process of digestion may be disturbed – it manifests itself in the form of instability of the stool, increased gas formation. The patient has constant heaviness in the abdomen.

Causes of gastritis

This disease is classified as a multifactorial pathology. One reason for its development cannot be identified. Its development is due to the influence of a combination of external and internal factors.

Exogenous causes

This group includes external factors. They include the following reasons:

  • Food products. Some types of food, when consumed in large quantities, have a negative effect on the gastric mucosa. This group includes salty, sour,
    pickled, fatty and fried foods. Alcoholic drinks are especially harmful. Alcoholic gastritis is considered a separate type of disease. It causes symptoms to appear after consumption.
    a large amount of alcohol.
  • Chemicals. Acute gastritis occurs when aggressive acids and alkalis penetrate the stomach cavity. The surface layer of the mucosa is destroyed. The tissues of the stomach lose their ability to defend themselves against hydrochloric acid. This group includes certain medications such as corticosteroids, aspirin, certain antibiotics, and non-steroidal drugs.
    The impact of nicotine when smoking also negatively affects the mucosa.
  • Violation of the diet. Normally, the secretion of digestive enzymes and gastric juice starts before meals. When food does not enter the stomach, there is an excess of acid.
    This is followed by mucosal damage.
  • Violation of the process of chewing food. Tooth decay, malocclusion, and tooth decay prevent a person from chewing food thoroughly. Insufficient processing hinders the process
    digestion, causing gastritis.

Under the influence of these factors, an extensive and deeper damage to the tissues of the stomach occurs. Such gastritis is more severe than other varieties. Stress, depression, permanent states
nervous tension, as well as the presence of parasitic invasions can cause gastritis.

Endogenous causes

Endogenous factors arise within the body itself, and then they cause the development of this pathology. The main internal causes are considered to be autoimmune processes and innervation disorders.
The following processes lead to the development of inflammation in the stomach:

  • Autoimmune. When the immune system malfunctions, immune cells attack the tissues of the gastric mucosa. Dystrophic processes develop in the inner walls of the organ.
    Then B12 deficiency anemia develops.
  • Helicobacter pylori infection. The medical community believes that 85% of cases are caused by this bacterium. Microorganisms enter the body and attach to the epithelium. actively breeding,
    bacteria release toxins. They irritate the inner lining, causing inflammation.
  • Reflux gastritis. Its development causes a constant reflux of bile juice and pancreatic secretions from the duodenum into the stomach. Bile contains acids, which, with prolonged
    contact with the gastric walls, they first irritate, and then corrode them.

Inflammation is often caused by several endogenous or exogenous factors.

Types of gastritis

More than ten of its varieties are now distinguished in gastroenterology. The effectiveness of the therapy prescribed to the patient depends on the correct definition of its type.

Chronic gastritis

This form develops over decades. It is characterized by prolonged unexpressed pain, as well as digestive disorders. It is often detected during fibrogastroscopy, as well as a laboratory study of gastric secretions.
This form can proceed as a series of alternating exacerbations and remissions. During remissions, the patient does not feel any manifestations of gastritis. With exacerbations, the symptoms show signs of severe damage to the stomach.

Atrophic gastritis

This species is considered to be the result of a long course of a sluggish chronic form. A prolonged inflammatory process in the mucosa disrupts its work. It makes it difficult to update in the tissues of the stomach.
This leads to a decrease in the cellular composition of the mucous membrane, as well as its thinning to a state of complete atrophy. Decreased production of gastric juice. The acidity of the stomach decreases.
The food bolus is not processed by gastric juice.
He is unable to disinfect the food he eats.

Acute gastritis

The disease is characterized by a rapid increase in manifestations of inflammatory changes in the gastric mucosa from hours to several days. At the same time, the complex of symptoms is quite diverse.
The patient is concerned about: soreness, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, flatulence, belching.

Erosive gastritis

In this form of pathology, the lesion covers the entire mucosa and even part of the muscle layer. Inflammation of muscle tissue provokes the appearance of cramps, cramping pain, nausea. The mucosa is edematous,
it has a reddish color. On its surface, small erosions are detected – defects on the mucosa. They are shallow and the possibility of regeneration remains when favorable conditions for healing return.
With deep damage to the mucosa, which occurs with a stomach ulcer, repair of the mucous layer in the defect zone is impossible.
Scar tissue forms at this site.

Mucous gastritis

This form of pathology affects the surface of the gastric mucosa. Organ function is reduced slightly. Often occurs with food poisoning, strict diets, abuse of spicy foods and alcohol. When the causes of inflammation are eliminated, the gastric mucosa itself regenerates and restores functions.

Superficial gastritis

This form of the disease is characterized by increased secretion of gastric juice. He is accompanied by inflammation of his gastric mucosa. This form is considered a kind of chronic process.
Superficial gastritis is characterized by the following manifestations: pulling pain in the hypochondrium on the right, which intensifies after eating, fullness and heaviness in the stomach, bad breath.

Fibrinous gastritis

This pathology is classified as a rare form of gastritis. It is classified as a life-threatening condition. Occurs with severe infectious pathologies, with sublimate poisoning, as well as acids.
With this type of gastritis, films form on the mucosa. They are made up of fibrin.
The condition needs immediate therapy. There is necrosis of the mucous layer of the stomach. The affected area is saturated with exudate with the formation of a dense film. At the surface form
necrotic lesions, this film is weakly associated with the underlying tissues.
It can be easily removed.

Antaral gastritis

This form is classified as a manifestation of chronic inflammation of the stomach. Here, the mucosa in the antrum is predominantly affected. It is associated with bacterial infection. It causes pain in the epigastrium.
They are hungry or appear two hours after eating. There are other symptoms: nausea, acid belching, a violation of the digestive process with preserved appetite. Symptoms of antral gastritis resemble those of a stomach ulcer.

Catarrhal gastritis

In this form of pathology, intense inflammation of the gastric mucosa occurs under the influence of damaging factors. These include the abuse of spicy or fatty foods, poisoning that affects
the influence of high temperatures, taking certain medications.
This inflammatory process completely captures the gastric mucosa or it is possible to damage its individual parts. Pathology is caused by the ingestion of certain viruses and pathogenic bacteria.

Subatrophic gastritis

This form of gastritis is characterized by inflammation of the gastric mucosa. There is a gradual death, and then atrophy of the inner lining of the organ. This causes a decrease
secretory function of the stomach.
In the absence of proper therapy, this gastritis creates conditions for the development of malignant tumors. Often this form is accompanied by the phenomena of duodenitis.
Cells of the glands of the stomach, affected by inflammation, activate their work. Gastric juice enters the intestines, causing irritation.

Diagnosis of gastritis

Before treating the disease, a thorough diagnosis is carried out. The diagnosis is established by a gastroenterologist or therapist. It relies on data from a physical examination, complaints, and the patient’s history.
The specialist prescribes the following additional examination methods to the patient:

  • Acidity analysis. It is carried out during probing with a fence to study a portion of gastric juice. Then a laboratory study is carried out.
  • Definition of Helicobacter pylori. This is done in several ways. This bacterium is determined by the analysis of feces. The HpSA antigen gene is detected. A respiratory test is also performed based on
    detection of an increased content of bacterial metabolic products in the exhaled air.
  • Mucosal examination. Produced using a fibrogastroscope. Its flexible tube is inserted through the mouth into the lumen of the organ. Fill the stomach with gas. The fibrogastroscope transmits information to the monitor.
    During the study, some areas of the mucosa can be taken for a biopsy.
  • Investigation of secretion and composition of juice. It is taken during probing of the stomach. Then they are studied in the laboratory using reagents.

Based on these data, the form of gastritis is detected and therapy is prescribed.

Treatment of gastritis

Treatment of this disease should be complex. It is important not only the use of medicines and other methods of treatment. It is important to adjust the patient’s lifestyle and diet.

Diet for gastritis

In case of gastritis with high acidity, fractional nutrition is prescribed. Exclude alcohol, as well as spicy and fried foods. It is not advisable to eat pickles, sour foods, fatty broths and meats.
During exacerbation, nutrition is carried out with liquid cereals on the water.
With a form with low acidity, it is necessary to stimulate the work of the stomach. To do this, the following dishes are recommended: rich meat broths, bread with bran or rye flour, a lot of fresh vegetables.

Gastritis lifestyle

It is necessary to give up all bad habits. Smoking and drinking alcohol is prohibited. It is necessary to exclude psychotraumatic situations and stress. It is necessary to normalize sleep and observe the daily routine.
It is recommended to go in for sports and creativity. It is necessary to establish control over the intake of drugs that cause medical gastritis (antipyretics, painkillers, antibiotics and hormonal drugs).

Treatment of gastritis with folk remedies

Is it possible to treat at home? In the complex therapy of the disease, folk remedies are actively used. They are especially useful at the stage of follow-up treatment. Use the following:

  • cucumber and carrot juice;
  • shepherd’s bag;
  • geranium juice;
  • potato juice;
  • sea buckthorn, olive and linseed oil.

This treatment should not replace conventional medications.

Drug treatment

For gastritis with high acidity, different treatment regimens are prescribed. With hyperacid gastritis, antacid tablets are prescribed that block the action of hydrochloric acid.
With antacid gastritis, it is prescribed to take stimulant drugs aimed at activating the release of hydrochloric acid.

Use substitution therapy if there is no effect from stimulant drugs. For the treatment of all types of gastritis, symptomatic therapy is prescribed: drugs to eliminate nausea, pain,
flatulence and other manifestations of gastritis.

Treatment of gastritis in adults

Treatment is carried out on an outpatient basis, except for severe lesions of the stomach. Doctors prescribe drugs for adults, taking into account the form of gastritis, as well as the patient’s condition. They select drugs based on
examination data and strictly individually for each patient.

Prevention of gastritis

It is recommended to adhere to a food culture and monitor the quality of products.


Gastritis not only complicates a person’s life and causes discomfort, many of its forms are dangerous by the formation of malignant tumors. Therefore, if symptoms are detected, you should immediately contact
See a doctor instead of self-medicating. It is important to make an appointment as soon as possible, rather than trying to treat the disease yourself.

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