Systolic below 100: Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension) Chart, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)
What is low blood pressure?
Low blood pressure (hypotension) occurs when blood pressure drops below the normal range. Doctors generally define low blood pressure as 90/60 mm Hg or below, commonly said as “90 over 60” Usually, doctors only treat hypotension if it is severe enough to cause symptoms.
Low blood pressure can be temporary, or it can be a chronic (long-lasting) condition. The main types of hypotension are:
- Orthostatic hypotension: People with orthostatic hypotension (sometimes called postural hypotension) feel faint or lightheaded when they stand up or change position suddenly.
- Postprandial hypotension: This condition causes people to feel lightheaded or dizzy after eating a meal because their blood pressure drops suddenly.
- Neurally mediated hypotension: People with this disorder feel faint, dizzy, and nauseous after exercising or standing for a long time.
- Severe hypotension linked to shock: Shock is the most extreme form of hypotension. When a person is in shock, blood pressure drops to dangerously low levels, and the brain and organs can’t get enough blood to function.
What is blood pressure?
As blood pumps through the circulatory system, it pushes against the walls of the arteries and veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood as it presses against the blood vessel walls. It is measured in systolic pressure (when the blood is pumping) and diastolic pressure (between beats, when your heart is at rest).
Blood pressure rises and falls throughout the day. Normal blood pressure is considered to be below 120/80 mm Hg. In a blood pressure reading, the top number refers to systolic pressure, and the bottom number refers to the diastolic pressure.
How common is low blood pressure?
Hypotension is fairly common, and different types are more likely to occur in certain groups of people. Orthostatic hypotension is common in pregnant women and older adults. Postprandial hypotension is common in older people.
Who is affected by low blood pressure?
Low blood pressure can affect people of all ages, although it is more common in older people who are frail or bedridden. Pregnant women and older adults are more likely to have orthostatic hypotension. Children and young adults are most likely to experience neurally mediated hypotension, but they often outgrow it.
Hypotension commonly affects people who:
- Are taking certain medications that cause low blood pressure.
- Have hormonal imbalances or vitamin deficiencies.
- Also have heart problems or liver disease.
Symptoms and Causes
What causes low blood pressure?
Low blood pressure is often a sign of another medical condition. Hypotension has a variety of causes. They include:
What are the symptoms of low blood pressure?
Symptoms of low blood pressure can come on suddenly or slowly get worse over time. They include:
- Dizziness, lightheadedness, and fainting.
- Blurred vision.
- Skin that is cold and sweaty.
- Quick, shallow breathing.
What can you do to help relieve symptoms of low blood pressure?
Depending on the type of low blood pressure you have, you may be able to relieve some of your symptoms by:
- Eating a healthy diet with fewer carbohydrates and smaller meals.
- Drinking more water and avoiding alcohol.
- Getting up slowly after you’ve been sitting or lying down.
- Focusing on breathing a few times before you change position.
- Wearing compression stockings.
Diagnosis and Tests
How is low blood pressure diagnosed?
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and take your blood pressure by placing a blood pressure cuff around your upper arm. The cuff will tighten on your arm, and the monitor will measure your systolic and diastolic pressure. A blood pressure reading of 90/60 mm Hg (or lower) is considered low blood pressure.
Low blood pressure may be a sign of an underlying condition, so your doctor will try to determine what caused your blood pressure to drop. Depending on your medical history and symptoms, your doctor may also check your heart using an echocardiogram, electrocardiogram, or stress test. Your doctor may also perform blood tests to check for:
How do I know if I have low blood pressure?
If you have any symptoms of low blood pressure, you should visit your doctor to get your blood pressure checked. Because the signs of low blood pressure can be similar to those of other conditions, it is important to see your doctor so you can be monitored.
Management and Treatment
What are the treatments for low blood pressure?
The treatments for low blood pressure depend on what caused the condition. Your doctor will work with you to address the cause of the hypotension. In severe cases of hypotension, your doctor may give you IV fluids to raise your blood pressure.
Depending on a variety of factors, such as your age and the type of hypotension, your doctor may recommend one or more of the following: dietary changes, lifestyle changes and/or medications.
To make dietary changes, your doctor might tell you to:
- Stay hydrated by drinking more water throughout the day.
- Drink less alcohol.
- Increase your salt intake slightly because sodium raises blood pressure.
- Eat smaller, healthy meals and limit carbohydrates.
You can take several steps to avoid a sudden drop in blood pressure. Your doctor may recommend that you make the following lifestyle changes:
- Wear compression stockings.
- Get up slowly after you’ve been sitting or lying down.
- Avoid standing for long periods of time.
- Sit up and breathe deeply for a few minutes before getting out of bed.
Your doctor might prescribe medications like:
What are the side effects of the treatment for low blood pressure?
There are no side effects for the lifestyle and dietary changes that can treat hypotension.
The medications used to treat hypotension have several side effects, some of which may be serious. Fludrocortisone can make certain infections worse, so it’s essential to discuss this medication with your doctor. The most common side effects from fludrocortisone are:
- Increased risk of infection.
- Nausea, bloating, or other stomach problems.
- Insomnia (problems sleeping).
The most common side effects from midodrine are:
- Numbness or tingling.
- Goosebumps and chills.
What are the complications associated with low blood pressure?
While it’s not usually a serious medical condition, hypotension can cause injuries due to fainting and falling. If hypotension is left untreated, the brain, heart and other organs can’t get enough blood and cannot work properly. Severe hypotension can lead to shock, which can be fatal.
How can you prevent low blood pressure?
You may be able to prevent hypotension by making changes to your lifestyle and diet, such as:
- Eating fewer carbohydrates and choosing small, healthy meals.
- Staying hydrated and avoiding alcoholic drinks.
- Rising slowly when you’ve been sitting or lying down.
- Taking a few deep breaths before you change position.
- Wearing compression stockings.
Outlook / Prognosis
What is the outlook for patients who have low blood pressure?
Low blood pressure that is monitored does not usually cause serious or long-term health problems, especially when doctors can treat any underlying condition. Many people learn to manage hypotension with dietary and lifestyle changes.
When should you call your doctor about low blood pressure?
If you have recurring dizziness or fainting, or other symptoms of low blood pressure, you should visit your doctor. Sudden drops in blood pressure can be dangerous. It is important for your doctor to determine why your blood pressure is dropping and treat the cause.
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High Blood Pressure/Hypertension | Johns Hopkins Medicine
Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the artery walls. The force is generated with each heartbeat as blood is pumped from the heart into the blood vessels. The size and elasticity of the artery walls also affect blood pressure. Each time the heart beats (contracts and relaxes), pressure is created inside the arteries.
The pressure is greatest when blood is pumped out of the heart into the arteries. When the heart relaxes between beats (blood is not moving out of the heart), the pressure falls in the arteries.
Two numbers are recorded when measuring blood pressure.
The top number, or systolic pressure, refers to the pressure inside the artery when the heart contracts and pumps blood through the body.
The bottom number, or diastolic pressure, refers to the pressure inside the artery when the heart is at rest and is filling with blood.
Both the systolic and diastolic pressures are recorded as “mm Hg” (millimeters of mercury). This recording represents how high the mercury column in the blood pressure cuff is raised by the pressure of the blood.
Blood pressure is measured with a blood pressure cuff and stethoscope by a nurse or other healthcare provider. You can also take your own blood pressure with an electronic blood pressure monitor. These are available at most pharmacies.
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has determined 2 levels of high blood pressure for adults:
The NHLBI defines prehypertension as:
The NHLBI guidelines define normal blood pressure as follows:
Use these numbers as a guide only. A single elevated blood pressure measurement is not necessarily an indication of a problem. Your healthcare provider will want to see multiple blood pressure measurements over several days or weeks before making a diagnosis of high blood pressure and starting treatment. If you normally run a lower-than-usual blood pressure, you may be diagnosed with high blood pressure with blood pressure measurements lower than 140/90.
What are the risk factors for high blood pressure?
Nearly one-third of all Americans have high blood pressure, but it is particularly prevalent in:
People who have diabetes, gout, or kidney disease
African Americans (particularly those who live in the southeastern U.S.)
People in their early to middle adult years; men in this age group have higher blood pressure more often than women in this age group
People in their middle to later adult years; women in this age group have higher blood pressure more often than men in this age group (more women have high blood pressure after menopause than men of the same age)
Middle-aged and elderly people; more than half of all Americans age 60 and older have high blood pressure
People with a family history of high blood pressure
People consuming a high salt diet
Heavy drinkers of alcohol
Women who are taking oral contraceptives
People with depression
How does blood pressure increase?
The following conditions contribute to high blood pressure:
How is high blood pressure controlled?
These steps can help you control your blood pressure:
Take prescribed medicine exactly as directed by your healthcare provider
Choose foods that are low in sodium (salt)
Choose foods low in calories and fat
Choose foods high in fiber
Maintain a healthy weight, or losing weight if overweight
Limit serving sizes
Increase physical activity
Reduce or omit alcoholic beverages
Sometimes daily medicine is needed to control high blood pressure. If you have high blood pressure, have your blood pressure checked routinely and see your healthcare provider to monitor the condition.
Hypertension Guidelines Can Be Eased, Panel Says
New guidelines suggest that people over 60 can have a higher blood pressure than previously recommended before starting treatment to lower it. The advice, criticized by some physicians, changes treatment goals that have been in place for more than 30 years.
Until now, people were told to strive for blood pressures below 140/90, with some taking multiple drugs to achieve that goal. But the guidelines committee, which spent five years reviewing evidence, concluded that the goal for people over 60 should be a systolic pressure of less than 150. And the diastolic goal should remain less than 90.
Systolic blood pressure, the top number, indicates the pressure on blood vessels when the heart contracts. Diastolic, the bottom number, refers to pressure on blood vessels when the heart relaxes between beats.
Essentially, the committee determined that there was not strong evidence for the blood pressure targets that had been guiding treatment, and that there were risks associated with the medications used to bring pressures down.
The committee, composed of 17 academics, was tasked with updating guidelines last re-examined a decade ago. Their report was published online on Wednesday in The Journal of the American Medical Association.
Hypertension experts said they did not have a precise figure on how many Americans would be affected by the new guidelines. But Dr. William B. White, the president of the American Society of Hypertension, said it was “a huge number for sure.” He estimated that millions of people over 60 had blood pressures between 140 and 150. Dr. Paul A. James, the chairman of the department of family medicine at the University of Iowa and co-chairman of the guidelines committee, said, “If you get patients’ blood pressure below 150, I believe you are doing as well as can be done based on scientific evidence. ”
The group added that people over 60 who are taking drugs and have lowered their blood pressure to below 150 can continue taking the medications if they are not experiencing side effects.
But, it cautioned, although efforts to lower blood pressure have had a remarkable effect, reducing the incidence of strokes and heart disease, there is a difference between lowering blood pressure with drugs and having lower pressure naturally.
Medications that lower blood pressure can have effects that counteract some of the benefits, said Dr. Suzanne Oparil, a co-chairwoman of the committee and director of the vascular biology and hypertension program at the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine. For that reason, maximum benefits may occur with less intense treatment and higher blood pressure.
“The mantra of blood pressure experts in the past has been that lower is better,” Dr. Oparil said. “Recent studies don’t seem to support that.”
For example, two Japanese studies in older people found that those who reduced their systolic pressure to less than 140 fared no better than those who reduced it to between 140 and 160, or between 140 and 149.
“We have this notion that if we can get blood pressure to normal, we will have the most health benefits,” Dr. James said. “That’s not necessarily true.”
For people younger than 60, the goal remains blood pressure under 140/90. The panel decided to keep that target because it could not find rigorous studies that established systolic blood pressure goals for younger people.
When blood pressure guidelines were first formulated in 1977, the committee only looked at diastolic pressure. “People thought systolic should be 100 plus your age,” Dr. Oparil said. “That was old folk medicine.”
Observational studies then found that systolic pressure was a better predictor of consequences like strokes. Researchers began to test the effects of lowering systolic blood pressure, but their studies excluded younger people because they were looking for outcomes, like strokes or heart failure, that are more common in older people. As a result, there are no good studies showing that younger people benefit from taking drugs to achieve a particular systolic pressure.
Some experts not on the committee said that the blood pressure guidelines were based on limited science — studies did not specifically test the effects of getting blood pressure below 140/90 — but that this did not mean the goal should be abandoned.
“When I discuss this with my colleagues and friends in the community, most are pretty livid,” said Dr. George Bakris, the director of the hypertension center at the University of Chicago. “Is this the golden age of Sparta? What is going on?”
The old blood pressure targets made a huge difference in patients’ health, said Dr. Marvin Moser, a hypertension expert, who was the chairman of the first blood pressure guidelines committee in 1977 and a member of the six committees after that, but not of the most recent one.
“The thing about hypertension is that it is a dull disease, but the results of treatment are spectacular,” he said. The incidence of strokes has fallen by 70 percent since 1972, and heart failure rates have fallen more than 50 percent.
“It used to be that every third or fourth hospital bed had someone with hypertension in it,” Dr. Moser said. “Today it is very rare to find someone with malignant hypertension” — that is, dangerously high and uncontrolled blood pressure.
It is inexpensive now to treat the disorder, Dr. Moser added, because 90 percent of blood pressure drugs are available as generics.
But, Dr. James said, some people may be better off taking fewer drugs or lower doses. Many older people take multiple medications, which can interact and potentially cause harm, he said.
Some people, too, end up with blood pressures so low when they stand that they get dizzy.
“A lady who gets dizzy and falls and fractures her hip — that’s a terrible thing,” Dr. James said.
The guidelines committee’s paper is accompanied by three editorials, two of which praise the process and note the rigor with which the group assessed evidence.
The third — by Dr. Eric D. Peterson of Duke University, Dr. J. Michael Gaziano of the VA Boston Healthcare System and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and Dr. Philip Greenland of Northwestern University — said the committee should have considered evidence that fell short of randomized, controlled clinical trials.
“We’re not starting from square one,” Dr. Gaziano said in a telephone interview. “We’ve got a history of how to manage patients. The bar for changing that should be pretty high.”
Dr. Bakris said that the committee was merely proposing guidelines, and that doctors should continue to use their judgment.
“These are not stone tablets of Moses,” he said.
But, the writers of the critical editorial noted, doctors today are expected to follow performance measures.
Half of people taking drugs do not achieve the current goal of blood pressure under 140/90, and the writers expressed concern that with the new, more lenient target, patients’ blood pressures would edge even higher.
The relaxed subject sits on a chair with the lower arm
supported as before. The blood pressure cuff is placed on the subject’s right arm,
allowing 1 inch between the bottom of the cuff and the crease of the elbow.
The brachial pulse is palpated just above
the angle of the elbow (the “antecubital
One group member puts on a stethoscope, with the earpieces
The diaphragm is placed over the brachial artery in the
space between the bottom of the cuff and the crease of the elbow. At this point no sounds
should be heard.
The subject should now lie on his or her back for five
minutes. The systolic pressure and diastolic pressure are recorded. Then the
subject stands up, and the pressures are immediately recorded once more.
NotesThe laminar flow that normally occurs in
arteries produces little vibration of the arterial wall and therefore no sounds.
However, when an artery is partially constricted, blood flow becomes turbulent, causing the artery
to vibrate and produce sounds.
When measuring blood pressure using the
auscultation method, turbulent blood flow will occur when the cuff pressure is greater
than the diastolic pressure and less than the systolic pressure. The
“tapping” sounds associated with the turbulent flow are known as Korotkoff
sounds. Remember that these sounds are not to be confused with the heart sounds
produced by the opening and closing of the heart valves.
Summary of the
Initially the cuff is inflated to a level higher than the
systolic pressure. Thus the artery is completely compressed, there is no blood flow,
and no sounds are heard. The cuff pressure is slowly decreased. At the point
where the systolic pressure exceeds the cuff pressure, the Korotkoff sounds are
first heard and blood passes in turbulent flow through the partially constricted artery.
Korotkoff sounds will continue to be heard as the cuff pressure is
further lowered. However, when the cuff pressure reaches
diastolic pressure, the sounds disappear. Now at all points in
time during the cardiac cycle, the
is greater than the cuff pressure, and the artery remains open.
>>For a QuickTime video with sound, click here
>>For an avi video with sound, click here
Errors in blood pressure readings:
The cuff is not of the proper size: if the cuff is too small
To continue with the next section:
the Electrocardiogram, click here
Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction (Systolic Heart Failure)
Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) happens when the left side of your heart doesn’t pump blood out to the body as well as normal.
It’s sometimes called systolic heart failure. This is because your left ventricle doesn’t squeeze forcefully enough during systole, which is the phase of your heartbeat when your heart pumps blood.
What does reduced ejection fraction mean?
The types of heart failure are based on a measurement called the ejection fraction. The ejection fraction measures how much blood inside the ventricle is pumped out with each contraction. The left ventricle squeezes and pumps some (but not all) of the blood in the ventricle out to your body. A normal ejection fraction is more than 55%. This means that 55% of the total blood in the left ventricle is pumped out with each heartbeat.
Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction happens when the muscle of the left ventricle is not pumping as well as normal. The ejection fraction is 40% or less.footnote 1
The amount of blood being pumped out of the heart is less than the body needs. A reduced ejection fraction can happen because the left ventricle is enlarged and cannot pump normally.
Examples of ejection fractions of a healthy heart and a heart with reduced ejection fraction:
- A healthy heart with a total blood volume of 100 mL that pumps 60 mL has an ejection fraction of 60%.
- A heart with an enlarged left ventricle that has a total blood volume of 140 mL and pumps 60 mL has an ejection fraction of 43%.
What causes it?
There are many different problems that can cause heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.
What is it?
How it causes heart failure
Coronary artery disease or heart attack
Blockages in your coronary arteries that limit blood flow to your heart muscle
It weakens or damages heart muscle and impairs the muscle’s ability to pump.
A disease of the heart muscle
The heart muscle is weakened, which affects its ability to pump properly.
High blood pressure
Elevated pressure in your arteries
The heart works harder to pump against increased pressure, which weakens the muscle.
Opening of aortic valve is narrowed, impairing blood flow
The heart works harder to pump blood through the narrowed valve, weakening the muscle.
Mitral valve doesn’t close properly, causing leakage on left side of the heart
Increased blood volume stretches and weakens heart muscle.
Viral infection of your heart muscle
Inflammation in the heart muscle affects the heart’s ability to pump.
Irregular heart rhythm
Irregular rhythm reduces the pumping effectiveness of the heart.
Gradual heart damage
Coronary artery disease causes gradual heart damage over time. Ischemia is the medical term for what happens when your heart muscle doesn’t get enough oxygen. Ischemia may happen only once in a while, such as when you are exercising and your heart muscle needs more oxygen than it normally does. Ischemia can also be ongoing (chronic) if your coronary arteries are so narrowed that they limit blood flow to your heart all the time. This chronic lack of oxygen can gradually damage portions of your heart muscle. Your heart can slowly lose its ability to pump blood to your body.
Chronic ischemia can allow your heart muscle to get just enough oxygen to stay alive but not enough oxygen to work normally. Ongoing poor blood flow to the heart muscle reduces the heart’s ability to contract and causes it to pump less blood during each beat. The less blood your heart pumps out to your body, the less blood it is actually pumping back to itself through the coronary arteries. The end result is that heart failure makes ischemia worse, which in turn makes heart failure worse.
Mitral valve regurgitation can gradually lead to heart failure. With this problem, the mitral valve doesn’t close properly, and blood leaks back into the left atrium when the left ventricle contracts. Over time, the left ventricle pumps harder to move the extra blood that has returned to it from the left atrium. The ventricle stretches and gets bigger to hold the larger volume of blood. Gradual weakening of the left ventricle may cause heart failure.
High blood pressure can also gradually lead to heart failure. To pump against your high blood pressure, your heart has to increase the pressure inside your left ventricle when it pumps. After years of working harder to pump blood, your ventricle may begin to weaken. When this happens, the pressure inside the weakened left ventricle will cause the ventricle to expand, stretching out the heart muscle. This damaging process is called dilation, and it impairs your heart’s ability to squeeze forcefully. The result is heart failure.
Sudden heart damage
A heart attack damages heart muscle suddenly. A heart attack can cut off the flow of blood to your heart muscle so that your heart muscle doesn’t get any oxygen. If your heart muscle goes without oxygen for long enough, heart muscle can die. If a heart attack damages a very large area of heart muscle, it is possible that the ability of your heart to pump blood will be suddenly limited to such a degree that you develop heart failure. But this sudden complication isn’t common.
If you have a substantial heart attack that injures a large area of the heart muscle, you may eventually develop heart failure, even if it doesn’t occur suddenly. This happens most commonly after you have had a heart attack involving the anterior wall of the heart. After a large area of the anterior wall is destroyed, the percentage of blood pumped with each beat (ejection fraction) can be significantly less. As a result, the heart attempts to change its shape to maximize its pumping efficiency, a process referred to as left ventricular remodeling. Initially, the changes made to the heart wall (myocardium) are beneficial. Over time though, the left ventricle dilates and increases in size, which makes the heart less able to pump.
Blood Pressure Monitoring at Home
Many people monitor their blood pressure at home. They often do this to manage or treat a certain health condition. If you monitor your blood pressure at home, keep a record, or log, of the measurements. The record shows your doctor how your blood pressure changes throughout the day. If you take medicines to control your blood pressure, it will help document if they are working. Measuring your blood pressure at home is a good way to take part in managing your health.
Path to improved well being
What equipment do I need to measure my blood pressure at home?
To measure your blood pressure at home, you can use either an aneroid (manual) monitor or digital monitor. Choose the type of monitor that best meets your needs. Look at the following features when you select a monitor.
- Size: The right cuff size is very important. The cuff size you need is based on the size of your arm. You can ask the doctor, nurse, orpharmacist to help you. Blood pressure readings can be wrong if your cuff is the wrong size.
- Price: Cost may be a key factor. Home blood pressure units vary in price. You may want to shop around to find the best deal. Keep in mind that pricey units may not be the best or most accurate.
- Display: The numbers on the monitor should be easy for you to read.
- Sound: You must be able to hear your heartbeat through the stethoscope.
Tests show that finger and wrist devices do not always provide correct measurements. These devices are sensitive to placement and body temperature. They also are expensive and can cost more than $100.
The aneroid monitor manually checks your blood pressure. It has a gauge that you read by looking at a pointer on the dial. The cuff goes around your upper arm and you squeeze a rubber bulb to inflate it by hand.
Aneroid monitors often cost less than digital monitors. They range in price from about $20 to $40. The cuff has a built-in stethoscope. You don’t need to buy a separate one. The unit may have a feature that makes it easy to put the cuff on with one hand. It also is portable and can be carried easily from one place to another.
There are some drawbacks to the aneroid monitor. It is a complex device that can be damaged easily and become less accurate. The device may be hard to use if it doesn’t have a metal ring to tighten the cuff. This is what makes it easier to put on the cuff. Additionally, the rubber bulb that inflates the cuff may be hard to squeeze. This type of monitor may not be best for hearing-impaired people, because of the need to listen to your heartbeat through the stethoscope.
Digital monitors are more popular for measuring blood pressure. They often are easier to use than aneroid units. The digital monitor has a gauge and stethoscope in one unit. It also has an error indicator. The blood pressure reading displays on a small screen. This may be easier to read than a dial. Some units even have a paper printout that gives you a record of the reading.
Inflation of the cuff is either automatic or manual, depending on the model. Deflation is automatic. Digital monitors are good for hearing-impaired patients, since there is no need to listen to your heartbeat through the stethoscope.
There are some drawbacks to the digital monitor. Body movements or an irregular heart rate can affect its accuracy. Some models only work on the left arm. This can make them hard for some patients to use. Digital monitors are more expensive. They range in price from about $30 to more than $100. They also require batteries.
How do I know if my monitor is accurate or if I am using it correctly?
Once you buy your device, have your doctor check it for accuracy. They should check your monitor once a year. On your own, periodically check the tubing for cracks and leaks. Proper care and storage are necessary. Make sure the tubing is not twisted when you store it. Keep it away from heat.
Ask your doctor or nurse to teach you how to use your blood pressure monitor correctly. This will help you achieve good results in controlling your blood pressure.
How do I measure my blood pressure?
Before you check your blood pressure, you should:
- Wait 30 minutes after eating or using caffeine, alcohol, or tobacco products.
- Go to the bathroom and empty your bladder.
- Rest for 3 to 5 minutes and do not talk.
- Sit in a comfortable position, with your legs and ankles uncrossed and your back supported.
- Elevate your left arm to the level of your heart. Place it on a table or desk and sit still.
- Wrap the cuff around the upper part of your bare arm. The cuff should be smooth and snug. There should be enough room for you to slip one fingertip under the cuff.
- Check the placement of the cuff. The bottom edge of it should be 1 inch above the crease of your elbow.
Below are the steps to take to use an aneroid monitor.
- Put the stethoscope earpieces into your ears. The earpieces should face forward, toward your eyes.
- Place the stethoscope disk on the inside of your elbow.
- Inflate the cuff by squeezing the rubber bulb. Keep squeezing until the pointer on the dial reaches 30 to 40 points higher than your last systolic reading. The systolic reading is the top number of blood pressure. Inflate the cuff at a rapid rate, not just a little at a time. Inflating the cuff too slowly will cause a false reading.
- Slightly loosen the valve on the unit and slowly let some air out of the cuff. Deflate the cuff by 2 to 3 millimeters per second. If you loosen the valve too much, you won’t be able to measure your blood pressure.
- As you let the air out of the cuff, you will begin to hear your heartbeat. Listen carefully for the first sound. Check the blood pressure reading by looking at the pointer on the dial. This number is your systolic pressure.
- Continue to deflate the cuff. Listen to your heartbeat. You will hear your heartbeat stop at some point. Check the reading on the dial. This number is your diastolic pressure.
- Write down the measurement in your record. The systolic pressure goes in front of the diastolic pressure. For example, 120/80.
- If you need to repeat the measurement, wait 2 to 3 minutes before starting.
Below are the steps to take to use a digital monitor.
- Turn the power on to start the unit.
- On the automatic models, the cuff will inflate by itself with a push of a button. On the manual models, you have to inflate the cuff. You do this by squeezing the rubber bulb at a rapid rate.
- After the cuff inflates, the automatic device will slowly let air out.
- Look at the display screen to get your blood pressure reading. It will show your systolic and diastolic pressures. Write down the measurement in your record. The systolic pressure goes in front of the diastolic pressure. For example, 120/80.
- Press the exhaust button to release all of the air from the cuff.
- If you need to repeat the measurement, wait 2 to 3 minutes before starting.
Things to consider
What does my blood pressure reading mean?
Normal blood pressure is 120/80 or lower. High blood pressure is 140/90 or higher. If your blood pressure is between 120/80 and 140/90, you may have something called prehypertension. This means that you are at risk for high blood pressure.
|Normal||Less than 120||Less than 80|
|High blood pressure: Stage 1*||140–159||90–99|
|High blood pressure: Stage 2||160 or higher||100 or over|
*If you have diabetes or kidney disease, high blood pressure ranges may be lower than for other people. Or, if you are older than 65, goal blood pressure may be higher. Talk to your doctor about what is considered high blood pressure for you.
Monitoring your blood pressure at home can be confusing. Below is a list of terms that are helpful to know.
- Blood pressure: The force of blood against the walls of the artery.
- Hypertension: High blood pressure.
- Hypotension: Low blood pressure.
- Brachialartery: A blood vessel that goes from your shoulder to below your elbow. You measure your blood pressure in this artery.
- Systolic pressure: The highest pressure in an artery when your heart is pumping blood to your body.
- Diastolic pressure: The lowest pressure in an artery when your heart is at rest.
- Blood pressure measurement: A calculation of both the systolic and diastolic It is written or displayed with the systolic number first and the diastolic pressure second. For example, 120/80. This is a normal blood pressure reading.
When to see the doctor
The doctor should check your monitor at least once a year. This ensures that the measurements are accurate.
Only a doctor can diagnose you with high blood pressure. Contact your doctor if you have high readings for several days. Be sure to take your blood pressure log with you to the visit.
Hypotension is low blood pressure. This occurs when your systolic pressure is consistently below 90 or is 25 points below your normal reading. Contact your doctor if you have low readings. Hypotension can be a sign of shock, which is life threatening. Call your doctor right away if you are dizzy or lightheaded.
Questions to ask your doctor
- Why do I need to monitor my blood pressure at home?
- How often do I need to measure my blood pressure?
- What type of monitor should I use?
- What do my blood pressure readings mean?
- What is considered a normal blood pressure for me?
- What should I do if my readings are abnormal?
- Are there any lifestyle changes I can make to help manage my blood pressure?
- Do I need to take medicine to manage my blood pressure?
- What other things can affect a blood pressure reading?
American Heart Association: Monitoring Your Blood Pressure at Home
Copyright © American Academy of Family Physicians
This information provides a general overview and may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject.
Normal values of blood pressure – article on the official website of B. Well
Blood pressure is considered high if at rest the diastolic pressure is more than 100 mm Hg. Art. and / or the systolic pressure is more than 160 mm Hg. st .. Long-term maintenance of pressure at this level poses a danger to your health, as it causes damage to blood vessels. If the systolic blood pressure is between 140 and 160 mm Hg. Art. and / or the diastolic pressure is between 90 and 100 mm Hg.Art., we also recommend consulting a doctor. In the future, you need to constantly monitor blood pressure yourself.
You also need to see a doctor if your blood pressure is too low, that is, your systolic pressure is below 100 mm Hg. Art. and / or diastolic blood pressure below 60 mm Hg. Art.
If the blood pressure values are within the normal range, we recommend that you regularly measure the blood pressure level yourself using B. Well blood pressure monitors in order to timely identify deviations and take the necessary measures.If you are undergoing blood pressure stabilization treatment, please take blood pressure measurements regularly at the specified times and record the results. Show the obtained data to the attending physician. In no case, do not independently change the medications prescribed by the doctor and their dosage based on the results obtained.
Important: If the pressure values measured at rest are close to your standard values, and in a state of physical or psychological fatigue you observe excessively increased values, then this may indicate a state of the so-called labile (i.e.e. unstable) hypertension. In case of symptoms of this phenomenon, we recommend that you contact your doctor.
If your diastolic blood pressure is greater than 120 mmHg if measured correctly, you should consult a doctor immediately.
Low blood pressure
Low blood pressure or arterial hypotension is a persistent decrease in blood pressure (systolic below 100 mm Hg and diastolic – below 60 mm Hg.
What is arterial pressure? It is known that the total amount of blood in the human body is 6 – 8% of the body weight.For example, with a weight of 75 kilograms, the total amount of blood is 4.5 – 6 liters. When the heart contracts, blood moves through the blood vessels, presses on the wall of the arteries, and this pressure is called arterial pressure. The magnitude of the pressure is reflected in two numbers. The largest of them is called systolic pressure (it is also called “upper”), which is recorded at the time of contraction of the heart muscle – systole. The smaller value is diastolic (or “lower”) pressure, which is fixed at the moment of relaxation of the heart muscle – diastole.
Causes of arterial hypotension:
- Injuries with large blood loss
- Severe extensive burns
- Heat stroke, shock
- Dehydration as a result of decreased fluid intake and severe infections
- Improper intake of antihypertensive drugs
- Maintaining a standing position for a long time
- Diseases of internal organs (thyroid gland, gastrointestinal bleeding, heart failure, etc. )
Symptoms of arterial hypotension:
- Headache, dizziness
- Nausea and vomiting, thirst
- Increased sweating of the palms and feet, cold and damp skin
- Weakness, increased fatigue
- Blurred vision and
- mental activity
- Feeling of lack of air during inhalation
- Drowsiness and disturbed night sleep
- Rare or frequent heartbeat
Diagnosis of arterial hypotension
- doctor’s examination to clarify complaints and physical examination
- 24-hour blood pressure monitoring (blood pressure measurement with a special device for 24 hours continuously)
- ECG – electrocardiogram (to determine signs of damage to the heart muscle)
- Ultrasound of the heart (to determine the state of the contractile function of the heart muscle)
Treatment of arteries Iial hypotension
can be non-drug and drug.
Non-drug treatment includes:
- Diet with increased salt content. (In older people, an increase in salt intake should be discussed with a doctor.)
- Increase in fluid intake. An adult without a history of chronic diseases is recommended to consume 30 ml of water per 1 kg of body weight per day.
Drug treatment is carried out only as prescribed by a doctor for strict indications.
Self-medication can lead to dire consequences.
Make an appointment with a doctor by phone: +7 (910) 252-88-93 and +7 (4742) 56-33-58
Prices for cardiology services
Measure blood pressure correctly | Science and Life
Again and again we have to return to the topic of hypertension and high blood pressure. The eyelids are too short for men (and recently for women) in Russia. Very often, the cause of strokes and heart attacks is indifference to their health.And here it is important that we do not monitor blood pressure. A bathhouse with a beer or many hours of effort over the beds under the scorching sun for hypertensive patients can turn into a disaster. Only very often people do not even realize that they have high blood pressure. However, you also need to be able to measure it, even with the help of the smartest devices.
What is blood pressure?
1. Indicators of daily monitoring of blood pressure within normal limits.
2.Indicators of daily monitoring of blood pressure in a patient with essential hypertension (increased blood pressure during the day and night).
3. The same indicators after five years of non-systematic treatment.
Determination and classification of blood pressure levels (in mm Hg) in persons over 18 years of age.
The level of blood pressure in the range from 139 (systolic) to 60 mm Hg is considered normal. Art. (diastolic).
Correct position of the cuff and tonometer when measured with aneroid manometer.
Correct pressure measurement with a display device.
German physiologist Johann Dogil used this apparatus in 1880 to study the effect of music on blood pressure.
Blood pressure (BP) – blood pressure in the arteries – one of the main indicators of the cardiovascular system.It can change with many diseases, and keeping it at an optimal level is vital. No wonder any examination of an unwell person is accompanied by the doctor with the measurement of blood pressure.
In healthy people, blood pressure levels are relatively stable, although they fluctuate frequently in everyday life. This also happens with negative emotions, nervous or physical stress, with excessive fluid intake and in many other cases.
Distinguish between systolic, or upper, blood pressure – blood pressure during the period of contraction of the ventricles of the heart (systole).At the same time, about 70 ml of blood is pushed out of them. This amount cannot immediately pass through the small blood vessels. Therefore, the aorta and other large vessels are stretched, and the pressure in them rises, reaching normal 100-130 mm Hg. Art. During diastole, blood pressure in the aorta gradually drops to normal to 90 mm Hg. Art., and in large arteries – up to 70 mm Hg. Art. We perceive the difference in the values of systolic and diastolic pressure in the form of a pulse wave, which is called a pulse.
Increased blood pressure (140/90 mm Hg.Art. and above) is observed in hypertension, or, as it is commonly called abroad, essential hypertension (95% of all cases), when the cause of the disease cannot be established, and with so-called symptomatic hypertension (only 5%), developing as a result of pathological changes in a number organs and tissues: for kidney diseases, endocrine diseases, congenital narrowing or atherosclerosis of the aorta and other large vessels. Arterial hypertension is not without reason called the silent and mysterious killer.In half of the cases, the disease is asymptomatic for a long time, that is, a person feels completely healthy and does not suspect that an insidious disease is already eroding his body. And suddenly, like a bolt from the blue, serious complications develop: for example, stroke, myocardial infarction, retinal detachment. Many of those who survived after a vascular catastrophe remain disabled, for whom life is immediately divided into two parts: “before” and “after”.
Recently I had to hear from a patient a striking phrase: “Hypertension is not a disease, blood pressure is increased in 90% of people.”The figure is, of course, greatly exaggerated and based on rumors. As for the opinion that hypertension is not a disease, this is a harmful and dangerous delusion. It is these patients who, what is especially depressing, the vast majority do not take antihypertensive drugs or are not treated systematically and do not control blood pressure, frivolously risking their health and even their lives.
In Russia, 42.5 million people currently have elevated blood pressure, that is, 40% of the population.Moreover, at the same time, according to a representative national sample of the population of Russia aged 15 years and older, 37. 1% of men and 58.9% of women knew that they had arterial hypertension, and only 5.7% of patients received adequate antihypertensive therapy. men and 17.5% women.
So in our country there is a lot of work to be done to prevent cardiovascular accidents – to achieve control over arterial hypertension. The target program “Prevention and treatment of arterial hypertension in the Russian Federation,” which is currently being carried out, is aimed at solving this problem.
How blood pressure is measured
The diagnosis of “hypertension” is made by a doctor, and he chooses the necessary treatment, but regular monitoring of blood pressure is already a task not only for medical workers, but for every person.
Today, the most common method for measuring blood pressure is based on the method proposed back in 1905 by the Russian physician N. S. Korotkov (see Science and Life No. 8, 1990.). It is associated with listening to sound tones. In addition, the palpation method (probing the pulse) and the method of daily monitoring (continuous pressure control) are used. The latter is very indicative and gives the most accurate picture of how blood pressure changes during the day and how it depends on different loads.
To measure blood pressure by the Korotkov method, mercury and aneroid manometers are used. The latter, as well as modern automatic and semi-automatic devices with displays, are calibrated on a mercury scale before use and periodically checked.By the way, on some of them the upper (systolic) blood pressure is indicated by the letter “S”, and the lower (diastolic) blood pressure is indicated by the letter “D”. There are also automatic devices adapted to measure blood pressure at certain, established intervals (for example, this is how patients can be observed in the clinic). Portable devices have been created for daily monitoring (tracking) of blood pressure in a polyclinic.
Blood pressure fluctuates during the day: it is usually lowest during sleep and rises in the morning, reaching a maximum during the hours of daytime activity. It is important to know that in patients with arterial hypertension, nighttime blood pressure values are often higher than daytime ones. Therefore, for the examination of such patients, daily monitoring of blood pressure is of great importance, the results of which make it possible to clarify the time of the most rational drug intake and ensure full control of the effectiveness of treatment.
The difference between the highest and lowest blood pressure values during the day in healthy people, as a rule, does not exceed: for systolic – 30 mm Hg.Art., and for diastolic – 10 mm Hg. Art. With arterial hypertension, these fluctuations are more pronounced.
What is the norm?
The question of what blood pressure should be considered normal is rather complicated. The outstanding domestic therapist AL Myasnikov wrote: “In essence, there is no clear boundary between the values of blood pressure, which should be considered physiological for a given age, and the values of blood pressure, which should be considered pathological for a given age”. However, in practice, of course, it is impossible to do without certain standards.
The criteria for determining the level of blood pressure, adopted in 2004 by the All-Russian Society of Cardiology, are based on the recommendations of the 2003 European Society of Hypertension, experts of the US Joint National Committee for the Prevention, Diagnosis, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. If systolic and diastolic blood pressure are in different categories, then the assessment is made at a higher rate.In case of deviation from the norm, we are talking about arterial hypotension (blood pressure below 100/60 mm Hg) or arterial hypertension (see table).
How to measure blood pressure correctly?
Blood pressure is most often measured in a sitting position, but sometimes it is necessary to do it while lying down, for example, in seriously ill patients or when the patient is standing (with functional tests). However, regardless of the position of the subject, the forearm of his hand, on which blood pressure is measured, and the apparatus should be at the level of the heart. The lower edge of the cuff is positioned approximately 2 cm above the elbow bend. The cuff that is not filled with air should not squeeze the underlying tissue.
Air is rapidly pumped into the cuff to a level of 40 mm Hg. Art. higher than that at which the pulse on the radial artery disappears due to vascular compression. The phonendoscope is applied to the ulnar fossa at the point of arterial pulsation just below the lower edge of the cuff. The air must be released from it slowly, at a speed of 2 mm Hg. Art. one beat of the pulse.This is necessary in order to more accurately determine the level of blood pressure. The point on the pressure gauge scale at which distinguishable pulse beats (tones) appear is noted as systolic pressure, and the point at which they disappear as diastolic. Changes in the volume of tones, their attenuation are not taken into account. The cuff pressure is reduced to zero. The accuracy of fixing and registering the moments of appearance and disappearance of tones is essential. Unfortunately, when measuring blood pressure, they often prefer to round the results to zero or five, which makes it difficult to evaluate the data obtained.Blood pressure must be recorded with an accuracy of 2 mm Hg. Art.
It is impossible to count the level of systolic blood pressure at the beginning of the fluctuations of the mercury column visible to the eye, the main thing is the appearance of characteristic sounds; during the measurement of blood pressure, tones are heard, which are divided into separate phases.
Phases of tones NS Korotkov
1st phase – HELL, at which constant tones are heard. The sound intensity gradually increases as the cuff deflates.The first of at least two consecutive tones is defined as systolic blood pressure.
2nd phase – the appearance of noise and “rustling” sound with further deflation of the cuff.
3rd phase – the period during which the sound resembles a crunch and increases in intensity.
4th phase corresponds to a sharp ducking, the appearance of a soft “blowing” sound. This phase can be used to determine diastolic blood pressure when tones are heard before the zero division.
5th phase is characterized by the disappearance of the last tone and corresponds to the level of diastolic blood pressure.
But remember: between the 1st and 2nd phases of Korotkoff tones, the sound is temporarily absent. This happens with high systolic blood pressure and continues during the deflation of air from the cuff up to 40 mm Hg. Art.
It happens that the blood pressure level is forgotten during the time between the moment of measurement and the registration of the result. That is why you should record the received data immediately – before removing the cuff.
In cases when it becomes necessary to measure blood pressure on the leg, the cuff is applied to the middle third of the thigh, the phonendoscope is brought to the popliteal fossa at the site of arterial pulsation. The level of diastolic pressure on the popliteal artery is approximately the same as on the brachial artery, and the systolic pressure is 10-40 mm Hg. Art. above.
The blood pressure level can fluctuate even in short periods of time, for example, during measurement, which is associated with a number of factors. Therefore, when measuring it, certain rules must be followed.The room temperature should be comfortable. One hour before measuring blood pressure, the patient should not eat, physically strain, smoke, or be exposed to cold. For 5 minutes before measuring blood pressure, he needs to sit in a warm room, relaxed and without changing the accepted comfortable posture. The sleeves of clothing should be loose enough, it is advisable to bare your hand by removing the sleeve. Blood pressure should be measured twice with an interval of at least 5 minutes; the average value is recorded for two indicators.
In addition, one should remember about the shortcomings in determining blood pressure due to the error of the Korotkov method itself, which in ideal conditions, with a normal blood pressure level, is ± 8 mm Hg.Art. An additional source of errors may be cardiac arrhythmias in the patient, incorrect position of his hand during measurement, poor cuff placement, non-standard or faulty cuff. For adults, the latter should have a length of 30-35 cm in order to wrap around the patient’s shoulder at least once, and a width of 13-15 cm. A small cuff is a common cause of erroneous determination of high blood pressure. However, obese people may require a larger cuff and a smaller one for children.Inaccuracy in measuring blood pressure can also be associated with excessive squeezing of the underlying tissues by the cuff. Overestimation of blood pressure values also occurs when a weakly applied cuff is inflated.
Recently I had to talk to a patient, to whom a nurse in a polyclinic said, having measured blood pressure, that it was elevated. Arriving home, the patient measured blood pressure with his own apparatus and was surprised to note significantly lower values. The typical manifestation of white coat hypertension is explained by emotional reactions (our fear of a doctor’s verdict) and is taken into account when diagnosing arterial hypertension and determining the optimal level of blood pressure during treatment.White coat hypertension occurs quite often – in 10% of patients. It is necessary to create an appropriate environment in the room: it should be quiet and cool. It is unacceptable to conduct extraneous conversations. It is necessary to talk with the examinee calmly, kindly.
And finally … We are far from powerless in the face of an insidious disease. It responds well enough to treatment, as is convincingly evidenced by the large-scale preventive programs to combat arterial hypertension, carried out both in our country and abroad, and which made it possible to reduce the incidence of stroke by 45-50% within five years.All patients received adequate treatment and strictly followed the doctor’s instructions.
If you are over 40, measure your blood pressure systematically. I would like to emphasize once again that arterial hypertension is often asymptomatic, but this makes the disease even more dangerous, causing a “blow from behind”. A device for measuring blood pressure should be in every family, and every adult should learn how to measure it, especially since this does not present significant difficulties.
“The knowledge that is most necessary for human life is the knowledge of oneself.” The famous French writer and philosopher Bernard Fontenelle (1657-1757), who lived for exactly 100 years, came to the same conclusion that is still relevant today.
The author thanks A. Kadykova and M. Prokopovich, the staff of the State Institution of Neurology of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences for their help in illustrating the article.
Hypotonia – Khanty-Mansi District Hospital
Hypotension , as we know, is called low blood pressure , when the systolic (upper) blood pressure is kept at 100 mm Hg.post or below. There are not so few people with such a diagnosis; they often complain of fatigue, anemia, irritability, increased sensitivity to heat and cold. How to deal with hypotension?
When there is nowhere to fall below …
If arterial hypotension (this is what doctors call low blood pressure) is secondary – that is, a “companion” of some major diseases (thyroid gland, adrenal glands, liver, nervous system, anemia …), the main thing will be treated. And if it is primary: the tonometer constantly shows 90/60, or even lower, it is considered that there is nothing wrong with that.Such hypotension is not life-threatening, it does not lead to heart attack or stroke, unlike hypertension. Moreover, according to scientific data, low blood pressure inhibits the development of atherosclerosis and increases life expectancy by an average of 10 years. In general, live and rejoice! Only there is not enough strength to rejoice.
From Where to start?
With hypotension, the regulation of vascular tone is disturbed. For most “primary” hypotonic patients, this is a family trait.However, chronic stress, overload, and lack of movement can also provoke hypotension. And sometimes a constant deficiency of vitamins E, C and group B.
Of course, if low blood pressure does not cause any problems, it is quite possible to live with it. But this happens extremely rarely, and in order to properly help the sufferer, an examination is necessary. First, blood tests, urine tests, ECG tests, and if no special health problems have been identified, then, most likely, you need to contact a cardiologist or neurologist for help.The doctor may prescribe Doppler echocardiography, cardiointervalography (allows you to identify the nature and severity of autonomic disorders).
Low blood pressure is not treated with continuous medication. Yes, and the drugs themselves are few for this. Depending on the symptoms, such as headaches, your doctor may prescribe medications that contain caffeine. But they take pills sporadically. The best option for a hypotonic person is medicinal plants.Lemongrass, leuzea, rhodiolar rosea, ginseng tone up well. The course of treatment is usually 3 weeks, then a break for a month, and the course must be repeated. Sometimes physiotherapy is prescribed – aeroionotherapy (inhalation of air enriched with ozone), galvanic collar, darsonvalization …
With hypotension, vascular training is important: various types of therapeutic showers and baths, hydromassage, bath. And also a contrast shower, but temperature changes should not be too sharp – you need to get used to them gradually.
And of course, movement is necessary – nothing better than this increases muscle and vascular tone.
Raise the tone
Many hypotensive people experience bouts of weakness and drowsiness at the height of the day. In this situation, a simple exercise helps to restore tone. Sit on a chair with your legs apart, arms crossed behind your head. Take a deep breath and slowly bend over to your knees. Straighten up and exhale sharply. Repeat the exercise three times.
The best medicine for hypotension is sleep.And you need to sleep at least 9-11 hours a day!
If possible, try to walk in the air for at least half an hour before going to bed. Do not sit in front of your computer or TV. To fall asleep faster, it is useful to do this procedure at night. Fill the tub with cool water so that it covers your ankles and march in the water for a few minutes. Then rub your feet with a towel until they are warm, put on your woolen socks and go to bed.
A simple breathing exercise, which you need to do 5-7 times without getting out of bed, will help you get an extra boost of energy early in the morning.Lying on your back, inhale deeply, inflating your belly, then exhale slowly – the belly gradually lowers and squeezes inward. Such breathing improves blood flow, raises the tone of the nervous system.
What do we eat?
A hypotonic person starts the morning with coffee. And rightly so – caffeine is a great tonic. What to eat? Not cottage cheese or porridge, but a butter and cheese sandwich – this is the perfect balance of fat and salt that increase blood pressure. Moreover, it is better to choose hard cheese varieties: they contain substances similar to serotonin.For office snacks, nuts and fruits are perfect – the vitamin C they contain helps the vessels work better.
For lunch, be sure to have a meat or fish dish, they contain the proteins you need. Hypotonics may not limit themselves to spicy dishes, spices, which constrict blood vessels and increase blood pressure.
Products containing potassium are very useful – dried apricots, beans, seaweed, prunes, raisins, peas, potatoes and others. Potassium helps prevent vasospasm, keeps pressure at the same level.Drink strong, sweet tea with lemon or a slice of dark chocolate throughout the day. Don’t forget about dairy products in the evening. Try to eat a little, but often – do not overload the body with a large amount of food eaten at one time. This lowers blood pressure.
Fainting? You can warn!
If you have low blood pressure, you are more likely to faint in a stuffy train car or in line. Harbingers of fainting – a sharp headache, heart palpitations, feeling sick … Try to sit down as quickly as possible (do not hesitate to ask to give you a seat), lower your head below your knees, breathe evenly, but not deeply.And take your time to get up when you feel better. Relax for half an hour.
90 155 90 000 3.2. Assessment of the dynamics of indicators of the functional state / ConsultantPlus
At the beginning and at the end of the shift in children, blood pressure, heart rate in 1 minute, vital capacity of the lungs are measured.
The numbering of the sub-clauses is given in accordance with the official text of the document.
4.2.1. To assess the functional state of the cardiovascular system, the “double product” index (DP) is calculated:
HR is the heart rate;
SBP – systolic blood pressure at rest.
The lower the DP at rest, the higher the maximum aerobic capacity and the level of somatic health.
Wellness will be considered effective when the DP indicator by the end of the shift decreases.
Examples of assessing the dynamics of the “double product” indicator:
1. Nikolay I.
Beginning of the shift: HR – 72 beats / min., BP – 118/72 mm Hg. Art.
DP = 72 x 118/100 = 85
End of shift: HR – 71 bpm, BP – 110/70 mm Hg. Art.
DP = 68 x 110/100 = 78.The value of the indicator has decreased.
Positive dynamics – 2 points.
2. Ira P.
Beginning of the shift: HR – 69 bpm, BP – 115/62 mm Hg. Art.
DP = 69 x 115/100 = 79
End of shift: HR – 75 beats / min., BP – 114/65 mm Hg. Art.
DP = 78 x 114/100 = 85.5. The value of the indicator has increased.
Negative dynamics – 0 points.
3. Victor I.
Beginning of the shift: heart rate – 75 bpm, blood pressure – 120/64 mm Hg. Art.
DP = 75 x 120/100 = 90.
End of shift: heart rate – 79 bpm, blood pressure – 114/67 mm Hg. Art.
DP = 78 x 115/100 = 90. The value of the indicator has not changed.
Lack of dynamics – 1 point.
3.2.2. To assess the functional capabilities of the respiratory system, the indicator of external respiration is determined – the vital capacity of the lungs (VC).
VC measurement is performed using an air or water spirometer: the subject takes the deepest possible breath through his mouth, tightly wraps the mouthpiece of the spirometer with his lips and exhales vigorously to the end, excluding exhalation through the nose (it is advisable to put a clamp on the subject’s nose).The procedure is carried out 2 – 3 times with the registration of the best result.
Improvement will be considered effective when, by the end of the shift, the initial value of VC will increase by 100 ml or more, which will indicate an improvement in the functional state. A decrease in the initial VC value by 100 ml or more will be considered a negative trend. Indicators that do not meet these requirements should be considered as a lack of dynamics.
Examples of assessing the dynamics of the VC indicator
Beginning of the shift: VC = 2100 ml.
End of shift: YEL = 2250 ml. VC increased by 150 ml.
Positive dynamics – 2 points.
2. Ira P.
Start of shift: VC = 3200 ml.
End of shift: YEL = 3250 ml. The increase in VC is less than 100 ml.
Lack of dynamics – 1 point.
3. Victor I.
Start of shift: VC = 2900 ml.
End of shift: VC = 2780 ml. VC decreased by more than 100 ml
Negative dynamics – 0 points.
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Raise the pole for me. What are the ways to increase blood pressure with hypotension? | Healthy life | Health
Hypotension is the name of a condition in which a person always has a blood pressure below normal values. Today, doctors take a pressure of 120/80 mm Hg as a normal point. Art. And if the numbers are constantly lower, they talk about hypotension.
Generally, doctors classify hypotension as a condition in which the upper pressure drops below 100, and the lower – below 70.The main danger of this condition is the fact that in this case there is a lack of oxygen supplied to the brain and all internal organs and systems. The main danger is represented by pressure indicators at the level of 80 to 60 – here very quickly a person becomes worse, fainting begins, a sudden drop in pressure can even cause a coma.
In addition, hypotension is fraught with stroke due to insufficient blood supply and nutrition to the brain. The critical value at which a lethal outcome occurs is called an indicator of 50 mm Hg.ist. As doctors note, in this case, irreversible changes begin in the brain. In addition, it should be understood that low pressure negatively affects the entire lifestyle of a person. Hypotensives are physically weaker, get tired more often, etc. However, there are several different options for how you can slightly increase the pressure readings in order to feel more comfortable. Nikolay Petrov , a doctor-therapist of the highest category of the Clinical Diagnostic Center “Medintsentr” (a branch of the GlavUpDK under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia), told AiF.ru about what will allow to correct the situation and improve the state of health of the hypotonic.
The level of blood pressure for each person is individual: for someone the norm is 120/80, for someone – 100/70, for someone – 90/60. Normal pressure is the pressure at which a person feels good. If a person feels, for example, weakness, fatigue, dizziness, loss of balance or blurred vision, then this may be symptoms of low blood pressure.
With low blood pressure, first of all, it is necessary to follow the diet: eat regularly, at least five times a day, in small portions.Consume a sufficient amount of pure water for the normal functioning of the body.
There are many ways to raise blood pressure. So, salty and spicy dishes accelerate blood circulation, tone up the vascular system. However, in people with chronic kidney disease, this method does not always lead to the desired result and can cause complications. Caffeinated drinks help maintain normal blood pressure: natural coffee and black tea (up to three cups a day, if there are no contraindications to this).The use of sweets (chocolate, sweet pastries) at low pressure normalizes blood sugar and activates metabolic processes. Fruits and vegetables (pomegranate, currants, citrus fruits, bananas, raspberries, herbs, carrots, spinach, dill, celery, beets) saturate the body with vitamins and increase immunity.
Need Fatter Food?
Fatty meat and fish replenish the lack of nutritional fat in the body by increasing blood cholesterol. At the same time, it is important to understand that high cholesterol levels are harmful to the body, so moderation should be observed in the use of fatty foods (as well as salty ones).Fats and amino acids contained in nuts and dried fruits are useful for stimulating the brain function: peanuts, walnuts and hazelnuts, cashews, dried apricots and prunes.
High effect and natural remedies
Traditional medicine offers many effective recipes for hypotension, which are based on natural ingredients of plant origin. Thus, ginseng root extract contains a whole range of nutrients and vitamins that improve the functioning of the brain and cardiovascular system.The root of Eleutherococcus, a plant growing in Russia, has similar medicinal properties. Eleutherococcus is an adaptogen: it helps the body withstand stress and adapts it to environmental conditions. Eleutherococcus extract increases the tone and defenses of the body, gives strength and improves mood, protects against the negative effects of external factors. It should be borne in mind that herbal preparations, like all others, have contraindications, therefore, before use, you should consult with a specialist.
Applying a towel soaked in cold water to the head tones up the blood vessels in the brain, therefore, it can increase blood pressure to some extent.
It is worthwhile to understand that in attempts to increase your pressure, you must not overdo it. For example, you shouldn’t practice all of the options at the same time. After all, a sharp jump in blood pressure can lead to an even greater deterioration in a person’s condition and the risk of his premature death, since the vessels simply do not have time to rebuild and respond properly.Therefore, the approach to solving the problem of constantly low pressure must be carefully. It is best to consult with your doctor about the optimal treatment tactics – then the result will be more predictable, effective and accurate. Self-medication often causes serious problems in the body.
90,000 The doctor told how to reduce blood pressure without drugs – Rossiyskaya Gazeta
May 17 – World Hypertension Day. According to statistics, among people over 18 years old in Russia, about 40 million suffer from this disease.The chief therapist of the Moscow Department of Health, the head of the Department of Internal Medicine and General Physiotherapy of the Russian National Research Medical University named after V.I. NI Pirogova, Doctor of Medical Sciences Grigory Arutyunov.
Why is hypertension dangerous?
Grigory Arutyunov: The insidiousness of this disease is that an increase in blood pressure accelerates the development of atherosclerosis, increases the risk of cerebrovascular accident (strokes – approx.ed.) and myocardial infarction.
In the modern world, a person consumes too much salt (the recommended daily intake is 6 g, the average Muscovite consumes more than 14 g per day), too little fresh vegetables and fruits (less than 400 g per day). Sleep disorders, obesity, physical inactivity (the vast majority of people do not withstand the generally accepted norms of adequate physical activity: walking at a speed of 3-6 km per hour for 35-40 minutes at least 5 times a week), diabetes mellitus, poorly controlled cholesterol levels are increasingly common.The combination of these risk factors leads to accelerated biological aging and the development of cardiovascular diseases.
Who is at risk?
Grigory Arutyunov: Hypertension is much more common in people over 60 years old. This disease is traditionally more susceptible to people with overweight, disturbed sleep, excess salt intake. You can not discount the professional hazards associated with the shift nature of work, frequent change of time zones, etc.
There are also more young people with hypertension. According to the ESSE-RF study, the prevalence of arterial hypertension in the age group of 25-34 years among men is 21.6%, among women – 7.9%; in the age group 35-44 years, among men – 34.9%, among women – 19.1%. At the same time, the increased cholesterol level among people over 25 years old was 52.6%.
How can a person understand that he has hypertension? How much is normal pressure?
Grigory Arutyunov: Blood pressure levels are linked to age.Hypertensive patients are divided into three groups. The first one is young – up to 65 years old. Here the target level of systolic (also called “upper” – editor’s note) blood pressure is below 130 mm Hg. Art., but above 120 mm Hg. Art.
In the age group “elderly hypertensive” – 65-80 years old – the “upper” pressure should be below 140 mm Hg. Art., but above 130 mm Hg. Art .. The same level is maintained for hypertensive patients over 80 years old.
The level of diastolic (popularly – “lower” – ed.) Blood pressure should be lower than 80 mm Hg.Art., but not lower than 70 mm Hg. Art.
Blood pressure levels are also linked to concomitant diseases: diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, condition after a stroke, etc. This is a more complex gradation, since until 2018 the level of 140/90 mm Hg was considered the border. Art.
How often do you need to check your heart health?
Grigory Arutyunov: “Heart health” is an incorrect term. It is necessary to control risk factors: cholesterol levels, blood pressure levels, fight smoking, control body weight, know and control fasting glucose levels.
It is interesting that among men 25-34 years old, an increased level of glucose occurs in 2% of cases, and in the age group 55-64 years old, an increased level of glucose is 10.3%.
It is very important to know that a “normal” electrocardiogram (ECG) does not mean that a person has a healthy heart. Why? The ECG registers post-infarction changes, as well as rhythm and conduction disturbances. But only.
A full-fledged cardiological check-up (clinical examination, condition check – ed.) Includes a wide range of examinations that must be prescribed by a specialist.As a rule, this is not only ECG, but also echocardiography (ultrasound examination of the heart), determination of blood lipid profile, glucose level, examination of peripheral arteries, etc.
Does hypertension have non-classical symptoms that should alert you?
Grigory Arutyunov: There are no “classical” and “nonclassical” symptoms of hypertension. It is important that high blood pressure may not be felt for a long time. Feeling well does not mean that your blood pressure is normal.An unambiguous answer can be obtained only after measuring blood pressure on two hands. Sometimes it also needs to be measured on the legs (ankle): this allows the doctor to identify peripheral arterial lesions in the early stages.
What to do if you get hypertension?
Grigory Arutyunov: First of all, do not self-medicate. It is necessary to contact a professional who will prescribe the course. Take the drugs selected by him for life, control daily pressure and cholesterol levels, blood glucose, strictly observe the sleep, rest and work regimen.It is important that control of the blood pressure level allows in a significant percentage of cases to avoid severe vascular catastrophes, first of all – cerebrovascular accidents (strokes – ed.).
How to reduce blood pressure without medication?
Grigory Arutyunov: Weight control, decrease in calorie intake, in a number of cases methods of surgical treatment (bariatric surgery) are used. Moderate physical activity and a decrease in salt intake will also help (a decrease in the daily dose of salt by 1 g leads to a decrease of 1 mm Hg.Art.), an increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables up to 400 g per day (4 or more meals per day), a sharp decrease in alcohol consumption, smoking cessation, sleep control. Few people know that snoring and interruption of breathing during sleep (sleep-apnea) lead to an increase in nighttime blood pressure. Moreover, all these measures should be considered only in conjunction with drug correction.
It is also very important to include the whole family in the treatment process, since the support of the hypertensive patient during weight loss is of great importance for the success of the treatment.
By the way
The Moscow Healthcare Department from May 17 to May 31 will hold a large-scale action timed to coincide with World Hypertension Day. Its participants will be able to measure blood pressure, learn about risk factors for the development of arterial hypertension and receive recommendations from specialists. A complete list of organizations taking part in the action can be found on the website of the Moscow Department of Health.
For example, from 17 to 24 May in all Moscow centers of state services “My Documents” Muscovites will have access to a “new service” – blood pressure measurement.Throughout the day, each visitor will be able to learn about the risk factors for the development of arterial hypertension, measure blood pressure and receive specialist recommendations.
In the summer, medical tents will be deployed in Moscow parks, which will allow anyone who wants to receive information about their health and blood pressure level.
The vascular network in Moscow is a complex of 29 vascular centers that specialize in providing medical care to patients who have suffered myocardial infarction and stroke.In case of heart attacks, it takes no more than an hour from the moment the ambulance arrives to the operation. Thanks to the automated system “Inpatient”, ambulance doctors can see in which hospital angiographic operating rooms are currently free. The hospital will find out about the patient in advance and prepare the operating room. The operation to open the artery is completed on average 38 minutes after the person is admitted to the hospital.