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Take adderall with food: How to Make Adderall Last Longer and Stronger – a Guide


How to Make Adderall Last Longer and Stronger – a Guide

Posted February 26, 2020 by Michael Chamberlain – See Editorial Guidelines

It’s a well-known fact Adderall works well for patients to ease conditions like ADHD, depression, and so on.

So, patients often expect this medication to stay in the system longer to help keep their day to day life going. But for this, patients can’t rely on increasing the dosage because that could lead to abuse, addiction, and other related risks.

So, what can you do to make Adderall last longer?

Well, in this article, we’ll provide a clear understanding of how to make Adderall last longer and stronger within your system. But first, let’s give you a quick rundown list to get you started, then we’ll give you some more details.

How to Make Adderall last Longer and Stronger? The following are methods to help make Adderall last longer and stronger in your system.

  • Avoid citrus juices when on Adderall
  • Eat a good breakfast before taking Adderall 
  • Avoid taking vitamin C products or food in the evening 
  • Maintain a good and healthy sleep pattern 
  • Stay hydrated 
  • Consider vitamin supplements 

Adderall is a controlled substance, and taking it can come with risks. However, one common side effect or perhaps a risk of Adderall is abuse, addiction, tolerance, and crash.

How Long Does Adderall Stay In Your System? 

How long Adderall stays in our system varies from one person to another, depending on different factors.

The active ingredient in Adderall is dextroamphetamine. The half-life of this medication is nearly 10 hours. Meaning half of the effectiveness or strength of this medication will start to reduce after approximately 10 hours. Or more specifically, half of the active ingredient dextroamphetamine will be removed from the system beyond this point.

This medication peaks at about three hours. However, again the hours of peaking and how long this medication can remain in the system will be significantly affected by different factors.

Factors like body type, age, health, and even the metabolism rate will affect how quickly the drug is broken down. Other conditions like the size of each dose and how often a patient takes Adderall decides how long the drug will stay in the system.  

More importantly, a person’s body mass index (BMI) will heavily decide how long the effectiveness of Adderall lasts. Usually, people with high BMI will have a slower metabolism, meaning the drug will break down more slowly in the system, making it last longer, and therefore, prolonging the effects.

We should also mention that in general, for any medication, a high metabolism will reduce the duration and intensity of the drug in the system. This is because high drug metabolism makes it easier for the drug to be eliminated from the system.

So, before getting into how to make Adderall last longer, we should make it very clear that increasing the dosage will not make this drug last longer.

Increasing Adderall dosage, or any drug dosage, beyond what is prescribed is bordering on drug abuse, and that can potentially lead to harmful effects. When it comes to Adderall, a higher dosage will build up this drug in the system, increasing the time it would take to metabolize and start working.

How to make Adderall last longer in the system

The below methods are some common and effective ways to make Adderall last longer and stronger. However, this will likely vary depending on different patients, their health conditions, and so on.

Avoid Citrus Juices 

It’s just easier to avoid drinking any citrus juices altogether. The acid in citrus juices, mainly those from oranges and grapefruits, will disturb the absorption rate of Adderall medications. It mainly affects the absorption rate of short-acting ADHD medications like Adderall. The same is likely to happen even for long-acting ADHD medications too.

This is because the citrus juice blocks the drug from quickly getting into the bloodstream, reducing the absorption rate. This will then eventually diminish the strength of the medicine within the system.

But again, as we mentioned earlier, this works differently for different patients, but the general advice is to steer clear of citrus juice.

Breakfast first

First things first, breakfast is the first and foremost meal one should consume to make Adderall last longer.

Having breakfast provides and delivers enough food in the system to help the drug work better. Having the medication on an empty stomach will likely cause acidic reactions in the system, especially with a controlled substance like Adderall.

But with the trends moving from breakfast toward a brunch lifestyle, even if one skips or misses the breakfast, it’s good to have something before taking Adderall.

Breakfast doesn’t have to be a huge meal. Eating a small and healthy meal would also work fine. Foods like bananas, almonds, and even some toast would be adequate.

Avoid vitamin C’s in the evening

When taking Adderall doses in the evening, avoid taking vitamin C products or any food containing high levels of vitamin C.

This is because vitamin C products will likely reduce the absorption rate of the drug, interrupting the strength and long-lasting features of the drug. And it’s also good practice to not have any other food for around 30-60 minutes after taking Adderall.

This is because having any food just after the medication will likely interfere with the process of the drug within the system, making it less effective in terms of strength and the number of active hours it will provide.

Healthy Sleep Patterns 

Sleep is all you need for the drug to last longer in every way possible. Although getting good sleep may seem impossible in this busy world, rest is the core of making the best of many medications.

Sleep provides enough time for the medication to be absorbed calmly and consistently. This increases its ability to last longer because of less energy consumption while sleeping. 

So, sleeping, and more importantly, ensuring you have a good sleep pattern can make Adderall last longer and stronger within your system.

Stay Hydrated

Medications like Adderall are diuretics, which means the chemicals in the drug make you pee more often. This can lead to dehydration, making hydration crucial. For any medications to be absorbed into the system and work at their best, water is essential.

This is because dehydration causes brain fog. This is when the brain will find it difficult to focus and concentrate, not because of the medication, but because of dehydration. 

Although this may still keep the drug working within the system, it would not be possible to get the benefit of this medication when one experiences brain fog. So, hydrating oneself is vital to help enhance the effectiveness of Adderall. 

Vitamin Supplements

Certain vitamin supplements can improve the long-lasting strength and overall effectiveness of Adderall. Rather than naming any here, we’d recommend consulting your doctor on what vitamin supplements can be used while taking Adderall.

Again, before taking more drugs, make sure your body is well versed with enough proteins, healthy fats, and vitamins through proper food intake and diet. If this is unachievable for you, then you should consider opting for other vitamin supplements through appropriate doctor consultation. 

To Close

We hope this has been helpful in how you can make Adderall more effective for your condition. If you are struggling to find the treatment for your condition, then consult your doctor. 

The team at Prescription Hope knows that affording your prescription medications can be extremely difficult. Prescription Hope is a nationally recognized program that utilizes patient assistance programs to provide you with the medication you need at a set, affordable cost. Enroll with us to see if you are eligible to pay just $50 a month for each of your medications.

Adderall Side Effects that are Common

SAN DIEGO, May 08, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — If you have any of the symptoms below, consult your doctor but note that these symptoms might go away within a few days once your body gets used to Adderall. If Adderall abuse is present on you or someone you know don’t hesitate to call a drug addiction counselor at TheRecover. com

Chest Pains: Adderall is a stimulant that increases Central and Peripheral Nervous System activity. So, once you take an Adderall pill, your brain will start to become stimulated at a faster pace. This also stimulates the brain area that is responsible for your heart rate. Some people may feel this increase in heart rate as chest pains.

Insomnia: Adderall should be taken in the morning. Taking stimulants later in the day would cause insomnia or poor sleep. You might find yourself rolling around at night being unable to fall asleep. This is similar to drinking coffee an hour before bedtime if you have never taken Adderall before.

Loss of Appetite: Stimulants decrease hunger. You might not want to eat for awhile on Adderall but it is recommended that you eat a meal before you take your first pill. This will decrease nausea.

Nausea: Taking Adderall with a meal decreases nausea. The reason why you are feeling nausea is that, because Adderall is making your digestive system process food faster, you are feeling uncomfortable at the rate food is being digested. Or, if you have not eaten, you are feeling uncomfortable since your digestive system is working overtime with nothing to digest.

Throwing Up: Some people can not stand the nausea and throw up.

Moody: Adderall, in some people. causes strong shifts in emotions. Some people become easily annoyed or aggravated.

Flat Affect: Adderall is known to cause robotic like affect in people. The reason for this is unknown but some people are just less emotional on Adderall.

Euphoria: To some, Adderall causes a burst of euphoria during the first few hours. This is one of the reasons it is used as a recreational drug; but, since Adderall has such severe ‘come downs,’ it is not as popular as drugs like Ecstasy or cocaine.

Frequent Urination: Since your body is working faster on Adderall, drink more water. Your body will go threw water faster. Not drinking enough water on Adderall has been stated to cause kidney stones.

Jaw Clenching: Adderall causes some individuals to have a tight jaw. This might be a sign that your dosage is too high.

Chewing: Adderall also causes others to chew their teeth. Some people call this grinding. This usually happens after the climax.

Contact Info:
Author: Kevin Leonard
Organization: TheRecover.com
Address: 27420 Jefferson Ave, Temecula, CA 92590
Phone: (888) 510-3898

A photo accompanying this announcement is available at http://resource.globenewswire.com/Resource/Download/90ae2051-2645-4300-8b69-9a67929020d7 

Effect of food on early drug exposure from extended-release stimulants: results from the Concerta, Adderall XR Food Evaluation (CAFE) Study

Stimulant therapy is the mainstay of treatment for children, adolescents and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Once-daily, extended-release oral formulations offer long acting control of symptoms by modifying drug delivery and absorption. In particular, consistency in early drug exposure is important for symptom control during school or work hours. Because these once-daily formulations are usually taken in the morning, the timing of the doses with breakfast is important. This study compared the effect of a high-fat breakfast on early drug exposure from a morning dose of two extended-release stimulant formulations: the osmotic-controlled OROS tablet of methylphenidate HCI (CONCERTA) and the capsule containing extended-release beads of mixed amphetamine salts (ADDERALL XR). The study had a single-dose, open-label, randomised, four-treatment, crossover design in which healthy subjects received either 36 mg CONCERTA or 20 mg ADDERALL XR in the morning after an overnight fast or a high-fat breakfast. Serial blood samples were collected over 28h to determine plasma concentrations of methylphenidate and amphetamine. The food effect on early drug exposure and the pharmacokinetic profiles up to 8 h after dosing of the two extended-release stimulants were directly compared using partial area (AUC(p4h), AUC(p6h) and AUC(p8h)) fed/fasted ratios. Amphetamine concentrations were markedly lower when the subjects had eaten breakfast, resulting in lower early drug exposures (p < 0.0001). By contrast, methylphenidate concentrations over the same 8 h were unaffected by breakfast, providing consistent levels of early drug exposure. Therefore, as a child’s or adult’s eating pattern varies, methylphenidate exposure over the first 8 h would be expected to have less day-to-day variation compared with amphetamine exposure. The osmotic-controlled OROS tablet provides a reliable and consistent delivery of methylphenidate HCI, independent of food, for patients with ADHD.

Can Certain Foods Impact ADHD Medication?


Over the years there has been conflicting information on how, why and even if, certain foods or drinks impact the effectiveness of ADHD medications. For example, does a breakfast high in fat make medications less effective? In this post, I will try to clear up some of the confusion surrounding whether what you eat changes how your medication works.

Methylphenidate-Based Medications Ritalin, Concerta, Focalin, Metadate, Methylin)

It is recommended that short acting medications, such as Ritalin be taken between 30 and 45 minutes before eating in order for someone to receive the full effect of the medication.

The prescribing information for Concerta, however, indicates it can be taken with or without food.

A study released in 2002 compared the effects of Concerta with Adderall after children had eaten a breakfast high in fat. The study, which was completed by McNeil Labs (the manufacturer of Concerta) showed that high-fat breakfasts had no impact on the effectiveness of Concerta but did slow down the absorption of Adderall.

Amphetamine-Based Medications (Adderall, Adderall XR, Desoxyn, Dexedrine, DextroStat, Vyvanse)

Although Adderall XR prescribing information indicates that this medication can be taken with or without food, certain foods do often impact the absorption, and therefore the effectiveness of amphetamine based medications.

For example, acidic foods decrease the absorption of the medication, reducing the medication’s effect.

Acidic foods tend to make urine more acidic, which increases the rate the medication is released from the body, decreasing the effectiveness.

Some foods that acidify the urine include:

  • Cranberries

  • Dairy Products, such as cheese, milk and butter

  • Oils, such as canola, corn, olive, safflower, sunflower, sesame

  • Grains, such as rice, wheat, corn, oats

  • Nuts such as cashews, peanuts, pecans, walnuts

  • Vitamin C

On the other hand, when the urine is more alkaline, the medication is not eliminated from the body as quickly and therefore increasing the effectiveness of the medication.

Some foods that make the urine more alkaline are:

  • Vegetables, such as asparagus, broccoli, cauliflower, cucumbers, peas, squash

  • Fruits, such as apples, bananas, cherries, grapes, grapefruit, oranges, lemons, pineapples, berries, tropical fruits, watermelon

  • Protein foods, such as, eggs, chicken, yogurt, almonds

The National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) states, “The absorption of amphetamine medications can be reduced if strong organic acids are present in the stomach at the time of taking amphetamine medications.

The following foods should be avoided for 1 hour before and after taking an amphetamine medication: citrus fruit, citrus juices, sodas/carbonated beverages, lemonade, Gatorade, vitamins/food and food supplements containing vitamin C.”

Guanfacine (Intuniv)

The prescribing information for Intuniv indicates it should not be taken with high-fat meals as this can increase the level of medication in the blood.

This medication can be taken with or without foods (other than foods with a high content of fat).

Atomoxetine (Strattera)

Strattera prescribing information indicates it can be taken with or without food. The effectiveness of the medication can decrease the rate of absorption, therefore decreasing the effectiveness.

Because ADHD medications can cause appetite suppression, some doctors will recommend that the medication be taken about an hour after breakfast, especially if the children are not gaining weight or have been losing weight because of loss of appetite.


“Adderall”, Update 2008, March, Julie A. Dopheide, Pharm.D., BCPP, National Alliance on Mental Illness

“Adderall XR Medication Guide”, Revised 2007, March, Shire U.S. Inc

“Concerta Prescribing Information”, Revised 2009, Nov, McNeil Pediatrics

“High-Fat Diet May Affect Absorption of Once-Daily ADHD Medications”, 2002, August, Jim Rosack, Psychiatric News, Vol 37, No. 15, Page 19, American Psychiatric Association

“Intuniv Prescribing Information”, 2009, Shire Pharmaceuticals, Shire US, Inc

“Ritalin, Ritalin SR Prescribing Information”,
Revised 2009, April, Novartis Pharmaceutical Corporation

“Strattera Medication Guide”, 2009, July 23, Eli Lilly and Company

Meet Our Writer

Eileen Bailey

Eileen Bailey is an award-winning author of six books on health and parenting topics and freelance writer specializing in health topics including ADHD, Anxiety, Sexual Health, Skin Care, Psoriasis and Skin Cancer. Her wish is to provide readers with relevant and practical information on health conditions to help them make informed decisions regarding their health care.

Don’t eat this, if you take that

Just a spoonful …

Chances are, seven out of 10 adults like you take at least one prescription medication, and more than half of you take two prescribed medications. Also, 20 percent of adult Americans take at least five prescription medications per day.

Antibiotics are the most commonly prescribed drugs, followed by antidepressants and opioids. Nearly 75 million American adults take blood pressure medications. And cholesterol-lowering drugs, primarily statins, are also prescribed to more than 28 percent of American adults. For people younger than 19, vaccines, anti-asthma drugs, and antibiotics are the most commonly prescribed medications.

On a per capita basis, the top five states with the highest prescription usage are West Virginia, Kentucky, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana. Michigan ranks in the top 10 when it comes to pharmacy-filled prescriptions.

Drug actions and interactions are variable

As I detailed in a previous Health Yourself column, “Mood Swing,” drug effects on any one person may be different than expected. Persons taking more than one medication need to be aware of any interactions between them (i.e., drug-drug interactions). Specific foods, beverages, or dietary supplements also impact medications (nutrient/food-drug interactions), and certain medications interact with certain diseases a person may have (disease-drug interactions).

Children who take Adderall for ADHD, for example, should avoid taking it with apple juice or orange juice in the morning.A drug interaction of any kind represents a situation in which a substance, condition, or a person’s disorders can affect a drug’s performance. In some cases, a drug’s effects may increase or decrease; an interaction may even produce a new or different drug effect. Most food-drug interactions cause serious side effects, unbeknownst to the individual consuming either one.

Food-drug interactions represent an important and widely under-recognized reported source of medication “errors.”

Known food-drug interactions

The interaction of foods and drugs is a common hidden problem little understood by patients and—in some cases—their physicians. The interactions between natural products and drugs are based on the same pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles as drug-drug interactions. For example, several fruits and berries have recently been shown to contain agents that affect drug-metabolizing enzymes.

Grapefruit is the most well-known example, but also oranges, pomelo (citrus fruit similar to a grapefruit), and star fruit contain agents that inhibit the most important enzyme in drug metabolism.

Here are some specific examples of food-drug interactions of which we should all be aware, especially if we are taking these certain medicines or have these specific conditions.

High-potassium foods

Foods high in potassium, like bananas, oranges, and leafy greens, interact with medications used to lower blood pressure (ACE inhibitors such as Capoten, Vasotec, and Lisinopril). Too much potassium can cause an irregular heartbeat and heart palpitations. High potassium levels can also interfere with kidney function, in those with chronic kidney disease.

Kale and other greens

Kale and other greens, including broccoli, cabbage, spinach, and brussels sprouts, are rich in vitamin K. High levels of vitamin K can reduce anti-blood-clotting effects of blood thinner medications like warfarin (Coumadin and Jantoven).

Grapefruit and other fruit juices

One of the most well-known food–drug interactions is grapefruit juice and reductase inhibitors, commonly known as statins, used to lower cholesterol and blood fat. Grapefruit juice, in large quantities (32 oz. or more per day), can inhibit enzymes that increase blood levels of statin drugs. Not all statins exhibit this interaction, however. The drugs most often affected include atorvastatin (Lipitor),simvastatin (Zocor),and lovastatin (Mevacor).Other statins, rosuvastatin (Crestor),pravastatin (Pravachol),and fluvastatin (Lescol),are less affected.

When grapefruit juice is consumed in combination with these drugs, there is an increased risk of statin-related side effects, most notably muscle toxicity, muscle pain and weakness, and worsening of asthma symptoms. There are other effects, too.

While the statins receive the most public attention for their interaction with grapefruit juice, other cholesterol-lowering drugs like calcium channel blockers used to lower blood pressure exhibit similar interactions with grapefruit juice. The calcium antagonist that is the most affected by fruit juice is felodipine (Plendil), demonstrating as high as a 200 percent increase in its effects.

Other drugs that directly interact with fruit juices, particularly grapefruit juice, include estrogen-containing oral contraceptives. Popular anti-anxiety disorder drugs like diazepam (Valium), temazepam (Restoril), and midazolam (Versed) also have a negative effect with the introduction of grapefruit juice.

Dairy products/calcium

In contrast to grapefruit juice, dairy products high in calcium may cause a chemical interaction; this is different from the metabolic interaction that occurs with fruit juices. Calcium ions bond with different drugs, decreasing absorption and overall effectiveness. Bread and other foods enriched with calcium exhibit similar interactions. Bisphosphonates, like Fosamax,that are used to prevent and treat osteoporosis are especially problematic when taken with dairy products.

Protein-Rich Foods

Protein-rich foods can interfere with, or potentiate the absorption of various medications, particularly Propranolol a beta-blocker drug used to treat high blood pressure, chest pain (angina), uneven heartbeats (atrial fibrillation), and performance anxiety.

Consuming a high-protein meal and concurrently taking propranolol can increase the beta-blocker’s bioavailability. When propranolol is taken with protein-rich foods, there is an increase in bioavailability up to 53 percent. Significant and notable side effects can include nausea, abdominal pain, constipation, and increases in liver and kidney problems.

Fiber-rich foods

Fiber works to bind drugs, resulting in their decreased concentration. For example, patients with diabetes who try to decrease their cholesterol levels by eating high-fiber foods after taking Metformin (the most widely used medication for diabetes) might be worsening their diabetic control since metformin blood levels are decreased when taken with large amounts of fiber (>30 g/d) in many individuals.

Foods containing Vitamin C

Vitamin C and foods and juices fortified with vitamin C and other vitamins can interact with different amphetamine-containing drugs like Adderall, commonly used to treat ADHD, narcolepsy, and athletic performance.

Vitamin C-containing foods consumed concurrently with Adderall may impair gastrointestinal absorption of food. Children who take Adderall for ADHD should avoid taking these drugs with apple or orange juice in the morning.

Tyramine-containing foods

Tyramine is a chemical found in strong, aged cheeses, cured meats, and some beans and soy products. Tyramine exhibits significant interaction with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) used to treat depression, bacterial infections, and Parkinson’s disease. Interactions include spikes in blood pressure, severe headaches, fast heartbeat, chest pains, nausea, vomiting, and changes in vision.

Black licorice

Licorice derives from the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra. The licorice plant is a herbaceous perennial legume native to southern Europe and parts of Asia.

Interestingly, much of the black licorice sold in the United States doesn’t contain any actual licorice from the licorice plant. Instead, manufacturers add anise to the candy to give it a licorice-like flavor. Real black licorice candy interacts with digoxin (Lanoxin),which is used to treat heart failure and abnormal heart rhythms.

The licorice root can cause pseudoaldosteronism, a condition of fluid retention from increased sodium retention. The syndrome can cause increased blood pressure, irregular heartbeats, and potentially dangerous heart rhythms as well as muscle weakness and, in severe cases, paralysis.

What to do?

What you eat and drink can affect the way your medications work. Before taking any medication, it is important to know of any possible “food-drug interactions.” We need to keep track of the prescription and over-the-counter medicines we use, in addition to the vitamins, herbal supplements, and other dietary supplements we take. Unexpected side effects often come from unlikely sources.

  • Holbrook, A.M., et al. “Systematic overview of warfarin and its drug and food interactions.” Arch Intern Med. 2005; 165:1095-1106.
  • Leibovich, E.R., et al. “Food-drug interactions: Careful drug selection and patient counseling can reduce the risk in older patients.” Geriatrics. 2004; 59:19-33.
  • Libersa, C.C., et al. “Dramatic inhibition of amiodarone metabolism induced by grapefruit juice.” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2000; 49:373-378.
  • Liedholm, H., et al. “Mechanisms and variations in the food effect on propranolol bioavailability.” European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1990;38:469-475.
  • Rabia, B., et al. “Food-drug interactions.” Oman Medical Journal. 2011; 26(2):77–83.
  • Summers, K.M. “Potential drug-food interactions with pomegranate juice.” Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2006; 40:1472-1473.
  • Wallace, A.W., Amsden, G.W. “Is it really OK to take this with food? Old interactions with a new twist.” Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2202;42:437-443.
  • www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers/buyingusingmedicinesafely/ensuringsafeuseofmedicine/generaluseofmedicine/ucm229033.pdf

I take adderall and have 0 appetite most of the time. Don’t care about food anymore I just want to eat the minimum I can each day. : EatCheapAndHealthy

This is a neat little sub, I think I came from r/churning?

Ok, so I have been on Adderall for about 7 months now and basically I usually have 0 appetite. I take 40 mg every day and throughout the day I find myself not eating at all. I estimate my calorie intake to be at about 1400 every day throughout the week average but it is mostly days of 3-900 and then days of binging and eating a whole pizza. Ever since I started adderall I was able to put a leash on my stress eating and once I started counting calories I realized I was eating in the tune of 3200+ a day.

I would like to stick with 1400 calories which is pretty easy with adderall but the problem I face is that I eat so much unhealthy foods. I honestly don’t care about food at this point and even though I miss eating out all the time I would much rather lose weight. 1400 calories was the lowest MFP would allow for 2 lb a week and I have been “sticking with it” so to speak. I try not to eat out much but when I do its only after a day that I was really low on calories.

Lately I have found myself feeling super tired and dizzy all the time if I do any work at all outside in the sun or even inside if it causes me to break a sweat. I am positive its cause of my eating habits but I just don’t know how to eat right without doing a ton of cooking preparing. To me it is much easier just not eating than making myself food because if I do decide to eat I will just end up getting a cheeseburger for the day.

Do you guys have any tips on what I can eat throughout the day in possibly 1 or 2 meals. I could care less if it is repetitive and honestly that would probably be ideal. I would love to make a food at the beginning of the week that will last me 7 days and just not have to worry about food for the rest of the week. I don’t care about enjoying food anymore I just want to keep my body fueled. I am a pretty picky eater though so if you guys have multiple suggestions that would be awesome 😀 thank you all for your help

EDIT: woah guys lol I am not anorexic. I am not prescribed Adderall for weight loss it is for my ADHD but since appetite loss is a usual side effect I figured I might as well use it to my advantage. I also had really bad impulse eating and I never thought about until I was diagnosed and i never managed to put a cap on until I started adderall. It’s not that I don’t want to eat cause of my figure, I still understand I need food but I just either forget to eat, get too lazy to eat and then eat out, or just power through my hunger if I don’t wanna crack and eat out. I have definitely seen huge changes the way I eat but because I never built the habits of healthy eating I am still struggling to understand that the way I am doing it is unhealthy. Thank you all for your tips they have been very helpful 😀

EDI EDIT: my weight is somewhere around 195. I weighed 215 when I started adderall again 2 mos ago after one month off. I am 5″10 I think and my bmi was like 33+ last time I checked a couple months ago just so you guys can see how it will affect me and where I need to be at. I think I needed to lose 60lb to be at a normal weight for my height and age

How to Get Kids With ADHD to Take Their Medication

Since many kids can’t begin to swallow pills or capsules until they are about 10 years old, it can sometimes be difficult to get a child with ADHD to take their medicine. Unless your child is taking Concerta, which can’t be opened or split because of its special delivery method, there are some tips that will make it easier.

How to Get Kids to Take ADHD Medicine

Talk to your pediatrician if your child has been taking their medicine for a while and is now refusing. That is a separate issue from a newly diagnosed child who is simply having a hard time taking pills.

Here are some tips that work for many parents of children with ADHD who have trouble swallowing pills:

  • Ask your pediatrician for an ADHD medication that can be opened and sprinkled on applesauce or another food such as Adderall XR, Focalin XR, Ritalin LA, and Metadate CD. Vyvanse, a once-daily ADHD medicine, can even be sprinkled in water. In 2021, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved another non-stimulant medication for children and adolescents with ADHD called Qelbree (viloxazine), which can also be opened and sprinkled on applesauce.
  • Consider getting a prescription for Quillivant XR, a long-acting form of Ritalin, which is available as a liquid that your child can just drink. ProCentra, a short-acting liquid form of Dexedrine (dextroamphetamine sulfate), is also available.
  • Consider Daytrana, a Ritalin patch, which can be a good option for kids who can’t swallow pills.
  • See if your pharmacist has a recipe to turn the pill into a liquid. Some people are already doing this with Strattera, but you will likely have to go to a compounding pharmacy to get it done.
  • Consider an orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) such as Adzenys XR-ODT (amphetamine) or Evekeo-ODT (amphetamine sulfate), which can be placed on the tongue and dissolved.
  • Consider a chewable medication such as QuilliChew (methylphenidate hydrochloride).

Certain medications should not be crushed or opened, and in fact, doing so can be dangerous. If you’re not sure if your child’s medication can be taken this way, consult your doctor.

How to Help a Child Swallow Pills

Of course, you could always teach your child to swallow pills, which is not always as difficult as it sounds. Here are a few ideas you could try that will help your child learn:

  • Have your child drink through a straw while the pill is in their mouth. With this method, many kids concentrate on the straw and don’t think about the pill, so it goes down easily.
  • Put a spoonful of applesauce, yogurt, or pudding in their mouth along with the pill and then have them swallow it all together.
  • Have your child chew on a piece of bread or a cookie and then put the pill in their mouth just before they would swallow it.
  • Put the pill under your child’s tongue and then have them drink a glass of water.
  • Have your child practice swallowing smaller things first before moving on to a pill.
  • Put the pill on your child’s tongue and then have them fill their mouth with water so that their cheeks are full and puff out. Then have them swish it all around and then swallow it.

Keep in mind that some kids are very resistant to swallowing pills and don’t learn until they are teens. Others get tired of all of the workarounds they have to do to take their ADHD medicines and learn to swallow pills fairly early.

Dextroamphetamine and Amphetamine | Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

This document, provided by Lexicomp ® , contains all the information you need to know about the drug, including the indications, route of administration, side effects and when you should contact your healthcare provider.

Trade names: USA

Adderall; Adderall XR; Mydayis

Trade names: Canada

ACT Amphetamine XR; Adderall XR; APO-Amphetamine XR; PMS-Amphetamines XR; SANDOZ Amphetamine XR


  • This drug carries a risk of abuse and misuse. This drug can also be habit-forming with prolonged use. Do not use for longer than the time prescribed by your doctor. Use only as directed. Tell your doctor if you have ever abused or depended on any drugs or alcohol. Misuse of this drug can cause heart side effects or even sudden death.

What is this drug used for?

  • Used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
  • Used to treat narcolepsy.
  • This medicinal product can be used for other indications. Consult your doctor.

What should I tell my doctor BEFORE taking this drug?

  • If you are allergic to this drug, any of its ingredients, other drugs, foods or substances. Tell your doctor about your allergy and how it manifested itself.
  • If you or a family member has any of the following health problems: Blood vessel disease, high blood pressure, structural heart disease or other heart problems, or Tourette’s or tics.
  • If you have any of the following health conditions: glaucoma, agitation, anxiety, or overactive thyroid gland.
  • If you have ever had any of the following health problems: drug / drug addiction or stroke.
  • If you have kidney disease.
  • If you are taking any of the following drugs: acetazolamide or sodium bicarbonate.
  • If you have taken a drug for depression or Parkinson’s disease in the past 14 days.These include isocarboxazid, phenelzine, tranylcypromine, selegiline, or rasagiline. An episode of very high blood pressure may occur.
  • If you are taking any of the following drugs: linezolid or methylene blue.
  • If you are breastfeeding. Do not breast-feed while taking this drug.

This list of drugs and diseases that may be adversely associated with this drug is not exhaustive.

Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the medicines you take (both prescription and over-the-counter, natural products and vitamins) and your health problems.You need to make sure that this drug is safe for your medical conditions and in combination with other drugs you are already taking. Do not start or stop taking any drug or change the dosage without your doctor’s approval.

What do I need to know or do while taking this drug?

  • Tell all healthcare providers that you are taking this drug.These are doctors, nurses, pharmacists and dentists.
  • Avoid driving and other activities that require increased attention until you see how this drug affects you.
  • If this drug is taken for a long time or in high doses, its effectiveness may be reduced and a higher dose may be needed to obtain the same effect. The so-called drug tolerance develops. Talk to your doctor if this drug stops working.Do not take the drug in higher doses than your doctor prescribed.
  • If you have taken this drug for several weeks, consult your doctor before stopping it. It may be best to gradually stop taking this medication.
  • You may need to have a heart test before using this drug. If you have any questions, please consult your doctor.
  • This drug may cause high blood pressure.
  • Measure blood pressure and heart rate as directed by your doctor.
  • Perform blood tests as directed by your doctor. Please consult your doctor.
  • This drug may interfere with some laboratory tests. Tell all healthcare providers and laboratory staff that you are taking this drug.
  • Do not take antacids with this drug.
  • Talk to your doctor before taking any over-the-counter drug that can increase blood pressure. These drugs include medicines for coughs and colds, diet pills, stimulants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen or naproxen, and some naturally occurring drugs.
  • You may need to refrain from consuming alcoholic beverages with certain medications.Ask your doctor or pharmacist to see if you should refrain from drinking alcoholic beverages with this drug.
  • New or worsening mood and behavior changes have happened with this drug, such as thinking changes, anger and hallucinations. If you or someone of your blood family has been diagnosed with a mental or emotional disorder, such as depression or bipolar disorder, or if someone in your blood family has committed suicide, tell your doctor. If you have hallucinations, movement disorders, or signs of emotional distress such as depression, suicidal thoughts, nervousness, ups and downs, distorted thinking, anxiety, or a lack of interest in life, see your doctor right away.
  • A serious and sometimes deadly condition called serotonin syndrome can develop when this drug is used with certain other drugs. Call your doctor right away if you have anxiety, imbalance, confusion, hallucinations, fever, tachycardia or irregular heartbeat, flushing, muscle twitching or stiffness, seizures, tremors or tremors, excessive sweating, severe diarrhea, nausea or vomiting , severe headache.
  • In some cases, the drug may affect the growth rate in children and adolescents. They may need to check their growth rate regularly. Consult your doctor.
  • Various brand names of this drug may be intended for use in children of different ages. Talk to your doctor before giving this drug to a child.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant. The benefits and risks of taking this drug during pregnancy will need to be discussed.

What side effects should I report to my doctor immediately?

WARNING. In rare cases, some people with this drug can have serious and sometimes deadly side effects. Call your healthcare professional or get medical attention right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms, which may be associated with serious side effects:

  • Signs of an allergic reaction such as rash, hives, itching, reddened and swollen skin with blistering or scaling, possibly associated with fever, wheezing or wheezing, tightness in the chest or throat, difficulty breathing, swallowing or speaking, unusual hoarseness, swelling in the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
  • Signs of high blood pressure, such as very severe headache, or dizziness, or loss of consciousness, or blurred vision.
  • Inability to achieve or maintain an erection.
  • Change in sex drive.
  • Convulsions.
  • For problems with body movement control.
  • Anxiety.
  • Change of vision.
  • Frequent or prolonged erections (hardening of the penis).
  • Discoloration of the skin of the hands or feet from pale to blue or red.
  • Numbness, pain, tingling, or coldness in the hands or feet.
  • Any ulceration or wounds on the fingers or toes.
  • Muscle pain or weakness, dark urine, difficulty urinating.
  • Pain when urinating.
  • Myocardial infarction, stroke, and sudden death have been reported in adults who have taken this drug. Sudden deaths have also been reported in children with some cardiac or cardiac abnormalities.Call your doctor right away if you have a fast, slow heartbeat, or an irregular heartbeat; weakness on 1 side of the body; difficulty speaking or thinking; imbalance; omission of 1 side of the face; changes in vision; chest pain or angina; dyspnea; severe dizziness or fainting.

What are some other side effects of this drug?

Any medicine can have side effects. However, many people have little or no side effects.Call your doctor or get medical help if these or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

  • Nervous tension and agitation.
  • Headache.
  • Sleep disorders.
  • Constipation, diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, or decreased appetite.
  • Feeling dizzy, tired, or weak.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Impaired taste perception. This,
  • Weight loss.

This list of potential side effects is not exhaustive. If you have any questions about side effects, please contact your doctor. Talk to your doctor about side effects.

You can report side effects to the National Health Office.

You can report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-332-1088. You can also report side effects at https://www.fda.gov/medwatch.

What is the best way to take this drug?

Use this drug as directed by your healthcare practitioner. Read all the information provided to you. Follow all instructions strictly.


  • Take this medication with or without food.
  • Take your last daily dose at least 4 hours before bedtime.

Sustained-release capsules:

  • Take this drug with or without food.Some medications need to be taken the same way each time, either with food or separately from food. You should know for sure if the intake of this drug is food-dependent. If you have any doubts about whether the intake of a drug is food-dependent, consult your doctor or pharmacist.
  • Take in the morning.
  • Swallow whole. Do not chew, break, or crush.
  • You can pour the contents of the capsule onto the applesauce. Don’t chew.
  • Take the dose immediately after mixing.Do not store for future use.

What should I do if a dose of a drug is missed?


  • Take the missed dose as soon as you can.
  • If it is time for your next dose, do not take the missed dose and then return to your normal schedule.
  • Do not take 2 doses at the same time or an additional dose.

Sustained-release capsules:

  • Skip the forgotten dose and return to your normal schedule.
  • Do not take this medicine later in the day.

How do I store and / or discard this drug?

  • Store at room temperature, protected from light. Store in a dry place. Do not store in the bathroom.
  • Store this medication in a protected place, out of the reach of children, and out of the reach of other people. A box or room, which is locked with a key, can act as a protected storage location for the drug.Keep all medicines out of the reach of pets.
  • Dispose of unused or expired drugs. Do not empty into toilet or drain unless directed to do so. If you have any questions about the disposal of your medicinal products, consult your pharmacist. Your area may have drug recycling programs.

General information on medicinal products

  • If your health does not improve or even worsens, see your doctor.
  • You should not give your medicine to anyone and take other people’s medicines.
  • Some medicines may have different patient information sheets. If you have questions about this drug, talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional.
  • A separate patient instruction sheet is attached to the product. Please read this information carefully. Reread it every time you replenish your supply.If you have questions about this drug, talk with your doctor, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional.
  • If you think there has been an overdose of a drug, call a Poison Control Center immediately or seek medical attention. Be prepared to tell or show which drug you took, how much and when it happened.

Use of information by consumer and limitation of liability

This information should not be used to make decisions about taking this or any other drug.Only the attending physician has the necessary knowledge and experience to make decisions about which drugs are appropriate for a particular patient. This information does not guarantee that the drug is safe, effective, or approved for the treatment of any disease or specific patient. Here are only brief general information about this drug. It does NOT contain all available information on the possible use of the drug with instructions for use, warnings, precautions, information about interactions, side effects and risks that may be associated with this drug.This information should not be construed as a treatment guide and does not replace information provided to you by your healthcare professional. Please consult your doctor for complete information on the possible risks and benefits of taking this drug.


© UpToDate, Inc. and its affiliates and / or licensors, 2021. All rights reserved.


Health 2021

While Adderall is considered more addictive, Ritalin has more side effects, especially with long-term use.This comparison examines uses, efficacy, dosage, side effects,


While Adderall is considered more addictive, Ritalin has more side effects, especially with long-term use. This comparison examines the use, efficacy, dosage, side effects, withdrawal, and abuse of Adderall and Ritalin, psychostimulants prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.

Comparison table

Comparison table of Adderall and Ritalin
Adderall Ritalin
Current rating 3.23 / 5 (724 ratings) Current rating – 3.27 / 527 (

505 ratings)

About Adderall is a brand name of an amphetamine salt drug used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy, licensed only in the United States and Canada. Ritalin is the trade name for methylphenidate, a psychostimulant drug approved for the treatment of ADHD or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, postural tachycardia syndrome, and narcolepsy.
Type of preparation Psychostimulant Psychostimulant
Active ingredient Mixed amphetamine salts – dextroamphetamine and levoamphetamine. 25% is the inactive L-enantiomer. Methylphenidate
Used to treat ADHD, narcolepsy ADHD, postural tachycardia syndrome and narcolepsy.
Available Forms Tablet (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 20, 30 mg) or sustained release capsule (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 36 mg) Short-acting immediate-release tablets are available in doses of 5, 10, 20 mg. Sustained release (SR) at 20 mg. Capsules of prolonged action of prolonged action of 10, 20, 30, 40 mg.
Dosage Take the tablet 2-3 times a day with an interval of 4-6 hours – the dosage is changed.Extended-release (“XR”) capsules taken once a day – XR capsules are available in doses of 10, 20, and 30 mg. Tablets are taken 2-3 times daily before meals. Extended-release tablets are taken once or twice a day. The capsules should be taken once a day in the morning.
Window of efficiency Immediate release: 4-6 hours. Extended release: 8-11 hours. Immediate release: 2-3 hours. Continuous release: 4-6 hours.Extended release: 10-12 hours.
Legal status ℞ Prescription only; Appendix II (US) and Appendix I (CA) ℞ Prescription only; Controlled (S8) (AU) Schedule III (CA) POM (UK) Schedule II (US)
Routes Oral, Insufflated, Intravenous Oral and transdermal
Misuse Depression obesity, sleep cycle disorders Lethargy, depression, obesity
Pregnancy of a cat. C (US) C (US)
Prescriptions for children aged 10-19 (2011, US) 1.6 million 263,000
Manufacturer Shire Novartis
Tightens? yes Yes – slowly reduce the dosage before stopping the intake.
Liability for addiction High Lower compared to Adderall
Limitations Should not be taken during pregnancy or with MAOIs. Should not be taken during pregnancy or in conjunction with tricyclic antidepressants or MAOIs. Should not be taken by people with arrhythmias, hypertension, or liver damage.
Effect Increases the amount of dopamine and norepinephrine between synapses in the brain. Increases the amount of dopamine and norepinephrine between synapses in the brain
Side effects Weight loss, insomnia, headaches, irritability, increased muscle tension, anxiety, heart palpitations, increased blood pressure, decreased dry mouth, the passage of time.Slows down physical growth during childhood. Nervousness, drowsiness, insomnia. With prolonged use, it can cause psychosis. Slows down physical growth during childhood.
Withdrawal symptoms Extreme fatigue, insomnia, irritability and mental depression Psychosis, depression, irritability, temporary worsening of ADHD symptoms
Multiple use? None None
Universal available? yes yes
Trade names Adderall, Adderall XR Concert, Methylin, Ritalin


Ritalin and Adderall have similar applications.Both drugs are used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Some doctors also prescribe them for depression and obesity. They have similar mechanisms of action – drugs increase the amount of dopamine and norepinephrine between synapses in the brain.

Adderall is sometimes prescribed to treat sleep cycle disorders. Ritalin can be used to treat postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and treatment-resistant cases of lethargy.Ritalin can also be used to treat people who are addicted to methamphetamine.

In the following video, psychiatrist Dr. Edward Frutman, MD and medical director of Trifecta Health Medical Center, explains how he decides whether to prescribe Ritalin or Adderall to adults with ADHD:


In a study published in the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1999, compared the efficacy and temporal dynamics of Ritalin and Adderal.The researchers found that Adderall is usually more effective than Ritalin after a few hours, especially at low doses. In general, lower doses of Adderall produced effects comparable to higher doses of Ritalin, and clinical guidelines favored Adderall for long-term treatment.

Another study, also published in 1999 Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry found that although both Adderall and Ritalin improved behavior as assessed by parents and teachers,

A single dose of Adderall appears to be as effective as 2 daily doses of MPH, and therefore increases the ability to manage treatment without involving school in medication.In addition, young adults who have previously been unsuccessfully treated with MPH due to adverse side effects or poor response can be successfully treated with Adderall.

Another study, published in the same journal less than a year later, titled Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Adderall and methylphenidate in the treatment of attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder concluded that the behavioral effects of Adderall last longer than the effects of methylphenidate [ Ritalin] after taking individual doses.


Adderall is available as extended release tablets or capsules. The tablets are usually taken 2-3 times a day at intervals of 4-6 hours. For people 6 years and older, the dose starts at 5 mg once or twice a day and can be increased in 5 mg increments every week. The dose rarely exceeds 30 mg. The capsule should be taken once a day in the morning and swallowed whole or opened and sprinkled with applesauce. Adults taking the capsule usually get a dose of 20 mg per day, while children and adolescents usually start at 10 mg per day before the dosage is increased.

Comparison of popular ADHD medications Focalin, Adderall, Vyvanse and Ritalin.

Ritalin is available in the form of immediate-release tablets, medium-release sustained-release tablets, or extended-release sustained-release capsules. Regular tablets are taken two to three times a day, preferably 35-40 minutes before meals. Everything should be taken before 18:00. An intermediate-release tablet should be taken once or twice a day, in the morning and early in the day, 30–45 minutes before meals.The extended release capsules are taken once a day in the morning. Everything should be swallowed whole or cut up and sprinkled with applesauce. The average dosage is 20 to 30 mg per day, but some people can get up to 60 mg.

Side effects

Adderall may cause a temporary decrease in growth rate, but does not affect the ultimate height of an adult. This can reduce appetite, leading to weight loss. It can cause insomnia, headaches, increased muscle tension, irritability and anxiety, and increase the risk of heart problems.

The most common side effects of Ritalin are nervousness, drowsiness and insomnia. Less common side effects include abdominal pain, hair loss, chest pain, loss of appetite, changes in blood pressure, dizziness, euphoria, headache, hypersensitivity, nausea, and drowsiness. This can stunt growth in adolescents. Research shows that 90,257 6% of 90,258 children who use Ritalin become psychotic after months or years of use; these symptoms disappear after discontinuation of the drug.People diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder usually have an earlier onset of the disorder if they took Ritalin as a child.


Adderall should not be taken early in pregnancy or within two weeks after taking any MAOI medications. This raises the risk of serotonin syndrome in combination with SSRIs.

Ritalin should also not be taken during pregnancy or for two weeks after taking any MAOI medications. It should also not be combined with tricyclic antidepressants or taken by patients with severe arrhythmias, hypertension, liver damage, drug seeking behavior, or severe nervousness.Particular care should be taken in patients with epilepsy, as this can lower the seizure threshold. In combination with adrenergic drugs, it increases the risk of toxic effects on the liver, and in combination with SSRIs such as Zoloft or Lexapro, it can cause hypertension, hypothermia and seizures.


Adderall is an addictive drug. When a person stops taking Adderall, they may experience extreme fatigue, insomnia, irritability, and mental depression.

Ritalin cancellation can occur if a person suddenly stops taking the drug. Symptoms include psychosis, depression, irritability, and a temporary worsening of the baseline ADHD symptoms.


Both Adderal and Ritalin are often used by college students to improve concentration. Adderall is the more popular of the two.


According to a report by Express Scripts, the largest pharmacy benefit management company in the United States, the market share of various types of ADHD drugs is as follows:

Dexmethyline 9027%
Top ADHD drugs by market share
Amphetamine / Dextroamphetamine Adderall) 38.1%
Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta, Daitrana, Methylin) 23.4%
Lisdexamphetamine (Vivans) 16.1%
Dexmethylline (Stratter) 4%

Latest News

90,000 how Silicon Valley got hooked on “smart” tablets :: Own business :: RBC

It is no coincidence that Brandt talks about humans in terms of cybernetics: he is a Stanford graduate and a former Google employee.Many of the founders of the most famous startups in the biohacking niche are not biologists, but engineers and IT specialists. And the most dedicated consumers of nootropics are tech entrepreneurs, engineers, and developers who hope to hack their own brains to become geniuses and outrun the competition. Among them are investor and consultant Tim Farris, who worked with Uber and Evernote, serial entrepreneur, founder of Bulletproof and a number of other projects, Dave Esprey, co-founder of Ostrovok hotel search engine Sergey Fage (translation of his article “I am 32 years old, and I spent $ 200 thousand …for biohacking ”on the Vc.ru portal collected about 300 thousand views) and many others. Biohackers call the human body wetware by analogy with hardware and software: for them it is not a temple, but a workshop.

In 2014, when the company first appeared, Jeffrey Wu experimented with the composition of nootropics, ordering components through Alibaba.com and on the darknet. Now he quite legally manufactures them at a plant near Los Angeles. The creators of Hvmn managed to find ingredients that are allowed in the United States for use as food additives.This eliminated the need for FDA approval to trade smart drugs.

Read on RBK Pro

The partners managed to get Silicon Valley interested in their pills thanks to personal connections and marketing in the spirit of Herbalife: they invited friends, former colleagues, and their own employees to try their pills. Hvmn Pills have become popular among tech entrepreneurs online magazines.The Hustle columnist, for example, took smart pills for a month, after which he concluded: it is better to spend this $ 50 per month on something else. But the job was done: Valley, obsessed with the problem of personal efficiency, learned about a new fashionable hobby. In addition to Andreessen Horowitz’s money, the company managed to raise another $ 500,000 from business angels and managers of large companies, among which, for example, was Marissa Mayer, at that time the CEO of Yahoo !.

Photo: hvmn.com

Investors’ belief that the miracle pills will succeed in conquering not only Silicon Valley, but, possibly, the whole of America, has greatly contributed to the interest in the new product from retail chains. Starting this summer, Nootrobox pills are available at all 7-Eleven stores operating in San Francisco. A monthly course of smart pills costs only $ 135.According to Wu, the revenue of his company in 2016 increased by 300%, and the number of buyers of products is measured in tens of thousands. Even if Wu exaggerates his successes, the audience’s estimate of an interest in nootropics is likely close to reality: for example, the social news site Reddit’s page on smart pills has more than 75,000 subscribers.

Garage Biology

Hvmn, of course, is not the only Silicon Valley company dedicated to brain and body upgrades.Back in 2005, scientist and entrepreneur, founder of Bioeconomy Capital, Rob Carlson wrote in Wired magazine: “The era of garage biology is open. Do you want to participate? Buy a lab on eBay. ” Reducing the cost of applied chemistry methods, increasing the amount of scientific knowledge about the body, coupled with the ability to order almost any ingredients from China, allow companies, after spending several months on experiments, to create their own miracle drug.

The Modern AlkaMe startup three years ago created a new niche for personalized intake of nootropic drugs in the newly emerged biohacking market: a user fills out an electronic questionnaire, after which he receives recommendations on what exactly and according to what scheme he needs to take.

More ambitious tasks are set by the Rosa Food company, which has fulfilled an old dream of science fiction writers: it has created Soylent powder soluble in water, which, according to the developers, contains all the substances necessary for good nutrition. In 2014, crowdfunding company Soylent raised about $ 1.5 million thanks to pre-orders for its powder. In 2015, it raised $ 20 million from the same Andreessen Horowitz, and in May this year, it conducted a new round of investments, receiving $ 50 million (mainly from Google Ventures).According to the developers, switching to feeding on their products will not only allow people to squeeze the most out of their physical and mental abilities, but also reduce the amount of food they throw away (since Soylent supposedly allows you to accurately calculate the dose necessary for satiety) and, thus, contribute to the fight with hunger.

Photo: soylent.com

This positioning takes biohacking products to a new level. According to the US Food and Drug Administration, the market for food additives is estimated at $ 40 billion a year and the share of biohacking products is tenths of a percent, but this may change in the near future. The fashion for nootropics is gradually expanding beyond Silicon Valley; residents of large US cities are beginning to order smart pills.

More technological trends such as “gene therapy in the garage” preached by biophysicist Josiah Zayner are keeping aloof. At the SynBioBeta conference in early October 2017, he injected into his blood a solution of an enzyme that blocks a specific gene that inhibits muscle growth. Zayner told the public that earlier studies by Chinese scientists showed that dogs that were treated with this method doubled their muscle mass in a short time. The scientist is confident that the solution he prepares in five minutes will turn him into a superman.However, only a few biohackers venture into such brave experiments on themselves, and so far there can be no question of turning this into a commercial service.

A future that has not come

While companies like Hvmn and Bulletproof have achieved a lot in a matter of years, the concept they popularize has many critics. One of the vulnerabilities is that there is almost nothing new in biohacking. The most popular components of smart pills that biohackers trade have been around for decades.Piracetam, which helps the brain form new neural connections, was synthesized by Belgian pharmacists back in the 1960s as a stroke recovery drug. Since the 1990s, American doctors have been treating children suffering from attention deficit disorder with psychostimulants Adderalum and Ritalin, which are part of many brain-hacking pills.

The fact that the nootropics industry is primarily marketing, not science, confirms further acquaintance with the composition of its products.The main active ingredient of one of the most popular Hvmn products – Go Cubes – is regular caffeine. The fact that this alkaloid tones up and improves performance for a while is not a discovery. Most Bulletproof products do not contain any other ingredients other than those used in cooking and sports nutrition for a long time, such as coconut oil, cocoa beans, vanilla, etc.

Many other biohacking methods fashionable in Silicon Valley were invented thousands of years ago.In 2015, Brandt and Wu founded the WeFast (We Fast) movement. The founders of Hvmn and dozens of their followers (among them, for example, former Evernote CEO Phil Libin and Y Combinator partner Daniel Gross) are engaged in curative fasting – periodically refusing food for several days to two weeks. When the body does not receive food, it minimizes the production of special hormones and proteins, which, on the one hand, help tissues to grow, and on the other hand, contribute to the development of cancer and diabetes.Deprived of food, the body begins to actively “repair” cells and renew the immune system, according to supporters of fasting. This process slows down the aging of the body and prolongs life. Everything would be fine, but we are talking about the practices used by Hindus and Buddhists even before our era.

There are more serious questions: doctors have repeatedly accused the manufacturers of nootropics for not paying attention to the side effects on the health of consumers. By the way, in Russia, the free sale of Adderall, Ritalin and a number of other components of nootropic drugs is prohibited, since they are highly addictive in patients.Rosa Food has been repeatedly accused of causing dizziness, nausea and stomach upset with its powder, and As You Sow, a non-profit organization, has claimed that the company is publishing inaccurate information about the lead and cadmium content of its drinks.

David Shen Ventures founder David Shen, who previously held senior executive positions at Apple and Yahoo !, believes that hacking your genes in the garage is simply impossible. Technologies are still too complex and require lengthy research on the part of developers.Moreover, the consumer himself cannot limit himself to taking miracle pills: he must constantly monitor his condition, which means he must also have medical knowledge. “A simple product can attract consumers in the short term. But one of the problems of companies that have succeeded is that they have neither the competencies nor the knowledge to develop the product further, ”writes Shen.

He predicts that most companies that develop bioactive products by IT specialists will repeat the fate of the close to bankruptcy biotech startup Theranos: technologies not backed by research are doomed to failure.It is significant that in December 2016 the founders of Hvmn on the air of the Shark Tank TV show (a popular American TV show, during which startups are trying to interest investors with their ideas), not only failed to attract the declared $ 40 million in investments, but were also severely criticized by the host: “You come and bring us sugar cubes. ”

Apparently, the era of real biohacking will not come soon. An analogy with virtual reality technologies is appropriate here: experts expected their widespread distribution back in the early 1990s, while they began to be widely used only a quarter of a century later, in our days.

For and against

“Long-term consequences for fans of pills for the brain will be disappointing”

Alexander Khalyavkin, Scientific Secretary of the Moscow Branch of the Gerontological Society of the Russian Academy of Sciences

“Some pills for the brain can really speed up the pace of nervous processes, improve memory, attention, intelligence, efficiency, etc. They unauthorizedly connect the available reserves of the human psyche, which the body uses in case of extreme need.Recall, for example, the reports of test pilots who found a way out of an emergency in a split second. At that moment, it seemed to them that their consciousness was expanding, and the passage of time was sharply slowing down, and therefore they managed to find the right solution.

However, one should always remember that excessive stress depletes the nervous system and accelerates aging. Therefore, artificial stimulation of brain activity increases the rate of age-related decline in this activity. For quite a long time, the stimulated brain can work more productively than usual, but in the elderly it will increase everything will be the opposite.And this difference will only increase with age. Some studies have shown that people who have been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease reach the end stages of the disease more quickly than patients with higher mental capacities in their youth. The long-term effects on brain pill aficionados are likely to be disappointing. ”

“A competent biohacker will give odds to an ordinary individual”

Evgeny Kuznetsov, director of subsidiary funds of RVC

“I started biohacking five years ago.The reason for my interest is in the need to constantly be in shape against the background of high stress and situations of uncertainty. In the course of consultations with doctors, it became clear that many systemic imbalances have accumulated in the body: there is a lack of a trace element, there is a lack of a vitamin, here food habits harm the microflora. It became clear that the body must be dealt with seriously. He started with diets, sports and some medications according to indications. As a result, I began to notice a significant improvement in performance. Well, now it has already become a habit and a need.

Just as an athlete runs faster than an ordinary person, a competent biohacker will give an ordinary individual a head start in performance, stress resistance, concentration, mood stability and many other important social and cognitive functions. A huge layer of problems familiar to the middle class (anxiety, poor sleep, chronic fatigue, “burnout”) is a manifestation of the beginning of the body’s dysfunctions. They are opposed by competent management of their own state – “hacking” the natural aging processes.

What exactly to take, the doctor must say. Each person has their own metabolism. Inappropriate biohacking is just as dangerous as using stimulants before a race instead of exercising regularly. You can get very seriously hurt. Therefore, you can only support and develop your body in a comprehensive manner. If you only overclock one system, then others may not withstand the overload and begin to fail. For example, the brain can consume up to 25% of the total energy of the body, and if the whole body does not work as a good supplier of energy resources, then the brain can easily drive it into a state of breakdown. “

“Some of us will become immortal”

Sergey Fage, CEO of Stealth AI Company, founder of Ostrovok.ru hotel booking service

“40 years ago in Silicon Valley, some eccentric eccentrics – hackers – gathered for closed meetings, soldered computer boards. Today, Apple, which was born at these meetings, is the most valuable company in the world, and eight other of the top 10 most expensive companies in the world work in the IT industry.

From the outside, biohacking looks like a bunch of crazy people doing stupid things.But in 50-100 years it will lead to the fact that some of us will become immortal, this is the next stage of evolution. My goal is precisely to gain a competitive advantage over other people. Over the past five years, I have optimized my sleep, food, exercise, and mental well-being to maximize my health.

In addition, under the supervision of experienced doctors from Stanford and Harvard, I do thousands of tests and take many dietary supplements and medications. This made it possible to reduce the mass of adipose tissue by 16%, reduce the risk of strokes and heart attacks in the next 50 years to almost zero (this can be seen in biomarkers) and just be very productive, satisfied with life and happy.

Biohacking and the optimization of human abilities are now becoming mainstream. In 2016, the US FDA recognized that aging is not a natural process, but a disease, and began testing metformin (a diabetes drug) as the first cure for old age. And this is just the beginning. Therefore, I advise you to engage in gradual self-education in terms of biohacking. Otherwise, you risk being left behind, like those who have not learned to use computers. “

90,000 Drugmakers put Americans on amphetamines. And they made billions on it: Markets: Economy: Lenta.ru

The United States faced an epidemic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – the number of patients is growing by leaps and bounds. However, not all experts and doctors are confident in the naturalness of this growth – many believe that this is the machinations of pharmaceutical giants who are lobbying for their drugs against ADHD.Parents are convinced of the illness of children and the urgent need to take stimulants, without which their lives are doomed. Some doctors are ready to make a difficult diagnosis based on poor grades in school. At the same time, among adults, there is also a significant increase in patients with ADHD. An attention deficit epidemic or an attempt to patch deficits in the budgets of pharmaceutical giants – in the material “Lenta.ru”.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurological-behavioral developmental disorder. Distinctive signs of ADHD: inattention (a person is not able to keep attention to details, cannot follow instructions for a long time, has difficulty in completing a task on his own, often loses things), hyperactivity (an excited state, inability to sit still for a long time, uncontrolled movements, talkativeness are often observed) , aggressive behavior and impulsivity.The disorder causes difficulties in learning and social interaction.

Millions of people are diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Without treatment, living with this disorder means many problems, including financial ones. In 2017, a study was published in the scientific journal PLOS One that showed a close relationship between ADHD and high-interest loans, in particular at pawnshops, late payments, late arrivals and constant job changes. This is because people with ADHD, due to their cognitive impairments, respond quickly to short-term stimuli.They are characterized by impulsive behavior that forces them to make hasty decisions, this is not a personal choice, but problems caused by the peculiarities of the brain.

According to the University of Iowa, released in 2018, the number of people with ADHD is skyrocketing. In 2016, 10.2 percent of children aged 4-17 in the United States received this diagnosis, compared with 6.1 percent in 1997-1998. In the seventies, ADHD was considered a childhood illness that would go away over time. Later, it turned out that symptoms persist into adulthood, moreover, ADHD can manifest itself quite late.A study from King’s College London found that about 70 percent of subjects diagnosed after 18 years of age had no symptoms in childhood. “ADHD occurs in about 4 percent of adults, but only a few receive medical attention,” says study author Jessica Agnew-Blaise. Many people who have been diagnosed with ADHD already in adulthood admit that they have lived in crisis for decades, changed one job after another until they were diagnosed, someone managed to get the necessary treatment only after attempting suicide.

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Latent forces

People with autism have been unemployed for years. Now they are called in the best companies in the world

The spread of ADHD has reached such proportions that it is already a serious burden on the economy. The Center for the Study of ADHD in Canada (CADDAC) estimates that the country loses between $ 6 billion and $ 11 billion annually from lost productivity in the workplace associated with attention deficit disorder. Among people with ADHD, there are also quite successful businessmen, but most of them cannot find a job, often change jobs, and occupy the lowest paid positions.All this means additional costs for the state, such people are more dependent on the social security system and pay less taxes.

Through therapy, the disorder can be corrected. Most of those who were diagnosed in adulthood admit that after they were able to determine the cause of the problems and prescribe treatment, things went well and they began to lead a fulfilling life. The recognition of ADHD has created a huge market for pharmaceutical companies. After proving that Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD) can also show up in adulthood, the “new adults” who had never been diagnosed before were the fastest growing segment of the market, as Angus Russell, then CEO of the pharmaceutical company Shire, acknowledged in 2011.Medical analytics company IMS Health reported 16 million ADHD prescriptions for people aged 20 to 39 in 2012.

Central nervous system stimulants are mainly used for treatment, primarily Ritalin, Adderall, Concerta, Focalin and Vyvanse. Compounds of amphetamine and methylphenidate are sold under these trademarks; in Russia, the circulation of these psychotropic substances is prohibited. According to IMS Health, sales of stimulants were $ 4 billion in 2007, and by 2012 they had grown to $ 10.5 billion.Between 2012 and 2015, the market reached $ 11.2 billion. It is predicted that by 2020 it will be about $ 17.5 billion. Shire has been the market leader in ADHD drugs for over 20 years. The company managed to become number one after it acquired Richwood Pharmaceutical for $ 186 million in 1997, which developed the most popular ADHD treatment, Adderall (an amphetamine-based stimulant). Shire also owns Vyvanse and a number of other brands.The company’s ADHD drug divisions are worth an estimated $ 8.5 billion.

Scientists do not yet have a convincing answer why the number of people with ADHD is growing. Some suggest that the matter is in modern gadgets and digital media: the constant change of bright pictures forces you to switch attention all the time, which in the end can turn into a serious disorder. This version is supported by a two-year study by scientists from the University of Southern California. Dr. Wei Bao from the University of Iowa, whose work allowed us to talk about a “new epidemic of ADHD”, himself believes that it is too early to draw any conclusions, perhaps people did not get sick more often, doctors just learned to better identify symptoms.

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Another point of view is that, under pressure from the pharmaceutical industry, doctors began to make this diagnosis too often. Dr. Keith Conners pioneered the current practice of treating childhood disorders with stimulants. It was he who in the early 1960s at Johns Hopkins University conducted the first official trials on the effects of stimulants (specifically methylphenidate) on children. The studies were paid for by the manufacturer Ritalin, CIBA.The results have been overwhelmingly compelling: children’s academic performance has skyrocketed, and Conners has become a major advocate for the use of stimulants for ADHD. He worked with all the major manufacturers, but then abruptly changed his position and began to talk about the wave of misdiagnoses of ADHD, which reached the level of “national disaster.”

Keith Conners

Frame: MHS Assessments – Clinical and Education / YouTube

Conners has repeatedly stated that under pressure from pharmaceutical giants, the signs of classic ADHD have unreasonably expanded.The old owner of Richwood Pharmaceutical and the Adderall brand, Roger Griggs, now says he strongly opposes the use of stimulants as widely. He calls them “nuclear bombs”, which can only be prescribed in extreme circumstances and under the close supervision of a physician. None of those who talk about the “epidemic of overdiagnosis” do not deny that ADHD is a serious disorder that, among other things, requires medical treatment, but, according to skeptics, the real volume of people with ADHD has not changed and is about 5 percent, the rest they are prescribing medications undeservedly.

Pharmacists are accused of aggressive marketing, which has led to the fact that poor academic performance or absent-mindedness already allows a child to be diagnosed and prescribed pills. Both parents and children are convinced that stimulants will help them succeed. A few years ago, Shire paid for the release of 50 thousand copies of a comic book in which superheroes invite children to take medication to study better. Maroon 5 musician Adam Levine took part in Shire’s ad campaign aimed at teens.Pamphlets were printed for parents explaining that the pills would solve all the problems associated with the behavior of their children. To remove stigma and encourage people to see a doctor, lists of “Famous People with ADHD” were prepared. Thus, the parents saw that their children were in the good company of Thomas Edison, Abraham Lincoln, Galileo and Socrates.

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Total over

They quit their jobs to bet on sports. What came of this?

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since 2000 has repeatedly called on pharmaceutical companies to withdraw advertisements that exaggerate the effects of drugs.While research confirms that serious problems can arise in adulthood without treatment for ADHD, it has not been proven that stimulants as therapy have all the benefits reported in advertisements, comics, and booklets. In February 2017, Shire had to pay $ 57.5 million in fines at the request of the FDA for inappropriate advertising for a number of drugs, including Vyvanse, Adderall XR, and Daytrana.

ABC presenter Ty Pennington was also reprimanded for advertising stimulants.In his show, he talked about the amazing success adults can achieve with stimulants, and admitted that Adderall has changed his own life. A psychiatrist who was invited to join him on the air took the topic further, adding that the majority of inmates are people with undiagnosed ADHD who should be prescribed stimulants. At the same time, Pennington kept silent that he was a Shire representative from 2006 to 2008 and received money for this in the company. For the fact that he clearly exaggerated the positive effects of Adderall and kept silent about the negative side effects, the FDA wrote him a warning.“I am not a medical expert. I’m a TV presenter, ”Pennington commented on his mistake.

Image: Ownyouradhd.com

The doctors, on whom the diagnoses and prescriptions depend, were processed no less actively. For example, the new Adderall, the Adderall XR, was unveiled by Shire in April 2002 at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel and Spa in Pasadena, California. 70 doctors were invited to the event, who were told that ADHD without treatment threatens with unemployment or underemployment, fatal car accidents, criminal activities, unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases.It did not mention that the studies did not assess whether stimulants were able to reduce these risks. Psychiatrist William Dodson, who gave this presentation, told colleagues that he diagnoses approximately 300 patients a year and always recommends taking stimulants for the rest of their lives. It was reported that he received $ 2,000 from Shire for this performance, and in 2010-2011, pharmaceutical companies transferred $ 45.5 thousand to him. However, he himself believes that he is working as an educator, and claims that pharmacists force doctors to make incorrect diagnoses in order to increase sales are nothing more than conspiracy theories.“If people need help, my job is to make sure they get it,” said Dr. Dodson.

Stimulants have long crossed the threshold of medical offices. Many people do not have ADHD, but are willing to take Adderall and other medications to boost performance or rest (they also have a euphoric effect). Thanks to the advertising campaign, such drugs have developed a much more respectable image than dirty street stimulants. Unsurprisingly, it is estimated that Adderall admits up to 35.6 percent of American students to boost their cognitive abilities and prepare for exams at the last moment.It was noted that the mention of the drug on Twitter rises sharply in December and April, when there are several days before university exams.

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It won’t hurt

They put America on drugs and get billions. It is absolutely legal

Stimulants and athletes love. For example, amphetamine has been taken almost openly by professional baseball players for decades. In 2005, Major League Baseball in the United States announced a vigorous fight against stimulants and the introduction of additional testing.After that, a number of professional baseball players announced that they suffer from ADHD. Immediately after the introduction of additional doping tests, the number of people taking prescription stimulants increased from 28 players to 103, representing 8 percent of all players in the league. In 2013, there were already 119. Dr. Gary Wadler of the World Anti-Doping Agency ironically noted that an epidemic of ADHD had begun in the Major League. Such doping is no less popular in e-sports. In 2015, the Electronic Sports League (ESL Gaming) added Adderall to its list of substances prohibited from participating in tournaments and began testing players for drugs.The ban was introduced after a famous professional player admitted in an interview that his entire team used Adderall during an ESL tournament.

According to experts, it is completely impossible to tell which part of adults who have been prescribed Adderall or other similar drugs actually have ADHD and which are receiving the drug illegally. But there are obviously many such cases. As lovers of pharmacy stimulants admit, it is not difficult to get a prescription if they want to, which in the end can turn into a rather strong addiction.In 2013, the Partnership for Drug-Free Children released a survey in which nine percent of teens (about 1.9 million) reported abuse of prescription stimulants for ADHD. The Citizens Commission on Human Rights (CCHR) has argued that the criteria for diagnosing ADHD are so subjective and arbitrary that children and adolescents can easily pretend to get a prescription, which they no doubt use.

While the abuse of prescription stimulants is on the rise, even their staunch opponents cannot deny that in some cases they can actually significantly increase cognitive performance and concentration.Side effects include sleep disturbance, high blood pressure, heart problems, in rare cases, hallucinations and suicidal thoughts.

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Blow to us

The United States and Canada are fighting for marijuana. The winner is the one with more than

If in the case of the “opioid epidemic” provoked by OxyContin, the death toll is tens of thousands per year, tragic cases associated with the abuse of stimulants are rare, although quite impressive.It is known about a seven-year-old child who fell into depression after taking medication, and a case was reported when the child began to have severe hallucinations due to stimulants. 24-year-old Richard Fe suffered severe mental problems while trying to overcome addiction to drugstore stimulants, and eventually committed suicide.

Such tragic events are perceived as collateral damage and are unlikely to force the industry to change its attitude to the problem. Pharmaceutical companies are investing millions in research and promotion of their products, so in the near future the market will only grow, and the number of people who cannot imagine their life without stimulants will continue to increase.

Adderall Xr 30 Capsules / Adderall Capsule English – Item

  • Can Adderall Xr 30 Capsules / Adderall Capsule be used for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in adults and children?

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  • is it possible to become smarter / Habr

    Hello,% username%!

    I would like to talk about various pharmacological ways to improve memory, thinking, attention and other qualities necessary for successful professional and other activities.

    In this post I will try to provide information on some interesting drugs.Some of them are available, some are available only by prescription, and some are practically prohibited. But, I think, some information from psychopharmacology, presented in this post, will find its reader.

    Spoiler : NZT hasn’t been invented yet, but a number of potentially interesting things have been synthesized.


    I’ll tell you right away: I’m not a psychiatrist, I’m a psycho. In the truest sense of the word. Personal history summary Worked once in IT, first in a Russian-level company, then in an international corporation from Silicon Valley.

    And then well-known geopolitical events happened, relations between the Russian Federation and the United States deteriorated, the American government imposed sanctions on our largest customers, and the company, seeing the rapid decline in the market, practically left our country.

    Like almost all employees, I was laid off, but now I could not find a new job. Because he lost his mind. What they didn’t put on: depression, bipolar disorder, OCD, schizophrenia, GAD. I was discharged from the madhouse with f21.8, then a specialist with whom I work privately found a dissociative process that explained the difference in diagnoses.

    I was twice in a psychiatric hospital, I was treated for quite a long time on an outpatient basis, but there was no sense. Therefore, I was puzzled by the study of psychiatry, psychopharmacology and other related disciplines. I want to share this knowledge with the audience. Perhaps someone will be interested.

    Once again, just in case: I’m not a doctor. Please consult your professional before taking anything. Don’t use drugs. Wash your hands before eating and generally behave yourself.


    I think many would like to “be able to think faster and better.”We will leave the discussion of the goals and psychological attitudes behind this desire for the next time, and now we will assume that it is quite logical and justified, focusing on the means of achieving it.

    So what exactly can we improve? First, memory. Everything is simple here: the better our long-term memory, the greater the amount of necessary information we can remember. What to do with this – everyone will decide for themselves: someone will remember the CCIE dumps, someone will try to memorize all of Knut’s volumes, and someone will spend on memories of where and how much money they spent.

    Improving short-term and / or working memory (there are different opinions on how they are related) gives us the opportunity to improve the so-called. mobile intelligence, i.e. the ability to think logically and solve problems without having similar previous experience.

    In general, increasing memory is good.

    The second aspect that can be pumped is to improve attention, i.e. the ability to selectively focus on activities and perception. Everything here is not as obvious as in the case of memory, but if you remember your experience (it seems to me that everyone has it), when it was not possible to concentrate on the task (this is not always associated with procrastination), then you will appreciate the ability to this very selective concentration.And if you, like me, do not let LMM, have attention disorders, then even more so.

    And the third aspect is the intellect itself: mobile and crystallized (according to Cattell) [2]. Here, I think, there is no need to explain: the first is mentioned above, and the second is the ability to use the accumulated experience.

    And one more aspect. Formally, it is offtopic, but I would also include it – this is endurance – the ability to experience high mental loads for a long time (we are interested in them) and not lose efficiency.

    Now that we have decided what we are going to improve, we can proceed to the direct consideration of the drugs.

    PRL-8-53 (methyl 3- (2- (benzyl (methyl) amino) ethyl) benzoate)

    There was such a scientist in the 1970s, Dr. Hansl. And he worked incl. over cognitive enhancers. One of the results of this work was the substance we are talking about now.

    I would like to point out two very important points: first, at the moment this compound has a research chemical status: i.e.e. clinical trials have not been conducted, side effects are not clear, hazard class has not been established, etc. And secondly, the level of evidence is, to put it mildly, very far from what is desired.

    To be precise, there are only three scientific studies [3, 4, 5] of this substance, the sample is quite small. However, the results are so promising that I decided to include this molecule on the list.

    In one of them, a statistically significant effect of this substance on the ability of subjects to memorize words and numbers was established.The subjects were asked to memorize words (orally), and then asked to repeat them.

    It turned out that the effectiveness of the drug depends on how good the memory of the subject was without it.

    The most impressive results were shown by those who had obvious memory problems (those who memorized six words or less) – their memory improved by 87.5-105% [3].

    Those who had better memory without medicine showed a much more modest result: 7.9-14% [3]

    The age aspect is interesting: in people who were over thirty, they showed an increase in the ability to memorize by 108-152% [3].

    In addition, an experiment was conducted to determine the effect of PRL-8-53 on the ability to perform mathematical calculations. The subjects were offered the following task: it was necessary to subtract seven from a given number, then add one, then subtract seven from the result obtained, add two, then subtract seven, add three to the result, etc.until another number specified by the experimenter is obtained. And here, too, there were improvements, expressed in the fact that the task was completed faster after taking the drug.

    There is no data on the mechanism of action of the drug. Like this: there are simply no scientific publications that would investigate this issue.

    Hansl himself believed that the drug somehow affects cholinergic transmission (cholinergics are generally an extremely promising thing for the development of all kinds of brain enhancers), inhibits the action of serotonin ( hello to lovers of prescribing SSRIs to everyone! ) and potentiates dopaminergic transmission.But this is his private opinion, not based on anything.

    The substance is legal in the Russian Federation, it can be purchased relatively easily on the Internet.

    I didn’t try it myself just because I don’t have extra money. But I’m ready to become a test experimental rat, I promise trip-report review containing a detailed description of the subjective and objective (I have a certified clinical psychologist sitting next to me from a psychiatric hospital, can take measurements) of the result.

    Valproic acid

    This is a normotimic.A drug used, firstly, to treat epilepsy (prevents the occurrence of seizures), and, secondly, to stabilize mood in affective disorders (prevents patients with bipolar disorder, schizo-affective disorder, and others from falling into depression or flying into mania) similar diseases). Sold without a prescription (some pharmacies may require it, this is not a problem *).

    But we will consider off-label use. The evidence is also not very good here (and with it, all cognitive enhancers are not very good), but Dr. Philip Bird of the Gosforth Clinic argues that valproic acid can significantly improve attention, and not only in patients with ADHD [6]. but also in healthy people [5].And in general, of all the normotimics, valproic acid is the most intellect-friendly [7]. They even tried to give it to dementy people with a very encouraging result [8].

    The proposed mechanism of action consists, firstly, in the GABA-ergic effect of this substance itself, and, secondly, in the regulation of the expression of genes encoding receptor proteins that respond to neurotransmitters in brain cells.

    That is why the effect does not come immediately, but after 1-2 weeks (you just need to wait until this whole inert system starts swinging: expression changes, new proteins are produced, the brain rebuilds to a new configuration).

    I have personal experience with this thing, and it is wonderful. Under it, I can read, write and even think for a long time. For example, if measured in text, then with it I can master 150 pages of text in a day, without it – 70-90 (with the same difficulty). Of course, perhaps this is the placebo effect, but I do not have the opportunity to conduct an RCT, so I am sharing what I have. By the way, similar effects were noted at Neuroleptic [9], but this is also far from the best source of information.

    The only “but” – the dosage should be subtherapeutic, about 100-300 mg.And let old-school psychiatrists say that less than 1000 does not work: explain to them that the drug is not for BAR or F25, but for concentration.

    Amfonelic Acid

    What would a person on the street say when asked about means to increase endurance? Most likely, he will name cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine. But they are prohibited, which means they do not suit us.

    But if you think about it, we don’t need them: we are not interested in drug intoxication, but in the opportunity to somewhat “speed up” thinking, increase endurance and remove drowsiness.

    And among research compounds there are many substances that are not drugs (in the legal sense), but can give us the desired effect. One of these substances is amphonelic acid.

    Technically, it is a dopamine reuptake inhibitor [11]. Those. in the usual mode, the dopamine released from the vesicle is pulled back with the help of DAT, but under the saber substance it is not tightened. Or it takes much less time.

    This substance is of interest precisely because of the selectivity of its effect: it does not increase aggression [10], does not affect noradrenergic (it seems, it is written in Russian) transmission [12], and therefore does not have unpleasant vegetative side effects.It also does not lead to the release of dopamine [13], which, on the one hand, makes it safe for neurons (unlike the same meta, it does not have neurotoxicity), and, secondly, it reduces the risk of addiction (but does not neutralize we still cling to the dopamine!).

    Quite simply, this is an ideal stimulant. Like amphetamine, only without a drug “arrival”, while maintaining clarity of thinking and the ability to adequately interact with reality.

    Reviews on it are different [14, 15, etc.] – for some, this substance is “like a lubricant for gears in the brain”, according to some users, it MUCH increases productivity. “The mind stays clean” is a motive that repeats in reviews. Others compare the effect to caffeine or say they felt nothing.

    But there is one powerful “but”: technically, this thing is an antibiotic from the quinolone group, and the constant use of antibiotics, as we all remember from the school course in biology, is not very good.

    (±) -2- (diphenylmethyl) -sulfinyl acetamide

    Better known under the trade mark Modafinil.Analeptic. In the Russian Federation, it is included in the “Psychotropic Substances” section of the list of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, the circulation of which in the Russian Federation is limited and for which control measures are established in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation and international treaties of the Russian Federation (List II).

    In practice, this means that it is almost impossible to get it legally (the maximum that I could manage was to get substances from List III, because doctors have some very hellish bureaucracy associated with the prescription of such drugs, and they are extremely reluctant they are appointed).

    It has been proven that it at least has the ability to restore (ie, improve) impaired cognitive abilities after chemotherapy [16]. In addition, it can reduce the manifestation of depressive symptoms [17]. But this is not so simple with the sick, with the healthy.

    Despite the fact that modafinil is quite popular as a “cognitive enhancer” [18, judgments on RAMP, which I do not refer to for obvious reasons], the study [18] shows that its effect is more likely to be associated with selection bias in favor of previously encouraged behavior versus abandoning behavior that is associated with negative reinforcement, which is by no means an improvement.

    Meta-research [19] also showed no effect of improving memory and intelligence. So it makes no sense to be puzzled by the search for this drug as a means of overclocking the brain.

    But, like many stimulants, it helps to fight sleep and fatigue. And in this capacity it may well be useful (if used correctly).

    “Phenibut”, * racetams, hopantenic acid, etc.

    Usually, when it comes to drugs for “brain acceleration”, someone remembers “Phenibut”, “Piracetam”, “Phenotropil” and other nootropics.

    Realizing perfectly well that the effectiveness of the preparations presented in the previous sections has been proven, to put it mildly, in no way, I would venture to devote a separate chapter to the criticism of nootropics.

    Let’s start with the fact that we are interested in the ability to improve memory, attention and thinking abilities and are not interested in other effects. For example, the same “Phenibut” has some sedative effect, but this is not what we need.

    So, the first thing that interests us is the Resolution of the meeting of the Presidium of the Formulary Committee of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences from 2007 [20], in which the following is written in Russian:

    1.Immediately remove from the list of drugs for which drug provision in the DLO program is carried out obsolete drugs with unproven efficacy Cerebrolysin , Trimetazidine, Chondroetin Sulfate, Vinpocetine , Piracetam , Phenotropil , Arbidol, Rimantol inosine, valocardine, etc., including those sold without a prescription;

    Piracetam [21, 22], as well as phenylpiracetam (“Phenotropil”) developed on its basis, have no proven efficacy in improving the ability to think (in a broad sense) is silent about “Phenotropil”].

    Less reliable sources (for example, [23]) report the presence of a short-term stimulating effect in “Phenotropil”, but according to reviews from the same RAMP, it quickly passes, and fonturacetam cannot be used as a stimulant.

    As for the hopantenic acid (“Pantocalcin”), which one of my psychiatrists loved so much, it also has no proven effectiveness.

    A “Vinpocetine”, which was so actively advertised in the 90s – 2000s, does not help with dementia [26].And Santa Claus does not exist.

    Why am I so nitpicky with these drugs about having quality meta-reviews on Cochrane when I haven’t done so in the previous sections? Because all sorts of PRL-8-53 and amphonelic acids are not drugs, they are not positioned anywhere as nootropic agents, and therefore they can be forgiven for the lack of large-scale clinical trials. Perhaps it will come to them, perhaps not.

    But if a certain substance is sold as a medicine, and even included in VED, then it simply must have proven effectiveness!

    Group B vitamins

    It’s simple: they don’t work.Contrary to popular belief, neither B6 [24] nor B12 [25] increases brain performance.

    Training memory and intelligence

    Someone might say that farming is the wrong way, and you just need to train your memory / intelligence, and everything will be OK. Well, let’s check it out.

    We have a study that shows that a healthy diet, memory exercise and physical activity in the short term improved fluency [27], but not memory.

    However, this effect is not generalized [28] – if you train short-term memory in a certain way, then your progress will be only within the framework of the technique that you use, but not in other areas.You can’t become smarter in this way.

    On the other hand, there is a study [29] showing that playing musical instruments improves verbal, working and long-term memory. So – everyone to the music school!

    Well, and the saddest news in the end: the training of the intellect as such also does not work [30].


    On the one hand, everything is sad. Nothing that could make a person smarter is not sold in pharmacies. Yes, and with independent work and self-development – it is also not so simple.

    On the other hand, chemists are constantly synthesizing all sorts of interesting things, one of which (or a combination) may someday make my dream of NZT IRL come true.

    I did not consider here the question of whether such a desire is legitimate at all (after all, the fact that we really want to become smarter can be a symptom of neurosis [31, 32], a consequence of improper organization of the work process, and finally (as in my case) as a consequence of mental illness). Perhaps I will return to these issues in future articles.

    * On the availability of prescription drugs

    Postscript: There is a proven way to get prescription drugs legally. You will be surprised, but this requires a sane psychiatrist (which, at least in our province, is rare, but I managed to find one). Then everything is simple: go to him for a paid appointment, show links to research, explain what and why you need, and get the required recipe.

    And the bonus will be that notorious “consultation with a specialist” who, if the condition of sanity is met, can really suggest something sensible.


    In order not to be accused of propaganda of piracy, I give links to magazines, but I think everyone knows how to use sayhab;)

    1. Susanne M. Jaeggi, Martin Buschkuehl, John Jonides, and Walter J. Perrig. Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 May 13; 105 (19): 6829-6833. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2383929
    2. Cattell, R. B. (1971). Abilities: Their structure, growth, and action. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
    3. Nikolaus R. Hansl, Beverley T. Mead. PRL-8-53: Enhanced learning and subsequent retention in humans as a result of low oral doses of new psychotropic agent. Psychopharmacology, January 1978, Volume 56, Issue 3, pp 249-253
    4. Donald E. Butler, Ivan C. Nordin, Yvon J. L’Italien, Lynette Zweisler, Paul H. Poschel, John G. Marriott. Amnesia-reversal activity of a series of N – [(disubstituted-amino) alkyl] -2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamides, including pramiracetam.J. Med. Chem., 1984, 27 (5), pp 684-691
    5. Patent US 8957099 B2. Treatment of ADHD. www.google.com/patents/US8957099
    6. Nicole Laporte, Guillaume Sébire, MD, PhD, Yves Gillerot, Renzo Guerrini, MD, PhD, Sophie Gharianicorrespondence. Cognitive epilepsy: ADHD related to focal EEG discharges. Pediatric Neurology, October 2002 Volume 27, Issue 4, Pages 307-311
    7. R.A. Gillhama, N. Williamsa, K.D. Wiedmanna, E. Butlera, J.G. Larkina, M.J. Brodie. Cognitive function in adult epileptic patients established on anticonvulsant monotherapy. Epilepsy Research
      Volume 7, Issue 3, December 1990, Pages 219-225
    8. Q

    9. Alan M. Mellow, MD, PhD Carlos Solano-Lopez, MD Sue Davis, BS. Sodium Valproate in the Treatment of Behavioral Disturbance in Dementia. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology.October 1, 1993
    10. neuroleptic.ru/forum/topic/231-valproate-depakine-convulex-convulsofin
    11. Johns JM, Joyner PW, McMurray MS, Elliott DL, Hofler VE, Middleton CL, Knupp K, Greenhill KW, Lomas LM, Walker CH. The effects of dopaminergic / serotonergic reuptake inhibition on maternal behavior, maternal aggression, and oxytocin in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005 Aug; 81 (4): 769-85.
    12. A.V. Juorio. The effects of amfonelic acid and some other central stimulants on mouse striatal tyramine, dopamine and homovanillic acid.Br J Pharmacol. 1982 Nov; 77 (3): 511-515.
    13. M.D. Aceto, I. Botton, M. Levitt, R. Martin, H.C. Bentley, P.T. Speight. Pharmacologic properties and mechanism of action of amfonelic acid. European Journal of Pharmacology. Volume 10, Issue 3, June 1970, Pages 344-354.
    14. Ben H.C. Westerink, Geert Damsma, Jan B. De Vries, Hylko Koning. European Journal of Pharmacology. Volume 135, Issue 2, 17 March 1987, Pages 123-128


    15. www.reddit.com/r/Drugs/comments/1c9rjy/the_holy_grail_of_bizarrely_psychoactive
    16. www.longecity.org/forum/topic/66192-amfonelic-acid
    17. “Doctors are finding it harder to deny ‘Chemobrain'”, The Virginian-Pilot, October 2, 2007.
    18. Cochrane evidence. Psychostimulants for depression.
    19. Bellebaum C, Kuchinke L, Roser P. Modafinil alters decision making based on feedback history – a randomized placebo-controlled double blind study in humans.J Psychopharmacol. 2016 Sep 20.pii: 0269881116668591.
    20. Avellar AB, Carvalho LB, Prado GF, Prado LB. Pharmacotherapy for residual excessive sleepiness and cognition in CPAP-treated patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Med Rev. 2016 Dec; 30: 97-107. doi: 10.1016 / j.smrv.2015.10.005.
    21. Resolution of the 2007 meeting of the Presidium of the Formulary Committee of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.
    22. Cochrane evidence. Evidence for the efficacy of piracetam for dementia or cognitive impairment is inadequate for clinical use but sufficient to justify further research.
      www.cochrane.org/CD001011/DEMENTIA_evidence-for-the-efficacy-of-piracetam-for-dementia-or-cognitive-impairment-is-inadequate-for-clinical-use-but-sufficient-to-justify-further -research
    23. P.A. Vorobiev, L.Yu. Bezmelnitsyna, L.S. Krasnova, M.A. Holovnya. Assessment of medical technology for the use of drugs with nootropic and psychostimulating effects: cortexin, piracetam, citicoline, cerebrolysin.
    24. encyclopatia.ru/wiki/Shot_list_of_preparations
    25. Cochrane Evidence. No evidence of benefit from vitamin B6 supplementation on mood or cognition of older people with normal vitamin B6 status or with vitamin B6 deficiency.
      www.cochrane.org/CD004393/DEMENTIA_no-evidence-of-benefit-from-vitamin-b6-supplementation-on-mood-or-cognition-of-older-people-with-normal-vitamin-b6-status-or -with-vitamin-b6-deficiency
    26. Cochrane Evidence. No evidence of the efficacy of vitamin B12 supplementation for cognitive function.
    27. Cochrane Evidence. Insufficient evidence of benefits of vinpocetine for people with dementia.
    28. Gary W. Small, M.D., Daniel H.S., Silverman, M.D., Ph.D., Prabha Siddarth, Ph.D., Linda M. Ercoli, Ph.D., Karen J. Miller, Ph.D. Helen Lavretsky, M.D. Benjamin C. Wright, M.D. Susan Y. Bookheimer, Ph.D., Jorge R. Barrio, Ph.D., Michael E. Phelps, Ph.D. Effects of a 14-Day Healthy Longevity Lifestyle Program on Cognition and Brain Function. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry.Volume 14, Issue 6, June 2006, Pages 538–545.
    29. Melby-Lervåg M, Hulme C. Is working memory training effective? A meta-analytic review. Dev Psychol. 2013 Feb; 49 (2): 270-91. doi: 10.1037 / a0028228
    30. Bugos, J. A., Perlstein, W. M., McCrae, C. S., Brophy, T. S., & Bedenbaugh, P. H. (2007). Individualized Piano Instruction enhances executive functioning and working memory in older adults.Aging & Mental Health, 11 (4): 464–471.
    31. David Z. Hambrick. Brain Training Doesn’t Make You Smarter. Scientific American. December 2, 2014.
    32. Karen Horney. “Our internal conflicts.”
    33. Karen Horney. “Introspection”.

    9 nootropics to unblock your real brain / SoHabr

    Nootropics (sometimes called smart drugs) are compounds that improve brain function.They are becoming a popular way to give your mind an extra boost. According to one Telegraph report, up to 25% of students at top UK universities have taken Modafinil, and Californian tech startups are trying everything from Adderall to LSD to boost their brains.

    I have been actively using nootropics since 1997 when I was “battling” cognitive performance. I ordered nearly $ 1000 worth of these drugs from Europe (the only place you could get them at that time).I remember opening an unnamed brown package and wondering – “Will drugs and natural substances really improve my brain?”

    They did, and since then I have been a big fan of some cognitive stimulants.

    The problem with using a general term such as “nootropics” is that you mix all kinds of substances together. Technically, it could be argued that caffeine and cocaine are nootropics, but they are unlikely to be equal. With so many ways to improve your brain function, many of which come with significant risks, it is most valuable to consider nootropics on a case-by-case basis.Below is a list of 9 nootropics, as well as my thoughts on each.

    1. Modafinil (Provigil), Armodafinil (Nuvigil) and Adrafinil – focus, motivation, clarity, memory.

      I started taking Modafinil while pursuing my MBA at Wharton. At the same time, I also worked for a startup that later sold for $ 600 million, so you can imagine how busy I was. I wanted my brain to work.

      When I first started taking Modafinil, I felt more like myself than in recent years.I have been taking it about every day in different doses for 8 years (with a doctor’s prescription). It gave me energy and changed my life. I wouldn’t be the biohacker I am today without modafinil.

      When I was working on The Bulletproof Diet I wanted to make sure that the effects I was getting from Bulletproof Coffee were not related to Modafinil, so I stopped using it and measured my cognitive abilities. What I found was that with Bulletproof Coffee and Bulletproof Diet, my mental capacity was much the same as with Modafinil.I still travel with Modafinil and will take it from time to time, but living a bulletproof lifestyle I rarely feel the need for it.

      There is a small risk (about 5 per million people) of having a life-threatening immune response to modafinil. This is the same reaction that occurs with ibuprofen and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, so if you know you are responding poorly to NSAIDs, talk to your doctor before taking modafinil.

      One of the reasons I like modafinil is because it increases the release of dopamine, but it binds to your dopamine receptors differently than addictive substances like cocaine and amphetamines, which may be one of the reasons modafinil shares many of the benefits of other stimulants, but does not cause addiction or withdrawal symptoms. It improves focus, problem-solving, and stay awake, but is not in the same class of drugs as Adderall and is not a classic stimulant.Modafinil has no patent, so you can get it or order it from India. This is a prescription drug, so you need to talk to your doctor.

      You can also try armodafinil, which is a more refined form of modafinil. It has nearly identical and sometimes more powerful effects.

      If you don’t want to get a prescription, there is adrafinil, which bears similarities, but I would not recommend taking it regularly because it strains your liver a lot.

      – Usually prescribed dose of modafinil: 50-200 mg, taken in the morning (if you do not want to stay awake all night).
      – Normally prescribed dose of armodafinil: 100-200 mg, taken in the morning.
      – Dose of Adrafinil: 300 mg, taken in the morning.

    2. Nicotine – focus, mood, motivation.

      Nicotine can be a powerful nootropic if you take it carefully and sparingly. Here is the
      complete guide to using nicotine as a nootropic, complete with pros, cons, risks, dosage recommendations, and advice on which form of nicotine to use.

      I do NOT recommend smoking cigarettes or using tobacco to get nicotine. I am talking about very small doses, which are much lower than smoking. Nicotine has a direct effect on your mitochondrial energy, and almost anything that increases mitochondrial function will improve your brain function.

    3. Amphetamine (Adderall) – Focus … but with high risk and several disadvantages.

      Adderall is popular on college campuses during exam time.It’s a shame, because there are much better choices.

      Adderall has significant risks. In healthy adults, it improves attention, focus, work motivation and short-term memory by increasing the release of dopamine and norepinephrine into the prefrontal cortex. Adderall also reduces fatigue, but causes nervousness and increases anxiety.

      What worries me about Adderall is its addictive potential and the fact that it can cause stress and anxiety.

    4. Forskolin & artichoke extract – memory, focus, learning.

      Because medications like Modafinil, Nicotine, and Adderall all have drawbacks, I have developed my own line of nootropics, including Forbose and SmartMode, which are safe, widely available, and require no prescription. Forskolin has been a part of Indian Ayurvedic medicine for millennia. Forskolin increases the amount of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) molecule needed for learning and memory formation.

      I have been using Forskolin for over ten years.

      Forskolin is especially effective when combined with artichoke extract.Artichoke extract inhibits the enzyme PDE4, which breaks down cAMP. PDE4 inhibitors make cAMP more readily available and when you add the cAMP boosting effects from artichoke extract you get a significant boost for learning, memory and motivation.

      Or you get a headache and decreased energy.
      This may be due to the fact that when cAMP levels rise, more dopamine is used than is normally found in your brain. It affects different people in different ways. You will only know if you try.

      Smart Mode contains artichoke extract and other cognitive-enhancing ingredients as part of our Bulletproof Brain Blend. Take with Forbose to receive your Forskolin dose. Forbose is a unique formula that helps your body generate more energy for powerful physical and mental stress.

      – Smart Mode dose: 3 capsules per day.
      – Forbose dose: 2 capsules before or after activity.

    5. L-theanine – calm alertness, reaction time, mental endurance.

      L-theanine is the main ingredient in black and green tea. Theanine itself promotes relaxation, alertness, and arousal.

      Theanine also works synergistically with caffeine. Together, they increase reaction time, memory, and mental stamina.

      You can get theanine from a capsule like Zen Mode, or have a cup or two of green tea. If you do decide to brew green tea, look for shade-grown teas because shade-grown green teas usually have much higher levels of theanine.

      – Dose of L-theanine: 200 mg. Take 3 Zen Mode capsules with your morning coffee, or you can take it at night as I do.

    6. Bacopa Monnieri – attention, mood, adaptation to stress, memory.

      It is a small aquatic plant native to India. Bacopa is an adaptogen that helps your body adapt to stress. It also improves memory in healthy adults and improves focus and mood in people over 65. Scientists still don’t fully understand how Bacopa works, but they do know that it takes time to work.Study participants did not feel its memory-enhancing effect until they added it daily for 4 weeks. Therefore, if you try bacopa, take it for a month before giving it up.

      – Bacopa monnieri dose: at least 750 mg per day, taken with a fat source to increase absorption.

    7. Unfair Advantage – energy, clarity.

      Unfair Advantage supports your mitochondria, the powerhouses of your cells, with two different ingredients:

      – CoQ10 increases cellular energy production in your mitochondria, giving you both mental and physical support (CoQ10 dose is low, but in colloidal form that enhances PQQ delivery ).
      – ActivePQQ is a new form of PQQ that is not inactivated by stomach acid. PQQ promotes the growth of new mitochondria and also helps your body cleanse and replace old mitochondria.

      The prefrontal cortex of your brain has the highest density of mitochondria, which helps explain why I first “feel” the Unfair Advantage in my head. Also, there is the second largest density of mitochondria in your heart, so I probably “feel” it near the center of my chest.Mitochondrial pathogens can have profound nootropic effects! At higher doses, mitochondrial energy sources are also a great pre-workout supplement.

      – Unfair Advantage Dose: 1-4 ampoules taken anytime.

    8. KetoPrime – energy, stress relief.

      KetoPrime is another powerful nootropic. It contains oxaloacetate, a compound that can protect your brain from environmental toxins.

      Toxins common in the environment, such as pesticides, cause the brain to release glutamate (a neurotransmitter). Your brain needs glutamate to function, but when you create too much of it, it becomes toxic and starts killing neurons. For example, oxaloacetate protects rodents from glutamate-induced brain damage. Of course, we need more research to determine if oxaloacetate has the same effect in humans.

      KetoPrime is a great way to give your brain an extra boost.In animal studies, it also alters the Krebs cycle by shifting the ratio of NADH to NAD +, which makes mitochondrial energy production more efficient.

      – KetoPrime dose: 1 lozenge taken in the morning.

    9. NeuroMaster – memory and focus.

      NeuroMaster is a supplement that I helped to formulate when I learned about the power of coffee fruit extract. This material significantly boosts brain neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels – even more than exercise.BDNF is an essential neuroprotein that helps increase neuroplasticity and create new neurons, leading to improved memory and concentration.

      This is important in the short term and important in the long term because you naturally lose BDNF as you age. Lower levels of BDNF are associated with age-related contraction of the hippocampus and decreased memory.

      100 mg of coffee fruit extract (the pulp surrounding the coffee beans) raised BDNF by about 140% in several studies.The rise continued for several hours.

      – NeuroMaster Dose: 1 capsule, taken in the morning with or without food.

    Material You Should Know About Nootropics

    When you first start taking nootropics sometimes you feel like nothing is happening. I experienced this. Then, after a week, I stopped taking them and immediately noticed their absence. This is because when your brain is performing better, it feels so natural that it’s hard to notice.

    On the other hand, sometimes you will feel a strong cognitive boost as soon as you take the pill. This can be good or bad. I find, for example, that modafinil makes you who you already are. This means that if you are wow @ k and take modafinil, you can act like a really big wud @ k and regret it. It certainly happened to me! I like to think that I’ve done enough to hack my brain to handle this programming … and that when I use nootropics, they help me help people.

    You can also become deeply depressed. One of the nootropics I have not written about here, lucidril, has excellent anti-aging and cognitive benefits for some people, but others feel very sad after taking it. After three days on Lucidril, I felt completely hopeless in my life. Luckily, I did some research and stopped taking it right away.

    There is a risk when experimenting with pharmaceuticals or illegal drugs such as LSD.The risk is greater than with most natural substances. You can have a psychotic experience if you take too much LSD. You are more likely to get severe headaches if you take too much choline-stimulating herbal substance.

    It is also worth checking the purity of your nootropics. I’ve seen some companies promoting ready-made nootropic kits that contain ingredients like blue agave (fructose!), Food coloring, and even bits of metal. Read the labels!

    I really hope that medicine will realize the amazing benefits of nootropics and start introducing them into society.Many of them not only improve your quality of life, they also make your brain more resilient to the environment.

    Before you try nootropics, I suggest you start with the basics – get rid of what in your diet and life in the first place reduces cognitive ability.