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Tb diet: Food & TB – diet for a person with TB

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Food & TB – diet for a person with TB

There is no special food that is required by a person with TB. A person with TB does not need special food, although they they should try and have a balanced diet.

Some people with TB also believe that more expensive foods are better than less expensive ones. This is not true. For example, it is not true that costlier varieties of rice are better than cheaper ones.

It is often better that a person with TB has the same diet as normal but possibly with some changes being made to increase their intake of food. People with TB often have a poor appetite initially, but having more frequent food intake can be helpful.

Within a few weeks of starting TB treatment, the person’s appetite should increase and come back to normal. A person with TB should aim to have three meals and three snacks each day to increase the amount of food they eat.

A healthy balanced diet for a person with TB

A person with TB should aim to have a healthy balanced diet. A healthy balanced diet can be achieved by having foods from four basic food groups. These are:

  • Cereals, millets and pulses
  • Vegetables and fruits
  • Milk and milk products, meat, eggs & fish
  • Oils, fats and nuts and oils seeds.

A food group is a collection of foods that share similar nutritional properties. If the food eaten contains food from all the above food groups, then the diet is considered healthy. Not all the food groups need to be eaten at every meal.

Types of food, essential nutrients

An essential nutrient is a nutrient that must be provided by a person’s diet. These nutrients are necessary for the body to function properly. The six essential nutrients include carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals & water.

  Major Nutrients Foods
Energy rich foods Carbohydrates & fats Whole grain cereals, millets.
Vegetable oils, ghee, butter.
Nuts and oil seeds. Sugars.
Body building foods Proteins Pulses, nuts and some oilseeds.
Milks & milk products
Meat, fish, poultry.
Protective foods Vitamins & minerals Green leafy vegatables.
Other vegetables & fruits.
Eggs, milk & milk products and flesh foods.

Attempts should be made to increase the energy and protein content of the food in meals and snacks without increasing its volume. So, for example, addition of oil or butter to chapatti or rice can increase the energy content of the diet. A person with TB should also be encouraged to eat pulses in other forms e.g. roasted chana.

People with TB need a variety of foods from different groups

Oils & fats are a source of energy. In terms of oil, soyabean oil, mustard oil and coconut oil, are all acceptable. Nuts like ground nuts are good sources of energy and protein and can be taken as snacks in either fried or roasted form. Ground nuts are equivalent in nutritional terms to more expensive nuts like almonds, cashews.

Proteins can be of animal origin like milk, eggs, meat and fish or of plant origin as in cereals & pulses. For vegetarians, a combination of cereals & pulses can give a quantity of protein equivalent to that of animal proteins. The daily consumption of milk and milk products is also beneficial. In the case of non vegetarians, consumption of eggs on a daily basis can provide the same benefit as meat and fish at a lower cost.

Vegetables, especially leafy vegetables and fruits are vital sources of vitamins & minerals and should be part of the daily diet. Locally available fruits are as good as more expensive fruits transported over long distances.

TB & Nutrition

Nutrition means looking at the nutrients that are provided by people’s diets. For a long time it has been known that there is a link between TB & malnutrition. If people do not have sufficient nutrition, sometimes referred to as under nutrition, then this makes TB worse.  Under nutrition weakens the body’s ability to fight disease.

TB also makes under nutrition worse. Most individuals with TB experience weight loss. This can be caused by several factors including reduced food intake due to loss of appetite.

In India a Direct Benefit Transfer scheme provides people with TB with additional money for food.

Physical activity

If a person with TB is able to carry out any physical activity then this can be beneficial. Physical activity helps food intake to be converted into muscle mass, and it also improves the appetite.

What food should be avoided by a person with  TB

A person with TB should avoid the following:

  • Alcohol in any form, as it increases the risk of drug toxicity
  • Carbonated drinks
  • Excess of tea and coffee, or their intake with food
  • Tobacco and tobacco products
  • An excess of spices & salt.

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This page was last updated in July 2020.
Author Annabel Kanabus

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The Right Diet to Beat Tuberculosis – Tuberculosis Center

Getting Good Nutrition When You Have TB

To give your body the vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients it needs to fight active tuberculosis and regain your strength and stamina, you need to eat a diet containing a variety of healthy foods, such as:

  • Leafy, dark-colored greens like kale and spinach, for their high iron and B-vitamin content
  • Plenty of whole grains, like whole wheat pastas, breads, and cereals
  • Antioxidant-rich, brightly-colored vegetables, such as carrots, peppers, and squash, and fruits, like tomatoes, blueberries, and cherries — think of buying produce in a full rainbow of colors
  • Unsaturated fats like vegetable or olive oil, instead of butter

Talk to your doctor about whether you have any nutrient deficiencies and if taking a daily multivitamin with minerals makes good nutrition sense for you. A recent review of the limited studies done on supplements in patients with TB showed some evidence that high-calorie energy supplements helped underweight patients gain body weight, and that zinc, combined with other micronutrients or with vitamin A, may offer nutritional help. The reviewers concluded that additional studies are needed.

What to Avoid When You Have Active Tuberculosis

As is always the case for good health, there are certain foods you shouldn’t eat and substances you shouldn’t use.

  • Skip tobacco in all forms.
  • Don’t drink alcohol — it can add to the risk of liver damage from some of the drugs used to treat your TB.
  • Limit coffee and other caffeinated drinks.
  • Limit refined products, like sugar, white breads, and white rice.
  • Avoid high-fat, high-cholesterol red meat and instead load up on leaner protein sources like poultry, beans, tofu, and fish.

Getting and Staying Healthy With Active TB

Many medications used to treat active tuberculosis have side effects that can make it difficult to eat well. With some drugs, you could:

  • Lose your appetite
  • Feel nauseated
  • Vomit
  • Experience abdominal cramping

You can’t stop taking your TB drugs, so instead talk to your doctor about what you can do to help eliminate side effects.

Make every effort to give your body the nutrition it needs to maintain a healthy weight and build up strength to destroy the tuberculosis bacteria and reduce your risk of a relapse. Eating a varied, healthy diet, and staying away from unhealthy habits, will help you feel better, faster.

Tuberculosis: How to create a healthy, balanced diet plan for TB patients


Tuberculosis: How to create a healthy, balanced diet plan for TB patients&nbsp | &nbspPhoto Credit:&nbspGetty Images

Key Highlights

  • Basically, a person with tuberculosis should focus on eating a healthy, well-planned balanced diet consisting of a variety of fruits and vegetables
  • It has been shown that being malnourished or underweight increases a person’s risk of getting tuberculosis
  • Here’s how to create a healthy, balanced diet plan for a person with tuberculosis

New Delhi: Tuberculosis, an infectious disease that usually affects the lungs, is now much better understood. The disease is preventable as well as curable with proper treatment. Generally, the treatment for active TB takes up to a year of daily antibiotics to help eradicate the infection and prevent complications. During treatment, TB patients need to eat a healthy diet. While there’s no specific food for tuberculosis, a balanced diet that includes plenty of whole foods can help the body fight the disease better and speed up the recovery process.

Basically, a person with tuberculosis should focus on eating a healthy, well-planned balanced diet consisting of a variety of fruits and vegetables. The fact is that when you have tuberculosis, your body needs healthy, adequate nutrients more than ever. It has been shown that being malnourished or underweight increases a person’s risk of getting tuberculosis. It also increases the risk of reinfection or relapse of TB after treatment.

How to create a healthy diet plan for a person with tuberculosis

Eating a nutritious diet containing a variety of healthy foods will provide the body with the vitamins, minerals, nutrients, and other antioxidants it needs to fight the disease. A healthy eating plan can be achieved by including the following food groups in your diet:

  • Vegetables and fruits – leafy greens and antioxidant-rich fruits such as spinach, carrots, squash, peppers, tomatoes, blueberries, cherries, oranges, lemons, etc.
  • Whole grains  – whole-wheat cereals
  • Proteins  – meat, poultry, fish, eggs, pulses, nuts, legumes and beans, milk and milk products
  • Healthy fats – unsaturated fats from olive oil, nuts, seeds, etc.

Additionally, a person with tuberculosis should avoid or limit certain foods and things:

  • Alcohol – in any form is bad as it raises the risk of drug toxicity
  • Limit caffeine and carbonated drinks
  • Limit intake of refined products, including sugar, white rice and white bread
  • Avoid or cut back on high-fat, high-cholesterol red meats
  • Avoid tobacco and tobacco products
  • Do not stop or skip meals
  • Take TB medicines regularly and complete the full course of treatment as prescribed by your doctor.

Initially, TB medicines can cause some side effects, which may lead to nausea, stomach upset, or loss of appetite. In such cases, always consult your doctor about what can be done to deal with side effects. A healthy diet and staying away from unhealthy habits will help you feel better fast and regain your health.

Disclaimer: Tips and suggestions mentioned in the article are for general information purpose only and should not be construed as professional medical advice. Always consult your doctor or a dietician before starting any fitness programme or making any changes to your diet.

Tuberculosis and nutrition

Abstract

Malnutrition and tuberculosis are both problems of considerable magnitude in most of the underdeveloped regions of the world. These two problems tend to interact with each other. Tuberculosis mortality rates in different economic groups in a community tend to vary inversely with their economic levels. Similarly, nutritional status is significantly lower in patients with active tuberculosis compared with healthy controls. Malnutrition can lead to secondary immunodeficiency that increases the host’s susceptibility to infection. In patients with tuberculosis, it leads to reduction in appetite, nutrient malabsorption, micronutrient malabsorption, and altered metabolism leading to wasting. Both, protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies increase the risk of tuberculosis. It has been found that malnourished tuberculosis patients have delayed recovery and higher mortality rates than well-nourished patients. Nutritional status of patients improves during tuberculosis chemotherapy. High prevalence of human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection in the underdeveloped countries further aggravates the problem of malnutrition and tuberculosis. Effect of malnutrition on childhood tuberculosis and tuberculin skin test are other important considerations. Nutritional supplementation may represent a novel approach for fast recovery in tuberculosis patients. In addition, raising nutritional status of population may prove to be an effective measure to control tuberculosis in underdeveloped areas of world.

Keywords: Antituberculosis chemotherapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, malnutrition, micronutrients, tuberculosis

INTRODUCTION

Malnutrition and tuberculosis are both problems of considerable magnitude in most of the underdeveloped regions of the world. It is important to consider, how these two problems tend to interact with each other. The term consumption has been virtually synonymous with tuberculosis throughout the history1 and the link between tuberculosis and malnutrition has long been recognized; malnutrition may predispose people to the development of clinical disease and tuberculosis can contribute to malnutrition.2 Before the advent of antituberculosis chemotherapy, a diet rich in calories, proteins, fats, minerals, and vitamins was generally considered to be an important, if not essential factor in treatment of tuberculosis. The introduction of specific antituberculosis drugs, however, has so radically altered the management of the disease that the role of diet should be considered in the light of the advances in treatment.

In the 21st century, tuberculosis is still the most frequent underlying cause of wasting worldwide. However, pathophysiology of wasting in tuberculosis remains poorly understood.3 The prevalence of widespread malnutrition in the population may be expected to pose some special problems with regard to the control of the tuberculosis in the developing countries from the larger point of view of prevention and therapeutic management of individual cases, from the narrower clinical point of view.

The direct evidence of effect of nutrition on tuberculosis is difficult because of whole complex of coincident environmental factors. Despite these limitations, the weight of evidence still favors the view that malnutrition may be an important factor in the high mortality and morbidity from tuberculosis in population subjected to food shortage.4 In any consideration of the role of nutrition in tuberculosis, three important questions arise.4 Does malnutrition predispose to tuberculosis infection? Does malnutrition influence or modify the course of established tuberculosis infection? Do nutritional factors influence the response to chemotherapy?

High prevalence of human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection in the underdeveloped countries further aggravates the problem of malnutrition and tuberculosis. HIV infection is an important risk factor for development of tuberculosis and adversely affects the nutritional status of patient.

EFFECTS OF MALNUTRITION ON TUBERCULOSIS

There are several experimental, clinical, and epidemiological studies demonstrating the effects of malnutrition on tuberculosis.

Epidemiological studies

It has been pointed out that tuberculosis mortality rates in different economic groups in a community tend to vary inversely with their economic levels. There are also numerous observations pointing to increase in tuberculosis mortality in various countries during times of war and famine.5

There are numerous studies dealing with the effects of different diets on tuberculosis patients, and widely divergent and contradictory claims have been made. Difficulty in interpretation of these studies is influence of other factors on infection. Among tuberculin skin test positive U.S. navy recruits, the risk of tuberculosis was nearly four-fold higher among men who were at least 10% underweight at baseline than in men who were at least 10% overweight.6 In a study among 1,717,655 Norwegians, >15-years old who were followed for 8–19 years after intake into a radiographic screening program, the relative risk of tuberculosis among persons in the lowest body mass index (BMI) category was more than five-fold higher than the group in the highest BMI category, and it was independent of sex, age, and radiographic findings.7

In another study conducted in London, it was found that Hindu Asians had an increased risk of tuberculosis compared with Muslims. Religion had no independent influence after adjustment for vegetarianism (common among Hindu Asians).8 There was a trend of increasing risk of tuberculosis with decreasing frequency of meat or fish consumption. Lacto-vegetarians had an 8.5-fold risk compared with daily meat/fish eaters. Decreased immunocompetence associated with a vegetarian diet may result in increased mycobacterial reactivation.

Poor nutrition among patients who have undergone gastrectomy may be a risk factor for the reactivation of tuberculosis. There are other studies indicating that incidence of tuberculosis is unusually high among malnourished people.9

Now it is important to consider how malnutrition can increase risk of tuberculosis. The host protective immune mechanism of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends critically on the interaction and cooperation between monocyte-macrophages and T-lymphocytes and their cytokines.10 Substantial experimental evidence suggests that malnutrition can lead to secondary immunodeficiency that increases the host’s susceptibility to infection. Increased risk of tuberculosis can result from alteration in the individual protective function of, or the interaction between T-lymphocytes and macrophages because of nutritional insult.11

The reactivation of latent or previously subclinical tuberculosis infection may be related, in part, to deteriorating nutritional status.12 Protein malnutrition has been identified as an important risk factor for the predisposition to intracellular infection leading to death.13

Animal studies

Though there are several studies on experimental animals that have concluded contributory role of malnutrition on tuberculosis, an important snag in the interpretation of experimental data is the question as to how far these data obtained in the experimental animals are really applicable to human subjects. The natural history and evolution of tuberculosis in the animals and human beings need not necessarily be the same, and of course, the nutritional requirements of the animals and human subjects are also different.5

It was reported that protein calorie malnutrition markedly enhanced bacterial growth and dissemination in mice resulting in rapidly fatal tuberculosis infection and a markedly elevated bacillary load in the lungs of protein deficient mice.11

Study on guinea pigs demonstrated that protein malnutrition impairs the protective interaction between macrophages and T-lymphocytes and/or the acquisition of mycobactericidal and mycobacteriostatic activity by macrophages in the presence of adequate activation signals.14 Protein deficiency prevented guinea pigs from generating a population of antigen-specific-immune lymphocytes and/or impaired the proliferation capacity of these cells.15

Cytokines play a central role in mediating antimycobacterial immunity. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is required to initiate and amplify immune responses. IL-2 production was depressed in chronic protein deficient guinea pigs vaccinated with M bovis BCG.16 Result of a study on guinea pigs demonstrated that protein malnutrition potentiates the M. tuberculosis h47Rv-infected macrophages-monocytes to produce higher levels of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) which is a likely mediator of immunosuppression and immunopathogenesis in tuberculosis.14

In nutshell, it can be said that malnutrition exerts detrimental effects on many aspects of host immune responses against mycobacterial infection. First, dietary deficiency causes thymic atrophy and impairs the generation and maturation of T-lymphocytes in animal models of tuberculosis, resulting in reduced number of immunocompetent T-cells in lymphoid compartments including the blood. Second, deficiency of protein and other nutrients impair T-cell functions, including decreased production of Th1CK IL-2 and IFN-γ and depressed tuberculin reaction and PPD-induced lymphoproliferation in guinea pigs and mice infected with virulent M. tuberculosis. Third, protein malnutrition impairs sequestration or trapping of reactive T-lymphocytes and loss of tuberculosis resistance following BCG vaccination. Finally, protein malnutrition potentiates M tuberculosis h47Rv infected monocytes-macrophages to produce higher level of TGF-β-a cytokine which has been implicated as a likely mediator of immunosuppression and immunopathogenesis in tuberculosis.

There are some studies which do not prove the role of malnutrition in tuberculosis. A four-year follow-up of treated cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in a study at the Madras Tuberculosis Chemotherapy Center showed that about 90% of patients maintained quiescence throughout the four-years period follow-up in spite of the fact that they were living under great stress of socioeconomic conditions including poor diet. Furthermore, the few patients who had a bacteriological relapse were at no special dietary disadvantage in comparison with those who had quiescent disease throughout.4

EFFECTS OF TUBERCULOSIS ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS

Nutritional status is significantly lower in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis compared with healthy controls in different studies in Indonesia, England, India, and Japan.17 Tuberculosis patients have been found to have lower serum albumin concentration than controls.17 Tuberculosis is probably associated with more severe malnutrition than other chronic illnessess; in an Indian study, the nutritional status of patients with tuberculosis was worse than that of those with leprosy. A study in Uganda demonstrated that poor nutritional status is common among adults with pulmonary tuberculosis.18 In yet another Indian study, tuberculosis patients were respectively 11 and 7 times more likely to have a BMI < 18.5 and mid-arm circumference < 24 cm.19

For any infection, there is a complex interaction between the host response and the virulence of the organisms, which modulates the overall metabolic response and the degree and the pattern of tissue loss. In patients with tuberculosis, a reduction in appetite, nutrient malabsorption, micronutrient malabsorption, and altered metabolism leads to wasting.20,21

In a study, Indian patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were compared with malnourished and normally nourished healthy subjects. Whereas protein synthesis and breakdown in the fasting state were not significantly different between groups, patients with tuberculosis used a larger proportion of proteins from oral feeding for oxidation and hence for energy production than did either control group. Such failure to channel food protein into endogenous protein synthesis has been termed “Anabolic block”. This anabolic block represents one of the mechanisms for wasting in tuberculosis and other inflammatory status.21,22

Anorexia is also a contributing factor for wasting in tuberculosis. In an unselected U.S. cohort of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis, 45% lost weight and 20% had anorexia.23 Increased production of cytokines with lipolytic and proteolytic activity cause increased energy expenditure in tuberculosis.24 Leptin may also play an important role in wasting.25 In a study, malnutrition has been associated with atypical presentations of tuberculosis.26

Role of micronutrients

Because of diverse metabolic characteristics and functions, micronutrients have presently been accepted as essential for optimum human health. Micronutrients deficiency is considered to be the most frequent cause of secondary immunodeficiency and infection related morbidity including tuberculosis.

Zinc

Zinc deficiency affects the host defenses in a variety of ways. It results in decreased phagocytosis and leads to a reduced number of circulating T-cells and reduced tuberculin reactivity, at least in animals.17In vitro cellular killing by macrophages was found to be reduced during zinc deficiency and rapidly restored after zinc supplementation.27

Various studies on patients with tuberculosis had shown significantly lower plasma zinc level than those without tuberculosis, irrespective of their nutritional status. There was significant rise in zinc level at the end of six- months of antituberculosis therapy (ATT). Thus, it may be suggested that plasma zinc status is likely a marker for monitoring the severity of disease and response to therapy.17,28,29 Zinc deficiency in tuberculosis is likely due to redistribution of zinc from plasma to other tissues or reduction of the hepatic production of the zinc carrier protein α2-macroglobulin and to a rise in the production of metallothionein, a protein that transports zinc to the liver.17

Reduction in plasma zinc concentration was shown in tuberculosis patients after two months of treatment. This phenomenon may be because during the intensive phase of ATT, the antituberculosis drugs were used to kill the population of replicating bacilli and zinc may play important role in the macrophage contribution to host defenses at the site of infection.30 The other possible mechanisms could be the effect of antituberculosis drugs on zinc absorption. Ethambutol was shown in rats to increase not only zinc absorption but also urinary zinc losses, resulting in reduced circulating zinc concentration.31

Zinc supplementation of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and bacterial pneumonia was shown to increase immune function.32 In a study, it was found that PPD indurations were larger in children receiving zinc and zinc increases the PPD induration size in children irrespective of nutritional status.33

Zinc has essential role in vitamin A metabolism. Studies in humans and animals have shown that zinc deficiency impairs the synthesis of retinal binding proteins and reduces plasma retinal concentration.34 Therefore, it appears that zinc supplementation has a beneficial effect on vitamin A metabolism which has important role in tuberculosis. An adequate supply of zinc may also limit free radical membrane damage during inflammation.35

Vitamin A

It has been shown that vitamin A has immunocompetent role in human tuberculosis. Vitamin A was reported to inhibit multiplication of virulent bacilli in cultured human macrophages.36 In addition, vitamin A has a vital role in lymphocyte proliferation and in maintaining the function of epithelial tissues.37 Vitamin A is essential for normal functioning of T and B lymphocytes, macrophage activity, and generation of antibody response.38

A study from Rwanda reported vitamin A deficiency among adults with tuberculosis. Concentration of vitamin A was found to be lower in tuberculosis patients than that in controls in many studies.39,40 The low concentration of retinal in plasma can be due to number of factors including reduced intake or reduced absorption of fat. Additionally, infection itself can compromise vitamin A status in number of ways.41 Vitamin A is excreted in the urine in patients with fever and this has been confirmed in subjects with acute infection including pneumonia.42 During the acute phase response, leakage of proalbumin through the vascular endothelium occurs; and production of retinal binding proteins and prealbumin by liver is reduced.41 In addition, requirement of vitamin A during infection is raised by its increased rate of excretion and metabolism.42

In an Indian study, the low vitamin A levels observed in tuberculosis patients returned to normal at the end of ATT without vitamin A supplementation.43 Vitamin A deficiency increases bacterial adherence to respiratory epithelial cells.44

In the prechemotherapeutic era, cod liver oil rich in vitamin A and D was used regularly to strengthen host defence.45 Supplementation of vitamin A appears to increase survival among chicks infected with M. tuberculosis and enhances both T-lymphocyte and antibody responses to M. tuberculosis.46

Vitamin D

Vitamin D plays a role in the function of macrophages, key factor in host resistance in tuberculosis. Abnormalities in vitamin D status have been reported in tuberculosis. Genetic variations in the vitamin D receptor were identified as a major determinant of the risk for tuberculosis in Africans.47 Vitamin D deficiency itself was shown to be a risk factor for tuberculosis.48 Adults with untreated tuberculosis in Indonesia were shown to have significantly lower 25-hydroxy-vitamin D compared with controls.49

Studies have yielded inconsistent findings regarding serum or plasma calcium concentration during tuberculosis. A study in Africa has related hypocalcemia to moderate to extensive radiographic disease.50

Vitamin E

In many studies, concentration of vitamin E was found to be significantly lower in tuberculosis patients than healthy controls.39,51

Vitamin C

Studies have linked vitamin C deficiency with tuberculosis.39,51 In Ethiopians, concentrations of antioxidant vitamin C, vitamin E, and vitamin A were significantly lower in tuberculosis patients and high malonaldehyde concentration was associated with clinical severity.52

Selenium

The essential trace element selenium has an important function in maintaining the immune processes and thus may have a critical role in clearance of mycobacteria. Selenium has been found as significant factor in the relative risk for developing mycobacterial diseases in HIV positive patients.53

A recent Indian study measured concentrations of circulating antioxidants and markers of oxidative stress in tuberculosis patients. Results showed lower antioxidant potential (lower levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and ascorbic acid) and enhanced lipid peroxidation products (malonaldehyde) in tuberculosis patients. Antioxidant potential increased with treatment.54

Iron

Anemia is highly prevalent among adults with pulmonary tuberculosis.17 In a study conducted in Ghana, 50% adults with pulmonary tuberculosis had significantly lower hemoglobin than healthy matched controls. Iron deficiency may also be a contributing factor.55

In a study, concentration of hemoglobin was lower in tuberculosis patients than that in controls17 and those of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) were significantly higher than in controls. Elevated concentration of ZPP, a measure of free erythrocyte porphyrin, is indicative of iron deficient erythropoiesis.56

There are two explanations for the association of low iron status and infection. One is that anemia results from chronic infection and the other is that iron deficiency would increase susceptibility to infection such as tuberculosis.17

Copper

In a recent study, compared with the control group, the concentrations of iron, zinc, and selenium were significantly lower while that of copper and copper/zinc ratio were significantly higher in the serum of tuberculosis patients.57 The serum concentration of zinc increased and serum copper concentration and copper/zinc ratio decreased significantly after antituberculosis chemotherapy.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

In a study, eicosanoid synthesis was studied in macrophages of guinea pigs fed with different amounts of omega-6 fatty acids and omega-3 fatty acids. It was concluded that supplementing the diet with (n-3-) fatty acids can affect resistance to M. tuberculosis, whereas supplementing with (n-6-) fatty acids does not.58

Cholesterol

Hypocholesterolemia is common among tuberculosis patients and is associated with mortality in miliary tuberculosis cases. In vitro studies concluded that cholesterol-rich diet accelerated the sterilization rate of sputum culture in pulmonary tuberculosis patients suggesting that cholesterol should be used as a complementary measure in ATT.59

HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION

Tuberculosis and Human imunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are wasting diseases that frequently occur together. Two studies in Haiti and England showed significant difference between arm muscle circumference in adults with tuberculosis and healthy controls.60 Mid-upper arm circumference was significantly lower among HIV positive adults with tuberculosis than in HIV negative adults with tuberculosis.26 Mean triceps skin fold thickness is also lower in HIV positive adults with tuberculosis than in HIV negative adults with tuberculosis.60

One study demonstrated that there appears to be a relationship among BMI, host immune function, and natural history of HIV in adults with tuberculosis.61 Overexpression of TNF-α may be the cause of wasting.

Net protein anabolism is impaired in patients with HIV positive adults with tuberculosis infection and this impairment is significantly more than that seen in patients with HIV or tuberculosis infection alone. Mortality is increased in HIV and tuberculosis patients who have significant wasting.

In malnourished tuberculosis patients, combination of enhanced oxidative stress and decreased concentration of several antioxidants may have important pathogenic consequences in HIV infected tuberculosis patients. Oxidative stress has been shown to enhance HIV replication, to induce the production of several inflammatory cytokines and to promote lymphocytic apoptosis62,63 and T-cell dysfunction; and could therefore contribute to increased viral replication and progression of immunodeficiency in patients dually infected with HIV and tuberculosis.64

Nutritional needs of children with tuberculosis

The rapid growth periods of infancy and childhood can only be maintained if a child’s nutrient intake is optimal. Tuberculosis can cause impaired growth and malnutrition. Provision of adequate energy and nutrients for a child with tuberculosis is very important since the child has increased requirements as a result of both growth and tuberculosis.

Various studies have concluded that all children presenting with malnutrition or failure to thrive must be evaluated for possible tuberculosis. Because children have limited stomach capacity and appetite, meeting nutritional requirement in children presents a difficult challenge.5

Drug nutrient interaction

Concomitant feeding and administration of antituberculosis drugs with food has been shown to result in decreased bioavailability of rifampicin and isoniazid.65

Ethambutol has been shown in rats to increase not only zinc absorption but also urinary zinc losses, resulting in reduced circulating zinc concentration.31

Peripheral neuropathy is a well-known adverse effect of isoniazid. Though this is reported to be rare in patients receiving dosages of isoniazid of the order of 5 mg/kg, it is frequently found in subjects receiving higher doses.4 Isoniazid-induced peripheral neuropathy is frequently observed among poor segments of population because of malnutrition.

Finally, adverse reactions of antituberculosis drugs are risk factors for malnutrition, independent of age, gender, education, occupation, and access to food stuffs.66

NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND CLINICAL OUTCOMES

Nutritional status appears to be an important determinant of clinical outcome during tuberculosis. In an Indian study, 163 patients with tuberculosis were treated either in a sanatorium with a well-balanced diet or at home on a markedly poor diet. The overall treatment response was similar in both groups, however, those receiving better nutrition tended to show more rapid clearance of bacteria and radiographic changes in addition to greater weight gain.67

Experimental studies on rats have shown that animals on high protein diet recovered from the negative nitrogen balance phase following an infection more rapidly than those on low protein diet.5 Clinical studies have shown that prognosis in case of tuberculosis is decidedly more favorable in subjects with positive nitrogen balance than in those with negative nitrogen balance.5

Serum albumin and hemoglobin concentrations have been found as strong predictors of survival in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis.68 In another study on tuberculosis patients, albumin, cholesterol, cholinesterase, hemoglobin level, and weight were lower in patients who died than in those who survived.69 In a study in Malawi among 1181 patients with tuberculosis, the risk factor for early mortality included age >35 years, HIV seropositivity, and a high degree of malnutrition.70 Among adults with moderate to severe malnutrition, 10.9% died in the first four weeks of treatment as opposed to a 6.5% death rate in adults who were normal or had mild malnutrition. Finally, wasting in tuberculosis is associated with impaired physical function.

Changes in nutritional status during chemotherapy

Studies have shown that nutritional indicators such as anthropometric measurements improve during tuberculosis chemotherapy.67 A study conducted in Malawi showed that among 1181 adults with tuberculosis, weight significantly increased after four weeks of treatment, especially in HIV group.

Nutritional treatment of tuberculosis

Nutritional supplementation may help to improve outcome in tuberculosis patients. A study found that nutritional counseling to increase energy intake combined with provision of supplements, when started during the initial phase of tuberculosis treatment, produced a significant increase in body weight, total lean mass, and physical function after siix weeks. A large proportion (46%) of the early weight gain comprised lean tissue, confirming the findings that tuberculosis can mount a protein anabolic response on feeding. In the same study, patients in the nutritional supplementation group continued to show a greater increase in body weight than control subjects during later follow-up. However, the pattern changed toward deposition of predominantly fat mass, whereas in the control group, the weight gain comprised fat and lean tissue in approximately equal proportions.71 As described above, the changes in lean mass could be an underestimate of the actual improvement in nutritional status, given that feeding initially leads to a loss of extracellular water that accumulates in malnourished individuals, including those with tuberculosis.20 Accelerating the recovery of lean tissue might help to restore physical functions more rapidly. Restoration of physical function might help to shorten the convalescent period and facilitate earlier return to productive work.71 Early restoration of nutrition could also lead to immunologic changes that could enhance the clearance of mycobacteria and reduce infectiousness of patient.

Vitamins and minerals can play important role in treatment of tuberculosis. In a trial among 110 new cases of active tuberculosis, subjects received tuberculosis chemotherapy alone, or in addition to injectable thiamin, vitamin B6, and vitamin C, or an oral multivitamin supplement.72 All groups receiving any vitamin supplementation had significantly better lymphocyte proliferation responses than the group receiving no supplement. Another trial showed that vitamins C and E were effective in improving immune responses to tuberculosis when given as adjuvant to multidrug tuberculosis therapy.73 The supplementation with vitamin A and zinc improved the effectiveness of the antituberculosis drugs in the first two months. The improved outcome was indicated by the higher number of patients with sputum negative for bacilli and significantly lower mean lesion area in the lungs.30

A retrospective study on nonmiliary tuberculosis patients admitted in ICU with respiratory failure found that early and aggressive attention to improving the patient’s nutrition may be as important as effective ATT and mechanical ventilation in salvaging these patients.68

Nutritional supplementation may represent a novel approach for fast recovery in tuberculosis patients. In addition, raising nutritional status of population may prove to be an effective measure to control tuberculosis in underdeveloped areas of world.

5 Best Foods For A Tuberculosis Patient

Nutritious foods will help in dealing with Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease which can turn out to be fatal if not taken care of properly. It is caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis and people who are undernourished have a greater risk of developing TB. However, researchers have found a substance that may help combat this disease. The substance, called beta lactone EZ120, interferes with the formation of the bacterium’s mycomembrane. The researchers found that the substance may inhibit the biosynthesis of the mycomembrane and kills mycobacteria effectively. The symptoms of Tuberculosis include weight loss, weakness and shortness of breath. However, consumption of certain foods can turn out to be beneficial for a tuberculosis patient. A healthy with these specific foods will help greatly in dealing with this disease.  

 

Calorie Dense Foods
 

Calorie dense foods that are nutrient rich can meet up the rising metabolic demands of the TB patient and can also prevent further weight loss. Foods like banana, cereal porridge, peanut chikki, wheat and ragi are quite beneficial for TB patients.

 

Foods Rich in Vitamin A, C and E
 

Fruits and vegetables like orange, mango, sweet pumpkin and carrots, guava, amla, tomato, nuts and seeds are an excellent source of Vitamin A, C and E. These foods must be included in the daily diet regime of a TB patient.

(Also Read: 22 Vitamins And Minerals You Didn’t Know Your Body Needs)

Vitamins and minerals have been proven to be superior and provide tremendous health benefits

Protein Rich Foods
 

TB patients tend to experience loss in appetite. It is very important for them to indulge in protein-rich foods like eggs, paneer and soya chunks as they are quite rich in protein. These foods can be absorbed easily by the body and can give you the required energy.

 

Foods Rich in B Complex Vitamins
 

Whole grain cereals, nuts, seeds, fish and chicken are quite rich in B complex vitamins. These foods must be consumed by a TB patient in moderation.

 

Food Rich in Zinc
 

Nuts are a great source of zinc that can provide essential nutrients to the body. Nuts and seeds like sunflower seeds, chia seeds, pumpkin seeds and flaxseeds quite beneficial for TB patients. Include these foods in your diet that will help you in combating diseases like TB. 

Enrich your diet with these nutritious foods and stay healthy. 

With Inputs from IANS 

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5 Ideal Foods For A Tuberculosis Patient

Once a dreaded disease with fatal outcomes, TB or tuberculosis is now much better understood and treated. It is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. When a person with TB coughs or sneezes, the air gets contaminated with the germs. When another person breathes in these germs, there is a chance that they will become infected.

Symptoms and deficiencies during TB

 

Symptoms of TB include weight loss, weakness, night sweats, shortness of breath, etc. According to WHO (World Health Organization), being undernourished or poorly-nourished itself is a risk factor for developing TB.

Nutrition, therefore, is a major contributor towards recovery and management of tuberculosis. Usually, patients are put on a high dose of antibiotics for a prolonged period and these have significant impacts on nutrient absorption of vitamin B6 or pyridoxine, vitamin D (which in turn impacts calcium absorption), and several minerals.

 

WHO also states that TB patients have low circulating concentrations of micronutrients, such as vitamins A, E and D and the minerals iron, zinc and selenium. Both tuberculosis prevention and treatment should focus on preventing and treating malnutrition, especially under-nutrition, which lowers immunity and creates a host of nutrient deficiencies. This can be achieved by eating well-planned, balanced meals for breakfast, lunch and dinner.

 

Nutrients and foods for a tuberculosis diet

Calorie-dense foods:

The best foods for TB patients would need to be high in calorie and nutrient-rich to meet rising metabolic demands and to prevent further weight loss. Calorie-dense foods include banana, cereal porridge or kheer, rava or sooji kesaribhath or a halwa, peanut chikki, rava laddoo, wheat and ragi sprouted malt porridge or drink, khichdi and so on.

 

Protein-rich foods:

Increased protein needs are met by including groundnut, gingelly chikki or laddoo, or dry fruit and nut mixes. If you are not able to eat due to poor appetite, the dry fruits and nuts can be powdered finely and mixed into a milkshake or added to roti or phulka. Eggs, paneer, tofu, and soya chunks are other protein-rich foods that are easily absorbed as well. These can be diced into small pieces or grated and added to soups or porridges or milkshakes.

 

 

Vitamins A, E, C:

Some of the best foods for TB patients include the yellow-orange fruits and vegetables such as orange, mango, papaya, sweet pumpkin, and carrots which are rich in Vitamin A, while Vitamin C is found in fresh fruits like guava, amla, orange, tomato, sweet lime, lemon, and capsicum. Vitamin E is usually found in wheat germ, nuts, seeds and vegetable oils.

 

B-complex vitamins:

Most B complex vitamins are found in whole grain cereals and pulses, nuts and seeds. For non-vegetarians, B complex can be obtained from eggs, fish (especially sea fish like salmon, tuna, mackerel and sardines), chicken, and lean cuts of meat.

 

Selenium and zinc:

Brazil nuts are the best source of selenium. Fortified eggs are also available these days. Mushrooms and most nuts and seeds, including sunflower seeds, chia seeds, pumpkin seeds, sesame and flax, are also good sources of both selenium and zinc. Non-vegetarian options include oysters, fish and chicken.

 

 

Besides the intake of the above nutrients, it’s important to have meals and snacks (healthy snacks!) at the right time. The snacks can include boiled sprouts, grilled vegetables with paneer, a glass of almond milk or soy milk, flavoured boiled beans, etc. The treatment of tuberculosis is long-term, and getting used to a routine would help; make a timetable for breakfast, mid-meal snacks, lunch, evening snacks, and dinner.

 

 

Source: https://www.lybrate.com/topic/diet-for-tuberculosis

 

What to avoid during TB

 

While gaining your strength after a bout of tuberculosis and the resulting malnutrition, avoid the indulging in:

  • Alcohol and tobacco
  • Coffee and caffeinated drinks
  • Refined products (like sugar, white rice and maida)
  • High-fat, high-cholesterol red meats
  • Greasy and fried foods
  • Trans-fatty acids (check ingredients and avoid “partially hydrogenated vegetable oil”)

 

The medicines you take for TB may have side effects that lead to loss of appetite and feelings of nausea. Consuming the required nutrition is vital, however, so talk to your doctor about what can be done to avoid the side effects.

 

Calorie Care offers well-planned meals to nourish with all required vitamins, minerals and proteins while taking care to provide just the right number of calories. Designed and executed by professionals in both nutrition and food service, the Calorie Care meals are just what the doctor ordered for your health and disease prevention.

Diet Tips to Fight Tuberculosis

Getting the right nutrition can help speed treatment and prevention includes healthy immunity.

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. The classic symptoms of active TB are a chronic cough with blood-containing sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. General signs and symptoms include fever, chills, night sweats, loss of appetite, weight loss, and fatigue. Significant nail clubbing may also occur One-third of the world’s population is thought to be infected with TB. New infections occur in about 1% of the population each year.In 2014, there were 9.6 million cases of active TB which resulted in 1.5 million deaths.

Tuberculosis is closely linked to both overcrowding and malnutrition, Those at high risk thus include: people who inject illicit drugs, inhabitants, and employees of locales where vulnerable people gather (e.g. prisons and homeless shelters), medically underprivileged and resource-poor communities, high-risk ethnic minorities, children in close contact with high-risk category patients, and health-care providers serving these patients. Chronic lung disease is another significant risk factor. Silicosis increases the risk about 30-fold. Those who smoke cigarettes have nearly twice the risk of TB compared to nonsmokers People who are malnourished or underweight are more likely to get tuberculosis,

Malnutrition can lead to secondary immunodeficiency that increases the host’s susceptibility to infection. In patients with tuberculosis, it leads to reduction in appetite, nutrient malabsorption, micronutrient malabsorption, and altered metabolism leading to wasting. Both protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies increase the risk of tuberculosis

It’s a vicious cycle: Poor nutrition can actually encourage the persistence of active tuberculosis disease, and active tuberculosis leads to worsening malnutrition. So to keep your body primed to fight TB, you have to feed it right.

You need to eat a diet containing a variety of healthy foods which includes

* Good quality protein in the diet protein makes the immunity cells strong as it’s a building block of the body. Protein deficiency may have a particular detrimental effect on the ability of the body to fight tuberculosis. Choose dairy, lean meats, pulses, beans. Eat 2-3 portions daily.

* Daily include at least a source of an antioxidant from colored fruits and vegetables which boost your immune power.

* Include dark green leafy vegetables twice a day to enrich your meal with iron content.

* Keep fibers in your diet in the form of whole grain cereals, pulses and germinated legumes which helps to keep gut healthy and removes bad toxins, bad fat from diet.

* Choose a healthy form of fat which is unsaturated oil over saturated oil like olive oil, sunflower oil instead of butter or margarine.

* It particularly is important to avoid consuming any alcohol during the entire course of your treatment as this could result in treatment complications and side effects.

Role of micronutrients

Zinc

Various studies on patients with tuberculosis had shown significantly lower plasma zinc level than those without tuberculosis, irrespective of their nutritional status. An adequate supply of zinc may also limit free radical membrane damage during inflammation.

Your diet should include nuts, beans, fish, lean meat, mushroom, spinach.

Vitamin A

It has been shown that vitamin A has immunocompetent role in human tuberculosis. Vitamin A was reported to inhibit multiplication of virulent bacilli in cultured human macrophages.

Vitamin A is essential for normal functioning of T and B lymphocytes, macrophage activity, and generation of antibody response

Red and orange colored fruits and vegetables should be included on daily basis.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D plays a role in the function of macrophages, and a key factor in host resistance in tuberculosis.

Vit D fortified food includes eggs, fish like tuna, mackerel.

Selenium

The essential trace element selenium has an important function in maintaining the immune processes and thus may have a critical role in clearance of mycobacteria. Selenium has been found as significant factor in the relative risk for developing mycobacterial diseases in HIV positive patients.

Nuts and nut seeds in a moderate quantity should be taken twice a week.

Iron

There are two explanations for the association of low iron status and infection. One is that anemia results from chronic infection and the other is that iron deficiency would increase susceptibility to infection such as tuberculosis.

Green leafy vegetables with a piece of lemon is a healthy tip to enhance iron absorption in body.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

In a research study, It was concluded that supplementing the diet with (n-3-) fatty acids can affect resistance to M. tuberculosis, whereas supplementing with (n-6-) fatty acids does not.

Combination of olive oil, nuts and cooking oil like sunflower, cottonseed oil, rice bran oil are best.

Ms. Sushma Ghag

Dietician

Aster Hospital

90,000 I Tried Tom Brady’s TB 12 DIET AND WAS EVEN SURPRISED WHAT HAPPENED. – PSYCHOLOGY

Contents:

Have you ever heard of the TB 12 diet?

This is the diet celebrated by NFL player Tom Brady. In fact, it is also called the “Tom Brady Diet”.

There is a reason he is known. I mean, he’s 43 years old and still plays at his best. Surely there must be something unique in what he does.

In Brady’s book The TB Method 12, the Tampa Bay Buccaneers advocate described what a typical day of eating and exercising in his skin was like. Or boots.

I have a fitness shake right now, so I thought I’d give it a try and see what happens.

So, below I will explain what the intensive diet includes and show my results for each aspect. Then I’ll talk about the very science of Tom Brady’s diet.

Get ready to be amazed!

Before we get started, the 2021 update

Tom Brady’s diet has generated incredible interest.

After all, he is 43 years old and just won his 7th Super Bowl. This is truly amazing.

What’s even more amazing is that it is incredibly transparent about how it maintains its performance level.

It’s like he’s revealing his health and fitness secret by meeting his opponents to try and match his level.

I followed this diet in 2019 and have been following some parts of his diet for 2 years now.

I can definitely say that it helped me become a healthier and more natural version of myself.

And listen, his approach to food may be what some people call strict, but I personally find it very helpful and effective.

Adopting Tom’s flexible habits has changed my life in many ways.

According to Tom Brady:

“The regime I follow is a mixture of Eastern and Western philosophies … Some of these principles have been around for thousands of years.To some people, my diet may seem restrictive, but I find it unnatural to eat differently. ”

“Many people have adapted their bodies to a diet of many white or pale foods – french fries, potato chips, white bread, chicken nuggets – that don’t exist in nature.”

So when you read Tom Brady’s diet, it would be embarrassing to judge it quickly because it seems different or contradictory.

In truth, these principles have been around for thousands of years, and this is more natural than what many of us eat in the west.

Okay, now you wear your glasses without skewing, let’s move on to the diet of the non-aging Tom Brady.

Morning

This is how Tom Brady’s diet day begins. Brady says he usually wakes up around 6 a.m. and drinks 20 ounces of electrolyte water (about 2.5 glasses) right away.

Brady is an avid proponent of dehydration to an almost ridiculous extreme. He says he drinks 12 to 25 glasses of water a day with TB12 electrolytes added.

Yes, he is promoting diet foods with his book. Surprised?

After a 20-ounce glass of water, he makes a smoothie containing “blueberries, bananas, seeds and nuts.”

According to Brady, it is “rich in nutrients, high in fat, high in protein and high in calories.”

Then he trains at 8 am.

According to Brady, he drinks more water with electrolytes during training.

After finishing your workout, Brady eats a protein shake with one scoop of his own brand of protein powder.With lots of electrolytes, of course.

And he always tries to get the cocktail within 20 minutes of finishing his workout.

“Wait a little longer and your body will start looking for its own sources of protein and start breaking down the muscles you just built.”

Summary: 20 oz water with electrolytes, blueberry banana nut smoothie. And a post-workout protein shake.

What I found

I really enjoyed this part of the day.I usually wake up at 6am anyway. Drinking 20 ounces of water was easy and great.

8 hours is a long time without water, so it was a great way to immediately rehydrate. I also remember to put some ice in the water, which increased my alertness and lowered my energy levels.

The smoothie was amazing! I am allergic to nuts, so I had to bypass them, but it also gave me energy and my stomach was surprisingly full.

Providing electrolyte water kept me energized and I trained for most of the workout (5K running with 30 minutes of resistance training).

A post-workout protein shake was essential. I was very hungry after training, especially in the first 5 days of this diet. The protein shake was satisfying enough, but I think you’ll find yourself hungry after a couple of hours.

Afternoon

What does Tom Brady’s diet mean at lunchtime?

Brady dines around noon, “often a piece of fish, but always with lots of vegetables.”

Brady says he adheres to 4 principles when it comes to food.

First, never eat protein with carbohydrates such as bread or potatoes.

Secondly, combining proteins or carbohydrates with vegetables is great for digestion.

Brady says he follows a largely “alkaline diet,” which means limiting “acidifying” foods like white rice and bread to only 20 percent of his diet. The remaining 80 percent should be alkalizing foods like sweet potatoes.

Brady is a big supporter of snacks, and he says that if he needs a snack between 2 pm and 5 pm, he should eat a fruit (banana or apple) or an electrolyte protein shake.

His third principle is that eating fruits along with other foods is harmful to digestion, and the fourth is that you should not drink water while eating, as it interferes with digestion.

Summary: A piece of fish (or other meat) and a lot of vegetables. Snack: bananas, apples, or a protein shake (you can do both).

What I found

When 12 o’clock arrived, I was pretty hungry as I only had a smoothie and a protein drink during the day.I admit, this was probably the hardest part of the diet: being incredibly hungry from about 9 am to 12 pm. However, after about 5 days I got used to it, and the hunger pains did not bother me anymore.

For lunch, I definitely ate meat (for example, chicken, pork or fish) with a bunch of vegetables.

It felt like a healthy meal and I used to eat a protein shake (or bar) and a banana in the afternoon. Definitely much healthier than what I usually eat.

I also made sure that I drink at least a few glasses of water with electrolytes throughout the day.Many toilets stop, but my energy level has remained fairly stable.

I am usually prone to daytime recessions, but after about 10 days there are much less of them.

Evening

Tom Brady’s Diet at Dinner. Brady usually has dinner around 6:00 pm.

According to Brady, “Dinner is another nutrient-rich meal that includes a lot of vegetables.”

He did not go into details about what exactly this includes.

Brady says he doesn’t drink alcohol or eat desserts, but usually eats a “protein shake.”

However, the book contains a recipe for his famous avocado ice cream. Unfortunately, I haven’t tried this, but it can be a good supplement to your diet if you find it a little boring.

Summary: Meat and lots of vegetables. If you need a snack afterwards, eat bananas, apples, or a protein shake.

What I found

Again, that was pretty easy.I just ate what I ate for lunch – meat and vegetables. Good, varied food.

I found that in the first few days I didn’t have enough food, so I added a few cuts of meat and a lot of vegetables.

I had a protein shake every night and it was great. The protein shakes are really satisfying, so I didn’t feel hungry all night.

One small problem I ran into was that I like to have a beer or 2 nights. I had to give it up.But in the future, I personally don’t think there is anything wrong with drinking one or two bottles of beer at night, but I think the main thing is to drink at least one glass of water with every beer.

Here are my results

The Tom Brady Diet works because it is a well balanced diet. Brady himself says that “balance is always important.”

In the morning I felt refreshed thanks to the smoothie and protein shake, and while making sure I had enough meat and vegetables for lunch and dinner, I was never really hungry (except for the first 5 days).

Excessive water also felt like I was getting rid of toxins from my body and was never at risk of dehydration.

However, I currently live in a humid and hot climate, so maybe that’s why it helped me so much.

I managed to lose 1 kg in one week and I felt that I was getting stronger in the gym thanks to the huge amount of protein consumed.

But be careful. These protein shakes really make you fart.It didn’t bother me, but it worried my girlfriend.

These results may also be due to the fact that before I tried this, my diet was pretty awful. But it helps me maintain my energy levels, it helps me lose weight and build muscle, so I’ll keep it going!

But maybe not as religious as Tom Brady. Read the scientific data on diet below to find out why this is the case.

What Science Says About Tom Brady’s Diet: 5 Things to Remember

It is important to understand that Tom’s diet is not very different from other diets.

In fact, it really is a combination of anti-inflammatory nutrition and an alkaline diet with an emphasis on eating mostly organic foods.

According to Tom Brady, in order to achieve maximum performance, you must have enough energy for effective workouts.

There are many plants in the diet, but meat, poultry and fish are included in only small amounts.

So, as a reminder, here’s what is completely forbidden in the TB 12 diet:

– Gluten and refined carbohydrates such as bread, snacks, cereals, pasta
– Trans and saturated fat
– Dairy products such as milk, cheese, etc. yogurt
– Too much salt
– Vegetables such as tomatoes, eggplant, potatoes and bell peppers.
– Excessive consumption of alcohol and caffeine
– Processed foods and added sugars

In addition, Tom Brady makes sure that the diet is 80% alkaline and 20% acidic.

Why? Because by choosing foods with a lower acid content, the body’s pH becomes closer to neutral, which reduces inflammation (and the risk of disease).

Here is an example of which foods are alkaline or acidic:

Alkaline foods: broccoli, carrots, cucumbers, green beans, sweet potatoes, courgettes.

Sour foods: strawberries, pineapple, oranges, salmon, beef, walnuts, yogurt, soybeans.

Now I’m not a nutritionist or a scientist, but I decided to study the scientific evidence of what the Tom Brady diet actually provides. Here’s what I found:

1) Anti-inflammatory food can really be beneficial

According to research, inflammation in the body is associated with heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer, autoimmune diseases and even mental health problems.

So avoiding processed foods, added sugars, refined carbohydrates and trans fats is good, and replacing them with vegetables, fruits, nuts, and healthy fats and oils is great for inflammation.

Most people seem to benefit from these changes.

2) Don’t avoid dairy products to the extreme, as Brady does.

Brady avoids dairy products due to their inflammatory effects.It really depends on what kind of dairy Brady is talking about.

Ice cream is definitely inflammatory, but some low-fat dairy products and yoghurts are anti-inflammatory.

Consumption should be moderate, but it is certainly beneficial to have healthy yogurt with good bacteria. It is also a good source of calcium, vitamin D, and protein.

So in this case, most people don’t have to go to extremes like Tom Brady.

3) It is not necessary to avoid all nightshade vegetables like Brady.

This includes vegetables such as tomatoes, eggplant, peppers and potatoes.

People often mention that they cause inflammation of arthritis due to the solanine compound.

But there is no evidence to support this. In general, these vegetables are anti-inflammatory.

Therefore, most people should eat these vegetables.

4) Keeping an alkaline diet is not as important as Tom Brady thinks.

Brady tries to eat foods that have an alkalizing effect on the body to reduce acidity and inflammation. People say that an alkaline diet reduces the risk of cancer or its growth.

However, there is no real research that directly links acidic foods to cancer. And there is no evidence that an alkaline diet has any significant effect on inflammation.

So, again, you probably don’t need to follow this as strictly as Tom Brady.

5) Do you really need to drink 1 gallon of water a day?

Tom Brady suggests that everyone “drink at least half of their weight in ounces of water each day … ideally, you should drink more of this with added electrolytes.”

There is no doubt that we all need water. But does Brady’s rule of half body weight in ounce really add up scientifically?

He’s not the first to defend it. According to Live Science, this is a popular hydration myth.

According to research, you don’t need to go to this extreme, even if you are a very active person.

This can actually be a little dangerous too. People who consume more fluids than they wash out are prone to a condition called hyponatremia, an imbalance in body water that occurs when excess fluid flushes out too much sodium from a person’s blood.

So what is actually recommended? The safest strategy is to drink a tasty liquid when thirsty.

There is no universal formula for daily water intake. Each person has different fluid requirements based on age, weight, physical activity level, and general health.

Drinking when you are thirsty and a little more when exercising is the only rule for healthy hydration.

Conclusion

Tom Brady’s diet certainly takes the body to extremes. It worked for me, but maybe because I didn’t go to extremes like Tom Brady.

Tom Brady himself says he goes to extremes to limit inflammation in the body. I found it rather limiting, especially when I don’t have my own chef to cook food like Tom Brady.

At the end of the day, I think the Tom Brady diet has a lot of benefits, and it obviously works for him.

Namely, eating anti-inflammatory foods and reducing inflammatory foods seems like a great practice for most people.

However, I don’t think you or I need to go to extremes like Tom Brady.

90,000 I tried the Tom Brady 12 Way Diet. that’s what happened.

Ever heard of the TB 12 Diet?

NFL player Tom Brady made this diet famous. In fact, it is also called the “Tom Brady Diet”.

There is a reason he is known. That is, he is 42 years old, and he still plays at his best. Surely there must be something unique in what he does.

In Brady’s book TB Method 12, the patriotic advocate outlined what a typical day of eating and exercising in his shoes would be like. Or boots.

I do fitness, so I thought I’d give it a try and see what happens.

So, below I will explain that an intense diet involves and reveals my results in every aspect. Then I’ll talk about the very science of Tom Brady’s diet.

Prepare to be amazed!

Morning

This is how Tom Brady’s diet day begins.Brady says he usually wakes up around 6 a.m. and drinks 20 ounces of electrolyte water right away.

Brady is an avid proponent of dehydration to an almost ridiculous extreme. He says he drinks 12 to 25 glasses of water a day with TB12 electrolytes added.

Yes, he is promoting diet foods with his book. Surprised?

After a 20-ounce glass of water, he prepares a smoothie containing “blueberries, bananas, seeds and nuts.”

According to Brady, it is “nutritious, high in fat, high in protein and high in calories.”

Then he trains at 8 am.

According to Brady, he drinks more water with electrolytes during training.

After finishing his workout, Brady eats a protein shake with one scoop of his own brand protein powder. With lots of electrolytes, of course.

And he always tries to get the cocktail within 20 minutes of finishing his workout.

“Wait a little longer and your body will start looking for its own sources of protein and start breaking down the muscles you just built.”

What I found

This part of the day worked well for me. I usually wake up at 6am anyway. Drinking 24 ounces of water was easy and great.

8 hours is a long time without water, so it was a great way to immediately rehydrate. I also remembered putting some ice in the water, which increased my alertness and lowered my energy levels.

The smoothie was amazing! I am allergic to nuts, so I had to bypass them, but it also gave me energy and my stomach was surprisingly full.

Providing electrolyte water kept me energized and I trained for most of the workout (5K running with 30 minutes of resistance training).

Afternoon

What does Tom Brady’s lunchtime diet mean?

Brady dines around noon, “often a piece of fish, but always with lots of vegetables.”

Brady says he adheres to 4 principles when it comes to food.

First, never eat proteins with carbohydrates such as bread or potatoes.

Second, combing proteins or carbohydrates with vegetables is great for digestion.

Brady says he mostly follows an “alkaline diet,” which means limiting “acidifying” foods like white rice and bread to only 20% of his diet. The remaining 80 percent should be alkalizing foods like sweet potatoes.

Brady is an avid supporter of snacks, and he says that if he needs a snack between 2 pm and 5 pm, he should eat a fruit (banana or apple) or an electrolyte protein shake.

His third principle is that eating fruits along with other foods is harmful to digestion, and the fourth is that you should not drink water while eating, as it interferes with digestion.

What I found

When it was 12 o’clock, I was pretty hungry, as all I had during the day was a smoothie and a protein drink. I admit, this was probably the hardest part of the diet: being incredibly hungry from about 9 am to 12 pm. However, after about 5 days I got used to it, and the hunger pains did not bother me anymore.

For lunch, I definitely ate meat (for example, chicken, pork or fish) with a bunch of vegetables.

It felt like healthy food and I usually eat a protein shake (or bar) during the day. Definitely much healthier than what I usually eat.

I also made sure that I drink at least a few glasses of water with electrolytes throughout the day. Lots of toilets stop but my energy level remains fairly stable.

I am usually prone to daytime downturns, but after about 10 days I have much less.

Evening

Tom Brady’s Diet at Dinner. Brady usually has dinner around 6:00 pm.

According to Brady, “Dinner is another nutrient-rich meal that includes a lot of vegetables.”

He did not go into the details of what exactly this includes.

Brady says he doesn’t drink alcohol or eat dessert, but usually eats a “protein shake.”

However, the book contains a recipe for his famous avocado ice cream. Unfortunately, I haven’t tried this, but it can be a good supplement to your diet if you find it a little boring.

What I found

Again, that was pretty simple. I just ate what I ate for lunch – meat and vegetables. Good, varied food.

I found I was short of food for the first few days, so I added a few cuts of meat and lots of vegetables.

I had a protein shake every night and it was great. The protein shakes are really satisfying, so I didn’t feel hungry all night.

Here are my results

Tom Brady’s diet works because it is a well balanced diet.Brady himself says that “balance is always important.”

In the morning I felt refreshed thanks to the smoothie and protein shake, and while making sure I had enough meat and vegetables for lunch and dinner, I was never really hungry (except for the first 5 days).

Excessive water also felt like I was getting rid of toxins from my body and was never at risk of dehydration.

However, I currently live in a humid and hot climate, so maybe that’s why it helped me so much.

I managed to lose 1 kg in a week, and I felt that I was getting stronger in the gym thanks to the huge amount of protein consumed.

But be careful. These protein shakes really make you fart. It didn’t bother me, but it worried my girlfriend.

These results may also be due to the fact that my diet was pretty awful before trying this. But it helps me maintain my energy levels, it helps me lose weight and build muscle, so I’ll keep it going!

But maybe not as religious as Tom Brady.Read the scientific information on diet below to find out why this is the case.

[Buddhism not only gives spiritual outlet to many people, it can also improve the quality of our personal relationships. Check out my serious new guide to using Buddhism for a better life here].

What Scientists Say About Tom Brady’s Diet

It’s important to understand that Tom’s diet isn’t really that different.

In fact, it really is a combination of anti-inflammatory nutrition and an alkaline diet with an emphasis on eating mostly organic foods.

According to Tom Brady, to achieve peak performance, you must have enough energy for effective workouts.

There are many plants in the diet, but meat, poultry and fish are included in only small amounts.

So, remember that TB 12 is completely prohibited in the diet:

– Gluten and refined carbohydrates such as bread, snacks, cereals, pasta
– Trans and saturated fats
– Milk, cheese and yogurt
– Too much Salt
– Vegetables such as tomatoes, eggplants, potatoes and bell peppers.
– Excessive consumption of alcohol and caffeine
– Processed foods and added sugars

In addition, Tom Brady makes sure that the diet is 80% alkaline and 20% acidic.

Why? Because by choosing foods with a lower acid content, the body’s pH becomes closer to neutral, which reduces inflammation (and the risk of disease).

Here is an example of which foods are alkaline or acidic:

Alkaline foods: broccoli, carrots, cucumbers, green beans, sweet potatoes, zucchini.

Sour foods: strawberries, pineapple, oranges, salmon, beef, walnuts, yogurt, soybeans.

Now I’m not a nutritionist or a scientist, but I decided to study the scientific evidence of what the Tom Brady diet actually provides. Here’s what I found:

1) Anti-inflammatory food can really be beneficial

According to research, inflammation in the body is linked to heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and even mental health problems.

So avoiding processed foods, added sugars, refined carbohydrates and trans fats is good, and replacing them with vegetables, fruits, nuts, healthy fats and oils is great for inflammation.

Most people seem to benefit from these changes.

2) Don’t avoid dairy products as much as Brady.

Brady avoids dairy products due to their inflammatory effects.It really depends on what kind of dairy Brady is talking about.

Ice cream definitely causes inflammation, but some skim milk and yoghurts do have anti-inflammatory effects.

Consumption should be moderate, but it is certainly beneficial to have healthy yogurt with good bacteria. It is also a good source of calcium, vitamin D, and protein.

So in this case, most people don’t have to go to extremes like Tom Brady.

3) You don’t have to avoid all nightshade vegetables like Brady.

This includes vegetables such as tomatoes, eggplant, peppers and potatoes.

People often mention that they cause inflammation of arthritis due to the solanine compound.

But there is no evidence to support this. In general, these vegetables are anti-inflammatory.

Therefore, most people should eat these vegetables.

4) Keeping an alkaline diet is not as important as Tom Brady thinks.

Brady tries to eat foods that have an alkalizing effect on the body to reduce acidity and inflammation. People say that an alkaline diet reduces the risk of cancer or its growth.

However, there is no real research that directly links acidic foods to cancer. And there is no evidence that an alkaline diet has any significant effect on inflammation.

So, again, you probably don’t need to follow this as strictly as Tom Brady.

5) Do you really need to drink 1 gallon of water a day?

Tom Brady suggests that everyone “drink at least half of their weight in ounces of water every day … ideally, you will drink more of that with added electrolytes.”

Surely we all need water. But is Brady’s half body weight rule in ounces really scientific?

He’s not the first to defend it. This is a popular hydration myth. according to Live Science.

According to research, you don’t need to go to this extreme, even if you are a very active person.

This can actually be a little dangerous too. People who consume more fluids than they wash out are prone to a condition called hyponatremia, an imbalance in body water that occurs when excess fluid leaches too much sodium from a person’s bloodstream.

So what is actually recommended? The safest strategy is to drink a tasty liquid when thirsty.

There is no universal formula for daily water intake. Each person has different fluid requirements based on age, weight, physical activity level, and general health.

Drinking when thirsty and a little more when exercising is the only rule for healthy hydration.

Conclusion

Tom Brady’s diet certainly takes the body to extremes. Tom Brady himself says he goes to extremes to reduce inflammation in the body.I found it rather limiting, especially when I don’t have my own chef to cook food like Tom Brady.

In the end, I think the Tom Brady diet has a lot of benefits, and it clearly works for him. Namely, eating anti-inflammatory foods and reducing inflammatory foods seems like a great practice for most people.

However, I don’t think you or I need to go to extremes like Tom Brady.

90,000 What Should Be Diet For Patient With Tuberculous Meningitis (TB)?

Proper nutrition is always the first step in the fight against this disease.Without a healthy diet, the odds of survival will not be in your favor. With the right diet and the right medications, your chances of survival will be really high.

The first foods I suggest you eat for your diet are foods that strengthen the immune system. In particular, foods high in antioxidants. Such antioxidants include vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenoids.
So how does vitamin C help the immune system? Vitamin C helps produce more antibodies and white blood cells, which help attack foreign objects and strengthen the immune system.It also increases the production of interferon, which allows the cell to trigger defense mechanisms by triggering the immune system. Examples of foods high in vitamin C include cabbage, dark green vegetables, strawberries, oranges, and broccoli. (Top 10 Foods High in Vitamin C)
So how does vitamin E help the immune system? Vitamin E helps in the production of B cells and killer T cells. An increase in B cells allows for more antibody production, and a larger number of killer T cells means more germs are killed.Examples of foods high in vitamin E include: sunflower seeds, dark green vegetables, nuts, shrimp, tofu, broccoli, olive oil, and fish. (Top 10 foods high in vitamin E, vitamin E)
Carotenoids (beta-carotene) are pigments found in plants that convert the body into vitamins and nutrients. Carotenoids help the immune system by producing killer T cells and helper T cells. Examples of foods with carotenoids include sweet potatoes, carrots, dark green vegetables, tomatoes, and oranges (the top 10 foods with the highest beta-carotene content).
Other foods you should eat are lean protein foods and whole grains. This will help you gain the weight you lost due to TB meningitis. Examples of protein-rich foods include turkey breast, fish, cheese, eggs, and tofu (Top 10 High Protein Foods). Also eat foods that are low in sodium.

Based on the foods and facts I have listed, a good diet might be one that relies heavily on lean meats and whole grains with dark vegetables and citrus fruits for a snack.A typical day on a diet might look like this:

Breakfast:

2 servings of whole grain waffles (340 calories)
with honey drizzle (64 calories, much healthier than syrup).

And on the side, you could have 2 oranges. (124 calories).

Total calories: 528 calories

Why? Whole grain waffles allow you to gain weight in a healthy way and are low in protein. Honey is a good substitute for store-bought maple syrup as it contains 0 mg of high fructose corn syrup and boosts immunity.Oranges on the side are low in calories and very healthy (high in vitamin C and rich in carotenoids).

Lunch:

Turkey Sandwich ->
2 slices of turkey breast (45 calories)
2 slices of lettuce (16 calories)
1 slice of cheese (70 calories)
2 slices of whole grain bread (138 calories)
1 slice tomato ( 7 calories)

With a sandwich, you can also eat only 145 calories on the fried sweet fries side (no fries) – instead of potatoes instead of sweet potatoes.

(If you were a vegetarian, you could eat a kale avocado sandwich with fries (kale sandwiches with avocado) as kale contains many vitamins such as C and E and also contains a lot of carotenoids. Avocado contains vitamin F. And it’s all between two whole grain bread slices.)

Total non-vegetarian meals: 421
Total vegetarian meals: 598

Why? The turkey fries sandwich is a really healthy meal because turkey breast is a good source of protein, albeit very low in fat.Cheese is also a good source of protein. Lettuce is also high in vitamins, and sweet potatoes and tomatoes are high in carotenoids.

Snack:

Plate of Fruit ->
1 orange (62 calories)
5 strawberries (10 calories)
1 cup blueberries (83 calories)

Total: 155 calories

Why? Fruits are a good source of vitamins and antioxidants. Oranges, blueberries and strawberries are high in vitamin C and carotenoids.

Dinner & Dessert:

Shrimp and Vegetable Tacos (358 calories for two tacos)

Shrimp and Vegetarian Chipotl Tacos

(If you were a vegetarian, you could eat a veggie burger.(Kali Veggie Burger) This food is rich in vitamin E, C and rich in carotenoids. This is because of the avocados, tomatoes and dark green vegetables in this meal)

For the desert you could eat:

Healthy raspberry filled, almond crusted cheesecake. (342 calories per slice)

Cheesecake with raspberries and almond crust

Total non-vegetarian food: 700 calories
Total vegetarian food: 782 calories

Why? Shrimp is high in vitamin E and protein, while dark green vegetables are high in vitamin E, C and carotenoids.

These three meals and snacks contain a total of 1804 calories, which is a good amount for someone with a medical condition. Although the diet may be low in calories, it still contains all the nutrients and antioxidants to help strengthen the immune system and fight disease. A similar diet can be made. Just remember to eat lots of fruits, dark green vegetables, lean protein, whole grains, and always switch to olive oil.

90,000 Diet for hepatitis C.How to eat with hepatitis C. Treatment of Hepatitis C.

Treatment of hepatitis C does not consist only of taking medications. To achieve recovery in the shortest possible time, you need to follow the doctor’s recommendations and adhere to a diet that normalizes the liver and reduces the load on it.

What is the need to follow a diet for hepatitis C? Because the liver is damaged during illness, the added burden of inadequate nutrition can delay the healing process.With the help of a therapeutic diet, it is possible to correct the functioning of the liver and significantly accelerate the regeneration of this organ.

Doctors of the First Clinic in Izmailovo, Dr. Bandurina, prescribe diets to patients that help to achieve a quick recovery from hepatitis C. Health must always be protected, because this is a huge wealth given to people for life. Ask for help from competent specialists – come to our clinic!

Nutrition for hepatitis C

The diet for hepatitis C is “table number 5”.The diet includes exactly those dishes that do not overload the liver. The list also includes dishes that gently contribute to the restoration of the body.

An important fact: during the treatment of hepatitis C, it is forbidden to drink alcohol and smoke cigarettes. Alcohol and nicotine negatively affect the liver, so it is better to give up bad habits.

Fatty foods are the real enemy of the liver. Fatty foods make the liver work several times more intensely, and with hepatitis this is unacceptable.The same goes for fried foods. The patient can eat steamed dishes, boiled dishes, as well as food cooked in the oven.

Standard portions should be reduced, but the number of meals should be increased up to 5-6 times. You should also monitor the temperature of the food you eat – it should not be too cold or hot.

Food with an abundant amount of salt can also damage the liver. Salt should be consumed strictly in limited quantities.

During the treatment of hepatitis C, special attention should be paid to the daily intake of fluids.Water helps to remove toxins from the body, so patients should increase the amount of water they drink per day.

Fast food, food on the run and unhealthy snacks – all this must be excluded during treatment. Eating should be slow and chewed thoroughly. Mayonnaise and ice cream are “stop” foods that are high in fat. With hepatitis C, it is better to refrain from using them. It is worth giving up spicy food. Hot spices irritate the liver, and excess stress on the organ must be eliminated as much as possible.

How long does the diet last?

Only a doctor can determine the optimal length of the diet. Usually, doctors recommend that patients adhere to this diet for at least six months. Only if you follow a diet, drink plenty of fluids and adhere to bed rest, you can achieve great results in the treatment of hepatitis C.

Doctors of the First Clinic of Izmailovo, Doctor Bandurina, treat liver diseases – hepatitis A, B, C, D and E, fatty degeneration of the liver, as well as fibrosis and cirrhosis.Treat your health with care and contact specialists in a timely manner.

10pcs Slimming Patch Slim Umbilical Stip Diet Products Fat Loss Cream Body Patches

Joom: Supplied by seller. Regardless of the specified information, the product does not have any prophylactic, diagnostic, therapeutic, rehabilitative properties, is not a drug, cannot be used for medical purposes and is not a medical device.Consult a specialist.

—–

Package: 10 pcs / bag

Ingredients: natural essential oils, mint, phytoncid, natural mineral powder, resins

Product description:
Clear foil stool principle is to use the natural gastrointestinal tract
mobility with the help of the body to eliminate residual waste, the role can help the stomach,
body remnants of the old will be naturally excreted to reduce the burden, the effect
body modification, and without any side effects, is the safest quick weight loss good helper.

Usage:
Daily one, should not be placed more than three hours each time, foil directly
applied to crowded abdomen, use if abdominal pain, weak sensation, or below the body
with a slight itching sensation, this is a normal detoxification.

Note:
Skin abnormalities or the use of this skin irritation phenomenon, please stop using it immediately. Do not place foil placed at 40 degrees Celsius. Pregnant women, the elderly, young children should not be used.Hyperthyroidism, or patients with low-should not use. During the day, when a person is in exercise, when the body’s cells are very active, at this time, whether drugs or other methods, it is difficult to break down fat, a general drug, but the suspension of oil in the intestinal wall has decreased. for inert fat and will have no effect at all, and when a person sleeps at night, the cell entered into hibernation, which is precisely the best time to lose weight, but also the most effective!
Only take advantage of dormant cells, complete removal of two layers of intestine fatty layer of inert oil is better for thin.New new slimming product slimming thin paste every night and drug delivery sleep navel, pharmaceutical active ingredients enter the body 100%, on the one hand quickly against the inert layer of fat, like a cake cutting, how will the quality of Micronesia inert fat layer in the spin-off small a piece of fat, then these small pieces of fat burning Express dissolved. On the other hand, the drug of active ingredients will break down firmly on adhesion in the oil of the intestinal wall of the intestine.
People all know that the human body has been in sports during the day, blood circulation melts quickly, the body is in an agitated state when fat cells are relatively inert in exercise, efficiency after entering the body, not just the gastrointestinal tract, whole body circulation that more importantly, fat cells and inert fight, the natural effect is not very good.But at night, the body of inert fat cells into dormant, after the introduction of pharmaceutical ingredients, such as the introduction of unpopulated land of inert fat cells to kill one cm of natural quickly good!
Every evening in minus visible every day.

Usage 3 days:
bowel movements and increased frequency of bowel movements, and after each
bowel movements, the toilet can see floating around on a thin layer of oil. This shows that in vivo intestinal oil began to break down and eliminate.

Use 5 days:
You will find one every day to reduce stomach, waist circumference
also smaller waist curves begin to be felt.

Use 10 days:
My God, I could not believe, the whole lost 5 kg, the waist circumferenceis also from the original 2-foot 4, to return to one leg 9, even more amazing, the skin becomes smooth and tender elastic.

Usage 30 days:
complete more than his own expectations, convex convex completely gone, create a devil figure, a new different you

Product type: Slimming patches

An opportunity to end two of the most dangerous global infections: tuberculosis and HIV

September 26, 2018.

The World Health Organization recently released the Tuberculosis Report 2018 . While the report shows some progress in the response to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV in some areas, overall prospects for ending the epidemics of these diseases by 2030 remain weak.

HIV is a relatively new epidemiological disease, first identified in the early 1980s. Tuberculosis has been known for several thousand years. Archaeologists believe that tuberculosis influenced the fate of ancient Egypt.Perhaps even Pharaoh Tutankhamun had this disease.

Many famous people suffered from tuberculosis, including fatalities. Among them are such celebrities as John Keats, Frederic Chopin, Charlotte and Emily Brontë, Nelson Mandela and Franz Kafka. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the following procedures were proposed for the treatment of tuberculosis: restorative sleep in the fresh air in sanatoriums of mountain Switzerland, cold showers, a 12-course diet a day with liters of milk and wine, and even stay in a barn, where heat and ammonia gases from cattle urine, is supposed to be pain reliever for infected lungs.

Effective TB drugs appeared in the mid-1940s and have changed little since then. Modern medicines are obsolete and toxic, but despite this they are incredibly effective and relatively cheap. Identifying people with tuberculosis and ensuring that they are receiving treatment is not easy. And this is a big problem for people living with HIV.

According to WHO estimates, in 2017 about 10 million people suffered from active tuberculosis. 9% of them also had HIV.Of these 10 million, approximately 3.6 million, or 36%, are “absent,” meaning they have not been diagnosed or are not receiving the treatment they need. Among people living with HIV, this figure is higher at 49%.

People with HIV who have latent TB are 20 times more likely to develop active TB. In the absence of treatment in HIV-infected people, tuberculosis can quickly become fatal.

Less than 60% of people with tuberculosis are screened for the disease, which allows them to prescribe the right treatment and prevent death.Tuberculosis is the leading fatal infectious disease globally, including among people living with HIV. This disease is responsible for one in every three AIDS deaths. In 2017, about 1.6 million people died of tuberculosis, including 300,000 people living with HIV.

Closer integration of HIV and tuberculosis programs to improve detection and treatment coverage for these diseases can lead to significant results, including investments in diagnostics, vaccines and drugs, and prevention of tuberculosis, including multi-drug resistant tuberculosis.

However, more persistence, investment and effort are required.

An estimated US $ 10.4 billion is required in 2018 to effectively tackle TB in 118 low- and middle-income countries, accounting for 97% of reported cases globally. In fact, the amount available in 2018 was $ 6.9 billion – down $ 3.5 billion.

UNAIDS estimates that US $ 26.2 billion will be needed to effectively deal with HIV in 2020.In 2017, US $ 21.3 billion was allocated in low- and middle-income countries, which is about 5 billion short of the required amount. Only the elimination of the lack of funding will make it possible to implement plans to eliminate these epidemiological diseases.

Since about 1.7 billion people have latent tuberculosis, which is 23% of the world’s population, of which 5-10% may develop an active form of the disease, urgent action is required.

On September 26, at the United Nations headquarters in New York (USA), world leaders will host the first UN high-level meeting on the TB response. With tuberculosis at the center of attention throughout the day, countries will have the opportunity to set ambitious but achievable goals to eradicate two of the world’s most dangerous infectious diseases: tuberculosis and HIV.

6,000 people die every day worldwide from tuberculosis and HIV.This opportunity will not only save many lives, but also prevent new infections, and take a giant step towards improving global health, ending poverty and achieving sustainable development goals.

90,000 glycine complex TB 250mg No. 40 diets. additive blister unitary enterprise

Composition

active substance: glycine;
1 tablet contains 100 mg glycine.
excipients :, carbomer, magnesium stearate.

Dosage form.

Sublingual tablets.
Basic physical and chemical properties: tablets of white or white color, round in shape with a flat surface, with a chamfer.

Pharmacological group.

Drugs acting on the nervous system. ATX code N06B X.

Pharmacological properties.

Pharmacological. Glycine (aminoacetic acid) has the properties of a metabolism regulator and is a substitute amino acid (natural metabolite), is a neurotransmitter of an inhibitory type of action and a regulator of metabolic processes in the central nervous system.
The drug has a glycine- and GABA-ergic, α-adrenoceptor blocking, antioxidant, antitoxic effect, regulates the activity of glutamate receptors, due to which it is able to:
– reduce psycho-emotional stress, aggressiveness, conflict, increase social adaptation;
– improve mood;
– facilitate falling asleep and normalize sleep
– improve mental performance;
– to reduce vegetative-vascular disorders, including in the climacteric period;
– to reduce the severity of cerebral disorders in ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury;
– Reduce the toxic effect of alcohol.
The drug is not addictive.

Pharmacokinetics.

Easily penetrates into biological fluids and body tissues, including the brain. It is rapidly destroyed in the liver by glycine oxidase to water and carbon dioxide. The accumulation of glycine in the tissues does not occur.

Clinical characteristics.

Indications.

Decreased mental performance.
In stressful situations and psychoemotional stress (during exams, in conflict situations).
Deviant behaviors of children and adults.
Functional and organic diseases of the nervous system (neuroses, neurosis-like conditions, vegetative-vascular dystonia, the consequences of neuroinfection, traumatic brain injury, perinatal and other forms of encephalopathy, including alcoholic genesis), which are accompanied by increased excitability, emotional instability, decreased mental performance, impaired sleep.
Ischemic stroke and cerebrovascular accident.
As an adjuvant in the treatment of alcoholism.

Contraindications.

Individual intolerance to the drug and hypersensitivity to its individual components; arterial hypotension. Age up to 3 years.

Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction.
Glycine reduces the toxicity of anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antidepressants. When combined with hypnotics, tranquilizers and antipsychotics, the effect of inhibition of the central nervous system is enhanced.

Application features.

Patients with a tendency to arterial hypotension need to control the level of blood pressure and, if necessary, adjust the dose of the drug: Glycine-Health is prescribed in lower doses and subject to regular monitoring of blood pressure. When it drops below the usual level, the drug is discontinued.

Use during pregnancy or lactation.
The effect on the body during pregnancy and lactation has been studied in detail, therefore the use of the drug is not recommended.

The ability to influence the reaction rate when driving or driving other mechanisms.
Care must be taken when driving or operating other machinery, as well as engaging in potentially hazardous activities.

Method of administration and dosage.

The drug is used buccally or sublingually (in tablets or as a powder after crushing the tablet).
Children aged 3 years, adolescents, adults with a decrease in mental performance, memory, attention, with mental retardation, with psychoemotional stress, with deviant forms of behavior, Glycine-Health is prescribed 1 tablet (100 mg) 2-3 times a day within 14-30 days.
The maximum daily dose is 300 mg.
Children aged 3 years and older and adults with increased excitability, emotional lability are prescribed 1 tablet 2-3 times a day, the course of treatment is 7-14 days. If necessary, repeat the course of treatment.
For sleep disorders, 100 mg is prescribed 20 minutes before bedtime or just before bedtime.
In ischemic cerebral stroke and cerebrovascular accidents, 1 g of the drug is prescribed bucally or sublingually (if necessary, grind the tablet) during the first 3-6 hours from the development of a stroke, then for 1-5 days, 1 g per day, then within 6-30 days – 1-2 tablets 3 times a day.
In the treatment of alcoholism, 1 tablet is prescribed as an adjuvant 2-3 times a day for 14-30 days. If necessary, the course of treatment is repeated 4-6 times a year.

Children.

The drug is used in children aged 3 years and older.

Overdose.

There is no information about the clinical manifestations of an overdose.

Adverse reactions.

In some cases, individual hypersensitivity may develop allergic reactions, including rhinitis, conjunctivitis, urticaria, sore throat, weakness.

Expiration date.

2 years.

Storage conditions.

Store in original packaging at a temperature not exceeding 25 ° C.