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Teenage low testosterone: Low Testosterone in Adolescents & Young Adults

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Low Testosterone in Adolescents & Young Adults

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019; 10: 916.

Jordan Cohen

1Department of Urology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States

Daniel E. Nassau

2Department of Urology, Lenox Hill Hospital, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, New York, NY, United States

Premal Patel

1Department of Urology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States

Ranjith Ramasamy

1Department of Urology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States

1Department of Urology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States

2Department of Urology, Lenox Hill Hospital, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, New York, NY, United States

Edited by: Rodolfo A. Rey, Centro de Investigaciones Endocrinológicas “Dr. César Bergadá” (CEDIE) CONICET – FEI – División de Endocrinología, Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez, Argentina

Reviewed by: Laura Maria Mongioì, University of Catania, Italy; Monica Beatriz Frungieri, Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), Argentina

This article was submitted to Reproduction, a section of the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology

Received 2019 Aug 29; Accepted 2019 Dec 16.

Copyright © 2020 Cohen, Nassau, Patel and Ramasamy.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

Abstract

Male hypogonadism, the clinical syndrome with variable symptoms associated with gonadal dysfunction, can affect men of all ages. In older males, physiologic changes of the aging testis, account for the majority of decreased testosterone levels in this population. For younger males and adolescents, the etiology of hypogonadism is commonly due to congenital or acquired conditions that disrupt the testis production of testosterone or signaling from the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Diagnosis of hypogonadism in younger males can be a challenge, as symptoms such as decreased libido or erectile dysfunction, common in the older men, are not usually present, and young men instead commonly complain of low energy. While an underlying congenital cause should always be considered in young men with hypogonadism, acquired conditions such as obesity, diabetes, anabolic steroid or illicit drug use have all been associated with low testosterone levels. Outside of modifying identifiable risk factors for hypogonadism, pharmacologic testosterone therapy can also lead to therapeutic dilemmas in young men who desire paternity. Topical or injectable administration of testosterone, through negative feedback on the hypothalamus and pituitary, can decrease spermatogenesis, posing an infertility risk. Other agents that can replace testosterone or increase the body’s natural production of testosterone without decreasing spermatogenesis are preferred, such as intranasal testosterone, selective estrogen modulators, aromatase inhibitors or human-chorionic gonadotrophin, often used in combination. Clinicians must maintain a high level of suspicion to properly diagnose young men with hypogonadism and tailor treatment based on both the underlying etiology and fertility goals.

Keywords: testosterone, obesity, diabetes, adolescence, fertility

Introduction

Ninety-five percent of the serum testosterone (T) in males is synthesized by the Leydig cells of the testis under the influence of luteinizing hormone (LH) secreted from the pituitary gland. Defects, whether acquired or congenital, that interfere with the testis production of T or interactions with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA) can cause decreased T. Male hypogonadism is the clinical condition representing a constellation of symptoms along with gonadal dysfunction of either Leydig cells leading to decreased T or Sertoli cell/germ cells and subsequent decreased sperm production, often occurring together. The normal range for morning T in a male is between 300 and 1,000 ng/dl and likewise, hypogonadism has been defined as total T < 300 ng/dL by the Endocrine Society clinical practice guidelines (1, 2).

Hypoandrogenism is a common diagnosis in older men because the aging testis loses its ability to produce adequate levels of T despite normal or unchanged levels of LH (3). Approximately 40% of men over the age of 45 and 50% of men in their 80s are hypogonadal (4, 5). T levels have been found to decrease by 100 ng/dL every 10 years or an average rate of 1–2% per year beyond age 30, which may further vary by adiposity, medications, and chronic disease (6–8). In the elderly population, symptoms highly suggestive of hypogonadism include decreased spontaneous erections, decreased nocturnal penile tumescence, decreased libido, and reduced testicular volume (9).

Given that hypogonadism has been defined more so based on adults, in children and adolescents, a distinction should be made. If not occurring together, in hypogonadism as hypoandrogenism (Leydig cell dysfunction), then other testicular cell populations, germ cell and/or Sertoli cells, should be considered for possible dysfunction. Androgen and gonadotropin levels in pre-pubertal children are generally low, and even those with primary gonadal failure may fall within the expected normal range for their age, further compounding diagnosis before puberty. Therefore, the assessment of Sertoli cells is essential to diagnose hypogonadism in a prepubertal population. It is estimated that ~70% of children with hypogonadism will be misdiagnosed if based on serum gonadotropin measurement (10). There is also increasing evidence that anti-Mullerian and inhibin B levels can improve the sensitivity and result in earlier diagnosis which ultimately allows for treatment to start at a younger age (10).

In younger men, the etiology of hypogonadism may be related to an underlying genetic condition, a primary problem with the HPGA, environmental factors or from past infection or injury to the testis (11). Diagnosis of hypoandrogenism in healthy adolescents can be challenging, as the symptoms that correlate with a decreased T level are different than in the elderly population. In a recent study, hypogonadal symptoms in men aged <40 years were associated with a total T level of <400 ng/dL. Of the hypogonadal symptoms evaluated with the Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire, “lack of energy” appears to be the most important symptom that predicted a total T level of <400 ng/dL in the under 40 population as opposed to decreased libido and erectile dysfunction which were more frequent complaints in the elderly population (11). Additionally, one must carefully consider testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in the younger population as it could interfere with spermatogenesis and fertility. This brief review will expand on the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment options for hypogonadism in the young adult male.

Etiology of Hypogonadism in Adolescent and Young Adulthood Men

The HPGA is of paramount importance in the processes related to the development, maturation, and sustainability of male hormonal balance. The pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) by the hypothalamus stimulates LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) production and secretion by the anterior pituitary gland. LH stimulates testosterone production from the interstitial Leydig cells of the testes. This is required for male internal and external reproductive organ development and later differentiation of secondary human sexual characteristics. FSH, in turn, sustains testicular function via Sertoli cells through spermatogenesis (12).

Many of the causes of hypoandrogenism in the adolescents may be transient, with resolution of the low androgen level once the underlying condition is resolved or improved. lists the known congenital or acquired disorders at the testicular (primary hypogonadism) or HPGA (secondary hypogonadism) conditions resulting in androgen deficiency (12). Delayed puberty in adolescents is most often caused by constitutional delay of growth (>60%) whereas primary and secondary hypogonadism explains <20% of cases of delayed pubertal hypogonadism (11, 13). Primary hypogonadism (also known as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism) is caused by an inherent defect within the testes. This condition is biochemically characterized by low or absent testosterone levels and high gonadotropin levels. Spermatogenesis is usually severely impaired and not responsive to hormonal therapy. This is in contradistinction to secondary hypogonadism (also known as central hypogonadism or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism), which is caused by a dysfunction in the hypothalamus and/or the pituitary gland. This condition is biochemically characterized by low or inappropriately normal gonadotropins levels along with low total testosterone levels. Spermatogenesis is impaired but is usually responsive to hormonal therapy (14). A number of genetic loci (ANOS1, FGFR1, KISS1, KISS1R, TAC3) have been implicated in the development and migration of GnRH or the synthesis and secretion of GnRH itself (15). Beyond genetic causes, pediatric and pubertal hypogonadism may be seen in patients with chronic diseases and excessive drug usage.

Table 1

Primary hypogonadism Secondary hypogonadism
Congenital disorders
Klinefelter syndrome Kallmann syndrome
Mutation in LH receptor genes Prader-Willi syndrome
Mutation in FSH receptor genes Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Androgen synthesis disorders Chronic systemic illness
Varicocele Gonadotropin subunit mutation
Cryptorchidism Pituicyte differentiation gene mutation
Myotonic dystrophy Hyperprolactinemia
Trauma
Acquired Disorders Medications (steroids, opiates)
Diabetes Mellitus
Infections (mumps) Benign tumors
Radiation Malignant tumors
Medications Infiltrative diseases
(alkylating agents, ketoconazole, glucocorticoids) Idiopathic
Testicular torsion
Environmental toxins
Chronic systemic illnesses (HIV, renal failure)
Idiopathic

Beyond the age of 30 there is a decline in the levels of both circulating total and free T. The difference between the decline of total T and free T during the aging process is explained by an age-related increase in circulating concentration of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), which reduces the proportion of free T (16, 17). In healthy men, the age-related decline of T coupled with an increase in LH, supports a diagnosis of primary testicular failure compensated for by an increased LH secretion. The age-related decrease in T reflects general age-related cellular degeneration, reduced number of functional Leydig cells and atherosclerosis of testicular arterioles (18). For the vast majority of men, T levels within the normal young adult reference ranges in the absence of hypogonadal symptoms is clinically irrelevant. However, in the developing world a number of increasing conditions may be shifting the prevalence of hypogonadism to a younger age including diabetes, obesity, and rising rates of opioid use (19).

The prevalence of obesity in young adults is increasing at a staggering rate and is anticipated to triple within the next decade (20). A study looking at the Adolescent and Young population utilizing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) demonstrated a statistically significant increase in BMI from 1999 to 2016. In the European Male Aging Study, 73% of men with reduced testosterone were overweight or obese and serum T in men with a BMI > 30 kg/m2 was on average 5 nmol/l lower than those with normal weight (21). The obesity related decline of T levels is multi-factorial and can be associated with a decrease in SHBG and/or an increased conversion of T to estrogen by peripheral adipose tissue (11). Along with declining serum testosterone levels, a large meta-regression analysis has demonstrated a significant decline in sperm counts between 1973 and 2011 (22). The cause of this substantial decline has yet to be fully elucidated, but pituitary inhibition causing testosterone deficiency and thus, a decrease in sperm counts requires further investigation.

Further compounding the underlying cause of hypogonadism in young obese men is the possibility of a concurrent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which has been increasing at a yearly rate of 4. 8% compared to 1.8% for type 1 (23). The rate of new diagnosed cases of type II diabetes in 10–19 year olds rose most sharply in Native Americans (8.9%) an, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders (8.5%) and non-Hispanic blacks (6.3%) (23). A recent study by Chosich et al. found that hyperinsulinemia, in conjunction with elevated serum lipid levels, suppresses pituitary gonadotropin release, providing a mechanistic explanation for decreased androgen levels in this cadre of patients (24). With the rising epidemic of adolescent and young adult obesity and type II diabetes, it is plausible that these conditions in isolation or in tandem may explain lower than normal androgen levels in patients aged twenty to forty. The rising incidence of obesity and diabetes in the young adult population is a major expenditure of health care dollars and while the low androgen levels are a secondary observation it is critical that proactive measures by primary care physicians and community wellness fairs address this global issue.

Another increasing cause of androgen deficiency at a population health level has been from the staggering rise in illicit drug use. Nearly 2 million people in the United States suffer from substance abuse disorders with 47,000 dying annually from opioid overdose including prescription opioids, fentanyl, and heroin (25). Opioid-induced androgen deficiency has also risen dramatically in the last 10–15 years. Sexual dysfunction is reported in 85% of heroin addicts and 81% on a stable methadone maintenance regimen, although this might be due to additional factors (26). Chronic opioid use disrupts the HPGA creating a secondary hypogonadism. Opioid receptors μ (MOR), δ (DOR), and κ (KOR) are present in the hypothalamus and the pituitary with activation leading to a suppressed HPGA and subsequent decrease in serum T within hours of opioid administration (27). The individual opioid drugs have been shown to affect the clinical symptoms associated with low androgen levels differently. Patients taking hydrocodone and hydromorphone were least affected by clinical androgen deficiency as opposed to men taking fentanyl or morphine where the incidence was much higher (27). Although not opioids, chronic ingestion of analgesics such as acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid, and ibuprofen, have also been shown to alter testicular physiology. In a randomized control trial involving young men taking ibuprofen, the free T/LH ratio declined by 18% after 2 weeks compared with the placebo group. The ibuprofen cohort also exhibited a decline in anti-Müllerian hormoe indicating that both the Leydig and Sertoli cell lines were negatively affected (28).

Anabolic steroids are another class of agents causing androgen deficiency. Anabolic steroids suppress endogenous T production via negative feedback on the HPGA resulting in a concurrent diminution in testicular size and low sperm count. In a recent meta-analysis of thirty-three studies with 3,879 participants (1,766 anabolic androgen steroid users and 2,113 non-anabolic androgen users) the anabolic users showed a significant reduction in LH (weighted mean difference −5.05 to −1.07) and endogenous T levels (weighted mean difference −10. 75 nmol/L to −15.01 nmol/L, p < 0.001) (29). After drug discontinuation the gonadotropin levels returned to normal within 13–24 weeks; however, serum T levels remained reduced beyond 4 months (29). Young adults presenting with clinical symptoms suggestive of androgen deficiency should be queried for use/abuse of anabolic androgen steroid usage.

Exposure to several environmental toxins may also contribute to hypogonadism, notably Sertoli and germ cell dysfunction. Tobacco smoke contains highly carcinogenic nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzopyrene), and volatile organic compounds (benzene) (30). Increased seminal levels of reactive oxygen species from smoking impair sperm function and data shows that nicotine and its metabolites are capable of crossing the blood-testis barrier (31). Separately, pesticides and herbicides result in high serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls. Men in the highest quartile of consumption of high pesticide-residue fruit and vegetables (≥1. 5 servings/day) had a 49% lower total sperm count compared to men in the lowest quartile (<0.5 servings/day) (32). Heavy metals like mercury and lead have also been correlated to male infertility (33). Along with the aforementioned etiologies of hypogonadism, this highlights the importance of a comprehensive patient history in order to elucidate underlying factors that may contribute to hypogonadism in younger patients.

Diagnosis

The clinical symptoms of hypogonadism are non-specific, making diagnosis challenging in adolescents and young men. Given the numerous pathways within the HPGA and the slow changes to the hormonal levels, the signs and symptoms suggestive of androgen deficiency take time to clinically manifest. The signs and symptoms of low androgen levels include reduced sexual desire and activity, erectile dysfunction, decreased spontaneous erections, incomplete or delayed sexual development, small testes, gynecomastia, loss of body hair/reduced shaving, subfertility, and reduced bone mass. Less specific symptoms and signs are decreased energy and motivation, reduced physical performance, depressed mood, poor concentration and memory, sleep disturbances, anemia, reduced muscle mass, and increased body fat (8).

Ultimately, the diagnosis can be made by a obtaining a fasting serum T level between 7:00 and 11:00 AM, or within 3 h of waking up. While consensus lacks for the exact biochemical level at which to ascribe the diagnosis of hypogonadism, a recent publication by the Endocrine Society with support from the US Center for Disease Control has a level < 264 ng/dl in nonobese males as diagnostic for androgen deficiency (34). This threshold along with various others defining low total T set from 250 to 300 ng/dl by other societies such as the American Urological Association have been established regardless of age following many large-scale population studies (35). According to the European Male Aging Study at least three clinical sexual symptoms should be present in conjunction with the laboratory abnormal values to confirm the diagnosis of androgen deficiency (8). As mentioned previously, symptoms of fatigue and lack of energy may be more specific in the younger adult cohort than sexual symptoms. Following confirmation of low serum T levels and concomitant signs and symptoms of hypogonadism, clinicians should use serum LH and FSH in conjunction with testosterone to differentiate between primary and secondary hypogonadism.

Treatment Options for Adolescent & Young Adulthood Men With Low T

When designing a treatment plan for TRT in young adults, clinicians must understand that most exogenous T therapy will suppress spermatogenesis and decrease fertility potential (36, 37). As such, identifying modifiable risk factors that may lead to hypogonadism should be an early step in patient evaluation as correction of many of the aforementioned conditions may mitigate the need for TRT. Patients with obesity, poorly controlled diabetes, or opioid usage should be counseled on weight loss, diet, exercise, and drug abuse before starting testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). Formal weight loss programs have not only shown that the percentage of weight loss correlated with increased T levels, but parameters related to fertility including sperm motility and morphology also improved (38). While there is evidence that T may reduce HbA1C, lower BMI, and reduce waist circumference other studies have not shown any change in HbA1C with testosterone compared to placebo (39).

Non-exogenous TRT therapy aims to either increase the body’s production of T or decrease the conversion of T to estrogen in adipose tissue. HCG, a chemically similar hormone to LH, can be administered parenterally to stimulate Leydig cell production of T, while maintaining intratesticular T needed for spermatogenesis (40). Clomiphene citrate, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, binds receptors on the hypothalamus and pituitary gland to reduce estrogen’s negative feedback on the HPGA, thereby increasing production of GnRH, LH and FSH. The increase in gonadotropic hormones then results in increased testosterone production in the testes (41). Adipose tissue, especially in obese individuals, contains aromatase which converts T into estrogen. Anastrazole, an aromatase inhibitor, is also employed to increase T levels and is beneficial for spermatogenesis if the serum T to estrogen ratio is < 10 (41, 42). While these medications are efficacious, using them for male hypogonadism treatment is considered off-label by the Food and Drug administration and carry side effects of decreased bone mineral density and libido (42).

Short acting, T nasal gel (Natesto®) is an exogenous T that may not decrease spermatogenesis. Early results from a phase 4 trial reported that Natesto significantly increased median AM T levels without affecting median FSH, LH and semen parameters at 6 months follow-up. It is postulated that the short half-life of intranasal T maintains the pulsatile release of GnRH compared to other forms of exogenous T therapy which negatively impact the HGPA and therefore prevent the steep decline in LH and FSH to maintain spermatogenesis. Further benefit of Natesto compared to other forms of exogenous TRT includes the ease of delivery, no need for needles and decreased risk of transference (43).

With the availability of new T formulations in combination with aggressive consumer advertising there has been an exponential rise in the use of TRT for late onset hypogonadism. In the USA, sales of T preparations quadrupled between 2000 and 2011, although the number of low serum T in commercial laboratories has remained relatively constant (44). This suggests that commercially available T replacement is being used for symptoms such as decreased libido, erectile dysfunction depression, and fatigue who may in fact have other clinical conditions rather than androgen deficiency itself.

T therapy is associated with adverse effects on the cardiovascular and hematologic systems and caution should be exercised when prescribing testosterone for clinical symptoms without truly confirmed biochemical abnormalities per guidelines (45). Although to date there is no knowledge on the specific use of testosterone preparations in the younger adult cohort, it is likely that this group may also be using the formulations for symptoms and signs suggestive, but not documented of androgen deficiency.

Conclusion

Male adolescents may present with few typical signs of adult hypogonadism and biochemical androgen levels need to be followed judiciously in the adolescent and young adult cohort so that effective strategies based on clinical research can be recommended. However, for young adult patients <30 years of age who truly have hypoandrogenism with serum total T <300–400 ng/dl there needs to be randomized clinical trials establishing the safety and efficacy of long-term TRT. Hypogonadism is a cluster of numerous conditions and a single therapy cannot be the same for all. At a population health level, beginning in adolescence and moving through young adulthood there needs to be concerted efforts to improve overall cardiovascular health, reduce type II diabetes, decrease the rising incidence of obesity especially in the African-American, Hispanic and Native American populations, and stem the escalating opioid addiction our country faces. Future studies, especially in the young adult population, need to systemically evaluate these patients and improve outcomes for tailored treatment regimens based on underlying cause and paternity preferences.

Author Contributions

JC: primary manuscript writer and conducted an analysis of background literature. DN: secondary manuscript writer and helped with background literature. PP: wrote specific sections. RR: main outlining, final edits, writing, and organization.

Conflict of Interest

RR is an investigator for Aytu Biosciences, the manufacturer of Natesto. The remaining authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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Male Hypogonadism in Children – Pediatrics

Causes of secondary hypogonadism include panhypopituitarism, hypothalamic or pituitary tumors, isolated gonadotropin deficiency, Kallmann syndrome, Laurence-Moon syndrome, isolated luteinizing hormone deficiency, Prader-Willi syndrome, and functional and acquired disorders of the central nervous system (eg, trauma, infection, infiltrative disease such as Langerhans cell histiocytosis). Causes of secondary hypogonadism must be differentiated from constitutional delay of puberty, which is a functional form of secondary hypogonadism. Several acute disorders and chronic systemic disorders (eg, chronic renal insufficiency, anorexia nervosa) may lead to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, which resolves after recovery from the underlying disorder. Relative hypogonadism is becoming more common among long-term survivors of childhood cancers treated with craniospinal irradiation.

Panhypopituitarism may occur congenitally or anatomically (eg, in septo-optic dysplasia or Dandy-Walker malformation), causing deficiency of hypothalamic-releasing factors or pituitary hormones. Acquired hypopituitarism may result from tumors, neoplasia, or their treatment, vascular disorders, infiltrative disorders (eg, sarcoidosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis), infections (eg, encephalitis, meningitis), or trauma. Hypopituitarism in childhood may cause delayed growth, hypothyroidism, diabetes insipidus, hypoadrenalism, and lack of sexual development when puberty is expected. Hormone deficiencies, whether originating in the anterior or posterior pituitary, may be varied and multiple.

Kallmann syndrome causes about 60% of congenital forms of hypogonadism. It is characterized by anosmia due to aplasia or hypoplasia of the olfactory lobes and by hypogonadism due to deficiency of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). It occurs when fetal GnRH neurosecretory neurons do not migrate from the olfactory placode to the hypothalamus. The genetic defect is known; inheritance is classically X-linked but can also be autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. Other manifestations include microphallus, cryptorchidism, midline defects, and unilateral kidney agenesis. Presentation is clinically heterogeneous, and some patients have normosmia.

Laurence-Moon syndrome is characterized by obesity, intellectual disability, retinitis pigmentosa, and polydactyly.

Isolated luteinizing hormone (LH) deficiency (fertile eunuch syndrome) is a rare cause of hypogonadism due to monotropic loss of LH secretion in boys; follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels are normal. At puberty, growth of the testes is normal because most testicular volume consists of seminiferous tubules, which respond to FSH. Spermatogenesis may occur as tubular development proceeds. However, absence of LH results in Leydig cell atrophy and testosterone deficiency. Therefore, patients do not develop normal secondary sexual characteristics, but they continue to grow, reaching eunuchoidal proportions because the epiphyses do not close.

Prader-Willi syndrome is characterized by diminished fetal activity, muscular hypotonia, and failure to thrive during early childhood followed later by obesity, intellectual disability, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The syndrome is caused by deletion or disruption of a gene or genes on the proximal long arm of paternal chromosome 15 or by uniparental disomy of maternal chromosome 15. Failure to thrive due to hypotonia and feeding difficulties during infancy usually resolves after age 6 to 12 months. From 12 to 18 months onward, uncontrollable hyperphagia causes excessive weight gain and psychologic problems; plethoric obesity becomes the most striking feature. Rapid weight gain continues into adulthood; stature remains short and may be caused by growth hormone deficiency. Features include emotional lability, poor gross motor skills, facial abnormalities (eg, a narrow bitemporal dimension, almond-shaped eyes, a mouth with thin upper lips and down-turned corners), and skeletal abnormalities (eg, scoliosis, kyphosis, osteopenia). Hands and feet are small. Other features include cryptorchidism and a hypoplastic penis and scrotum.

Constitutional delay of puberty is absence of pubertal development before age 14 years; it is more common in boys. By definition, children with constitutional delay show evidence of sexual maturation by age 18 years, but pubertal delay and short stature may generate anxiety in adolescents and their families. Many children have a family history of delayed sexual development in a parent or sibling. Typically, stature is usually short during childhood, adolescence, or both but ultimately reaches the normal range. Growth velocity is nearly normal, and growth pattern parallels the lower percentile curves of the growth chart. The pubertal growth spurt is delayed, and at the expected time of puberty, height percentile begins to drop, which may contribute to psychosocial difficulties for some children. Skeletal age is delayed and is most consistent with the child’s height age (age at which a child’s height is at the 50th percentile) rather than chronologic age. Diagnosis is by exclusion of growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism, systemic conditions that may interfere with puberty (eg, inflammatory bowel disease, eating disorders), and hypogonadism (whether primary or due to gonadotropin deficiency).

Low Testosterone in Adolescent Males

Low testosterone, referred to as hypogonadism in medical practice, is relatively well defined and studied in its myriad of presentations. According to the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (2002), pediatric hypogonadism may results in several signs and symptoms if the disorder expresses before puberty and thus is detected in the absence of the pubertal state. Although symptoms may present at different ages in young hypogonadal males, a diagnosis is usually made in the earlier stages of puberty through ages 10 and 12 in the presence of low blood testosterone levels and clinically significant physical findings. Clinical signifiers include impaired sexual development of the testes, phallus, and prostate gland, as well as appearance of minimal body hair and muscle mass, a higher pitched voice, excess breast tissue development (gynecomastia), and elongated arms and legs due to failure of growth plate (epiphyseal) closure (AACE, 2002).

Upon the diagnosis of hypogonadism, a physician using an evidence-based approach will try to distinguish the type and cause of the deficient testosterone level to best treat the primary condition, including other diseases and conditions not directly related to the endocrine system. Many conditions are associated with hypogonadism, as the male body will not sufficiently produce adequate amounts of testosterone in the presence of serious inflammatory conditions, infection, or other deleterious physiological states that disrupt the balance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis (HPT axis) (Endocrine Society, 2010).

The HPT axis is a complex part of the endocrine system that regulates hormonal balance (homeostasis) in the testicles to a variety of internal and external cues via biochemical feedback loops that allow communication between the brain and endocrine system (AACE, 2002). Laboratory values measuring different levels of hormonal secretions by various glands along this axis may allow the physician to determine the origin of the testosterone deficiency: testicular, neurological, or a combination. According to the Endocrine Society (2010), low testosterone originating from testicular dysfunction is classified as primary hypogonadism, which will usually present with increased activation of the neurological and neuroendocrinological pathways of the HPT axis due to the constant positive feedback in the absence of testicular testosterone. Furthermore, low testosterone not isolated to testicular failure is termed secondary hypogonadism, indicating neurological and/or neuroendocrinological deficit of the HPT axis, as the testicles are not receiving proper hormonal signaling to produce testosterone (Endocrine Society, 2010). Both primary and secondary hypogonadism may be attributed to congenital causes that are present at birth and/or acquired causes that occur after birth (AACE, 2002).

In regards to genetic factors that contribute to hypogonadism, they are congenital in origin and may be detected in childhood around the pubertal period (Endocrine Society, 2010). Although a plethora of genes have been isolated and their biochemical mechanisms explored, only a minute portion of congenital cases of hypogonadism may be attributed to current understanding and knowledge of the genetic origins of the disease. Scientists argue that the genetic etiology of congenital hypogonadism is often remarkably complex and involves a myriad of variables, including multiple genetic mutations, environmental factors, and a family history of the disease (epigenetics). The current understanding of the genetic disease process places a significant importance on the secondary causes of hypogonadism, stemming from neurological dysfunctional of the HPT axis (Bianco & Kaiser, 2009).

If you suspect your child may have hypogonadism, please seek evaluation from a board certified pediatrician or pediatric endocrinologist.

This article contributed by HHP Staff Writer, Matthew J. Wahhab.

What are normal testosterone levels? Ages, males, females, and more

The amount of testosterone a person has in their body can vary throughout their life.

Levels depend on a person’s age, sex, and health. Males usually have much higher levels of testosterone in their body than females.

Testosterone is a hormone known as an androgen. Although primarily known as a male sex hormone, females also need certain levels of testosterone. However, most testosterone converts into the sex hormone estradiol in the female body.

In males, the testes produce testosterone, and the ovaries produce testosterone in females.

The adrenal glands also produce small amounts of testosterone in both sexes.

Testosterone in males is important for:

  • development during puberty
  • sperm creation
  • strengthening of muscles and bones
  • sex drive

Testosterone in females is essential for:

  • maintaining levels of other hormones
  • sex drive and fertility
  • making new blood cells

There is a link between low testosterone and sex drive and fertility for both sexes.

The body controls testosterone levels naturally and having low testosterone levels is more common than having high testosterone levels.

Doctors measure testosterone in nanograms per deciliter (ng/dl).

The following tables show healthy levels of total testosterone in the body. Levels fall within a range for each age bracket.

People will have different levels of testosterone within this healthy range.

Infants and children

Age Male (in ng/dl) Female (in ng/dl)
0 to 5 months 75-400 20-80
6 months to 9 years Less than 7-20 Less than 7-20
10 to 11 years Less than 7-130 Less than 7-44

Adolescents

Age Male (in ng/dl) Female (in ng/dl)
12 to 13 years Less than 7-800 Less than 7-75
14 years Less than 7-1,200 Less than 7-75
15 to 16 years 100-1,200 Less than 7-75

Adults

Age Male (in ng/dl) Female (in ng/dl)
17 to 18 years 300-1,200 20-75
19 years and older 240-950 8-60

Doctors may also measure testosterone alongside Tanner staging.

The Tanner scale tracks the visual development of children during puberty according to five fixed stages rather than a person’s specific age.

For example, stage II of the Tanner scale relates to the growth of a boy’s testicles or the development of breast buds in a girl, but it does not refer to their actual age.

Because hormone levels change rapidly during puberty and development can happen at different ages for different people, the Tanner scale is a more accurate way to judge changes during puberty than referring to age.

According to the Tanner scale, healthy testosterone levels are as follows:

Tanner stage Male (in ng/dl) Female (in ng/dl)
I Less than 7-20 Less than 7-20
II 8-66 Less than 7-47
III 26-800 17-75
IV 85-1,200 20-75
V 300-950 12-60

A testosterone deficiency in the womb can affect the development of a male fetus. It can also affect male puberty, and it may slow or stop a person’s growth or development.

Hormone levels change for both males and females as they age. Females experience a more dramatic change in hormones, with levels falling until a female reaches menopause. Males experience a more gradual change in hormone levels.

Testosterone levels decrease naturally with age in both sexes.

In males, lower testosterone levels can lead to:

  • hair loss (including on the body and face)
  • reduced muscle tone
  • more fragile skin
  • a reduced sex drive
  • disturbed mood
  • memory or concentration problems

Low testosterone levels in females can lead to:

  • irregular or missed periods
  • low sex drive
  • vaginal dryness
  • weak bones
  • fertility problems

However, more research into the effects of low testosterone on the body as people age is needed.

High testosterone levels are unusual in adult males. Children with high testosterone levels may have a growth spurt or start puberty early. High testosterone in both sexes can cause infertility in some cases.

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects females. It occurs when the ovaries produce too much testosterone.

Symptoms include:

  • irregular or no periods
  • oily skin
  • acne
  • increased hair growth on the face, back, or chest

It is not clear what causes PCOS, but researchers think it is a combination of genes and environment.

Steroid use

Steroids have similar properties to testosterone, and some people use them to build muscle or gain weight. However, steroids can affect testosterone levels in both males and females.

If a person takes too many steroids, it can raise the levels of testosterone in their blood, causing the body to stop producing testosterone.

In males, this excess of testosterone can also lead to a decrease in the amount of sperm that the body makes, which may lead to infertility or loss of sex drive.

For females, steroids can cause a deeper voice, male pattern baldness, irregular periods, and may lead to infertility.

Both males and females may experience hair growth on the face and body, greasy skin, and a range of other symptoms.

Anyone who suspects that their testosterone levels are high or low should see their doctor or get tested.

To diagnose low or high testosterone, a doctor will ask about a person’s medical history, do a physical examination, and order some tests.

In males, a doctor might:

  • discuss any use of steroids or opiates
  • talk about a person’s development at puberty
  • measure their BMI and waist size
  • check hair for any pattern of baldness
  • check the size of the testicle and prostate gland

In females, a doctor will usually need to check or ask questions about:

  • menstruation
  • acne or skin conditions
  • body or facial hair
  • muscle bulk

For adolescents, a doctor will look for signs of puberty.

Total testosterone level test

The total testosterone level test is a blood test. The best time to have the test is in the morning when levels of testosterone in the blood are usually highest. However, testosterone levels vary throughout the day, so some people may need to have the test again to confirm the result.

Treatment will depend on the underlying health condition.

It is possible to treat males for low testosterone levels with an injection or prescription gel. People using this treatment long-term could experience potentially severe side effects, such as an increased risk for heart problems.

Females who develop PCOS might be able to treat their symptoms with weight loss, hormonal contraception, and fertility treatment if needed.

Testosterone — What It Does And Doesn’t Do

When you think of testosterone, what comes to mind? Macho men? Aggressive, impatient, type A behavior? Road rage? Violence?

Testosterone’s role in bad behavior is largely a myth. What’s more, testosterone plays other important roles in health and disease that may surprise you. For example, did you know that testosterone is a key player in prostate cancer? Or, that women need testosterone, too? There’s more to testosterone than guys behaving badly.

Testosterone’s Role

Testosterone is the major sex hormone in males and plays a number of important roles, such as:

  • The development of the penis and testes
  • The deepening of the voice during puberty
  • The appearance of facial and pubic hair starting at puberty; later in life, it may play a role in balding
  • Muscle size and strength
  • Bone growth and strength
  • Sex drive (libido)
  • Sperm production

Adolescent boys with too little testosterone may not experience normal masculinization. For example, the genitals may not enlarge, facial and body hair may be scant and the voice may not deepen normally.

Testosterone may also help maintain normal mood. There may be other important functions of this hormone that have not yet been discovered.

Signals sent from the brain to the pituitary gland at the base of the brain control the production of testosterone in men. The pituitary gland then relays signals to the testes to produce testosterone. A “feedback loop” closely regulates the amount of hormone in the blood. When testosterone levels rise too high, the brain sends signals to the pituitary to reduce production.

If you thought testosterone was only important in men, you’d be mistaken. Testosterone is produced in the ovaries and adrenal gland. It’s one of several androgens (male sex hormones) in females. These hormones are thought to have important effects on:

  • Ovarian function
  • Bone strength
  • Sexual behavior, including normal libido (although evidence is not conclusive)

The proper balance between testosterone (along with other androgens) and estrogen is important for the ovaries to work normally. While the specifics are uncertain, it’s possible that androgens also play an important role in normal brain function (including mood, sex drive and cognitive function).

Did You Know?

Testosterone is synthesized in the body from cholesterol. But having high cholesterol doesn’t mean your testosterone will be high. Testosterone levels are too carefully controlled by the pituitary gland in the brain for that to occur.

The Perils of Too Much Testosterone

Having too much naturally-occurring testosterone is not a common problem among men. That may surprise you given what people might consider obvious evidence of testosterone excess: road rage, fighting among fathers at Little League games and sexual promiscuity.

Part of this may be due to the difficulty defining “normal” testosterone levels and “normal” behavior. Blood levels of testosterone vary dramatically over time and even during the course of a day. In addition, what may seem like a symptom of testosterone excess (see below) may actually be unrelated to this hormone.

In fact, most of what we know about  abnormally high testosterone levels in men comes from athletes who use anabolic steroids, testosterone or related hormones to increase muscle mass and athletic performance.

Problems associated with abnormally high testosterone levels in men include:

  • Low sperm counts, shrinking of the testicles and impotence (seems odd, doesn’t it?)
  • Heart muscle damage and increased risk of heart attack
  • Prostate enlargement with difficulty urinating
  • Liver disease
  • Acne
  • Fluid retention with swelling of the legs and feet
  • Weight gain, perhaps related in part to increased appetite
  • High blood pressure and cholesterol
  • Insomnia
  • Headaches
  • Increased muscle mass
  • Increased risk of blood clots
  • Stunted growth in adolescents
  • Uncharacteristically aggressive behavior (although not well studied or clearly proven)
  • Mood swings, euphoria, irritability, impaired judgment, delusions

Among women, perhaps the most common cause of a high testosterone level is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This disease is common. It affects 6% to 10% of premenopausal women.

The ovaries of women with PCOS contain multiple cysts. Symptoms include irregular periods, reduced fertility, excess or coarse hair on the face, extremities, trunk and pubic area, male-pattern baldness, darkened, thick skin, weight gain, depression and anxiety. One treatment available for many of these problems is spironolactone, a diuretic (water pill) that blocks the action of male sex hormones.

Women with high testosterone levels, due to either disease or drug use, may experience a decrease in breast size and deepening of the voice, in addition to many of the problems men may have.

Too Little Testosterone

In recent years, researchers (and pharmaceutical companies) have focused on the effects of testosterone deficiency, especially among men. In fact, as men age, testosterone levels drop very gradually, about 1% to 2% each year — unlike the relatively rapid drop in estrogen that causes menopause. The testes produces less testosterone, there are fewer signals from the pituitary telling the testes to make testosterone, and a protein (called sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) increases with age. All of this reduces the active (free) form of testosterone in the body. More than a third of men over age 45 may have reduced levels of testosterone than might be considered normal (though, as mentioned, defining optimal levels of testosterone is tricky and somewhat controversial).

Symptoms of testosterone deficiency in adult men include:

  • Reduced body and facial hair
  • Loss of muscle mass
  • Low libido, impotence, small testicles, reduced sperm count and infertility
  • Increased breast size
  • Hot flashes
  • Irritability, poor concentration and depression
  • Loss of body hair
  • Brittle bones and an increased risk of fracture

Some men who have a testosterone deficiency have symptoms or conditions related to their low testosterone that will improve when they take testosterone replacement. For example, a man with osteoporosis and low testosterone can increase bone strength and reduce his fracture risk with testosterone replacement.

As surprising as it may be, women can also be bothered by symptoms of testosterone deficiency. For example, disease in the pituitary gland may lead to reduced testosterone production from the adrenal glands disease. They may experience low libido, reduced bone strength, poor concentration or depression.

Did You Know?

There are times when low testosterone is not such a bad thing. The most common example is probably prostate cancer. Testosterone may stimulate the prostate gland and prostate cancer to grow. That’s why medications that lower testosterone levels (for example, leuprolide) and castration are common treatments for men with prostate cancer. Men taking testosterone replacement must be carefully monitored for prostate cancer. Although testosterone may make prostate cancer grow, it is not clear that testosterone treatment actually causes cancer.

Diseases and Conditions That Affect Testosterone

Men can experience a drop in testosterone due to conditions or diseases affecting the:

  • Testes – direct injury, castration, infection, radiation treatment, chemotherapy, tumors
  • Pituitary and hypothalamus glands – tumors, medications (especially steroids, morphine or related drugs and major tranquilizers, such as haloperidol), HIV/AIDS, certain infections and autoimmune conditions

Genetic diseases, such as Klinefelter syndrome (in which a man has an extra x-chromosome) and hemochromatosis (in which an abnormal gene causes excessive iron to accumulate throughout the body, including the pituitary gland) can also affect testosterone.

Women may have a testosterone deficiency due to diseases of the pituitary, hypothalamus or adrenal glands, in addition to removal of the ovaries. Estrogen therapy increases sex hormone binding globulin and, like aging men, this reduces the amount of free, active testosterone in the body.

Testosterone Therapy

Currently, testosterone therapy is approved primarily for the treatment of delayed male puberty, low production of testosterone (whether due to failure of the testes, pituitary or hypothalamus function) and certain inoperable female breast cancers.

However, it is quite possible that testosterone treatment can improve symptoms in men with significantly low levels of active (free) testosterone, such as:

  • Generalized weakness
  • Low energy
  • Disabling frailty
  • Depression
  • Problems with sexual function
  • Problems with cognition.

However, many men with normal testosterone levels have similar symptoms so a direct connection between testosterone levels and symptoms is not always clear. As a result, there is some controversy about which men should be treated with supplemental testosterone.

Testosterone therapy may make sense for women who have low testosterone levels and symptoms that might be due to testosterone deficiency. (It’s not clear if low levels without symptoms are meaningful; treatment risks may outweigh benefits.) However, the wisdom and effectiveness of testosterone treatment to improve sexual function or cognitive function among postmenopausal women is unclear.

People with normal testosterone levels are sometimes treated with testosterone at the recommendation of their doctors or they obtain the medication on their own. Some have recommended it as a “remedy” for aging. For example, a study from Harvard Medical School in 2003 found that even among men who started out with normal testosterone results noted loss of fat, increased muscle mass, better mood, and less anxiety when receiving testosterone therapy. Similar observations have been noted among women. However, the risks and side effects of taking testosterone when the body is already making enough still discourages widespread use.

The Bottom Line

Testosterone is so much more than its reputation would suggest. Men and women need the proper amount of testosterone to develop and function normally. However, the optimal amount of testosterone is far from clear.

Checking testosterone levels is as easy as having a blood test. The difficult part is interpreting the result. Levels vary over the course of the day. A single low level may be meaningless in the absence of symptoms, especially if it was normal at another time. We need more research to know when to measure testosterone, how best to respond to the results and when it’s worthwhile to accept the risks of treatment.

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Testosterone levels show steady decrease among young US men

From 1999 to 2016, testosterone levels have declined in adolescent and young adult men (AYA), according to results presented at the 2020 American Urological Association Virtual Experience1.

“Overall male testosterone decline can be attributed to multiple etiologies. The United States has an aging population with older males exhibiting lower testosterone levels. Furthermore, overall population has an increase in comorbidities, including diabetes, which may have cause this testosterone decrease nationally,” Soum Lokeshwar, MD, MBA, incoming urology resident at Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, said during a press briefing.

“However, most of these explanations for testosterone deficiency may be attributed to age. This time-dependent decline in testosterone has not been investigated in adolescent and young adult males,” added Lokeshwar, who was at the University Of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, at the time of the study.

Testosterone deficiency has a prevalence of 10%-40% among adult males, and 20% among AYA men aged 15-39 years, he added. Therefore, Lokeshwar and colleagues hypothesized that serum total testosterone levels will decline in AYA men.

The investigators used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 1999 to 2016 to analyze serum testosterone level changes over time in 4045 AYA males. During the study periods, 3 different assays (Biotin-Streptavidin from 1999-2004, IS-Liquid Chromatography from 2011-2012, and High-Performance-Liquid-Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry from 2013 onwards) were used. However, of note, they demonstrate comparable testosterone values with only some additional accuracy in the latest modality, Lokeshwar said.

After controlling for confounders—including year of study, age, race, BMI, comorbidity status, alcohol and smoking use, and level of physical activity—total testosterone was lower among men in the later (2011-2016) versus earlier (1999-2000) cycles (P < 0.001). Mean total testosterone decreased from 1999-2000 (605.39 ng/dL), 2003-2004 (567.44 ng/dL), 2011-2012 (424.96 ng/dL), 2013-2014 (431.76 ng/dL), and 2015-2016 (451.22 ng/dL; all P < .0001).

Elevated BMI was associated with reduced total testosterone levels (P < .0001), with the mean BMI increasing from 25.83 in 1999-2000, to 27.96 in 2015-2016 (P = 0.0006). Lokeshwar noted that even men with a normal BMI (18.5-24.9) had declining total testosterone levels (P < .05) during the same time frames.

Potential causes include increased obesity/BMI, assay variations

According to Lokeshwar, potential causes for these declines could be increased obesity/BMI, assay variations, diet/phytoestrogens, declined exercise and physical activity, fat percentage, marijuana use, and environmental toxins.

“We’ve seen that lower values of testosterone have been associated with increased comorbidities and an increase risk for all-cause mortality. This decline specifically, in these young adult men, with increased obesity may lead to an increase in precocious cancer,” Lokeshwar said, adding such decreases can also result in a lower libido and an increased risk for erectile dysfunction.

“This is especially worrisome in this young adult age group, as many men feel stigma and are less likely to seek care for these low libido and erectile dysfunction.” Lokeshwar added. “Testosterone levels in AYA men are used as the benchmark normal levels for testosterone. This is very scary, because generally, when we think of normal values of testosterone, we treat based upon this age group. This may ultimately lead to the undertreatment of testosterone deficiency, which can have large ramifications and severe consequences.”

Reference

1. Patel P, Fantus R, Lokeshwar S, et al. Trends in Serum Testosteron Levels Among Adolescent and Young Adults Men in the United State. Presented at: 2020 AUA Virtual Experience; May 15, 2020. Abstract MP78-01.

Obese Teen Boys Have Up to 50 Percent Less Testosterone than Lean Boys, UB Study Finds

Results send “grim message” that obese teen males may become impotent, infertile adults

BUFFALO, N.Y. — A study by the University at Buffalo shows for the first time that obese males ages 14 to 20 have up to 50 percent less total testosterone than do normal males of the same age, significantly increasing their potential to be impotent and infertile as adults.

The paper was published online as an accepted article in Clinical Endocrinology.

The authors are the same researchers in the University at Buffalo’s School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences who first reported in 2004 the presence of low testosterone levels, known as hypogonadism, in obese, type 2 diabetic adult males and confirmed it in 2010 in more than 2,000 obese men, both diabetic and nondiabetic.

“We were surprised to observe a 50 percent reduction in testosterone in this pediatric study because these obese males were young and were not diabetic,” says Paresh Dandona, MD, PhD, SUNY Distinguished Professor in the Department of Medicine, chief of the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism in the UB medical school and first author on the study. “The implications of our findings are, frankly, horrendous because these boys are potentially impotent and infertile,” says Dandona. “The message is a grim one with massive epidemiological implications.”

The paper is available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22970699.

The small study included 25 obese and 25 lean males and was controlled for age and level of sexual maturity. Concentrations of total and free testosterone and estradiol, an estrogen hormone, were measured in morning fasting blood samples. The results need to be confirmed with a larger number of subjects, Dandona says.

“These findings demonstrate that the effect of obesity is powerful, even in the young, and that lifestyle and nutritional intake starting in childhood have major repercussions throughout all stages of life,” he says.

In addition to the reproductive consequences, the absence or low levels of testosterone that were found also will increase the tendency toward abdominal fat and reduced muscle, Dandona says, leading to insulin resistance, which contributes to diabetes.

“The good news is that we know that testosterone levels do return to normal in obese adult males who undergo gastric bypass surgery,” says Dandona. “It’s possible that levels also will return to normal through weight loss as a result of lifestyle change, although this needs to be confirmed by larger studies.”

The UB researchers now intend to study whether or not weight loss accomplished either through lifestyle changes or through pharmacological intervention will restore testosterone levels in obese teen males.

Co-authors with Dandona are Muniza Mogri, MD, a medical resident in the UB Department of Pediatrics, Sandeep Dhindsa, MD, clinical assistant professor of medicine at UB; Husam Ghanim, PhD, research assistant professor of medicine; and Teresa Quattrin, MD, A. Conger Goodyear Professor and chair of the Department of Pediatrics, housed in Women and Children’s Hospital of Buffalo.

90,000 The hormone of masculinity: what is testosterone and how to increase it

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The hormone of masculinity: what is testosterone and how to increase it

The hormone of masculinity: what is testosterone and how to increase it – Sport RIA Novosti, 17.12.2019

The hormone of masculinity: what is testosterone and how to increase it

Testosterone is the main sex hormone in men, which is responsible for masculinity and strongly affects sex life.A decrease in its level in the body can … Sport RIA Novosti, 17.12.2019

2019-11-07T08: 00

2019-11-07T08: 00

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Testosterone – the main sex hormone in men, which is strongly responsible for sexuality in men.A decrease in its level in the body can lead to a weakening of muscle tone, increased fatigue, baldness and depression. About the main hormone of masculinity – in our review. Testosterone: myths and reality The male body produces about seven milligrams of testosterone per day. This hormone is needed for the development of primary and secondary sex characteristics, stimulates muscle building and is responsible for fat metabolism and libido. Testosterone is also produced by the female body (especially in athletes), but in smaller quantities.In a healthy man, the concentration of testosterone in the body is 280-1100 ng / dl, in a woman – 15-70 ng / dl. In the female body, testosterone is responsible for the strengthening and growth of bones, the formation of muscles, the development of the nervous system and the brain. And most importantly, thanks to testosterone, estrogen, the main female hormone, is produced in the female body. Sports federations even have to develop specific guidelines for blood testosterone levels for female athletes with elevated male hormone levels and transgender female athletes.For a long time, it was believed that the aggressiveness of men, their success in comparison with women and the eternal desire to have sex are associated with high testosterone levels. In fact, most of these theses have already been refuted. If scientists still argue about the connection of testosterone with aggressiveness, then the theory of the superiority of men over the fair sex in many areas thanks to this hormone has been refuted: women can act decisively, quickly absorb information, know how to take risks not worse than men.Testosterone is responsible for libido, but even a high level of the hormone in the blood does not mean that a man is willing and ready to have sex around the clock. He may have other strong stimuli (work, sports, obsession with an idea) that will distract from his sexual desire. It was also refuted the statement that the more testosterone in the body, the better for him and the more courageous a man. The level of the hormone is much higher than normal can cause irritability, severe mood swings, and sleep disturbances.An excess of the hormone affects hair loss, acne on the skin, and can also provoke various diseases, including heart attack and stroke. Which leads to a drop in testosterone A number of factors lead to a decrease in testosterone levels in the blood: stress, alcohol consumption and poor sleep. And if you do not restore the hormone in the body, you can get into a vicious circle: due to stress and lack of sleep, testosterone drops, which leads to increased fatigue and depression, which do not allow you to fight stress.An unwillingness to do something and constant fatigue can become an alarm bell for a decrease in testosterone levels in the body. Testosterone is always associated with activity: physical and mental. Another sign is weight gain. But if you exclude negative factors, testosterone levels can recover quite quickly: it will take from two weeks to a couple of months. How to increase testosterone levels Testosterone levels can increase due to an emotional outburst: a joyful event, the victory of the team for which you support, success at work.But in order to truly restore or increase testosterone levels, you will have to work hard. Eating, sleeping, resting and exercising will help increase testosterone levels. Nutrition plays a key role in human life and health, regardless of testosterone levels. But for the production of the hormone, the body needs certain elements. The diet should include foods rich in zinc and magnesium (spinach and green salads), as well as protein and cholesterol (meat, eggs, avocados, nuts).Do not be afraid of foods that contain fat and cholesterol. According to studies, they help to increase testosterone levels, but diets low in fat, on the contrary, can lead to a decrease in the level of the male hormone in the blood.Adding vitamin D to the diet can be a good help. But alcohol and especially beer are not recommended – they are Lead to a decrease in testosterone. Exercise – Exercise, even on its own, can lead to an increase in testosterone levels. But to really help the body produce this hormone, you need systematic training.The most useful are the basic exercises: bench press, squats, deadlift, as they work on large muscles. Cardio workouts can be effective for burning fat, but not for increasing testosterone levels. You should not overdo it either: this will cause fatigue and overwork, and therefore stress, which will lead to a decrease in the level of the male hormone in the body. Rest and sleep The highest concentration of testosterone in men is immediately after waking up, since the production of the hormone occurs during sleep.If you start to neglect sleep, then the body simply will not have time to produce testosterone. Also, in a dream, the level of cortisol, a hormone that blocks testosterone, decreases. In small doses, cortisol, which is also produced during stress, is not dangerous. But if you are in a state of constant discomfort and depression, then more cortisol is produced and it blocks testosterone.

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around sports, hormones, sports

Testosterone is the main sex hormone in men, which is responsible for masculinity and strongly influences sex life. A decrease in its level in the body can lead to a weakening of muscle tone, increased fatigue, baldness and depression.About the main hormone of masculinity – in our review.

Testosterone: myths and reality

The male body produces about seven milligrams of testosterone per day. This hormone is needed for the development of primary and secondary sex characteristics, stimulates muscle building and is responsible for fat metabolism and libido. Testosterone is also produced by the female body (especially in athletes), but in smaller quantities. In a healthy man, the concentration of testosterone in the body is 280-1100 ng / dl, in a woman – 15-70 ng / dl.In the female body, testosterone is responsible for the strengthening and growth of bones, the formation of muscles, the development of the nervous system and the brain. And most importantly, thanks to testosterone, estrogen, the main female hormone, is produced in the female body. Sports federations even have to develop specific guidelines for blood testosterone levels for female athletes with elevated male hormone levels and transgender female athletes.

For a long time it was generally accepted that the aggressiveness of men, their success in comparison with women and the eternal desire to have sex are associated with high testosterone levels.In fact, most of these theses have already been refuted.

If scientists still argue about the connection between testosterone and aggressiveness, then the theory of the superiority of men over the fair sex in many areas thanks to this hormone has been refuted: women can act decisively, quickly assimilate information, know how to take risks no worse than men.

Testosterone is responsible for libido, but even a high level of the hormone in the blood does not mean that a man wants and is ready to have sex around the clock. He may have other strong stimuli (work, sports, obsession with an idea) that will distract him from his sexual desire.

It was also refuted the statement that the more testosterone in the body, the better for him and the more courageous the man. The level of the hormone is much higher than normal can cause irritability, severe mood swings, and sleep disturbances.

An excess of the hormone affects hair loss, the appearance of acne on the skin, and can also provoke various diseases, including heart attack and stroke.

5 November 2019, 08:00 Science Testosterone bomb. Why men die more often than women

What leads to a drop in testosterone

A number of factors lead to a decrease in testosterone levels in the blood: stress, alcohol consumption and poor sleep.And if you do not restore the hormone in the body, you can get into a vicious circle: due to stress and lack of sleep, testosterone drops, which leads to increased fatigue and depression, which do not allow you to fight stress.

An unwillingness to do something and constant fatigue can become an alarming call for a decrease in testosterone levels in the body. Testosterone is always associated with activity: physical and mental. Another sign is weight gain. But if you exclude negative factors, testosterone levels can recover quite quickly: it will take from two weeks to a couple of months.

How to increase testosterone levels

Testosterone levels can increase due to an emotional outburst: a joyful event, the victory of the team for which you support, success at work. But in order to really restore or increase testosterone levels, you have to work hard.

Proper nutrition, sleep, rest and exercise will help increase testosterone levels.

Nutrition

Nutrition plays a key role in human life and health, regardless of testosterone levels.But for the production of the hormone, the body needs certain elements. The diet should include foods rich in zinc and magnesium (spinach and green salads), as well as protein and cholesterol (meat, eggs, avocados, nuts).

Do not be afraid of foods that contain fats and cholesterol. While low-fat diets, on the other hand, can lead to a decrease in the level of the male hormone in the blood, they are the ones that help increase testosterone levels. Vitamin D supplementation can be a great help.But alcohol and especially beer are not recommended – they lead to a decrease in testosterone. 2 November 2019, 08:00 EYE Die hard: how Jason Statham trains and eats

Workouts

Exercise, even by itself, can lead to an increase in testosterone levels. But to really help the body produce this hormone, you need systematic training. The most useful are the basic exercises: bench press, squats, deadlift, as they work on large muscles.Cardio workouts can be effective for burning fat, but not for increasing testosterone levels.

Overdoing it with training is also not worth it: this will cause fatigue and overwork, and therefore stress, which will lead to a decrease in the level of the male hormone in the body.

Rest and sleep

The highest concentration of testosterone in men is immediately after waking up, since the production of the hormone occurs during sleep. If you start to neglect sleep, then the body simply will not have time to produce testosterone.Also, in a dream, the level of cortisol, a hormone that blocks testosterone, decreases. In small doses, cortisol, which is also produced during stress, is not dangerous. But if you are in a state of constant discomfort and depression, then more cortisol is produced and it blocks testosterone.

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Testosterone Propionate Prescription While most non-drug ways to increase testosterone are safe for teens, you should still consult your doctor if you are concerned about your age-appropriate testosterone levels.Keep in mind the age of puberty and its rate. 10 ways to boost testosterone in men Testosterone is the leading androgenic hormone in the male body, which is responsible for sexual functions. The influence of medicinal plants on testosterone. How to increase testosterone in a teenager. Drugs and supplements that increase testosterone levels [edit]. How to Increase Testosterone Levels Naturally (Tips for Teens). Steps Edit. Testosterone rates in children. Testosterone in children is present in the blood already in the womb.How to increase testosterone. Low testosterone levels in a boy. Causes of primary hypogonadism in adolescent boys. This type of hypogonadism is diagnosed in adolescents during the onset of puberty, or in adolescents when referring to infertility. As men age, testosterone levels drop. Testosterone is the main male hormone. It is he who largely forms the abstract concept of masculinity, both in appearance and in the behavior of a man. In babies and adolescents, under the influence of various factors, the amount of sex hormones in the blood can change.From the article you will learn what is the norm of testosterone in children, why it becomes little or much, and how to increase it.In adolescents. The highest testosterone levels are recorded. Testosterone is one of the most important hormones in the human body. If the level of the steroid is elevated in the teenager’s body, then in the first place this will greatly affect the character of the child. Usually with an elevated hormone. Increasing testosterone in a man’s body: how to increase it with drugs. Testosterone is the main hormone of a man that carries a straight line. The teenager’s chest begins to enlarge, his shoulders, forehead, jaw and chin expand.Muscles grow, the timbre of the voice is regulated. These hormones affect the testicle, increasing testosterone production. Testosterone is the most important androgen circulating in the blood. To prevent short stature, adolescents with this form of the disease are prescribed anabolic steroids. medicines that increase testosterone products that increase the level of testosterone in the body Where in Novocheboksarsk to buy Testonormin

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During this period, I felt significant improvements.Libido normalized, sexual activity increased, erection improved. Now there are no previous problems of an intimate nature. In real reviews of the Testonormin erection enhancer, many write that the drug gave them the opportunity to feel like a real man again. Moreover, they could feel its positive effect after the first or second application. The secret of this performance is that the product contains pure testosterone. It quickly penetrates the skin and connective tissue barrier and goes directly into the bloodstream.This helps the substance to be absorbed much faster than if taken by the traditional oral route. At the same time, the drug stimulates the processes in the body responsible for the production of natural testosterone. Such an effect ensures the normalization of the functions of the genital area and eliminates all potency disorders. Immediately after gluing the patch, one feels: rapid heartbeat, slight fever, agitation. Energy and sexual activity appear. I don’t know how Testonormin has such a tangible effect on the body as a whole, but I really liked this effect! I put on the plaster almost every day, sometimes I take breaks.After prolonged use, libido recovered, testosterone, oddly enough, rose. Sexual life has become regular and vibrant, and all this without any harm to the body, and the cost is not so high. Now you know how to identify elevated testosterone levels and what symptoms to monitor. 6 reasons for high testosterone levels in women When hormone levels rise high enough, figure out what it is. Testosterone belongs to the group of androgens, making up the bulk of all male sex hormones.In the female body, its content is 70% less. The hormone is produced by the testes in men, and by the ovaries in women, only a small part of it is synthesized by ko. Increased testosterone in women negatively affects the appearance and well-being. Testosterone is a sex hormone produced by the adrenal glands. He is responsible for the physical endurance and sexual performance of the stronger sex. But you can often see this. What are the signs of increased testosterone in women? Recognize hormonal imbalances in time and with help.Increased testosterone in women, causes and symptoms, possible consequences and methods of therapy. For many, testosterone is a symbol of male sexuality. Testosterone is conventionally called the male sex hormone. Due to the fact that its production in the body of men is increased, they are strong and physically enduring, active in sexual relations. Increased testosterone in women – what is the reason and how to reduce it. Of course, this hormone is primarily known as a male hormone, but in the female body, it can sometimes be found in quite large quantities.If in men its creation occurs in the testes, then in women in the ovaries. Treatment of increased testosterone in men. Testosterone is a male sex hormone that belongs to the group of androgens, is produced by the Leydig cells of the testes and the adrenal cortex and is a product of peripheral metabolism. Testosterone production is regulated by the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. Increased testosterone in women, the symptoms are obvious: a low voice, a domineering rude character. What are the causes and consequences of this condition, and how you can bring testosterone back to normal.What should women do with high testosterone? Section: Bodyfitness. Find out what the level of testosterone should be in girls and what to do if the upper limits of the norm are greatly overestimated, practical recommendations of experienced.

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Began to apply 1 plaster per day, as recommended by the manufacturer. Place of gluing back, shoulders, hips, abdomen. You cannot glue several plasters to 1 place.The gluing course, in my case, was 2 weeks. nmol / L, ng / ml, ng / dL, ng / 100ml, ng%, ng / L, μg / L. Androgenic testosterone (17β-hydroxyandrostenone) has a molecular weight of 288 daltons. In men, testosterone is almost completely synthesized by Leydig cells in the testes. Testosterone secretion is regulated by luteinizing hormone. This online converter will help you convert to nmol / l, ng / ml, ng / dl. Depending on the laboratory, testosterone levels can be measured in different units.Test system laboratories can determine testosterone levels in various units of measurement: nmol / l, ng / ml, ng / dl. In order to translate into the desired unit of measurement, now long and complex calculations are not needed. Testosterone and age. The rate of testosterone fluctuates depending on age-related changes. Tables are used to determine the value limits. The concentration is on average from 13 to 40 nmol / L or from 2 to 11 ng / ml (3741152 ng / dL, 5.542 pg / ml). Normal free testosterone. The norm of testosterone in men is ng ml.Testosterone is one of the main hormones in the male body, with a lack of it in a man, activity and sexual activity decrease. The general rate for men is 1233 nmol / L (345,950 ng / dL). These are indicators that a man should fit into during. ng / ml. Adrenaline in urine. μg / 24 h nmol / day ACTH. ng / l. pmol / l. Albumen. Testosterone is free. ng / l. pmol / l. The unit of measurement for progesterone levels is ng / ml or nmol / l. In order to convert one value to another, you can resort to using the coefficient, where nmol / l x 314 = ng / ml.What is the rate of free testosterone in men, what is it, what does it affect and why is it so important to monitor its index? More about the calculation method, analysis and units of measurement nmol / l, ng / ml, pg / ml. Table 1 – Normal indicators of testosterone levels in men. Free and biologically active testosterone calculator. The general rate for men is 1233 nmol / L (345,950 ng / dL). The norm of testosterone in men is ng ml. Testosterone is one of the main hormones in the male body when it is lacking.Testosterone levels peak between the ages of 18 and 40. The numbers should range from 11 to 33 nmol / L. Over time, the rate begins to decline by 12 percent per year. The data are given in ng / dl, you can convert to nmol / l in this calculator. Further, all testosterone data will be indicated in nmol / l, since this is the most common measure of testosterone levels. Brief instructions: To calculate the values ​​of free and bioavailable testosterone, a constant albumin concentration of 4.3 g / dL (g / L) is used.In the appropriate fields of the calculator, you must enter the available values ​​of the total testosterone level and select the units of measurement (nmol / L or .ng / dL ng / mL nmol / dL nmol / mL nmol / L. Select the analyte Array Vitamin D DHEA Progesterone Prolactin T3 free T4 total T4 free Testosterone TSH Estradiol how to increase testosterone in adolescents products that increase testosterone levels in the body Reviews, instructions for use, composition and properties Why testosterone levels rise and what should be done to it.Before discussing the causes of high testosterone levels in the blood and how to correct it, you need to list the symptoms of this condition. Causes of increased testosterone in men. Increased testosterone levels in men can have both exogenous and endogenous causes. Increased testosterone in men, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment. Testosterone is popularly considered synonymous with masculinity, strength, and masculinity. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone. It is produced primarily in the testes by Leydig cells.Low testosterone in men is the cause of a lot of unpleasant things. Testosterone is perhaps the most well-known hormone produced in the body of men (and women). Men have. What is the threat of increased testosterone in men – a description of the hormone and the norm, the causes, symptoms and consequences of an increase in the level of the hormone. A sculpted body with a mountain of muscles, a brutal voice and a lot of body hair are always associated with masculinity. Causes of excess testosterone. An increase in the level of the male sex hormone – hyperandrogenism, can be caused by a variety of factors: the development of neoplasms.Testosterone deficiency can also be caused by medical influences. Lack of testosterone in men can lead to various undesirable consequences. In adolescence during puberty.

90,000 How to increase testosterone in a teenager told endocrinologists | Health

Testosterone is the main hormone in the male body. It affects the activity, development of the body and stimulates the growth of muscle fibers. With a lack of it, a teenager may experience physical dysfunctions and mood swings.

How to increase testosterone in a teenager

During adolescence, hormones are very unstable. To avoid problems in the future, you need to notice the lack of testosterone in a young man in time. It is much easier to raise this hormone in adolescence than in adulthood.

The easiest way is to take medication or protein shakes. If the parents of a teenager do not want to resort to these two methods, then you can use others.

It is possible to correct hormonal levels by proper nutrition and a healthy lifestyle.It is scientifically proven that dousing with cold water in the morning and evening provokes an accelerated production of testosterone.

To increase the level of the male hormone, it is necessary to avoid polluted air. Scientists have shown that exhaust fumes, gasoline smell and other negative factors reduce testosterone levels. Doctors recommend ventilating the room more often and humidifying the air.

Foods that contain cholesterol can increase testosterone levels. The thing is that cholesterol is directly related to its synthesis.These include: eggs, liver, meat, milk and fish. Despite the benefits of these products, they should not be abused, as high blood cholesterol levels can lead to atherosclerosis and problems with the cardiovascular system. Seeds, nuts and seafood can also increase testosterone levels.

Sports and proper nutrition will help increase testosterone levels

At home, it is recommended to exercise daily. It is useful to go for a walk in the fresh air or go for a run.Intense exercise will increase your male hormone levels.

One of the important aspects of hormonal regulation is proper nutrition. You should eat 3-4 times a day. It is not recommended to overeat, as well as to eat 3 hours before bedtime. You should choose a balanced diet that will contain proteins, fats and carbohydrates in optimal proportions.

You must include seafood in your meals. They contain protein, zinc, fatty acids and vitamin E. These substances increase testosterone synthesis.Fresh vegetables and herbs are also beneficial for men’s health.

Nuts, dried fruits, fruits and berries should be included in the adolescent’s diet. Cereals, especially buckwheat, rice and millet, are rich in fiber, which improves blood circulation in the pelvis.

There are special diets for those in the gym. The symbiosis of proper nutrition and exercise can help normalize testosterone levels.

To normalize the amount of male hormone in the body, it is necessary to increase the intake of zinc.This element is very important for the growing organism.

Testosterone preparations and the reasons for the decrease in male hormone

You should start taking medications to increase testosterone levels only if natural methods have not helped. You should start taking medications under the strict supervision of your doctor and according to his recommendations. There are testosterone injections, pills, and simulants.

Before trying to normalize testosterone levels, you need to make sure that nothing interferes with testosterone production.

Adverse factors that affect the synthesis of the male hormone include: smoking, alcoholism, general somatic diseases, obesity, stress, passive lifestyle, poor environment. Starting to increase the level of testosterone in the body, the above points should be eradicated.

You can suspect a lack of testosterone in a teenager if you pay attention to some of the signs. For example, if a young man is very tired, he lacks strength and energy, and depression and stress become constant companions, you should contact an endocrinologist.

A decrease in the level of the hormone can occur due to damage to the testicles or due to pathologies of the hypothalamic-pituitary system.

If testosterone is below normal, then the teenager’s memory will deteriorate, overweight and insomnia will appear. One of the important indicators of testosterone deficiency is sparse or lack of hair.

The importance of testosterone in the adolescent body

The male hormone – testosterone, is produced in the testes and in the adrenal cortex. In small amounts, this hormone is produced in women by the ovaries.The norm for testosterone in men is 11-33 nanomoles / liter.

Testosterone in men has an androgenic direction, that is, it regulates the processes of puberty in adolescents. He is responsible for the appearance of sexual characteristics and their formation.

Under the influence of testosterone, muscle mass is formed, the body is actively developing, protein, insulin and endorphin are synthesized. Responsible for the weight and figure of a man. The peak of the hormone in the blood teaches at 18 years.

How men’s health depends on testosterone levels

Testosterone is the main sex hormone in men.In this article, we will tell you what processes it participates in, what affects the level of testosterone in the body, and also how to understand if problems have begun with it.

How the body synthesizes testosterone

Testosterone in men is produced by Leydig cells, which are located in the testes or testicles. A small amount is also synthesized by the adrenal glands in both men and women.

5 milligrams of testosterone is synthesized in the body of a healthy man every day.

The latter binds so tightly to the hormone that the body can no longer use it for its needs. Thus, globulin controls the amount of testosterone that reaches cells and tissues.

Testosterone, which binds to albumin, as well as free, is easily consumed by the cells and tissues of the body, therefore they are called bioavailable. In order not to get confused in different forms of testosterone, we have depicted them in the diagram.

In the prostate gland, muscles, hair follicles and other testosterone-sensitive tissues, about 10% of testosterone is converted into the more potent dehydrotestosterone.It is he who is responsible for all the functions that are attributed to testosterone.

What functions does testosterone perform?

Testosterone peaks during adolescence and youth. He is actively involved in changes in the body during the transition period.

In boys, testosterone affects:

  • Development of the genitals;
  • Hair growth on the face, chest, armpits and groin area;
  • Change of voice;
  • Sexual desire;
  • Strengthening bones and gaining muscle mass;
  • Height.

In adult men, testosterone continually regulates sexual desire, bone and muscle mass, body and facial hair. The production of blood cells and sperm depends on it.

How hormones work

Testosterone also affects estrogen production. This hormone is considered female, but men also have it. It affects the function of adipose tissue and bone density.

Testosterone during pregnancy affects the ratio of the index finger to the ring finger, which is called the digital index.In men, due to high testosterone levels, the ring finger is often longer than in women, so the index is lower.

Signs of low testosterone

Lack of testosterone in the fetus can lead to impaired development of male sexual characteristics. In adolescents, a deficiency of this hormone is associated with less muscle strength and endurance, and the arms and legs may not grow in proportion to the torso.

With age, with aging, the level of the hormone gradually decreases – by about 1% annually after 30-40 years.At the same time, the synthesis of globulin that binds sex hormones, due to which part of testosterone becomes inactive, increases. Thus, with age, the risk of deficiency of the active form of this sex hormone increases.

About 40% of men over 45 have low testosterone levels.

The American Society of Urology considers low testosterone levels to be less than 300 nanograms per deciliter. Symptoms of this level of hormones are:

  • Low libido;
  • Fatigue;
  • Decrease in muscle mass;
  • Irritability;
  • Erectile dysfunction;
  • Depression.

Other signs that may be associated with a deficiency include a lack of energy, decreased stamina and physical strength, memory problems, phrasing, and concentration.

However, all of the above symptoms are not unique to low testosterone levels. They often occur due to other diseases, so when they appear, you should first consult a doctor. And if a specialist suspects a lack of sex hormones, he will be able to pick up a list of tests necessary to assess your condition.

How to maintain testosterone levels

Decreasing testosterone levels with age is a natural part of aging. However, some diseases and conditions speed up this process.

Factors that contribute to lower testosterone levels include:

  • Injury or infection of the testes;
  • Stress;
  • Excessive alcohol consumption;
  • Obesity;
  • Chronic diseases;
  • Certain drugs, mainly corticosteroids and hormones, for the treatment of prostate cancer;
  • Treatment of cancer with chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

Another condition that is associated with low testosterone levels is sleep apnea. It is characterized by frequent respiratory arrest followed by snoring. After starting treatment for apnea, testosterone levels return to normal.

Anabolic steroid use is also associated with low hormone levels. Long-term use of such drugs can lead to infertility, decreased libido, reduced testes and enlarged mammary glands.

Hereditary diseases can also cause low testosterone.These include Kallman syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, hemochromatosis, myotonic dystrophy.

Male health in the genetic test Atlas

The level of male sex hormones depends on the variants of various genes. In the Atlas Genetic Test, we assess your predisposition to a certain testosterone level. This sign is found in men in the Sports section, since the hormone affects muscle gain.

Testosterone levels and performance also depend on other hormones, so in the Genetic Test we also evaluate how gene variants affect them.

Hormone Testosterone connection
Dehydrotestosterone Converted to fabrics. Responsible for all functions that are attributed to testosterone.
Globulin binding sex hormones Responsible for the inactive form of testosterone
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate Testosterone precursor hormone
Luteinizing hormone Stimulates testosterone production
Follicle-stimulating hormone Regulates testosterone production

The genetic test does not show the level of hormones in the blood.With it, you will learn about your genetic predisposition to low, medium or high hormone levels and the risks of diseases. This will help you assess what preventive measures are needed in your case to stay healthy for as long as possible.

Now in honor of February 23, discounts up to 50% are available on the Atlas website. The genetic test can be purchased for 14900 instead of 29900.

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testosterone novosibirsk Testosterone is a hormone that is produced in the male genitals. During puberty boy. It has been found that increased blood levels of this vitamin are accompanied by increased testosterone levels.[12] Vitamin D is produced in human skin by action. Testosterone is one of the most important hormones in the human body, which must be carefully monitored, especially if there is a small man in the family. It is synthesized by the adrenal glands and gonads. It is testosterone at the stage of intrauterine development that is responsible for. How to increase testosterone. Low testosterone levels in a boy. Causes of primary hypogonadism. Low testosterone levels in a boy. Hypogonadism in boys occurs with a decrease in testosterone production, impaired sperm production, or the absence (decreased.10 Ways to Boost Testosterone in Men Testosterone is the leading androgenic hormone in the male body. Testosterone is the leading androgenic hormone in the male body, which is responsible for sexual functions and the regulation of spermatogenesis. It stimulates a set of muscle mass, physical activity. Increased testosterone – values ​​above normal. Symptoms of increased testosterone levels. What is the norm for testosterone in children and adolescents? Causes of abnormalities in the level of the hormone in boys. Testosterone is the most important androgen circulating in the blood.The concentration of testosterone in the blood rises during. Analysis of testosterone levels in the surveyed adolescent boys going in for sports showed that it. Testosterone rates in children. Testosterone in children is already present in the blood. It is during puberty that testosterone in boys is manifested in. Increased thyroid-stimulating hormone – signs and treatment Symptoms of increased TSH Causes of abnormalities in the level of the hormone in boys. Testosterone is one of the most important hormones in the human body.In order to prevent or increase testosterone levels in adolescents, it is helpful for parents to know the reasons why this may be happening. Reasons for changing the level. How to increase testosterone in a teenager. What is testosterone? Usually such boys have a good physical youthfulness. Testosterone norms in men change smoothly by age, this can be seen by examining the table. The indicator is kept within limits, but gradually with age. testosterone 250 mg testosterone is inexpensive as testosterone in women shows

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The patch was initially glued within 10 days.Now I use it an hour before sex. Increases desire, enhances sensations. The patch can be applied to the back, shoulders, abdomen, thighs. The effect of the place of gluing does not change. 15 minutes after sticking, I feel warmth inside the body, clarity of mind. I noticed that if I glue it regularly, even 10 days in a row, after I stop glueing, it lasts longer than if I only glue it once every 10 days. The instructions for Testonormin for testosterone production also say that it is best to use the drug in the evening before bed.But, if you can have intercourse, apply the sticker half an hour before intercourse. It allows you to instantly strengthen an erection, and makes it possible to have sex for several hours. Testonormin is a unique development of scientists, especially for men who suffer from a decrease in the level of the hormone testosterone. This condition is very common today. It leads to a decrease in potency and a deterioration in libido. In addition, it is fraught with other disturbances in the work of other organs and systems.The drug normalizes the hormonal sphere and eliminates all of the above pathologies. The free testosterone index (also abbreviated as IST) is a hormone that is necessary for the full and harmonious work of the genitals. Today it is possible to stay young, healthy, attractive, sexually active for much longer. Women prefer looks, men choose potency. Free testosterone is at the core. Free testosterone is an active bioavailable hormone responding. The free testosterone index (IST) is a value that shows the ratio of the concentration of hormone species in the blood.Free testosterone index. It seems that the higher the total testosterone level, the higher the free-form score will be, but this is not the case. The relationship with binding proteins is important, it happens that there are also many of them. The Free Testosterone Index is a formula that can be used to calculate the percentage of free testosterone in total. Free testosterone index. An important indicator is the ratio of OT to the level of the hormone associated with globulin. The androgenic index is measured as a percentage. It is not difficult to determine the IST: (OT x 100) / SHBG indicators.As shown by the index of free testosterone in women, the norm, taking into account age. A blood test reveals deviations in this indicator, at which. Free testosterone is the most important indicator of male testosterone. The rate of the free testosterone index in dew. laboratories in men: 14.8–95%. For example, a man’s total testosterone level is 15 nmol / L. To determine a number of problems associated with the reproductive system, it is necessary to take an analysis for the free testosterone index. Free testosterone – what it is and how it differs from total testosterone.What are SHBG and albumin. How to calculate the free testosterone index and why don’t we donate free testosterone? free.

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Testonormin – testosterone patches are by far the most popular and effective method for the restoration of the male hormone. They are made of high quality and hypoallergenic material. Useful substances enter the blood exclusively, do not harm the organs.The innovative development includes testosterone esters. The basis of the novelty is a unique gel that gradually dissolves and provides a smooth injection of testosterone. What dietary supplement for testosterone to choose for a man, the best dietary supplements to increase the level of the male hormone in the blood, are there any contraindications and what harm. Dietary supplement for testosterone is a harmless alternative to pharmaceutical drugs. Course reception means provides not only recovery. Supplements to increase testosterone in men help to fill the deficiency of vitamins and microelements.The use of dietary supplements to raise testosterone levels allows you to relatively safely achieve the normalization of hormonal levels. In contrast to the introduction of artificially synthesized. Testosterone is considered the main sex hormone in men. Its importance for the male body is very great. He is responsible for the style of behavior, the level of libido and has a significant impact on the formation of external signs. Thanks to this hormone, men. Testosterone preparations is a list of the most effective medicines and dietary supplements for stimulating hormone production.Home Health Pharmacology. For the treatment of hormonal disorders in men, testosterone preparations are used, which are presented in tablets and solutions in pharmacies. Testosterone boosting drugs in men are essential to address a serious health problem. What exactly they are, types, names of the most famous drugs, dietary supplements – this is our article. Testosterone enhancing supplements are an integral part of the products of sports nutrition manufacturers. Tablets for raising testosterone are used by athletes during strength cycles and during PCT.Supplements for testosterone in men. Testosterone is recognized as the main male hormone. It is on him that masculinity depends. prescribe regular strength training; start taking dietary supplements to increase testosterone in men. As a rule, these measures turn out to be the most effective. Supplements for increasing testosterone in men.In case of hormonal disruptions, doctors recommend various methods of increasing in the form of supplements. Testosterone is a sex hormone that is produced in both men and women. Specifically, he characterizes the masculine traits that form the basis.Testosterone is one of the main male hormones involved. He, like other dietary supplements, has significantly fewer and possible contraindications. Important for men! Absolutely every man faces certain problems in the sexual sphere! Ignoring alarming symptoms can. increase testosterone in a boy . testosterone is inexpensive. Reviews, instructions for use, composition and properties. Herbs that increase testosterone help relieve intimate health problems and related symptoms for men and women.Testosterone is a male sex hormone, the production of which decreases with age. Its lack in the body causes some problems in men. Erectile dysfunction is common. Testosterone is more responsible for the normal functioning of the male body. With age, the body produces less and less of this hormone, as a result of which nervousness worsens. How to increase testosterone with herbs in men? List of plants that help in this case. Decreased testosterone production is the most common cause of sexual dysfunction and other related factors.The reasons for the decrease in testosterone. The main reasons for the decrease in the male hormone in descending order: Age – the older a person gets, the less testosterone he produces. Herbs for increasing testosterone are less dangerous than drugs sold in pharmacies. Folk ways to increase testosterone, herbs that increase testosterone. 13 votes. What men can do everything. Herbs for increasing the main male hormone. Over the years, men inevitably fall in the level of their main hormone – testosterone.This does not in the best way affect not only the potency and ability to reproduce, but also on strength, endurance, appearance, performance and character. The masculinity of the stronger sex determines the level of testosterone. This main male hormone is produced by the testes, a small amount is synthesized by the adrenal glands. Herbs that increase testosterone in men.When hormonal levels drop, doctors recommend turning to alternative methods. You can increase testosterone with the help of decoctions, infusions and teas.They are usually prepared easily, without difficulty and do not require special preparation. Rarely with this.

90,000 Symptoms of Low Testosterone and How to Deal with It

Testosterone is a hormone produced by the sex glands – in the testes in men. In addition to the effect on sexual desire, it also supports growth muscle and bone development. Testosterone naturally declines with age, but if levels drop below 300 ng / dL. [1] , then there is nothing good about it.

But what are the symptoms of low testosterone and how to deal with them?

Decreased libido and sexual desire

Testosterone plays a key role in the formation of male libido , which affects libido. Over the years, men have a decrease in libido. However, men who have low testosterone levels experience a much more dramatic decrease in sex drive. However, testosterone also affects the proper functioning of erections. Although testosterone itself does not induce an erection, it affects the receptors in the brain that produce nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is a molecule that helps trigger a series of chemical reactions required for an erection. If a man has low testosterone levels, he may have problems with erections during sex or with spontaneous erections (for example, while sleeping) . [2]

Loss of muscle mass and increase in fat

Because testosterone affects muscle growth, men who have low testosterone levels may experience muscle loss.According to the study, it was noted that low testosterone levels in men also lead to increases in body fat , with some men increasing this figure from 15 to 60%. [3]

A study was also conducted on men with low testosterone levels to control muscle loss. Men received testosterone during the 12-week study. The results of this study led to marked improvements in strength , muscle gain , as well as fat loss and an improvement in the glycemic index. [4]

In addition, however, low testosterone levels also cause bones to become weaker , thinner and thinner, leading to osteoporosis or a predisposition to fractures. [5]

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Mood swings

A study that focused on the behavior and mood of men with low testosterone levels found that a lack of testosterone could have a negative effect on men . For example, some men have been found to have a greater tendency to experience depression or mood swings . Some were less focused or more tired. However, these symptoms may be related to more than just low testosterone levels. For example, anemia, chronic illness, or sleep problems can also affect the body. [6]

Interestingly, however, with regularly increasing doses of testosterone, an increase in aggression and hostile mood was observed in men. [7]

Memory and cardiac activity

Although did not find direct evidence that low testosterone levels negatively affects memory , however, a study was carried out aimed at men suffering from its deficiency. The men who participated in the study received testosterone for 3 weeks, and as a result of the study, of them had improved memory and concentration. [8]

Research on heart problems has shown that in people with coronary artery disease, a higher testosterone dose improves the function of endothelial cells , the inner surface of the blood vessels in the heart. [9]

However, no studies on have been able to prove that lowering testosterone levels can negatively affect heart function or cause heart disease. [10]

What causes low testosterone and when should treatment be considered?

In addition to age-related natural declines in testosterone levels, declines may also mask diseases or diagnoses that you should be aware of.The most common causes of low testosterone levels are type II diabetes, obesity, chronic liver and pituitary problems, scrotal tissue contusion or tumors. Testosterone levels can also drop significantly when cancer is treated with chemotherapy. However, steroid medications can also cause testosterone levels to decrease or become unstable. [11]

In addition to the above diagnoses, you should check your testosterone level if you observe [12]:

  • erection problems
  • decreased sex drive or even aversion to sex
  • reduced sperm count associated with ejaculation problems
  • severe loss of muscle, hair or weight

How to deal with low testosterone levels?

If you find that some of the above problems are bothering you, then you still do not need to sound the alarm right away.People with low testosterone levels do not urgently need to see a doctor, unless you are seeing serious consequences. However, this does not mean that prevention can be neglected. Fortunately, there are nutritional supplements that act as stimulants to naturally increase testosterone levels.

How to increase testosterone levels?

There are currently several options for increasing testosterone to choose from:

  • Testosterone injections [13] – this method is one of the most enjoyable, injections are given once every 2-4 weeks in consultation with the doctor.However, during this period, your testosterone levels may be unstable.
  • Testosterone gels / patches [14] are directly applied / adhered to the skin and thus the hormone is slowly absorbed through the skin. These products are used every day to ensure a stable and balanced testosterone level is maintained. However, in some people, they can cause unpleasant itching or allergic reactions.
  • Testosterone Tablets [15] Usually taken every 12 hours to gradually release testosterone into the body, however, in some people they may initially cause side effects such as headaches.However, these symptoms should gradually disappear.

However, in addition to this basic distribution of testosterone supplementation, there are several other options:

  • Maca , also called Peruvian ginseng , is a medicinal herb that has a positive effect on hormone levels. Also has a beneficial effect on increase libido and increases the number and quality of sperm, which are influenced by testosterone.Also used as a natural alternative to anabolic steroids. [16]
  • D-Aspartic Acid (DAA) is a highly effective substance that naturally stimulates testosterone production and effectively affects muscle growth. DAA is also considered to be one of the most effective anabolizers of as it can rapidly increase blood testosterone levels. [17]
  • Tribulus terrestris is a potent extract of the Tribulus terrestris plant, which contains large amounts of saponin.Saponin is an active substance that supports and increases testosterone levels . At the same time, it significantly increases physical performance and has a positive effect on sexual desire. Saponins can be converted to steroid hormones or steroid parahormones with an anabolic effect. [18]

We hope that after reading our article, you have learned the most basic causes and symptoms of low testosterone levels and how to deal with them.If you liked the article and it was useful, then support us with a repost.

Sources:

[1] Low testosteron – http://www.urologyhealth.org/urologic-conditions/low-testosterone

[2] Samantha Huo, Anthony R. Scialli, Sean McGarvey, Elizabeth Hill, Buğra Tügertimur, Alycia Hogenmiller, Alessandra I. Hirsch, and Adriane Fugh-Berman, – Treatment of Men for “Low Testosterone”: A Systematic Review – PLoS One. 2016 – dostupné online – https: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5031462

[3] Srinivas-Shankar, Roberts SA, Connolly MJ, O’Connell MD, Adams JE, Oldham JA, Wu FC. – Effects of testosterone on muscle strength, physical function, body composition, and quality of life in intermediate-frail and frail elderly men: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 – dostupné online – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20061435/

[4] Caminiti, Volterrani M, Iellamo F, Marazzi G, Massaro R, Miceli M, Mammi C, Piepoli M , Fini M, Rosano GM.- Effect of long-acting testosterone treatment on functional exercise capacity, skeletal muscle performance, insulin resistance, and baroreflex sensitivity in elderly patients with chronic heart failure a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009 – dostupné online – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19712802

[5] English KM, Steeds RP, Jones TH, Diver MJ, Channer KS. – Low-dose transdermal testosterone therapy improves angina threshold in men with chronic stable angina: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Circulation. 2000 – dostupné online – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11034937

[6] Anderson RA, Bancroft J, Wu FC. – The effects of exogenous testosterone on sexuality and mood of normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992 – dostupné online – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1464655

[7] O’Connor, Archer J, Wu FC. – Effects of testosterone on mood, aggression, and sexual behavior in young men: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. – J Clin Endocrinol Metab.2004 – dostupné online – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15181066

[8] Kenny, Fabregas G, Song C, Biskup B, Bellantonio S. – Effects of testosterone on behavior, depression, and cognitive function in older men with mild cognitive loss. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2004 – dostupné online – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14718489

[9] Ong, Patrizi G, Chong WC, Webb CM, Hayward CS, Collins P. – Testosterone enhances flow-mediated brachial artery reactivity in men with coronary artery disease.Am J Cardiol. 2000 – dostupné online – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10955392

[10] Wu, Weng. – Therapeutic effects of an androgenic preparation on myocardial ischemia and cardiac function in 62 elderly male coronary heart disease patients. Chin Med J (Engl). 1993 – dostupné online – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8222891

[11] Howell, Radford, Adams, Smets, Warburton R, Shalet SM. – Randomized placebo-controlled trial of testosterone replacement in men with mild Leydig cell insufficiency following cytotoxic chemotherapy.Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2001 – dostupné online – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11589674

[12] Low testosterone overview – https://www.webmd.com/men/ss/slideshow-low-testosterone -overview

[13] Generic Name: Testosterone Cypionate Injection (tes TOS ter ohn) – Uses of Testosterone Cypionate Injection – dostupné online – https://www.drugs.com/cdi/testosterone-cypionate-injection.html

[14] Testosterone Gel In Metered-Dose Pump – https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-1611-3116/testosterone-transdermal/testosterone-gel-transdermal/details

[15] TESTOSTERONE – testosterone , tablet Apotheca Company – dostupné online – https: // dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/fda/fdaDrugXsl.cfm?setid=59390fa8-fd99-4c00-948b-3e202ce58e7c&type=display7

[16] Maca libido energy – http://rawganik.com/studies/Maca.LibdfidoEner

[17] D’Aniello A – D-Aspartic acid: an endogenous amino acid with an important neuroendocrine role. Brain Res Rev. 2007 – dostupné online – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17118457

[18] Sengupta, Hazra, Kundu, Ghosh – Comparison of Murraya koenigii- and Tribulus terrestris-based oral formulation versus tamsulosin in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in men aged> 50 years: a double-blind, double-dummy, randomized controlled trial.Clin Ther. 2011 – dostupné online – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22177370

All about testosterone | Testosterone norm

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Everything about testosterone: how to check and control its level

Everything about testosterone: how to check and control its level

Up to 10 years old boys and girls differ only anatomically, in genitals. And then the difference between them is only one hydrogen atom and two… 08.01.2021, Sputnik Belarus

2021-01-08T19: 58 + 0300

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We all like strong and courageous men. But what makes a man a man and a woman a woman? Hormones. And the difference in the main hormones between men and women is actually quite small. Together with the specialist in preventive medicine Ekaterina Stepanova, Sputnik continues to study the most important indicators of our health. The difference is just one atom. If we compare the graphical formula of testosterone – the main male sex hormone, with the graphical formula estrogen – the main female sex hormone, the difference between them is only one hydrogen atom and two energy bonds! Almost identical molecules, and this difference is very subtle and unstable.In the male body, as in the female, these two hormones are present simultaneously, but in different quantities. It is clear that there is more testosterone in the male body, but there is a constant interaction between testosterone and estrogen. Every minute a man produces about 11 million testosterone molecules, but if for some reason a hydrogen atom is attached to this molecule, testosterone is converted into estrogen. If there are many such transformations, a man ceases to be a man. Curiously enough, this arises cardinally, first at the psychological, then at the emotional and intellectual levels, and only last of all manifests itself on the physical, when changes in secondary sexual characteristics begin towards degradation.But, of course, for such changes there must be certain conditions. How to protect testosterone Up to 10 years old boys and girls differ only anatomically, genitals. A man begins to develop from the moment of puberty (12 years old): hormonal levels are developing, in particular the main sex hormone testosterone , and thanks to him, secondary sexual characteristics are formed: hair growth according to the male type of face and body begins, voice changes, the formation of musculoskeletal and adipose tissue. Testosterone normally controls body fat, so healthy men with good testosterone levels are not prone to obesity.If the boy is overweight, this should not be neglected. If, after correcting nutrition and physical activity, the weight does not go away, you need to contact an endocrinologist so as not to miss a decrease in the level or improper production of testosterone. By the age of 16-18, testosterone forms masculine qualities, and male characteristics depend on its amount. Testosterone is produced in the paired organ – testicles. This is the only organ of the male body that is brought out. And this is not without reason – the temperature in the testicles should normally be 3.3 degrees lower than in the body as a whole.It is necessary to take care of the formation and preservation of testosterone in the male body from the very beginning, from early childhood, to mothers, and then to men themselves throughout their lives. After all, the quality of life largely depends on this hormone. From the moment the child is born, mothers must control the time the boy is in a diaper. After all, the effect of a thermal bath is created in it, the temperature can fluctuate around 43-45 ° C, and wearing a diaper 24 hours a day can cause irreparable harm to the testicles and even cause infertility.And it is clear that a boy should not wear diapers until two years old, because a psychological problem can join the physiological problem. Protect testosterone The mechanism of testosterone production is quite complex. The signal for testosterone production comes from the command-controlled area of ​​the brain. After complex interactions between the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus, the testicles are commanded to produce testosterone. The well-being of one of the main sex hormones of a man depends on how well-coordinated this joint work will be.Parents need to be alert from the early active age of the boy. After all, children are so fidgety! It is important to keep your baby safe from head or testicular injuries. For any complaint of headache, dizziness, pain when urinating or pain in the groin and abdomen, you need to ask the child in detail if there was an injury. If there was an injury, it is necessary to urgently consult a traumatologist, neurologist or urologist-andrologist. Testosterone has very important functions, it is responsible for: What can lead to a decrease in testosterone? The reasons are many, and they are associated with different aspects of lifestyle.Stress. It has been proven by a group of Austrian and Swiss scientists that financial problems or outstanding loans reduce testosterone levels by 15-20% and keep them consistently low until the financial situation is completely resolved. In general, any prolonged stress and nervous overload lead to a significant decrease in testosterone. This is regulated by nature from the moment a person is born. During periods of stress, the stress hormones cortisol and adrenaline are produced in large quantities, respectively. For the body, this is a state of war, and all its functionality during this period is at the peak of its capabilities, here, as they say, not before reproduction, therefore, during this period, the level of testosterone decreases.Only short-term upward jumps are possible for the regulation of general processes in the body. Alcohol. The first 5 minutes, a small amount of it actually increases testosterone, but within 25 minutes testosterone returns to normal and then begins to fall sharply and steadily. In the United States, scientists conducted an inhuman experiment and found out that in order to completely stop the production of testosterone, a man needs to drink heavily for 3 months and gain 20 kg in weight. With this state of health, secondary sexual characteristics will begin to change.Food. Love for sweets is especially dangerous. High blood glucose levels reduce testosterone production because insulin counteracts the main male sex hormone. Commercially produced meat contains female sex hormones that can help an animal or poultry gain weight. Once in a man’s body, they inhibit testosterone production, and the same can be said for foods containing soy. It contains phytoestrogens. You shouldn’t drink a lot of milk with high fat content. You need to understand that a cow produces milk not for humans, but for feeding her calf, therefore, with milk she transfers her hormones and phytoestrogens to him to maintain immunity.Without options, fast food and smoked meats should be excluded from the diet. Illness, injury, low physical activity. Viruses, bacteria, sexually transmitted diseases, irregular sex, head injuries, spine, testicles, any decrease or lack of physical activity (physical activity increases the blood supply to the pelvic organs of a man) – all this invariably leads to a decrease in testosterone levels. Certain medications have been shown to lower testosterone levels, such as atropine-containing drugs, antiulcer drugs.Blood pressure and vascular problems. An increase in blood pressure by 15-20 millimeters of mercury significantly reduces testosterone levels, as does atherosclerosis and ischemia. During an erection, the volume of blood passing through the penis increases 6 times, and the blood flows under pressure. To preserve its blood vessels, the body lowers testosterone and, consequently, libido. Otherwise, passion can turn into a stroke, heart attack, etc. Any decrease in the blood supply to the penis upon contact is a reason to check the condition of blood vessels, primarily coronary ones.Increased pulse. If the number of heartbeats is more than 80, the level of testosterone decreases. A protective mechanism is triggered to relieve stress from the heart. After all, it already works with overload, and there is no need to create additional difficulties for it. Bilirubin. The norm is 20 μmol / liter. If its level rises to 25 and above, then there is a significant decrease in testosterone. The liver is involved in this mechanism. It is the main utilizer of toxins and, in particular, regulates the level of the aromatase enzyme, which is dangerous for men.Aromatase promotes the attachment of one hydrogen atom to the testosterone molecule, after which it is converted into estrogen. There should be a minimum amount of aromatase in a man’s body. By the way, men need to be careful with the use of grapefruits – they contribute to an increase in aromatase in the blood. Disruption of kidney function. The control indicator here is the amount of urine excreted. If a man excretes less than 1 liter of urine per day, testosterone levels decrease by 15%. Normally, an adult man should consume at least 30 ml of pure water per 1 kilogram of weight and excrete at least 2 liters of urine per day.Not only toxins are eliminated with urine, but also excess stress hormones (cortisol and adrenaline), which directly block testosterone production. Testosterone levels can also be affected by wearing tight synthetic underwear, cell phones in your pants pocket, and especially when tablets and laptops are on your lap. When riding a bicycle, you need to select a special male anatomical saddle to exclude injuries to the muscles of the perineum and testicles. The level of testosterone is also reduced by inhalation of harmful fumes (gasoline, phenols, tobacco, paints).If the man is lying on the couch The first sign of a decrease in testosterone levels is usually that the man is lying down on the couch and does not want to do anything. Testosterone is always activity: mental, physical, sexual! A more serious signal is weight gain, in particular, female fat deposition. It is officially established that a man’s waist should not exceed 92-94 cm. This indicator is directly related to testosterone levels. After all, visceral and abdominal fat produce the hormone leptin – one of the main enemies of testosterone.Normal testosterone levels prevent weight gain, as it promotes its conversion into energy in the muscles, so any physical activity should be a man’s faithful companion. Testosterone is the keeper of everything in the male body. Thanks to him, the musculoskeletal system maintains its health. By means of testosterone, calcium is absorbed by the bone tissue. In women, estrogen performs this function. How to control testosterone levels? Blood for testosterone should be taken on an empty stomach and in the morning. In the early hours, testosterone is at its maximum production.A blood sample is taken for total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin. They always work in pairs. Only a urologist can decipher these indicators, because sometimes testosterone in the body may not be in the active phase, no matter how much it is, and not have its own effectiveness. The normal level of testosterone is 12-35 nmol / liter. The peak of its production falls on 25-30 years. From the age of 30, testosterone levels in all men begin to decrease by 1-2% annually. It has been proven that if at 25 years of age the testosterone level was 35 nmol / liter, then in the normal course of life a man will have enough of this supply for life, and this is physiological. the fall will not greatly affect his activity and male strength.But if at 25 a man had indicators in the region of 12 nmol / liter, it is worth keeping your lifestyle and health under control. If the indicator at a young age is below 12 nmol / liter, this is regarded as a defect and is called hypogonadism. Unfortunately, statistics are such that today the male factor of infertility begins to outstrip the female. In nature, everything is in balance, and there are many factors that increase testosterone levels: from food to hobbies. American scientists have found that a quarrel with a wife when the man is right increases the level testosterone by 35%, and subsequent reconciliatory sex adds another 45%.But the leader in the stable increase in testosterone and its retention at high figures of 50-55% is the purchase of a car and spare parts for it, the purchase of gadgets and sports. Each sex has its own joys. Well, the most win-win factor that increases testosterone is to demonstrate the dignity of a woman, and so that she appreciates all this muscularity. Dear ladies and mothers, male happiness is in your hands! Praise and appreciate men. A man does everything in this life for the sake of a woman, so mutual care for each other will reward you with joint health, harmony and well-being.Read also:

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just about health: how not to get sick and live long, help, testosterone, men’s health, hormones, health, society

We all like strong and courageous men.But what makes a man a man and a woman a woman? Hormones. And the difference in essential hormones between men and women is actually quite small.

Together with preventive medicine specialist Ekaterina Stepanova, Sputnik continues to study the most important indicators of our health.

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The difference is just one atom

If we compare the graphical formula of testosterone – the main male sex hormone, with the graphical formula of estrogen – the main female sex hormone, the difference there is only one hydrogen atom and two energy bonds between them! Almost identical molecules, and this difference is very subtle and unstable.

In the male body, as in the female, these two hormones are present simultaneously, but in different quantities. It is clear that there is more testosterone in the male body, but there is a constant interaction between testosterone and estrogen. Every minute a man produces about 11 million testosterone molecules, but if for some reason a hydrogen atom is attached to this molecule, testosterone is converted into estrogen. If there are many such transformations, a man ceases to be a man.

It radically arises, oddly enough, first on the psychological, then on the emotional and intellectual levels, and only in the last place it manifests itself on the physical, when changes in secondary sexual characteristics begin towards degradation. But, of course, there must be certain conditions for such changes.

How to protect testosterone

Up to 10 years old boys and girls differ only anatomically, genitals.

A man begins to develop from the moment of puberty (12 years): hormonal levels are developing, in particular the main sex hormone testosterone, and thanks to it secondary sexual characteristics are formed: hair growth in the male type of face and body begins, voice changes, the formation of musculoskeletal and adipose tissue.Testosterone normally controls body fat, so healthy men with good testosterone levels are not prone to obesity. If the boy is overweight, this should not be neglected. If, after correcting nutrition and physical activity, the weight does not go away, you need to contact an endocrinologist so as not to miss a decrease in the level or incorrect production of testosterone.

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By the age of 16-18, testosterone forms masculine qualities, and masculine characteristics depend on its quantity.

Testosterone is produced in the paired organ – the testes. This is the only organ of the male body that is brought out. And this is not without reason – the temperature in the testicles should normally be 3.3 degrees lower than in the body as a whole.

It is necessary for mothers to take care of the formation and preservation of testosterone in the male body from the very beginning, from early childhood, and then for men themselves throughout their lives. After all, the quality of life largely depends on this hormone.

From the moment the baby is born, mothers must control the time the boy is in the diaper.After all, the effect of a thermal bath is created in it, the temperature can fluctuate around 43-45 ° C, and wearing a diaper 24 hours a day can cause irreparable harm to the testicles and even cause infertility. And it is clear that a boy should not wear diapers until he is two years old, because a psychological one can also join a physiological problem.

Just about health: what the blood pressure signals about

Take care of testosterone

The mechanism of testosterone production is quite complex.The signal for testosterone production comes from the command-controlled area of ​​the brain. After complex interactions between the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus, the testicles are commanded to produce testosterone. The well-being of one of the main sex hormones of a man depends on how well-coordinated this joint work will be.

Parents need to be on guard from the early active age of the boy. After all, children are so fidgety! It is important to keep your baby safe from head or testicular injuries. For any complaint of headache, dizziness, pain when urinating or pain in the groin and abdomen, you need to ask the child in detail if there was an injury.If there was an injury, it is necessary to urgently consult a traumatologist, neurologist or urologist-andrologist. Testosterone has very important functions, it is responsible for:

A male lives in every man, so he will always worry and take care of the most precious thing he has: his head and potency.

What can lead to a decrease in testosterone levels?

There are many reasons, and they are associated with different aspects of lifestyle.

Stress. It has been proven by a group of Austrian and Swiss scientists that financial problems or outstanding loans reduce testosterone levels by 15-20% and keep them consistently low until the financial situation is completely resolved.In general, any prolonged stress and nervous overload lead to a significant decrease in testosterone. This is regulated by nature from the moment a person is born. During periods of stress, the stress hormones cortisol and adrenaline are produced in large quantities, respectively. For the body, this is a state of war, and all its functionality during this period is at the peak of its capabilities, here, as they say, not before reproduction, therefore, during this period, the level of testosterone decreases. Only short-term upward jumps are possible for the regulation of general processes in the body.

Just about health: the liver is the main laboratory of the body

Alcohol . The first 5 minutes, a small amount of it actually increases testosterone, but within 25 minutes testosterone returns to normal and then begins to fall sharply and steadily. In the United States, scientists conducted an inhuman experiment and found out that in order to completely stop the production of testosterone, a man needs to drink heavily for 3 months and gain 20 kg in weight. With this state of health, secondary sexual characteristics will begin to change.

Food. Love for sweets is especially dangerous. High blood glucose levels reduce testosterone production because insulin counteracts the main male sex hormone.

Commercially produced meat contains female sex hormones that help to gain weight in an animal or poultry. Once in a man’s body, they inhibit the production of testosterone.

The same can be said for products containing soy. It contains phytoestrogens.

Do not drink a lot of high fat milk. You need to understand that a cow produces milk not for humans, but for feeding her calf, therefore, with milk she transfers her hormones and phytoestrogens to him to maintain immunity.

Without options, fast food and smoked meats should be excluded from the diet.

Diseases, injuries, low physical activity. Viruses, bacteria, sexually transmitted diseases, irregular sex, trauma to the head, spine, testicles, any decrease or lack of physical activity (physical activity increases the blood supply to the male pelvic organs) – all this invariably leads to a decrease in testosterone levels.

Medicines. Certain drugs have been shown to lower testosterone levels, such as atropine-containing drugs, antiulcer drugs.

Blood pressure and vascular problems. An increase in blood pressure by 15-20 millimeters of mercury significantly reduces testosterone levels, as does atherosclerosis and ischemia. During an erection, the volume of blood passing through the penis increases 6 times, and the blood flows under pressure. To preserve its blood vessels, the body lowers testosterone and, consequently, libido.Otherwise, passion can turn into a stroke, heart attack, etc. Any decrease in the blood supply to the penis upon contact is a reason to check the condition of blood vessels, primarily coronary ones.

Just about health: what the blood pressure signals about

Increased heart rate. If the number of heartbeats is more than 80, the testosterone level decreases. A protective mechanism is triggered to relieve stress from the heart. After all, it already works with overload, and there is no need to create additional difficulties for it.

Bilirubin. Norm – 20 μmol / liter. If its level rises to 25 and above, then there is a significant decrease in testosterone. The liver is involved in this mechanism. It is the main utilizer of toxins and, in particular, regulates the level of the aromatase enzyme, which is dangerous for men. Aromatase promotes the attachment of one hydrogen atom to the testosterone molecule, after which it is converted into estrogen. There should be a minimum amount of aromatase in a man’s body.

By the way, men need to be careful with the use of grapefruits – they contribute to an increase in aromatase in the blood.

Kidney dysfunction. The benchmark here is the amount of urine excreted. If a man excretes less than 1 liter of urine per day, testosterone levels decrease by 15%. Normally, an adult man should consume at least 30 ml of pure water per 1 kilogram of weight and excrete at least 2 liters of urine per day. Not only toxins are eliminated with urine, but also excess stress hormones (cortisol and adrenaline), which directly block testosterone production.

Testosterone levels can also be affected by wearing tight synthetic underwear, cell phones in your trouser pocket, and especially when tablets and laptops are on your lap.

When cycling, a special male anatomical saddle must be selected to avoid injury to the muscles of the perineum and testicles. The level of testosterone is also reduced by inhalation of harmful fumes (gasoline, phenols, tobacco, paints).

If a man lies down on the couch

The first sign of a decrease in testosterone levels, as a rule, is that the man is lying down on the couch and does not want to do anything. Testosterone is always activity: mental, physical, sexual!

A more serious signal is weight gain, in particular female fat deposition.It is officially established that a man’s waist should not exceed 92-94 cm. This indicator is directly related to testosterone levels. After all, visceral and abdominal fat produce the hormone leptin – one of the main enemies of testosterone. Normal testosterone levels prevent weight gain, as it promotes its processing into energy in the muscles, so any physical activity should be a faithful companion for a man.

Testosterone is the keeper of everything in the male body. Thanks to him, the musculoskeletal system maintains its health.By means of testosterone, calcium is absorbed by the bone tissue. In women, estrogen performs this function.

How to control testosterone levels?

Blood for testosterone should be taken on an empty stomach and in the morning. In the early hours, testosterone is at its maximum production. A blood sample is taken for total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin. They always work in pairs. Only a urologist can decipher these indicators, because sometimes testosterone in the body may not be in the active phase, no matter how much it is, and not have its effectiveness.

Normal testosterone levels – 12-35 nmol / liter. The peak of its production falls on 25-30 years. From the age of 30 in all men, testosterone levels begin to decline by 1-2% annually.

It has been proven that if at 25 years of age the testosterone level was 35 nmol / liter, then in the normal course of life, a man will have enough of this supply for his entire life, and this physiological drop will not greatly affect his activity and male strength. But if at 25 years old a man had indicators in the region of 12 nmol / liter, it is worth keeping your lifestyle and health under control.

If the indicator at a young age is below 12 nmol / liter, this is regarded as a defect and is called hypogonadism.

Unfortunately, the statistics are such that today the male factor of infertility begins to outstrip the female one.

In nature, everything is in balance, and there are many factors that increase testosterone levels, from food to hobbies.

American scientists have found that a quarrel with a wife when a man is right increases testosterone levels by 35%, and subsequent reconciliatory sex adds another 45%.

But the leader in the stable increase in testosterone and its retention at high figures of 50-55% is the purchase of a car and spare parts for it, the purchase of gadgets and sports. Each sex has its own joys.

Well, the most win-win factor that increases testosterone is to demonstrate the dignity of a woman, and so that she appreciates all this muscularity.

Dear ladies and mothers, man’s happiness is in your hands! Praise and appreciate men. A man does everything in this life for the sake of a woman, so mutual care for each other will reward you with joint health, harmony and well-being.