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Temperatures are taken two ways at Casablanca’s airport: with an infrared body scanner (left) and a handheld thermometer (right).

Abdeljalil Bounhar/AP


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Abdeljalil Bounhar/AP

Temperatures are taken two ways at Casablanca’s airport: with an infrared body scanner (left) and a handheld thermometer (right).

Abdeljalil Bounhar/AP

What’s your temperature?

That’s the question of the hour. The Ebola virus has made taking your temperature part of everyday conversation. People in West Africa are doing it. People returning from the region are doing it. And so are the overly paranoid in the United States.

For anyone who’s been exposed to the virus, a body temperatures of 100.4 or higher has been deemed the point of concern. The goal, of course, is that magic number: 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit.

Except 98.6 degrees isn’t so magical after all. In fact, that might not be your normal temperature.

For insights into the range of temperatures we can experience, we consulted with Dr. Amesh Adalja, senior associate at the Center for Health Security at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, and Dr. Benjamin Levine, a professor at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center who knows a thing or two about fever (his specialty is exercise science).

For Ebola, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit is the temperature for which medical attention is necessary.

When Ebola is not a factor, Levine defines 101.5 degrees Fahrenheit as a serious fever. (Although he notes that you could register a lower temperature and still be harboring an infection.)

These high temperatures can actually save your life. If you have an infection or virus, your body’s response is to raise your internal temperature to kill it off. In other words, fever is your body’s defense against whatever is making you feel sick. So before you take fever reducers like Tylenol or aspirin, you may want to consider letting your body do its job, says Levine.

“Lowering the temperature with Tylenol doesn’t help you fight infection,” he says. “It just masks it. But if the patient is shivering, shaking, sweating, you may want to lower [the temperature] for comfort reasons.”

Baseline normal temperatures differ from person to person and from day to day. But if you’re worried about what your thermometer is telling you, here are some points of interest, from the low to the very, very high.

56.7 degrees: Anna Bagenholm, a Swedish medical student, spent 80 minutes under ice after a skiing accident in Norway in 1999. When she was rescued, her body temperature was 56.7 degrees Fahrenheit. Although she was clinically dead, resuscitation efforts were successful and she now has only minor nerve damage. (Do not try this at home).

95 degrees: Initial signs of hypothermia set in, such as shivering, dizziness, confusion and increased heart rate, says Adalja.

98.6 degrees: This is the generally accepted “normal” temperature, though different people can have different “normals” and even the same person’s temperature can vary throughout the day and still be considered normal. Temperature is lower in the morning, since you’re less active, and women tend to have slightly (less than half a degree) higher baseline temperatures than men. A 1992 study in the Journal of the American Medical Association measured the temperature of 148 adults four times a day for three consecutive days. The mean was 98.2 degrees.

97-99 degrees: This is what most doctors would describe as the normal temperature range, according to Levine.

100.4 degrees: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified 100.4 as the benchmark for concern about Ebola. Depending on an individual’s normal baseline and Ebola-related symptoms, a triple-digit temperature in the context of Ebola is cause for concern.

101.5 degrees: Anything at or above this level is classified as a serious fever, says Levine: “Lower doesn’t mean you don’t have an infection, but that’s when you’ve crossed a threshold of concern.”

107 degrees: Multiple organ failure can occur, and the high temperature itself might bring on seizures. But Adalja says hospitals in the U.S. wouldn’t let it get to this point: you’d be treated with fever reducers and cooling blankets.

115 degrees: On July 10, 1980, 52-year-old Willie Jones of Atlanta was admitted to the hospital with heatstroke and a temperature of 115 degrees Fahrenheit. He spent 24 days in the hospital and survived. Jones holds the Guinness Book of World Records honor for highest recorded body temperature.

What is the heat index?

 


“It’s not the heat, it’s the humidity”.  That’s a partly valid phrase you may have heard in the summer, but it’s actually both.  The heat index, also known as the apparent temperature, is what the temperature feels like to the human body when relative humidity is combined with the air temperature.  This has important considerations for the human body’s comfort.  When the body gets too hot, it begins to perspire or sweat to cool itself off.  If the perspiration is not able to evaporate, the body cannot regulate its temperature.  Evaporation is a cooling process.  When perspiration is evaporated off the body, it effectively reduces the body’s temperature.  When the atmospheric moisture content (i.e. relative humidity) is high, the rate of evaporation from the body decreases.   In other words, the human body feels warmer in humid conditions.  The opposite is true when the relative humidity decreases because the rate of perspiration increases.  The body actually feels cooler in arid conditions.  There is direct relationship between the air temperature and relative humidity and the heat index, meaning as the air temperature and relative humidity increase (decrease), the heat index increases (decreases).

 







Figure 1. Heat index chart.
 
In order to determine the heat index using the chart above, you need to know the air temperature and the relative humidity.  For example, if the air temperature is 100°F and the relative humidity is 55%, the heat index will be 124°F.  When the relative humidity is low, the apparent temperature can actually be lower than the air temperature.   For example, if the air temperature is 100°F and the relative humidity is 15%, the heat index is 96°F (use this calculator).  In the Panhandles, we commonly see hot temperatures during the summer, but the low relative humidity values make it somewhat unusual to see dangerous heat index values (i.e. 103°F or greater).  A full heat index chart for a larger range of temperatures and relative humidity values can be found at this link.

 


It surprises many people to learn that the heat index values in the chart above are for shady locations.  If you are exposed to direct sunlight, the heat index value can be increased by up to 15°F.  As shown in the table below, heat indices meeting or exceeding 103°F can lead to dangerous heat disorders with prolonged exposure and/or physical activity in the heat.


 







Classification Heat Index Effect on the body
Caution 80°F – 90°F Fatigue possible with prolonged exposure and/or physical activity
Extreme Caution 90°F – 103°F Heat stroke, heat cramps, or heat exhaustion possible with prolonged exposure and/or physical activity
Danger 103°F – 124°F Heat cramps or heat exhaustion likely, and heat stroke possible with prolonged exposure and/or physical activity
Extreme Danger 125°F or higher Heat stroke highly likely

 

 

Use this weather calculator if you prefer to enter numbers manually instead of reading a chart.   If you’re really mathematically inclined, there is an equation that gives a very close approximation to the heat index.  However, this equation was obtained using a multiple regression analysis, and therefore, it has an error of ±1.3°F.

Heat Index = -42.379 + 2.04901523T + 10.14333127R – 0.22475541TR – 6.83783 x 10-3T2 – 5.481717 x 10-2R2 + 1.22874 x 10-3T2R + 8.5282 x 10-4TR2 – 1.99 x 10-6T2R2

T – air temperature (F)

R – relative humidity (percentage)

 

TestEquity 107 Benchtop Temperature Chamber (Environmental Chamber)

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TLC Temperature, Water Level and Conductivity Meter

Model 107 TLC Meter (Temperature, Level, Conductivity)

 

The TLC Meter is ideal for profiling conductivity and temperature in wells and open water. It displays accurate measurements of conductivity and temperature on a convenient LCD display.

Conductivity measurements are read from 0-80,000 μS/cm with readings giving accuracy of 5% of reading or 100 μS (which ever is greater).

Water level and probe depth measurements are read off the Solinst durable PVDF flat tape, which is accurately laser marked every 1/100 ft or each millimeter. Tape lengths are now available up to 1000 ft (300 m).

For automated water level, temperature, and conductivity datalogging, Solinst also offers the Levelogger 5 LTC. (See the Model 3001 Levelogger 5 LTC Data Sheet).

 

Conductivity Made Easy

  • Tape lengths to 1000 ft (300 m)
  • Rugged Solinst reel and accurate PVDF laser marked tape
  • Probe diameter 3/4″ (19 mm)
  • Standard 9V alkaline battery gives 90 hrs. of use
  • Auto-Off after 8 minutes

 

Rugged PVDF Flat Tape

The high quality PVDF flat tape reels smoothly, remains flexible and hangs straight in the well, irrespective of temperature. The flat tape is mounted on a sturdy, well-balanced Solinst reel, with a convenient battery drawer for the 9 Volt alkaline battery. Permanent laser markings each 1/100 ft or millimeter allow accurate readings.

Standard stainless steel conductors and copper coated stainless steel conductors resist corrosion, provide strength and are non-stretch. They make the tape easy to repair and splice. The dog-bone design reduces adherence to wet surfaces.

 

 

LM2: Each 1/100 ft, 1/10 ft and ft
LM3: Each mm, cm and m

100 ft, 200 ft, 300 ft, 500 ft, 750 ft, 1000 ft
(30 m, 60 m, 100 m, 150 m, 250 m, 300 m)

 

Water Conductivity Measurements

The TLC Meter uses a ‘smart’ conductivity sensor with platinum electrodes to measure conductivity. The conductivity is displayed on the screen along with the associated temperature measurement. The ‘smart probe’ displays conductivity that has been standardized to 25°C, i.e. Specific Conductance (displayed as EC). The conductance temperature coefficient is 2.0% per °C.

Calibration is simple, using 1413 μS, 5000 μS, 12,880 μS, and/or 80,000 μS solutions for 1, 2, 3, or 4 point manual conductivity calibrations.

 

Death Valley reaches 130 degrees, hottest temperature in U.S. in at least 107 years

On Sunday, the thermometer at Death Valley’s Furnace Creek, located in the deserts of Southern California, soared to 130 degrees Fahrenheit, according to NOAA’s Weather Prediction Center. If verified, it would be the hottest temperature recorded in the U.S. since 1913, and perhaps the hottest temperature ever reliably recorded in the world.

The historic reading is just a small part of a massive, intense and long-lasting heat dome smothering the West Coast that will continue to get worse through Tuesday.

The heat dome bringing record temperatures to much of the West.

CBS News

The highest temperature ever recorded on Earth was also observed in Death Valley — 134 degrees Fahrenheit in 1913. However, many experts contend that temperature reading, along with various other temperatures recorded that summer, was likely an observer error. 

A 2016 analysis by Weather Underground historian Christopher Burt revealed that other observations from the region in 1913 simply do not square with the Death Valley reading. 

Because of the unique landscape and meteorology, the daily readings from the various observation sites in that area of the desert Southwest are almost always in lockstep with each other. But during the week the all-time record was set in 1913, while other sites were around 8 degrees above normal, the Death Valley readings were 18 degrees above normal.

In 1931, a record-high temperature for Africa was recorded in Tunisia at 131 degrees. However, according to Burt, this recording, and many others in Africa from the colonial period, has “serious credibility issues.”

Because of these discrepancies, experts say the hottest temperature ever “reliably” recorded on Earth is 129.2 degrees, from 2013 in Death Valley. That is, until now. Assuming no abnormalities are apparent, Sunday’s reading will likely be accepted. It seems the reading is not suspect, but if there is reason for skepticism, the National Weather Service or World Meteorological Society may choose to conduct a review.

The current heat wave is certainly not limited to deserts. Record-breaking heat extends from Arizona to Washington state. Throughout the coming week, more than 100 temperature records are expected to be challenged. On Saturday, several cities recorded all-time high August temperatures.

CBS News

The peak of the heat wave will be Monday and Tuesday, and then the dome will weaken a little as it shrinks back into the Southwest. But while temperatures may drop just a couple of degrees, the blazing heat will likely continue in California and the Southwest for the next 10 days.

Predicted high temperatures in the West for Monday, August 17, 2020.

CBS News

Predicted high temperatures in the West for Tuesday, August 18, 2020.

CBS News

Phoenix, Arizona, is right in the middle of this current heat dome, but even before that it was exceedingly hot. This summer is already the hottest on record for the desert city. By Thursday, Phoenix is expected to see its 44th day this year of at least 110 degrees. That shatters the 2011 record of 33 days.

CBS News

The scorching heat is helping to ignite and spread various wildfires in the West. Hot weather dries out the air and brush, making it easier for fires to ignite and spread. Since 1972, there has been an 8-fold increase in summer forest fire extent. A recent study from Columbia University found that dry conditions in the West have also contributed to a megadrought that has been going on since 2000, making it perhaps one of the worst in 1,200 years.

Over the past few of decades, heat waves have become more intense, according to various studies. One study released earlier this summer found that, since 1950, heat waves globally are getting significantly more frequent, lasting longer and producing more cumulative heat — making populations more vulnerable to heat stress. 

According to Climate Central, the western U.S. is warming the fastest of all the regions in the continental U.S. Some areas have warmed 3 to 5 degrees during summer just since 1970 due to human-caused climate change. That means heat waves start out at a higher baseline  and heat domes have more cumulative heat to concentrate, pushing heat waves into uncharted territory.  

Map of summer warming trends in the U.S. since 1970

Climate Central

As a result, Palm Springs, California, now averages 14 extra days per summer with high temperatures of at least 110 degrees Fahrenheit.

Trend line showing number of days per yeaar of heat in excess of 110 degrees in Palm Springs, California, since 1970.

Climate Central

Scientists say this heating trend will continue to become more intense as long as heat-trapping greenhouse gases continue to be released through the burning of fossil fuels. In fact, computer models project that heat index days above 100 degrees in Texas will triple from 40 days before the year 2000 to 130 days by the end of the 21st century.

Comparison of Heat Index days above 100 degrees in Dallas and surrounding areas. Left: Historical average 1971-2000 and Right: Late Century 2070-2099 using RCP 8.5 (High Scenario) (1/2… next tweet will be more moderate RCP 4.5) (via Climate Toolbox) pic.twitter.com/pcoGKYWQjV

— Jeff Berardelli (@WeatherProf) July 4, 2020

Trending News

Jeff Berardelli

Jeff Berardelli is a meteorologist and climate specialist for CBS News.

Chapter 7 – Air Temperature

Birds are homeothermic – they produce and dissipate heat to maintain a relatively constant body temperature. The internal body temperature of birds shows more variability than mammals, and therefore there is no absolute body temperature. In the adult chicken the variability is between 105°F and 107°F (40.6° and 41.7°C). The body temperature of a newly hatched chick is about 103.5°F (39.7°C), and increases daily until it reaches a stable level at about three weeks of age. Smaller chicken breeds have a higher body temperature than larger breeds. Male chickens have a slightly higher body temperature than females, probably the result of a higher metabolic rate and larger muscle mass. Activity increases body temperature. For example, the body temperature of chickens on the floor is higher than that of chickens kept in cages.

Birds have feathers that help them regulate their body temperature. Their relatively high body temperature makes it easier for them to lose heat into the air around them. Their air sacs allow inhaled air (usually cooler than body temperature) to reach deep into the abdominal capacity so when the bird exhales heat is removed from the body. Birds do not have sweat glands. Broilers use a panting mechanism (referred to as gular flutter) during hot weather to evaporate water from its throat, thus reducing body temperature. Panting is extremely effective in cooling birds. Feathers are great insulation in cold weather but inhibit heat loss in hot weather.

As previously stated chickens are homeothermic and have the ability to maintain a rather uniform internal body temperature (homeostasis). However, the mechanism for accomplishing this is efficient only when the ambient temperature is within certain limits; chickens are not able to adjust well to extremes. It is important, therefore, that broilers be housed and cared for so as to provide an environment that will enable them to maintain their thermal balance. This is known as the thermoneutral zone (see Figure 7.1 below) which is a range of temperatures at which an animal does not have to actively regulate body temperature. There is considerable margin in cold weather, a chicken’s body temperature can drop to as low as 73°F before death occurs. However, there is much less flexibility on the high side. The upper lethal limit on body temperature is 113-117°F.

The poultry thermal comfort zone, or thermoneutrality, depends on species and age, with younger birds responding better to warmer temperatures.  Broiler feed conversion deteriorates when temperatures are outside the recommended comfort zone. Bird responses are predominantly affected by the dry-bulb temperature of the air space.

Broilers produce heat that must be lost to the environment to maintain constant body temperatures. Broiler heat loss is comprised of two components; latent heat loss and sensible heat. Latent heat loss is usually expressed as the amount of water evaporated from the broiler, referred to as moisture production. Evaporation uses broiler heat to change water state from liquid to vapor. The evaporation takes place inside the broiler as water passes over the wet surfaces of its respiratory system. Sensible heat lossrefers to heat dissipated through heat transfer from the broiler to the surrounding air. If the air is cooler than the broiler’s surface temperature, heat flows from the broiler to the surroundings. If the air is warmer than the broiler’s surface temperature, broilers will not be able to dissipate heat and heat stress will occur.

Air temperatures that cause heat stress and mortality are considerably below broiler body temperature. Broiler surface temperatures typically range from 95-100°F, with skin temperatures warmer than feathers. Air temperatures in this range can virtually stop heat loss from the broiler and accelerate heat prostration. For this reason, an important goal for hot weather ventilation systems is to keep air temperatures below 95°F.

During cold weather, the optimal temperature may depend on feed prices. When feed price is high, temperatures at the high end of the comfort zone may be more economical since higher temperatures improve feed conversion. When feed prices are low (or fuel costs are high), lower temperatures would increase feed consumption but save on supplemental heating costs. The right management strategy needs to be determined for each situation.

Broiler mortality is influenced by their thermal history. Once acclimated to heat stress, broilers can tolerate higher temperatures that would have been lethal to a large portion of the flock during the first exposure. Consequently, some producers gradually raise the temperature set point for cooling systems before arrival of a heat wave in an effort to prepare broilers to combat heat stress. However, extreme caution must be exercised when employing new control or management strategies that attempt to improve profitability but might also affect mortality rates.

Heat stress in poultry is a serious problem for the poultry industry. Mortality during extremely hot weather can be significant, especially when combined with high humidity. However, probably even more costly is the routine loss of weight and feed conversion efficiency during less severe periods of heat stress. Under normal conditions, chickens do a good job of cooling themselves with physiological and behavioral mechanisms. One of the keys to minimizing production losses during hot weather is proper ventilation system design.

Although air temperature represents the major component of the thermal environment, the term ‘effective temperature’ describes the combined effects of air temperature, air velocity, relative humidity, and radiation. The concept of effective temperature recognizes that the broiler regulates heat dissipation and thus maintains homeostasis by integrating all the environmental factors. Effective temperature is particularly useful when the air temperature is below or above the thermal comfort zone.

Over the last decade, there have been tremendous changes in broiler strains. As broiler nutrition improves and daily gain increases, the pattern of broiler heat loss has changed, and older data on heat loss have become obsolete. Heat and moisture production data for broilers that required ten weeks to reach a 4 lb body weight are very different than that for broilers that will reach the same weight in six weeks. Caution is needed when applying historical data.

Daily fluctuations in temperatures may result in temperatures outside the thermal comfort zone. As long as the daily mean temperatureremains in the comfort zone, mature birds can tolerate a temperature cycle of ± 15-20°F without adverse effect on performance. The cycle range of ± 15-20°F should be applied with caution as it will vary with species, age, nutrition, and other stress factors. For instance, young chicks or poults that have just been set in the brooder house will benefit from a ‘draft-free,’ constant-temperature environment while fully-feathered birds may actually benefit from temperature fluctuations. In general, temperature variations should be minimized until the broilers are fully feathered.

The inside surfaces of the walls and ceiling radiate energy based on their temperature. During warm periods, radiant heat loads from these surfaces and sunlight coming through open sidewalls or curtains will contribute to heat stress on the birds.

By contrast, in cooler weather, the relatively warm broiler body will lose radiant heat to its colder walls and ceiling. A primary function of insulation is to keep the interior surface of the wall or ceiling closer to the interior temperature to minimize radiant heat loss from the birds.

Radiant heaters direct heat toward the floor and broilers to provide localized heating while allowing lower room temperatures. This reduces building heat losses and saves fuel during brooding periods when young broilers need high temperatures. The radiant heat effect diminishes with distance from the heater.

Western States Sizzle Under Triple-Digit Temperatures

Dangerously hot conditions and triple-digit temperatures are forecast for the Western United States this week, leading to a wave of excessive-heat warnings and heat advisories from Central California and Nevada up to Washington.

Temperatures were forecast to hit 107 on Wednesday in the San Joaquin Valley in the center of California, according to the National Weather Service. While temperatures in Fresno were 16 to 18 degrees above normal for this time of year, they fell short of breaking records. The high temperature in Fresno on Tuesday was 104 and was forecast to reach similar heights on Wednesday.

In Redding, in Northern California, temperatures reached 107 on Tuesday, a day after peaking at 109 and breaking the previous record of 103 set in 2016, meteorologists said. An excessive-heat warning will remain in place over portions of the valley and foothills through Thursday with highs around 100 to 105.

In Nevada, Las Vegas saw its first 100-degree day of the year on Monday, followed by another triple-digit day — 103 — on Tuesday. It’s forecast to hit 105 on Wednesday and 106 on Thursday. Areas around the city and just across the California state line in Death Valley will be under an excessive heat warning through Friday night, the Weather Service said. Temperatures may climb up to 119 in Death Valley.

An expanded heat advisory is also in effect through Thursday night for the central and southeastern portion of Washington, the Weather Service said. High temperatures could reach the upper 90s or lower 100s. Similar sweltering conditions are forecast for portions of Oregon, where temperatures could reach 105.

Seattle reached a high of 86 degrees on Tuesday, falling short of the 94-degree daily record. However, the city has reached the mid-80s on June 1 only four percent of the time over the past 75 years.

Hot weather is also forecast for Montana over Wednesday and Thursday with high temperatures climbing into the upper 80s and upper 90s. High temperatures could reach 15 to 25 degrees above normal, meteorologists said.

Warmer-than-average temperatures have been the trend in recent memory. Last year tied 2016 as the hottest year on record, according to European climate researchers. To complicate matters, a severe drought is ravaging the entire western half of the United States, from the Pacific Coast, across the Great Basin and desert Southwest, and up through the Rockies to the Northern Plains.

Meteorologists have advised residents to stay hydrated, wear light clothing when outside, limit outdoor exposure and be mindful of any signs of heat related-illnesses such as heat stroke and heat exhaustion. Older adults and children are the most vulnerable, the Weather Service said.

A recent study published in the journal Nature Climate Change suggested that more than a third of heat-related deaths in many parts of the world can be attributed to the extra warming associated with climate change. The research found that heat-related deaths in warm seasons were boosted by climate change by an average of 37 percent, in a range of a 20 to 76 percent increase.

Claire Fahy contributed reporting.

HELLA Sensor, coolant temperature 12V 6PT 009 107-281

HELLA Sensor, coolant temperature 12V 6PT 009 107-281 – Autokaubad24.ee

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Toote ID:
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Kood: 6PT 009 107-281

Tootja: HELLA

Assembly type bolted / screwed
Voltage 12V
Resistor 2 200Ω, 257Ω
Additional article / Additional information with gasket
Temperature range from 25 ° C
Temperature range up to 80 ° C
Thread size M10x1
Sensor type NTC – Sensor
Number of poles 2pole
Supplementary article / additional information 2 with cable
Body color black
Mounting / dismantling by specialists required!
SVHC 7439-92-1; lead
EAN 4082300144482

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Coolant temperature sensor HELLA 6PT 009 107-531

Additional article / Additional information:
with gasket

Number of connections:
2

Thread size:
M12x1.5

matches the color of the original part:
blue red

Resistance [Ohm]:
2080, 294

Temperature Range:
25, 80

Sensor type:
NTC – Sensor

Build type:
fixed with bolts / screws

Colour:
black

Applicability

NISSAN ALMERA Mk II (N16)
NISSAN MICRA C + C (K12)
NISSAN MURANO (Z51)
NISSAN NOTE (E11)
NISSAN PATHFINDER R51
NISSAN PATROL III (Y62)
NISSAN PRIMERA (P12)
NISSAN Qashqai (J10, JJ10)
NISSAN TEANA II (J32)
NISSAN Tiida sedan
NISSAN X-TRAIL (T30)
NISSAN X-TRAIL (T31)

Construction numbers

1 960 041
1 960 296
1 961 789
22630-00QAH
22630-00QAH
22630-0M200
22630-0M200
22630-1W400
22630-1W400
22630-3NA0A
22630-3NA0A
22630-43Y00
22630-43Y00
22630-44B10
22630-44B10
22630-44B20
22 63 044 B20
22630-44B20
22630-71L00
22630-71L00
22630-7Y000
22630-7Y000
22630-95F0B
22630-95F0B
22630-99B00
22630-99B00
22630-99B10
22630-99B10
22630-D9701
22630-D9701
22630-D9702
22630-D9702
22630-ED000
22630-ED000
22630-JN00A
22630-JN00A
23 45 012 920
44 15 176
50 01 870 250
77 01 058 398
93 180 124
22630JA10A
93180124
44 15 176
22630JA10A

90,000 What is preheating?

Preheating means raising the temperature of the base metal to a desired value before welding, called the preheating temperature.This may increase the temperature of the entire product or only in the area around the welding point. Preheating can continue throughout the entire welding process, but usually the heat from the welding is sufficient to maintain the desired temperature without the need for an external heat source. The interlayer temperature, i.e. the temperature of the base metal between the first and last pass, must not fall below the preheat temperature. Interlaminar temperature issues will not be covered in this article.Preheating has many benefits, but without a good understanding of its principles, there is a risk of wasting money or, even worse, failing to ensure the desired weld quality.

Why is it needed?
Preheating is mainly used for four reasons: (1) it reduces the cooling rate of the weld metal and base metal, which allows for a more ductile composition with better crack resistance; (2) a slower cooling rate will allow diffusional hydrogen to dissipate safely without the risk of cracking; (3) it reduces the shrinkage stress of the weld and adjacent base metal, which is especially important for high-stress joints, and (4) it raises the temperature of some steels to a point where brittle fracture cannot occur.In addition, preheating can be used to provide the desired mechanical properties such as toughness.

When should you use preheating?
The need for preheating depends on several factors: code requirements, section thickness, base metal composition, stress, ambient temperature, hydrogen content in the surrounding metal, and whether or not there have been problems with cracking in the past. Welding codes usually state a minimum preheat temperature for each base metal, welding process and section thickness.This minimum value must be maintained regardless of the stress and composition of the base metal. This minimum value can be increased if necessary. An example is provided in the next section.

In the absence of codes with welding requirements, you must independently determine the need for preheating and, with a positive decision, select the most suitable temperature. Preheating is generally not required for mild steel less than 1 in. (25 mm) thick.However, with an increase in the number of alloy elements, the amount of diffusible hydrogen in the weld metal, stress or section thickness, the need for heating increases. The following section describes several methods for determining the required preheat temperature for each combination of base metal and section thickness.

How to choose the preheating temperature?
Welding codes generally state minimum preheat temperatures that may or may not be sufficient to prevent cracking on a case-by-case basis.For example, fabricating a post-beam interface using a low hydrogen electrode made from ASTM A572-Gr50 alloy and very large A36 (10.2-12.7 cm thick) requires a minimum preheat temperature of 107 ° C (AWS D1.1-96, Table 3.2). For very large butt joints, it is recommended to raise the preheat temperature above the minimum level required by the AISC, namely 175 ° C (AISC LRFD J2.8). A fairly conservative recommendation from AWS recognizes that the AWS D1.1, the minimum temperature requirement may not be sufficient for such high voltage connections.

But how to determine the appropriate preheat temperature in the absence of welding codes? This can be done by using AWS D1.1-96 Appendix XI: Alternative Methods for Determining Preheat Guidance, which contains two procedures for determining preheat temperatures based primarily on laboratory cracking tests.These procedures are especially useful where there is a high risk of cracking due to stress, hydrogen content, compositional characteristics, or low heat input during welding.

The two AWS D1.1-96 Appendix XI methods are (1) heat-affected zone (HAZ) hardness control and (2) hydrogen control. The HAZ hardness testing method applies only to fillet welding. It is based on the assumption that cracks will not occur as long as the HAZ hardness remains below a certain value.This can be achieved by controlling the cooling rate of the material. The critical cooling rate for a given hardness value can be related to the carbon equivalent of steel, which is calculated using the following formula:

CE = C + ((Mn + Si) / 6) + ((Cr + Mo + V) / 5) + ((Ni + Cu) / 15)

After that, on the basis of the critical cooling rate, the minimum heating temperature can be calculated (Blodgett’s work “Calculation of the cooling rate by computer simulation” describes the calculation procedure based on the cooling rate, heat input, plate thickness, temperature at which the cooling rate becomes critical, preheating temperature , thermal conductivity and heat capacity).However, it should be noted that “although this method can be used to determine the preheat temperature, its main purpose is to determine the minimum heat input (and therefore the minimum joint size) to prevent excessive hardening” (Appendix XI, paragraph 3.4, AWS D1. 1-96).

The hydrogen control method is based on the assumption that cracks will not occur if the amount of hydrogen remaining in the compound after cooling to 50 ° C remains below a certain critical value, depending on the composition and stress of the steel.This procedure is very well suited for high strength, low alloy steels with high hardenability. However, in the case of carbon steel, the calculated heating value may not be sufficient.

The hydrogen content control method includes three main stages: (1) Calculation of a composition parameter similar to a carbon equivalent; (2) Calculation of the susceptibility index, which is a function of the composition parameter and the content of diffusible hydrogen in the filling material; and (3) Determination of the minimum preheat temperature based on stress, material thickness and susceptibility index.

How is preheating done?
When choosing a preheating method, consider material thickness, joint size and available heating equipment. For example, small units are most efficiently heated in an oven. However, large structural components often require the use of rows of heating burners, electric plate radiators, or induction or radiant heaters.

High precision is usually not required when reheating carbon steel.While it is still important that the product reaches the minimum temperature, this temperature can be safely exceeded by about 40 ° C. However, in the case of hardened and tempered (Q&T) steels, this is not possible, as welding overheated Q&T steels can damage the material in the heat affected zone. As a consequence, Q&T steel requires minimum and maximum temperatures to be defined and precisely maintained.

AWS Code D1.1 requires that when preheating a weld, the minimum temperature is measured at a distance at least equal to the thickness of the thickest part of the joint, but not less than 3 inches (75 mm) in all directions from the weld point.To ensure that the entire volume of material around the joint has been heated, it is recommended to heat the opposite side of the weld and measure the surface temperature near the joint. Finally, the steel temperature should be checked prior to each pass to ensure that the minimum reheat temperature is maintained just prior to arc striking.

Summary
Preheating can be used to prevent cracking and / or to provide the desired mechanical properties such as toughness.

Preheating should be performed whenever required by applicable codes. In the absence of suitable codes for the relevant situation, the welding specialist must independently decide on the need for heating and what temperature is required for a given combination of base metal and section thickness.

AWS D1.1-96, Appendix XI, provides guidance on alternative methods for determining an appropriate preheat degree: the HAZ hardness test method and the hydrogen test method.

Preheating can be carried out in an oven or with heating burners, electric plate radiators, or induction or radiant heaters. For carbon steels, strict adherence to temperature requirements is not required, but in the case of induction and radiant heaters and heating hardened and tempered steel, the maximum and minimum temperatures must be carefully monitored.

References
ANSI / AWS D1.1-96 Structural Welding Code: Steel.The American Welding Society, 1996.

Bailey, N. Weldability of Ferritic Steels. The Welding Institute, 1995.

Bailey, N. et al, Welding Steels Without Hydrogen Cracking. The Welding Institute, 1973.

Blodgett, 0. “Calculating Cooling Rates by Computer Programming,” Welding Journal. March 1984.

Graville, B.A. The Principles of Cold Cracking Control in Welds. Dominion Bridge Company Ltd., 1975.

Irving, B. “Preheat: The Main Defense against Hydrogen Cracking.”Welding Journal. July 1992.

Stout, R.D. and Doty, W.D., Weldability of Steels. Welding Research Council, 1971.

The Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding. The James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation, 1994.

Coolant Temperature Sensor for Peugeot 107

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