Too long of a period: The request could not be satisfied
Periods and fertility in the menstrual cycle
The length of the menstrual cycle varies from woman to woman, but the average is to have periods every 28 days. Regular cycles that are longer or shorter than this, from 21 to 40 days, are normal.
“The menstrual cycle is the time from the first day of a woman’s period to the day before her next period,” says Toni Belfield, a specialist in sexual health information, and a trained fertility awareness teacher.
“Girls can start their periods anywhere from age 10 upwards, but the average is around 12 years,” says Belfield. “The average age for the menopause (when periods stop) in this country is 50 to 55.”
Between the ages of 12 and 52, a woman will have around 480 periods, or fewer if she has any pregnancies.
Read more about starting periods.
What happens during the menstrual cycle?
To understand the menstrual cycle, it helps to know about the reproductive organs inside a woman’s body. These are:
- 2 ovaries – where eggs are stored, developed and released
- the womb (uterus) – where a fertilised egg implants and a baby develops
- the fallopian tubes – two thin tubes that connect the ovaries to the womb
- the cervix – the entrance to the womb from the vagina
- the vagina
The menstrual cycle is controlled by hormones. In each cycle, rising levels of the hormone oestrogen cause the ovary to develop and release an egg (ovulation). The womb lining also starts to thicken.
In the second half of the cycle, the hormone progesterone helps the womb to prepare for implantation of a developing embryo.
The egg travels down the fallopian tubes. If pregnancy doesn’t occur, the egg is reabsorbed into the body. Levels of oestrogen and progesterone fall, and the womb lining comes away and leaves the body as a period (the menstrual flow).
The time from the release of an egg to the start of a period is around 10 to 16 days.
Watch an animation about how the menstrual cycle works.
Video: menstrual cycle
This animation explains in detail how the menstrual cycle works.
Media last reviewed: 21 October 2020
Media review due: 21 October 2023
What are periods?
A period is made up of blood and the womb lining. The first day of a woman’s period is day 1 of the menstrual cycle.
“Periods last around 2 to 7 days, and women lose about 3 to 5 tablespoons of blood in a period,” says Belfield.
Some women bleed more heavily than this, but help is available if heavy periods are a problem.
Find out about treatments for heavy periods.
What happens during ovulation?
Ovulation is the release of an egg from the ovaries. A woman is born with all her eggs.
Once she starts her periods, 1 egg develops and is released during each menstrual cycle. After ovulation, the egg lives for 24 hours.
Pregnancy happens if a man’s sperm meet and fertilise the egg. Sperm can survive in the fallopian tubes for up to 7 days after sex.
Occasionally, more than 1 egg is released during ovulation. If more than 1 egg is fertilised it can lead to a multiple pregnancy, such as twins.
A woman can’t get pregnant if ovulation doesn’t occur. Some methods of hormonal contraception – such as the combined pill, the contraceptive patch and the contraceptive injection – work by stopping ovulation.
When are you most fertile?
“Theoretically, there’s only a short time when women can get pregnant, and that is the time around ovulation,” says Belfield.
It’s difficult to pinpoint exactly when ovulation happens but in most women, it happens around 10 to 16 days before the next period.
“It’s not accurate to say that all women are fertile on day 14 of the menstrual cycle,” says Belfield. This might be true for women who have a regular, 28-day cycle, but it won’t apply to women whose cycles are shorter or longer.
For more information on fertility awareness, see the FPA guide to natural family planning.
Normal vaginal secretions
Vaginal secretions (sometimes called vaginal discharge) change during the menstrual cycle. Around the time of ovulation, they become thinner and stretchy, a bit like raw egg white.
See your GP if you are concerned about a change in your vaginal discharge.
Read more about getting pregnant, fertility and period problems.
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Page last reviewed: 05 August 2019
Next review due: 05 August 2022
Sitting too long can kill you, even if you exercise, study says
There’s a direct relationship between time spent sitting and your risk of early mortality of any cause, researchers said, based on a study of nearly 8,000 adults. As your total sitting time increases, so does your risk of an early death.
The positive news: People who sat for less than 30 minutes at a time had the lowest risk of early death.
“This would be like telling someone to just ‘exercise’ without telling them how,” Diaz wrote in an email.
Exercise guidelines are precise, he explained. For example, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends adults do moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for two hours and 30 minutes every week, plus muscle strengthening activities on two or more days a week.
“We need similar guidelines for sitting,” said Diaz.
“We think a more specific guideline could read something like, ‘For every 30 consecutive minutes of sitting, stand up and move/walk for five minutes at brisk pace to reduce the health risks from sitting,’ ” he said, adding the study “puts us a step closer to such guidelines,” but more research is needed to verify the findings.
Aging means more sitting
To understand the relationship between sedentary behavior and early death, Diaz and his colleagues at Columbia, NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center and other institutions turned to the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) project, a study sponsored by the National Institutes of Health.
“The REGARDS study was originally designed to examine why blacks (and particularly blacks in the Southern US) have a greater risk for stroke than whites,” said Diaz. He and his co-researchers tracked for an average of four years 7,985 black and white adult participants, age 45 or older, who had signed on to participate in the REGARDS project.
To measure sedentary time for these adults, the research team used hip-mounted accelerometers. During the study period, the team recorded 340 total deaths considered “all-cause mortality” — any death, regardless of cause.
Analyzing the data, the team found that sedentary behavior, on average, accounted for about 12.3 hours of an average 16-hour waking day.
“As we age, and our physical and mental function declines, we become more and more sedentary,” wrote Diaz.
Previous studies of adults have found daily sitting time to average just nine to 10 hours per day. The higher average in his own study is likely “due to the fact we studied a middle- and older-aged population,” Diaz wrote. “It could also be partly due to the fact that we used an activity monitor to track sedentary time rather than using self-report.”
Measuring duration, the researchers clocked participants sitting, on average, for 11.4 minutes at a stretch.
As total sedentary time increased, so did early death by any cause, the results indicated. And the same was true for longer sitting stretches. Overall then, participants’ risk of death grew in tandem with total sitting time and sitting stretch duration — no matter their age, sex, race, body mass index or exercise habits.
“We found that there wasn’t a threshold or cutoff where one’s risk for death dramatically increased,” said Diaz, explaining that risk of death increased with more sitting. “To give you a specific number, those who sat for more than 13 hours per day had a 2-fold (or 200%) greater risk of death compared to those who sat for less than about 11 hours per day.”
“Bout duration is a little trickier,” said Diaz. Still, he said, the study results indicate that those who frequently sat in stretches less than 30 minutes had a 55% lower risk of death compared to people who usually sat for more than 30 minutes at a stretch.
Finally, people who frequently sat for more than 90 minutes at a stretch had a nearly two-fold greater risk of death than those who almost always sat for less than 90 minutes at a stretch, he said.
Underlying reasons ‘unclear’
How sedentary behavior impacts our health in negative ways is “unclear and complex,” wrote Dr. David A. Alter, an associate professor at the University of Toronto in Ontario, in an editorial published with the study. Alter, who did not contribute to Diaz’ research, said some scientists theorize that more sitting leads to reductions in insulin sensitivity, while others believe net calorie expenditures decline as sitting increases.
The study was not designed to reveal why sitting increases the risk of early death, noted Alter, who described the study as “methodologically rigorous,” and its findings “robust.”
Arguably, he said, the study’s most important contribution involved disentangling two sedentary behaviors: total daily sedentary time and uninterrupted sedentary bout duration.
“Persons with uninterrupted sedentary bouts of 30 minutes or more had the highest risk for death if total sedentary time also exceeded 12.5 hours per day,” noted Alter. “Conversely, in those whose daily sedentary volumes were low, uninterrupted bout lengths had little if any associated effects on mortality.”
By teasing out these two threads, the findings show excessive sitting is bad and even worse if it is accumulated in lengthy, uninterrupted bouts throughout the day, noted Alter.
Dr. Suzanne Steinbaum, director of women’s heart health at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York said, “The more we sit the worse it is. The longer the duration of sitting, the more negative the impact on our cardiovascular health.”
Steinbaum, who was not involved in the study, said moving around every 30 minutes is recommended.
“The first time we do this, the positive effects are immediate,” she said. “We need to pay more attention to moving.”
Asked if, say, a standing desk might be helpful for those who work desk jobs, Diaz said “there is limited evidence to suggest that standing is a healthier alternative to sitting.”
“So if you have a job or lifestyle where you have to sit for prolonged periods, the best suggestion I can make is to take a movement break every half hour,” said Diaz. “Our findings suggest this one behavior change could reduce your risk of death.”
5 ways sitting is killing your nerves – Neuropathic Therapy Center
By Dr. Bussell – June 12, 2018
How often do you sit? Think about it for a second.
You sit in a car on the way to work probably in traffic. You sit at your desk for eight hours and maybe get up for 30 minutes at lunch just to sit again. On the way home, you sit in your car now in more traffic, only to sit on the couch to watch TV.
Sitting, though comfortable, is not healthy for our bodies. In fact, sitting does more harm than good. Our bodies were meant to stand. The natural curvature of the spine supports the weight of our body evenly. The longer one sits, the more strenuous it becomes for the body.
If you suffer with nerve pain, sitting for long periods of time is slowly damaging the nerves over time. Sitting can affect the nerves most vulnerable to pain sensations, such as tingling, burning or stabbing pain.
Before I get into the dangers of sitting, this is a great time to stand, stretch or do a little dance in place.
Let’s explore how sitting is quickly becoming the silent killer of nerve pain.
Increased Blood Sugar
For those of you living with diabetic neuropathy, high blood sugar should come as no surprise to increased nerve pain. Managing your blood sugar is key to managing nerve pain caused by long periods of sitting. It’s easy to manage your blood sugar with a proper diet (preferably gluten-free) and regular exercise. However, watching how long you sit can play a larger role in affecting your blood sugar.
Did You Know?
According to the American Diabetes Association, the average American sits more than 7 hours a day.
Increased Blood Pressure
High blood pressure is dangerous for anyone and can be avoided with the help of walking, standing or even stretching. If your blood pressure increases due to sitting, it can damage your arteries. High blood pressure is not only damaging to the nerves, but it can lead to heart failure, stroke or heart disease.
Sitting for prolonged hours can lead to poor circulation throughout the body. Once circulation slows down due to sitting, your blood remains in the feet and legs, ultimately reducing blood flow. For those suffering with nerve pain, the lack of nutrients and oxygen from a proper blood flow can be harmful. Symptoms such as tingling or numbness escalate even more. Be sure to stand and stretch every 10-15 minutes to keep the blood flowing.
Pinched nerves are a result of sitting too long or as a result of bad posture. Most pinched nerves are felt in the lower back due to the sciatic nerve. They can also be felt in the neck, legs or wrists depending on how you are sitting. You may feel a tingling or burning sensation as result of a pinched nerve making your neuropathy symptoms worse.
Muscle loss is a common symptom of nerve pain, in particular peripheral neuropathy. Sitting for hours on end can cause the muscles to shrink due to restricted movement. For some, the severity can be partial to complete loss of muscle function. Do your best to move those legs. Any movement is better than none.
Here are some tips to help get the body moving after a long day of sitting, both at the office and at home.
DIY office tips:
- Stand or stretch every 30 minutes. Feel free to do leg lifts from your office chair or roll your arms to the front and the back.
- Try to sit up at all times. Good posture is key.
- Request an ergonomic chair as needed. Sitting ergonomically correct can also support good posture, while typing on the computer.
- Request a standing desk as needed. More employers are offering the choice for employees to try a standing desk. It can help to switch it up after a few hours of sitting.
- Instead of emailing, walk over to your colleague’s office, in addition to getting you moving, the conversation may spur additional ideas.
DIY home tips:
- If you’re going to watch TV after a long day of work, get up and stretch during the commercials. Go ahead and try a few jumping jacks, squats or leg lifts to the side.
- For those with a treadmill, watch your favorite late-night show while walking. Enjoy the best of both worlds.
- If you want a little fresh air, go for a 30-minute walk around the neighborhood before you plop down on the couch. Take a walk to the mailbox and back or take the family pet out for a brisk walk.
- Enjoy gardening? Summer is here, so why not plant a garden full of colorful vegetables. Gardening is good for the mind, body and soul.
The best thing anyone can do is to stay active and keep moving. Daily stretches or walks will help support proper circulation and reduce further health complications.
The 5 Best Menstrual Cups for 2021
Over the span of just three cycles, a reusable menstrual cup can save you money. And switching to a cup can immediately reduce the number of disposable tampons or pads you’d ordinarily toss in the trash. The best cup for you largely depends on your anatomy. After testing 33 different cups and two menstrual discs from 21 manufacturers since 2016, we’ve found that the Cora cup is the best cup for first-time users because it’s easier than most to fold, insert, and remove. For more size, shape, and stem options, consider our long-time recommendation, the MeLuna Classic. We also have picks for low cervixes, high cervixes, and wide vaginas.
This review covers menstrual cups. If you’re interested in other menstrual products, please check out our reviews of tampons and period underwear.
The Cora cup has some clever design elements that make it easier for a first-time cup user to get the hang of things—it folds nicely, and its slightly irregular shape makes pinching and removing easier. It comes in two sizes.
Most cups are shaped almost exactly the same way, but we think the Cora cup has some really smart design differences that make it a great beginner choice. The cup has a flattened bit on the side, showing you where to place your finger while folding it, and the bottom narrows in a way that makes pinching to remove the cup easier. The silicone is soft and easy to clean, and it’s a nice middle size in case you’re not sure how much space you’ve got down there.
This cup’s firmness hits a sweet spot of being both easy to fold up and easy to get it to pop open once inside, and it comes in a range of sizes. It’s also easy to clean.
We’ve recommended the MeLuna Classic since 2016, and it’s still a great cup. We love that it comes in the biggest variety of sizes (eight total, including the Shorty versions) to accommodate people of different heights, athletic backgrounds, and vaginal birth histories. The MeLuna is also available in a firmer version and with three handle options. Its design can be folded the most ways, yet it pops open easily. This cup is simple to insert, remove, and clean.
A lot of people in menstrual-cup land talk about finding your “Goldilocks cup,” the one that fits you just right. Though all the cups we tested came in at least two sizes, MeLuna has more options when it comes to customizing the size, shape, and firmness of your cup. What that means is that you can change just one variable at a time when you’re trying to figure out what works best for you, instead of starting all over again with a new cup if this one isn’t perfect.
If you have a really low cervix, this is the shortest cup we tested that still performs well. It’s easy to clean, and goes in and out without trouble. Because it’s a little shorter, certain types of folds are harder to do.
*At the time of publishing, the price was $26.
People with low cervixes often have the hardest time finding a menstrual cup that fits, because most cups are too long. The MeLuna Shorty is one of the few cups designed specifically for low cervixes, and compared with the other low-cervix cups we tested, this one is far easier to fold, insert, remove, and clean. With a low-cervix cup, you do sacrifice volume—because the cup is smaller, it can hold less blood—but comfort is more important than having to change the cup a bit more frequently.
This is one of the best-known cups and also one of the largest. If you’ve got a long vagina, this is a great cup—it folds easily, is easy to grip for insertion and removal, and cleans without a problem. It comes in three sizes.
*At the time of publishing, the price was $33.
The DivaCup is the cup most people start with, but we think it’s actually not a great starter cup because it’s one of the longest cups we tested, which means that anybody who has a medium or short cervix might find it uncomfortable. But if you have a high cervix, the DivaCup works really well, is smooth and comfortable, and holds a lot of fluid. It does have a hollow stem, which can collect blood and other tissue easier than solid stems, but we don’t think that’s a dealbreaker.
The silicone is smooth and feels good on the skin, and this cup is easy to insert and remove. It’s a bit wider than most cups, so if you have a wide vagina this is a great cup for you.
*At the time of publishing, the price was $25.
The Lena cup is a bit wider and a lot smoother than many of the cups available. The Lena feels great; the silicone it’s made out of is really smooth and makes it a breeze to insert and remove. Its wider design also helps prevent leaks for those who have a wide vagina, and the solid stem doesn’t collect any blood or other tissue so it’s easier to clean than some of the cups with hollow stems.
Gastroparesis | Cedars-Sinai
Not what you’re looking for?
What is gastroparesis?
Gastroparesis is a stomach disorder. It happens when your stomach takes too long to
empty out food.
food stays in your stomach for too long, it can cause problems. The food can harden
into solid masses. These are called bezoars. These masses may upset your stomach and
make you vomit. They can also create a blockage in your stomach. This can be dangerous
if it stops food from passing into your small intestine.
most cases, gastroparesis is a long-term (chronic) condition.
What causes gastroparesis?
Gastroparesis is caused when your vagus nerve is damaged or stops working. The vagus
nerve controls how food moves through your digestive tract. When this nerve doesn’t
work well, food moves too slowly or stops moving.
The vagus nerve gets damaged if you have diabetes and your blood sugar or blood glucose
levels stay high over a long period of time.
Other causes of gastroparesis include:
- Eating disorders, such as anorexia or bulimia
- Surgery on your stomach or vagus nerve
- Extreme tiredness that does not seem to be caused by a health problem (chronic fatigue
medicines that slow movement in your intestine, such as narcotics for chronic pain
- Disorders involving smooth muscle that may affect the stomach, such as amyloidosis
- Nervous system disorders such as abdominal migraine and Parkinson’s disease
- Metabolic disorders, which make the body have either too much or too little of
essential things it needs to stay healthy, such as having too little of the thyroid
hormone ( hypothyroidism)
- A viral
illness, such as a viral gastroenteritis
Who is at risk for gastroparesis?
You are more likely to have gastroparesis if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
What are the symptoms of gastroparesis?
Each person’s symptoms may vary. Symptoms may include:
- Upset stomach or nausea
- Weight loss
- Feeling full too soon after you start eating
- Belly (abdominal) bloating or pain
- Heartburn or GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease)
The symptoms of gastroparesis may look like other health problems. Always see your
doctor to be sure.
How is gastroparesis diagnosed?
healthcare provider will give you a physical exam and ask about your past health.
may also have other tests, including:
Blood tests. These tests check your blood
counts and measure your chemical and electrolyte (mineral) levels.
Upper GI (gastrointestinal) series. This is
also called a barium swallow. This test checks the organs of the top part of your
digestive system. These are your food pipe (esophagus), your stomach, and the first
part of your small intestine (duodenum). You will swallow a metallic fluid called
barium. Barium coats the organs so that they can be seen on an X-ray. X-rays are then
taken to check your digestive organs.
Radioisotope gastric-emptying scan.During this test, you will eat food containing a mildly radioactive substance,
or radioisotope, that will show up on a scan. The amount of radiation is very small.
It’s not harmful. But it lets the radiologist see the food in your stomach during
scan. They can also see how quickly food leaves your stomach. This test can take as
long as 4 hours.
Gastric manometry (antroduodenal manometry).This test checks the muscle movement in your stomach and small intestine. A thin
tube is passed down your throat into your stomach. This tube has a wire that measures
the muscle movement of your stomach as it digests foods and liquids. This helps show
how your stomach is working. It also shows if your digestion is slower than
Upper endoscopy. This test looks at the
lining or inside of your esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. This test uses a thin,
lighted tube, called an endoscope. The tube has a camera at one end. The tube is put
into your mouth and throat. Then it goes into your esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
Your healthcare provider can see the inside of these organs. They can also take a
small tissue sample (biopsy) if needed.
Wireless capsule study. This test involves
swallowing a wireless capsule that measures stomach emptying and how fast food and
fluids move through your intestine. You will pass the capsule out of your body with
Gastric emptying breath test (GEBT). This
test checks stomach emptying by measuring how much carbon dioxide you breathe out
over several hours after eating food.
Scintigraphic gastric accommodation. This test measures your stomach contents before and after a meal. It also checks
how well your stomach relaxes after you eat food.
How is gastroparesis treated?
most cases gastroparesis is a long-term or chronic health problem. It can’t be cured.
But you can manage the disease with a care plan.
you have diabetes and gastroparesis, the main goal is to control your blood sugar
levels. Any medicines that can cause gastroparesis will likely be stopped.
Treatment will depend on your symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend
how severe the condition is.
care plan may include:
Taking medicines. Your healthcare provider
may prescribe a few medicines to see which works best.
Changing your diet. Changing your eating
habits can also help control the disease. In some cases eating 6 smaller meals a day
is more helpful than eating 3 larger ones. Some experts suggest having a few liquid
meals a day. They suggest you do this until your blood glucose levels are stable and
your gastroparesis is under control. You may also be told not to eat fatty and
high-fiber foods. These can slow your digestion and be hard to digest. See your
healthcare provider or a dietitian for the eating plan that is best for you.
Surgery. In some cases you may need a type
of surgery called a jejunostomy. A feeding tube is inserted through the skin on your
abdomen into your small intestine. This tube lets nutrients go right into your small
intestine instead of your stomach. This surgery is used only if your gastroparesis
Gastric neurotransmitter. This device may
help control any upset stomach and vomiting. It’s put into your body by surgery.
Feeding by IV (intravenously). This is also called parenteral nutrition. This is when nutrients are put right
into your veins. This is done instead of eating and having food go through your
digestive system. A tube or catheter is put into one of your chest veins. The tube
has an opening on the outside of your skin. A bag with liquid nutrients or medicine
is joined to the tube. The fluids go into your bloodstream through your vein.
What are possible complications of
Gastroparesis can cause other health problems because food moves too slowly through
your stomach. These health problems include:
- Having a hard time managing your blood sugar if you have diabetes
food sit too long in your stomach
- Having hard masses of food (bezoars) build up in your stomach. These can cause upset
stomach, vomiting, and block food from passing into your small intestine.
- Losing too much weight and not getting enough nutrients (malnutrition)
Living with gastroparesis
Gastroparesis can lead to weight loss and not getting enough nutrients (malnutrition).
It’s very important to follow your healthcare provider’s diet instructions.
In most cases you will be given a special diet. This will have foods that are easier
to digest and pass through your stomach. You may also be given medicines to take.
Follow all instructions carefully.
When should I call my healthcare provider?
Call your healthcare provider right away if your symptoms get worse or if you have
new symptoms. Problems such as a stomach blockage or high blood sugar need to be taken
care of right away.
Key points about
- Gastroparesis is a stomach disorder. It happens when your stomach takes too long to
empty out food.
- The food
can also harden into solid masses (bezoars). They may upset your stomach or create
blockage in your stomach.
- In most
cases, gastroparesis is a long-term (chronic) condition.
- You are
more likely to have it if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
- Symptoms may include upset stomach or nausea, vomiting, losing weight, feeling full
too soon when eating, belly or abdominal pain or bloating, and heartburn.
care plan may include taking medicines, changing your diet, having surgery, and
feeding by IV (intravenously).
- Treatment will not cure gastroparesis, but it can help you manage the disease.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines,
treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also
know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that
- Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.
Medical Reviewer: Jen Lehrer MD
Medical Reviewer: Ronald Karlin MD
Medical Reviewer: Raymond Kent Turley BSN MSN RN
© 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions.
Not what you’re looking for?
Stop holding it in! 4 bodily functions you should let out
Whether it was from the taco before the business presentation or the extra-large beer while watching the big game, everyone has had a time when they tried to hold back a bodily function—for their sake or for everyone around them.
While some bodily functions like sneezing can be disruptive, others like gas can be downright embarrassing. Depending on the circumstances, letting it out may even be rude.
“We’re all guilty of holding back bodily functions to be polite,” said Susan A. Werner, M.D., a Geisinger family medicine provider. “What you may not realize, however, is that it can have negative effects on your health. Bodily functions are supposed to be let out, and holding them in can cause infections or serious health issues. ”
Here are four bodily functions you should just let go.
For most people, sneezes are far from subtle—which is understandable since you’re expelling air at around 40 miles per hour.
People hold in sneezes to avoid being disruptive, but the effects of holding in a sneeze might be more than you bargained for.
“There are cases of people rupturing their throats after holding in a sneeze,” said Dr. Werner. “The force is enough to break through your windpipe and push the air through the soft tissue in your neck. In these cases, it may be necessary to stay at the hospital for a week to heal completely.”
While this is a rare event, it does still happen. Luckily, it’s completely avoidable if you let the sneeze out.
Just be sure to sneeze into a tissue or your elbow (for everyone’s sake).
While you can sneeze anywhere you want, it’s not so easy when you have to urinate. Holding your urine is sometimes necessary, but if you find yourself doing a dance, it’s time to make a pit stop.
As liquid waste builds up in your body, you get the urge to urinate. It’s not harmful to hold it for a few minutes until you get to the bathroom, but if you wait too long, the effects can be unpleasant and even dangerous.
Holding your urine for too long can weaken the bladder muscles over time. This can lead to problems such as incontinence and not being able to fully empty your bladder.
Holding your urine for extremely long periods of time can also cause urinary tract infections due to bacteria build-up. In addition, it can increase your risk of kidney disease and in rare cases even risk your bladder bursting—a condition that can be deadly.
There are plenty of reasons to hold back a bowel movement. For most people, it’s not just a matter of finding a bathroom, it’s about finding the right bathroom and some peace and quiet.
As a result, some people may hold their bowel movements for too long.
“Don’t hold back bowel movements,” said Dr. Werner. “The longer you wait, the more water your body removes from the waste. Eventually, this can lead to constipation and impactions, which may require laxatives or even surgery to remove.”
Belches and flatulence are embarrassing, especially when they happen at the wrong moment. And because gas can smell or make a noise, most people try to hold it in until they find a secluded place.
Luckily, holding gas does not have serious or harmful side effects. However, it can cause bloating and discomfort.
“Interestingly, some early studies show that holding gas can lead to bad breath, too,” said Dr. Werner. “When you hold gas in, the bubbles can break down and go elsewhere throughout the body—which in some cases can end up making your breath smell.”
If you have the chance, it’s best to let gas go.
Susan A. Werner, M.D., is a primary care physician at Geisinger Nanticoke. To schedule an appointment with Dr. Werner, click here, call 570-258-1304 or visit Geisinger. org.
Working in a Standing Position
In a well-designed workplace, the worker has the opportunity to choose from among a variety of well-balanced working positions and to change between these positions frequently.
Working tables and benches should be adjustable. Being able to adjust the working height is particularly important to match the workstation to the worker’s individual body size and to the worker’s particular task. Adjustability ensures that the worker has an opportunity to carry out work in well-balanced body positions. If the workstation cannot be adjusted, platforms to raise the shorter worker or pedestals on top of workstations for the tall worker should be considered.
Organization of the work space is another important aspect. There should be enough room to move around and to change body position. Providing built-in foot rails or portable footrests allows the worker to shift body weight from one leg to the other. Elbow supports for precision work help reduce tension in the upper arms and neck. Controls and tools should be positioned so the worker can reach them easily and without twisting or bending.
Where it is possible, a seat should be provided so that the worker can do the job either sitting or standing. The seat must place the worker at a height that suits the type of work being done. For work that requires standing only, a seat should be provided in any case to allow the worker to sit occasionally. Seats at the workplace expand the variety of possible body positions and give the worker more flexibility.
The benefits from greater flexibility and a variety of body positions are twofold. The number of muscles involved in the work is increased which equalizes the distribution of loads on different parts of the body. Thus, there is less strain on the individual muscles and joints used to maintain the upright position. Changing body positions also improves blood supply to the working muscles. Both effects contribute to the reduction of overall fatigue.
Quality of footwear and type of flooring materials are also major factors contributing to standing comfort. For further details on these subjects, refer to these related documents on OSH Answers:
90,000 Yemen: Peace process stalled for too long
Peace process stalled
“Everything must be done to end hostilities and violence. By now, it has become apparent that the peace process has stalled for too long. The parties to the conflict have not engaged in a comprehensive settlement since 2016. Yemenis are stuck in a state of war with no clear idea of how to move forward, ”said Hans Grundberg.
He recalled that the current armed conflict has not abated for more than six years.Many civilians, including children, were killed, displaced or impoverished, and many civilian infrastructure destroyed. The armed formations detained and abducted people with impunity. The incidence of gender-based violence has increased significantly in the country.
The fighting continues
According to the Special Envoy, over time, the epicenter of the military confrontation in Yemen has shifted. Since early 2020, Ansar Allah fighters have stepped up offensives in Marib province, killing thousands of young Yemenis.The civilian population, including many internally displaced persons who fled to Marib, are now forced to seek new shelter or live in an atmosphere of fear.
In the city of Hodeidah, in general, the ceasefire is observed, although, as Grundberg said, there are periodic reports of armed clashes from the southern regions of the province of the same name.
Photo by UNICEF / A.Romenzi
Fleeing from the hostilities, many Yemeni residents move to camps for internally displaced persons.
The most dire situation is now in the violent southern provinces. The hostilities there turned into a complete economic collapse, people have practically no access to any services. There are still problems with the implementation of the Riyadh Agreement. The Aden-based government is failing to deliver on its promises.
“In the long term, peace in Yemen will not be possible without considering the views of the people of the south and their involvement in the peace process,” the Special Envoy warned.
He stressed that the conflict in Yemen extends beyond its borders, posing a threat to regional security and the security of international shipping. The UN spokesman recalled the attacks inside Saudi Arabia.
Hans Grundberg is sure that it is high time for the parties to the conflict to begin a peaceful dialogue with each other without preconditions.
Political divisions and a split in power are the causes of all the troubles of the Yemenis
“Every aspect of life in Yemen – from violent violence to fuel shortages and high food prices – is somehow tied to complex political issues that require a comprehensive solution,” said the UN official.He added that amid a split in power and conflicting administrative requirements, the economic situation in the country is rapidly deteriorating and has negative consequences for the Yemeni state and its people.
UN humanitarian operations
Yemenis throughout the country live in extremely difficult conditions. Many are cut off from international aid. Speaking at a meeting of the Security Council, the representative of the UN Humanitarian Affairs Office Gada Mudawi recalled that the UN is carrying out the largest humanitarian operation in Yemen.For its implementation in 2021, donors have already allocated $ 1.9 billion – 50 percent of the requested. This is the highest funding for UN operations in the world. This generous support has enabled the UN and its partners to scale up aid across the country and stave off hunger during the first eight months of this year.
Photo by UNICEF
Millions of Yemenis are in need of food aid.
Currently, humanitarian organizations are working in all 333 districts of Yemen.In June, 12.8 million people received international assistance, which is 3.3 million more than a month earlier. However, despite the achievements, according to Mudawi, the threat of famine in Yemen persists. In this situation, it is imperative to continue to supply food while increasing funding for health, especially as Yemen is struggling with frequent outbreaks of disease, including cholera, dengue, diphtheria and COVID-19.
Fix ##### error
Microsoft Excel may display characters ##### in cells if the column is not wide enough to display the entire contents of the cell.Formulas that return date and time as negative values may also display line ##### .
To expand a column to display the entire contents of a cell, double-click the right edge of the column header, or drag it to the desired distance.
Also try the following.
To shrink the cell content, click the Home button> next to the Alignment , button, and then in the Format Cells dialog box, select the size you want.
If the number contains too many decimal places, click Home > Decrease Digits .
If the dates are too long, click Home , then click the arrow next to Number Format and select Short Date Format .
Fix negative date or time values
If Excel displays the characters ##### because the cell contains a negative date or time value, please do as follows.
If using the 1900 date system, make sure the date and time are positive.
Use a formula to subtract dates or add or subtract times correctly to avoid negative date or time values.
For cells with negative results in date or time format, select a different number format.
Very long covid.
What symptoms of the disease persist for six months
Very long covid. What symptoms of the disease persist for half a year
Very long covid. What symptoms of the disease persist for six months – RIA Novosti, 23.01.2021
Very long covid. What symptoms of the disease persist for six months
More than 75 percent of those who have recovered from COVID-19 and six months later continue to suffer from its consequences, according to Chinese researchers. Doctors call it … RIA Novosti, 23.01.2021
First Sechenov Moscow State Medical University
Russian Academy of Sciences
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MOSCOW, 23 Jan – RIA Novosti, Alfiya Enikeeva. More than 75 percent of those who have recovered from COVID-19, and six months later, continue to suffer from its consequences, according to Chinese researchers. Doctors call this postcoid syndrome. In Russia, it is diagnosed in every fifth patient. RIA Novosti, together with experts, is figuring out what lingering covid is and whether there is treatment for it. protracted).“Just for the sake of sharing experiences and mutual support. Hopefully not for long,” one of the founders wrote in the first post. The group appeared on April 15th. Today, it has over 37,000 people, and up to 80 posts a day, mostly sharing medical histories, describing lingering symptoms, and trying to figure out how to live on. Most often, they complain of shortness of breath, tingling in the hands and feet, insomnia and causeless anxiety. Some people experience conjunctivitis, prolonged, albeit low, temperature and even hair loss. And this is all over the world. Tens of thousands come together in groups to discuss postcoid syndrome. Among those who had recovered in the United States, according to preliminary data published in the summer, this figure is 35 percent. In the UK, it reaches 80. In Italy, two months after the first symptoms, 87.4 percent of patients continued to complain of some kind of ailment. In October, Hannah Davis, an American who suffered from the acute phase of COVID-19 in April, spoke at a meeting of the World Health Organization on behalf of all patients with lingering covid.She described preliminary findings from a patient-driven study that over a six-month period she led by a team of 17 activists interviewed more than 3,500 people from 56 countries who still had symptoms six to seven months after the acute phase. Based on the survey results, an article was published – in the database of medical preprints. It turned out that most often patients with long-term coronavirus infection suffer from fatigue (more than 77 percent) and cognitive dysfunction (about 55 percent). The majority of the study participants were women (78.9 percent) over forty years old. However, there is still no answer to the main question: what is the proportion of such patients among all those faced with coronavirus. After all, Davis and like-minded people were engaged only in those who have a lingering covid. And in early January, Chinese scientists finally made it clear: a protracted form of COVID-19 is characteristic of 76 percent of patients in whom the disease was initially diagnosed by a PCR test. 1,700 people from the Chinese city of Wuhan.Almost everyone was hit by the new coronavirus between January and May 2020. On average six months after being discharged from the hospital, 63 percent continued to have fatigue or muscle weakness, and 26 percent experienced sleep problems. Russian specifics “Today, the so-called postcoid syndrome is widely discussed. In fact, these are residual effects after suffering a coronavirus infection. According to our data. , more than 20 percent of Russian patients suffer from them, “says Sergei Avdeev, Head of the Department of Pulmonology at Sechenov University, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Since spring, he has been studying the spread, course and consequences of COVID-19 in Russia as a member of the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC). In the first phase, scientists, among other things, found that symptoms are a more reliable basis for diagnosis than PCR testing. The second part of the study began at the end of last year. Experts interviewed more than three and a half thousand Russians who suffered from COVID-19 about six months ago.Information was collected by phone and online, as well as during medical examinations. “We have to analyze this data, but it is already clear that many people still have fatigue, shortness of breath and other phenomena that reduce the quality of life,” says Daniel Moonblit, professor at the Department of Pediatrics and childhood infectious diseases of the N.F. Filatov Clinical Institute of Children’s Health of Sechenov University and a member of the working group on the assessment of the consequences of COVID-19 ISARIC According to Sergey Avdeev, the preliminary results largely coincided with the conclusions of the Chinese. First of all, this concerns the frequency of symptoms. “We get about the same distribution. In the first place is weakness, or rather fatigue. In China, 63 percent of patients complain that they get more tired after an illness. We have 20 percent. But fast fatigue, in principle , a common consequence of any infectious disease. Unfortunately, after covid it remains for a long time. Coincidence and frequency of complaints of shortness of breath. The Chinese – 20 percent, we have 12 percent. This is also an understandable consequence of covid, since the disease is mainly aimed at the lungs and this organ suffers the most, “says the doctor.As for problems with sleep, Russians are less worried about it – only four percent (for the Chinese – 25). In addition, we have fewer complaints of anxiety or depression – seven percent versus 23. “Among the symptoms, hair loss is also mentioned – in China, 22 percent. We have a much more modest figure. their study involved almost half the number of patients, plus these were more severe cases. More people were admitted to intensive care. And now it is already clear that the post-coccygeal syndrome is associated with the course of the disease, “emphasizes Sergei Avdeev.Although women tolerate COVID-19 more easily, they recover more slowly and are more likely to suffer from the consequences, especially shortness of breath. It is too early to talk about any general recommendations in this situation, the pulmonologist adds. Each patient needs an individual approach. Therefore, if you notice any symptom of lingering covid in yourself, then you should consult a doctor.
7 495 645-6601
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USA, Italy, Wuhan, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Russian Academy of Sciences, health, biology, coronavirus covid-19, coronavirus in Russia, coronaviruses
MOSCOW, 23 Jan – RIA Novosti, Alfiya Yenikeeva. More than 75 percent of those who have recovered from COVID-19 continue to suffer from its consequences six months later, according to Chinese researchers.Doctors call this postcoid syndrome. In Russia, it is diagnosed in every fifth patient. RIA Novosti, together with experts, is figuring out what a lingering covid is and whether there is a cure for it.
The home page of the closed Russian-speaking group “Atypical Coronavirus” on Facebook states that it was created for the sake of several people with a non-standard form of COVID-19 (mild but prolonged). “Just for the sake of sharing experiences and mutual support.Hopefully not for long, “one of the founders wrote in the first post. The group appeared on April 15. Today it has more than 37 thousand people, up to 80 messages are published a day. How to live on. Most often they complain of shortness of breath, tingling in the hands and feet, insomnia and causeless anxiety. Some are faced with conjunctivitis, prolonged, albeit low, temperature and even hair loss.
And this is all over the world.Tens of thousands come together in groups to discuss postcoid syndrome. Among those who had recovered in the United States, according to preliminary data published in the summer, this figure is 35 percent. In the UK, it reaches 80. In Italy, two months after the first symptoms, 87.4 percent of patients continued to complain of some kind of ailment. Almost half spoke of a sharp deterioration in the quality of life. 2 November 2020, 4:46 pm The spread of coronavirus meeting of the World Health Organization on behalf of all patients with lingering covid.She spoke about the preliminary results of the study, organized by the forces of the patients themselves.
For six months, a team of 17 activists she leads interviewed over 3,500 people from 56 countries who still have symptoms of the disease six to seven months after the acute phase. Based on the survey results, an article was published – in the database of medical preprints. It turned out that most often patients with long-term coronavirus infection suffer from fatigue (more than 77 percent) and cognitive dysfunction (about 55 percent).The majority of the study participants were women (78.9 percent) over forty years old.
However, there is still no answer to the main question: what is the proportion of such patients among all those faced with coronavirus. After all, Davis and like-minded people were engaged only in those who have a protracted covid.
And in early January, Chinese scientists finally made it clear that a protracted form of COVID-19 is characteristic of 76 percent of patients who were initially diagnosed with the disease by PCR test. Over 1,700 people from the Chinese city of Wuhan took part in the study.Almost everyone was hit by the new coronavirus between January and May 2020. On average, six months after being discharged from hospital, 63 percent were still fatigued or muscle weak, and 26 percent had trouble sleeping.
“Today the so-called postcoid syndrome is being widely discussed. In fact, these are residual effects after a coronavirus infection. According to our data, more than 20 percent of Russian patients suffer from them,” says the head of the Department of Pulmonology at Sechenov University, Corresponding Member RAS, Doctor of Medical Sciences Sergei Avdeev.Since spring, he has been studying the spread, course and consequences of COVID-19 in Russia as a member of the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC). At the first stage, scientists, among other things, found that symptoms are a more reliable basis for a diagnosis than PCR testing.Experts interviewed more than three and a half thousand Russians who suffered from COVID-19 about six months ago. Information was collected by phone and online, as well as during medical examinations.
“We have to analyze these data, but it is already clear that many people still have fatigue, shortness of breath and other phenomena that reduce the quality of life,” says Daniil Moonblit, professor at the Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Infectious Diseases, N.F. Filatov of the Sechenov University and a member of the working group on the assessment of the consequences of COVID-19 ISARIC.
January 22, 08:00 Science What to expect from EpiVacCorona. All about the peptide vaccine against COVID-19
According to Sergei Avdeev, the preliminary results largely coincided with the conclusions of the Chinese. First of all, this concerns the frequency of symptoms.
“We get about the same distribution. In the first place is weakness, or rather fatigue. In China, 63 percent of patients complain that they get more tired after an illness. We have 20 percent. But fatigue is, in principle, a widespread consequence of any infectious diseases.Unfortunately, after covid, it remains for a long time. Coincidence and frequency of complaints of shortness of breath. The Chinese have 20 percent, we have 12 percent. This is also an understandable consequence of covid, since the disease mainly targets the lungs, and this organ suffers the most, “says the doctor.
As for sleep problems, Russians are less worried about it – only four percent (Chinese – 25). In addition, we have fewer complaints of anxiety or depression – seven percent versus 23.
“Among the symptoms, hair loss is also mentioned – in China, 22 percent.We have a much more modest figure. In general, the differences between our and the Chinese work are due to the fact that their study involved almost half the number of patients, plus these were more severe cases. More people in intensive care. And now it is already clear that postcoid syndrome is associated with the course of the disease, “emphasizes Sergey Avdeev.
Although women tolerate COVID-19 more easily, they recover more slowly and are more often tormented by the consequences, especially shortness of breath. it’s too early to say in this situation, the pulmonologist adds.Each patient needs an individual approach. Therefore, if you notice any symptom of lingering covid in yourself, then you should consult a doctor.
Large fontanelle in newborns. Examination IPM Clinic for Children Krasnoyarsk
The birth of a baby is a very important and joyful event in the life of young parents. After birth, a lot of questions arise about the health, care and proper development of the baby. The earliest questions are often asked about the fontanelle.
The fontanelle is a soft, non-ossified area of the cranial vault of newborn babies, consisting of the remains of the membranous skeleton and connecting the bones of the skull. In the area of the fontanelles, the pulsation of the arteries of the brain and membranes is felt, which is why these areas are called pulsating, gushing. The fontanelles allow in childbirth to “squeeze” the cranial vault for better passage of the baby through the birth canal. Four of them close in the first days of a child’s life, the fifth in the second month of life, and the sixth, largest (front), closes in the period from 3 to 24 months or more.Very often fontanelles and the rate of their closure are of great concern to parents.
Role of fontanelle:
- The growth of the skull bones depends on the growth of the brain. The fontanelles provide elasticity to the skull during the fastest growth. This period is from birth to two years of a child’s life.
- The fontanelles also protect the baby’s skull from traumatization: upon impact, the possibility of elastic deformation of the skull remains, which dampens all the kinetic energy of the impact and protects the child.
- The brain of a newborn baby is very sensitive to overheating, and a kind of natural “window” removes excess heat outside and naturally cools the meninges, thereby playing an important role in the processes of heat exchange and thermoregulation of the body.
The size of the anterior (large) fontanel varies greatly. On average, the normal size of the fontanelle at birth is 3.0 * 2.5 cm, it has a diamond shape.
With the active growth and constant development of the baby, the free space between the bones gradually hardens and decreases in size, the pulsation becomes almost imperceptible.
Timing of fontanel closure may vary. On average, complete closure occurs by the year (normally also up to two years).
When the fontanelle closes too slowly, the parents become anxious. But premature closure also does not speak of a good thing.
Causes of the “large” fontanel:
– achondroplasia (hereditary disease)
– Down syndrome
– premature birth
– neonatal hypothyroidism
– one of the most common causes of neonatal hypothyroidism
is rachitis slow closing of the fontanelle.Most often, rickets develops in premature babies and in children who do not receive prophylactic treatment with vitamin D. In a child with rickets, the edges of the large fontanel are flexible, the nape is flattened, characteristic bony thickenings are formed on both sides of the sternum.
A change in the appearance of the fontanel also indicates a number of specific problems:
- The fontanel sinking occurs against the background of
– the temperature rises to febrile numbers
– repeated vomiting
- bulging of the fontanel occurs against the background of
– intracranial bleeding
– increased intracranial pressure
Many factors affect the rate of ossification of the fontanel:
– balanced diet
– sufficient intake of calcium
– the appointment of vitamin D preparations
Dispensary examination of a child under one year old allows the pediatrician to examine the baby every month.On examination, a complete examination of the child is carried out, weighing, measurements of height, head and chest circumference. The size of the fontanelle is also measured.
Phone for making an appointment with a pediatrician (391) 200-50-03
Description of the Price Channel indicator
Price Channel ( PC) or price channel is a typical instrument from the family of channel indicators. The first version of this tool was developed over forty years ago by Richard Donchian, the father of trend-following trading and an innovator in promoting diversification for commodity trading.
The indicator consists of three lines, two of which limit the price fluctuation channel, and the third serves as an axis indicating the general direction of movement. Unlike Envelopes or Bolinger Bands, PC lines are plotted without using moving averages. The upper border of the channel denotes the level of the local maximum for the past N periods, and the lower border – the level of the local minimum for the same period of time. Thus, the price is limited by the maximum points of fluctuations – extremes for N periods.The center line is calculated as the arithmetic average between the main lines.
For convenience, the line PC can be selected in different colors.
The advantage of this indicator over other types of channels is that the price is always inside the channel. As soon as the upper or lower boundaries are broken, the indicator quickly adjusts and redraws the lines for new peaks or troughs.
The indicator is very easy to set up.The period is the only significant parameter indicating the number of candles for which the extremum is taken into account. When choosing it, it is worth starting from the time period in which the trade is carried out. A short period will rebuild too often, a long period will not take into account fresh levels within the channel poorly. In general, values in the 15-25 range are best.
There are also strategies that solve this problem by building two Price Channels with a long and a short period.However, with this approach, it is better to hide the center line, otherwise the picture on the chart looks too complicated for perception. Another solution is to split the channels into two graphs.
Application of the indicator is identical to trading using levels. Trading systems are based on a breakout or rebound from the channel border.
Rebound from the channel boundary
It is worth distinguishing between the use of the indicator in the phase of sideways movement (flat) and in the phase of the trend (directional movement).It is quite difficult to trade rebounds during a flat, as the channel border is often rebuilt. Those bounces that look beautiful on history are not at all obvious at the time of trading. Nevertheless, a number of experts claim that this indicator can bring profit in flat as well.
PC works much better within the established trend. The deal is opened in the direction of the trend after the candlestick updates the extreme value of the indicator and is fixed inside the channel. The stop loss is set behind the tail of the touched candle, and the profit is taken when the price crosses the middle line in the opposite direction.
In this case, a breakout means the closing of a candle beyond the channel’s border at the level of the previous candle.
Breakout points can be effectively used to build up a position along a trend. At the moment of the breakout, an additional position is opened with a stop order for the last candlestick, which is transferred to breakeven at the first opportunity. This tactic will allow you to take more profit from movements that are actively developing and at the same time take less risk.The profit on the additional position is fixed simultaneously with the main position.
In such aggressive trading, it is important to strictly follow the rules of risk management, no matter how obvious the transaction may be. If the additional position goes into negative territory, the loss should not overlap the profit on the main position. With this in mind, you should adjust the size of the additional position and avoid trades where the stop loss is too long.
There are also strategies that involve trading breakouts using two Price Channels with different periods.One of these strategies is to enter the breakdown of the 20-period channel and exit if the 5-period channel is broken in the opposite direction.
The Price Channel indicator makes it much easier for a trader to work with support and resistance levels, removing routine work from him and clearly indicating the channel in which quotes move. The entry points provided by this indicator allow you to effectively participate in the movement along the trend. However, do not forget that a trading strategy is not limited to entry points alone.
Analysis of the information background, fundamental factors and a clear risk management system, complemented by the Price Channel indicator, will make your trading more meaningful and profitable.
90,000 Scientists have explained why a person’s childhood lasts so long
It became known why a person grows so long and slowly in childhood compared to other mammals: this is due to the fact that his energy resources for growth are taken by the brain.Scientists have shown that a child’s growth slows down at the peak of brain development. A large brain is generally very expensive for us.
Compared to other mammals, we grow up very slowly. According to medical criteria of , the pubertal age of in humans begins at 12-13 years old, adolescence lasts up to 17-18 years. After that, girls usually no longer gain in height, and boys can grow up to about 26 years old. That is, a significant part of our life is allotted to us for growth and development.
Small animals grow faster, large animals grow more slowly.But even if you compare us not with rapidly growing and breeding mice, but with mammals of a more solid size, the difference is obvious. Cats and dogs live 15–20 years, but on average they reach the size of an adult animal in a year, and puberty begins even earlier. A horse lives up to 25-30 years, and reaches full development at 4-5 years. In an elephant, which in terms of life expectancy is comparable to that of a man (60–70 years), sexual maturity occurs at 8–12 years. Finally, our closest relatives, chimpanzees, reach sexual maturity at 6–8 years of age.
And in terms of the rate of growth in childhood, a person, as the authors of the article note, is more similar not to mammals, but to reptiles that grow all their lives, but very slowly. Boys and girls begin to rapidly stretch in puberty (from 12-13 years old), and before that the increase in height is much less noticeable.
Anthropologists from Northwestern University tried to solve the riddle of slow human growth, they wrote about the results in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences .
It turned out that a person’s slow growth pays for his large brain, which devours the lion’s share of energy.
For the first time, scientists have studied in detail the development of a person from birth to adulthood, using different methods of brain scanning – PET (positron emission tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging).With these methods, they measured brain volume and glucose consumption, that is, energy costs. And then they compared these indicators of the brain with the growth of the body.
Until now, it was believed that the brain absorbs the most energy in a newborn baby, since the ratio of the size of the brain to the body at this moment is maximum. But now researchers have calculated that
the maximum amount of glucose the brain absorbs at the age of 4–5 years. During this period, the energy expenditure of the brain is 66% of the metabolic energy at rest.
This is much more than our closest relatives, great apes, spend on brain development.
And it turned out that during this period the growth of the body slows down greatly. It turns out that the brain simply “devours” the rest of the body, there is not enough energy for growth.
“After a certain age, it becomes difficult to determine the age of a child by his height,” notes Christopher Kuzawa, the first author of the study. – We can rather judge the age by his speech and behavior.Our work has shown why this is happening. When the brain develops most rapidly, the growth of the body almost stops because the brain takes up all the resources. ”
As the researchers explain,
at the peak of energy expenditure in the brain, the number of synapses – contacts between nerve cells – increases as much as possible.
Such a network of contacts enables a child at this age to learn a lot of things that he will need in the future.
A large brain generally costs a person dearly, and the first inconvenience he experiences is a difficult birth, since a newborn has a large head. And in order to acquire the most complex system of contacts between neurons, the human brain requires a lot of energy (high-calorie food) and a long period of development. During a long childhood, a child learns a lot of different things that make a person a person, first of all, of course, mastering speech.Long childhood also dictates the peculiarities of human family relations: parents take care of the child for a long time and at the same time not only raise him, but also educate and teach.
Another detail of the life of humans and great apes attracted the attention of scientists and gave rise to a hypothesis.Unlike the overwhelming majority of mammals, females and females of great primates live quite a long time after the end of the reproductive period, that is, after the onset of menopause. From a biological point of view, life after reproduction is useless, since resources are wasted, and reproduction does not occur.
To explain this phenomenon in humans and other great primates , biologists put forward the “grandmother hypothesis” .
Females beyond reproductive age begin to “work as grandmothers” and help their daughters raise children.By doing so, they increase the survival rate of these children, increasing the chances of retaining and passing on their genes.
And children with parental and grandmother’s care can remain small and helpless for quite a long time, which gives them the opportunity to grow a big brain and develop intelligence. The circle is closed, you can read it from the beginning.
Features of early repayment of a mortgage 🏠
Features of early repayment of a mortgage
Many borrowers are trying to pay off a mortgage loan ahead of schedule.Consider how to repay the mortgage ahead of schedule in order to reduce the amount of overpayment, and how to pay the bank correctly if you want to close the debt faster.
The borrower’s right to early repayment of mortgage loans is enshrined in Federal Law No. 284. The main thing is to notify the bank in advance about the decision, otherwise the amount deposited will not be counted.
When is it profitable to close the mortgage ahead of schedule?
Alfa-Bank allows customers to make early payments during the entire period of the loan agreement.But it is better to do this in the first third of the term: the earlier you start, the more profitable the early repayment of the mortgage will be.
This is relevant for loans with an annuity payment scheme, when most of the money goes to pay off interest. In this case, additional payments will reduce the very body of the mortgage loan – you will be able to pay off the debt faster. With differentiated payments, early payments will be used to pay off the principal debt against future periods.
Before deciding on early repayment, consider:
Credit load.The less debt you owe to banks, the better.
Income level. Think about how stable your income is, whether it can change over the course of the loan. If you are not sure that in 10-15 years you will be able to easily pay off your mortgage, then it is better to repay it ahead of schedule.
Plans for the next few years. If in the future you plan to sell an apartment, then you should settle with the bank as soon as possible – while the property is pledged, you will not be able to fully dispose of it.
How to repay a mortgage ahead of schedule: possible options
There are three ways:
Shortening the loan term – reduces the total amount of overpayment on the loan. When you shorten the term, the share of interest in the compulsory payment decreases, but the part that goes to pay off the principal increases.
Reduced monthly payments – reduces operating costs. If you keep the term, then the balance of the principal debt is distributed over the entire crediting period.At the same time, most of the payment will go to pay interest, and a smaller part will go towards the main debt. Such a scheme is convenient as a safety net, for example, if the payment is too large for you, and you want to reduce the loan burden.
Combined option – you reduce the term or size of the payment until it becomes comfortable for the budget. For example, you can reduce the required payment to a minimum, but still pay the full amount. Small overpayments, which will be used for early repayment, will then reduce the term of the loan.
What is the best way to pay off your mortgage ahead of schedule? It all depends on your tasks and financial capabilities: if you want to save on interest, reduce the term, and to reduce the mandatory costs it is wiser to reduce the amount of monthly payments. The best solution may be a mixed option of early repayment.
How to make partial or full early repayment
It is not enough just to replenish the mortgage account with a large amount – payments will still be debited according to the schedule within the specified amount.To make an additional payment, you need to write a corresponding application: through your Internet bank account, in a mobile application or in a bank office.
In case of early repayment, the mortgage is recalculated. How it happens:
you submit an application indicating the amount and date of debiting the funds;
choose what you want to reduce: the size of the payment or the term;
the indicated amount is debited from the account;
the bank recalculates the loan and sends you the adjusted payment schedule.
Before repaying your mortgage ahead of schedule, read the mortgage agreement carefully: it should describe the exact terms and conditions. Please note that in some banks the term is tied to the date of the next write-off.
Some banks allow you to apply online. For example, in Alfa-Bank, you can make early repayments on a mortgage in a mobile application.
Money with partial early repayment can be written off any day. There are two possible scenarios for the development of events:
On the date of the mandatory payment.In this case, you pay the amount of the monthly installment and additional funds. All money in excess of the obligatory payment goes to early repayment.
Any other day. Part of the funds is spent on paying off interest, and the other on the main debt. The interest to debt ratio depends on how many days have passed since the date of the last monthly write-off.
It is possible to repay a mortgage loan ahead of schedule not only at the expense of your own funds, but also with the help of social payments, for example, matkapital.When the maternity capital is deposited, the amount of the principal debt or interest will decrease – it all depends on the terms of the mortgage agreement.
For early repayment, an application must be submitted to the Pension Fund for the disposal of family capital. A package of documents and payment details of the creditor bank is attached to the application. Previously, you need to get a certificate from the bank about the balance of the debt, the amount of the principal debt and the interest for using the loan.
Before making early payments, send an application to the bank.