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Too much yeast in skin: Candida infection of the skin Information | Mount Sinai

Candida infection of the skin Information | Mount Sinai

Skin infection – fungal; Fungal infection – skin; Skin infection – yeast; Yeast infection – skin; Intertriginous candidiasis; Cutaneous candidiasis

Candida infection of the skin is a yeast infection of the skin. The medical name of the condition is cutaneous candidiasis.

This microscopic film shows a fluorescent stain of Candida. Candida is a yeast (fungus) that causes mild disease, but in immunocompromised individuals it may cause life-threatening illness. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

This child has a large rash caused by candidiasis, affecting the skin around the mouth. There are also other lesions that aren’t connected to the large lesion, called satellite lesions.

Fungal infections are caused by microscopic organisms (fungi) that can live on the skin. They can live on the dead tissues of the hair, nails, and outer skin layers.


The body normally hosts a variety of germs, including bacteria and fungi. Some of these are useful to the body, some produce no harm or benefit, and some can cause harmful infections.

Some fungal infections are caused by fungi that often live on the hair, nails, and outer skin layers. They include yeast-like fungi such as candida. Sometimes, these yeast penetrate beneath the surface of the skin and cause infection.

In cutaneous candidiasis, the skin is infected with candida fungi. This type of infection is fairly common. It can involve almost any skin on the body, but most often it occurs in warm, moist, creased areas such as the armpits and groin. The fungus that most often causes cutaneous candidiasis is Candida albicans.

Candida is the most common cause of diaper rash in infants. The fungi take advantage of the warm, moist conditions inside the diaper. Candida infection is also particularly common in people with diabetes and in those who are obese. Antibiotics, steroid therapy, and chemotherapy increase the risk of cutaneous candidiasis. Candida can also cause infections of the nails, edges of the nails, and corners of the mouth.

Oral thrush, a form of candida infection of the moist lining of the mouth, usually occurs when people take antibiotics though only a small number of people who take antibiotics get thrush. It may also be a sign of an HIV infection or other weakened immune system disorders when it occurs in adults. Individuals with candida infections are not usually contagious, though in some settings people with weakened immune systems may catch the infection. When it occurs in the mouth or vagina, it is sometimes called mucocutaneous candidiasis.

Candida is also the most frequent cause of vaginal yeast infections. These infections are common and often occur with antibiotic use.


Candida infection of the skin can cause intense itching.

Symptoms also include:

  • Red, growing skin rash
  • Rash on the skin folds, genitals, middle of the body, buttocks, under the breasts, and other areas of skin
  • Infection of the hair follicles that may look like pimples

Exams and Tests

Your health care provider can usually diagnose this condition by looking at your skin. Your provider may gently scrape off a sample of skin for testing.

Older children and adults with a yeast skin infection should be tested for diabetes. High sugar levels, seen in people with diabetes, act as food for the yeast fungus and help it grow.


Good general health and hygiene are very important for treating candida infections of the skin. Keeping the skin dry and exposed to air is helpful. Drying (absorbent) powders may help prevent fungal infections.

Losing weight may help eliminate the problem if you are overweight.

Proper blood sugar control may also be helpful to those with diabetes.

Antifungal skin creams, ointments, or powders may be used to treat a yeast infection of the skin, mouth, or vagina. You may need to take antifungal medicine by mouth for severe candida infections in the mouth, throat, or vagina.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Cutaneous candidiasis often goes away with treatment, especially if the underlying cause is corrected. Repeat infections are common.

Possible Complications

These complications may occur:

  • Infection of the nails may cause the nails to become oddly shaped and may cause an infection around the nail.
  • Candida skin infections may return.
  • Widespread candidiasis may occur in people with weakened immune systems.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Contact your provider if you develop symptoms of cutaneous candidiasis.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Fungal diseases: candidiasis. www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/candidiasis/index.html. Updated June 28, 2022. Accessed January 3, 2023.

James WD, Elston DM, Treat JR, Rosenbach MA, Neuhaus IM. Diseases resulting from fungi and yeasts. In: James WD, Elston DM, Treat JR, Rosenbach MA, Neuhaus IM, eds. Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 15.

Lionakis MS, Edwards JE. Candida species. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 256.

Last reviewed on: 12/4/2022

Reviewed by: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Associate Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David C. Dugdale, MD, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

Candidiasis of the Skin: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

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Candidiasis is a fungal skin infection. Home remedies and lifestyle changes often help, but antifungal cream or powder may be necessary.

Different types of bacteria and fungi live and grow on your skin. Most of them aren’t dangerous. Your body requires the majority of them to carry out normal functions. However, some can cause infections when they begin to multiply uncontrollably.

The Candida fungus is one of these potentially harmful organisms. When an overgrowth of Candida develops on the skin, an infection can occur. This condition is known as candidiasis of the skin, or cutaneous candidiasis.

Candidiasis of the skin often causes a red, itchy rash to form, most commonly in the folds of the skin. This rash may also spread to other areas of the body. While the symptoms are often bothersome, they can usually be treated with improved hygiene and antifungal creams or powders.

The main symptom of candidiasis of the skin is a rash. The rash often causes redness and intense itching. In some cases, the infection can cause the skin to become cracked and sore. Blisters and pustules may also occur.

The rash can affect various parts the body, but it’s most likely to develop in the folds of the skin. This includes areas in the armpits, in the groin, between the fingers, and under the breasts. Candida can also cause infections in the nails, edges of the nails, and corners of the mouth.

Other conditions that may resemble candidiasis of the skin include:

  • ringworm
  • hives
  • herpes
  • diabetes-related skin conditions
  • contact dermatitis
  • seborrheic dermatitis
  • eczema
  • psoriasis

Candidiasis of the skin develops when the skin becomes infected with Candida. A small amount of Candida fungi naturally live on the skin. When this type of fungus begins to multiply uncontrollably, however, it can cause an infection. This may occur because of:

  • warm weather
  • tight clothing
  • poor hygiene
  • infrequent undergarment changes
  • obesity
  • the use of antibiotics that kill harmless bacteria that keep Candida under control
  • the use of corticosteroids or other medications that affect the immune system
  • a weakened immune system as a result of diabetes, pregnancy, or another medical condition
  • incomplete drying of damp or wet skin

Candida fungi thrive and grow in warm, moist areas. This is why the condition often affects areas where there are folds of skin.

Babies can also develop candidiasis of the skin, especially on the buttocks. A diaper tends to provide an ideal environment for Candida.

Candidiasis of the skin usually isn’t contagious. However, people with weakened immune systems may develop the condition after touching the skin of an infected person. Those with compromised immune systems are also more likely to develop a severe infection as a result of candidiasis.

Your doctor will likely be able to make a diagnosis simply by performing a physical examination. During the exam, they’ll inspect the location of your rash and the appearance of your skin.

Your doctor may also want to perform a skin culture before making a diagnosis of candidiasis of the skin. During a skin culture, your doctor will rub a cotton swab over the affected area and collect a skin sample. The sample will then be sent to a laboratory to be tested for the presence of Candida.

Candidiasis of the skin can usually be prevented with home remedies, the most important of which is proper hygiene. Washing the skin regularly and drying the skin thoroughly can prevent the skin from becoming too moist. This is vital to keeping Candida infections at bay.

There are many lifestyle changes you can make to both prevent and treat a candidiasis infection.

Helpful tips

  • Quickly change out of damp clothing, such as swimsuits or sweaty workout clothes.
  • Change your socks and undergarments regularly.
  • Wear loose-fitting clothing.
  • Use gentle and scent-free soap on affected areas.
  • Add probiotics to your diet.
  • Reduce the amount of sugar in your diet.

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Since abnormal blood sugar levels can contribute to the development of Candida infections, keeping your blood sugar under control may also help relieve symptoms. You may be able to lower your blood sugar by reducing the amount of sugar in your diet and by exercising for 30 minutes at least three times per week. If you have diabetes, it’s important to continue following your doctor’s instructions as you may need to start receiving oral medications or an increased amount of insulin.

In severe or persistent cases of candidiasis, your doctor may recommend using an antifungal cream or powder that can be applied to your skin. Over-the-counter antifungal creams that are often recommended include clotrimazole (Mycelex), miconazole (Monistat), and tioconazole (Vagistat). This type of treatment can kill Candida and reduce the spread of the infection.

Your doctor may prescribe an antifungal cream such as nystatin or ketoconazole if the over-the-counter treatments aren’t effective. If the infection has already spread to areas inside your body, such as your throat or mouth, you may need to take an oral antifungal to get rid of it.

Cutaneous candidiasis (or candidiasis present on skin, nails, or hair) is a common occurrence in infants and babies.

Candidiasis-related diaper rash is one of the most frequently occurring candidiasis infections in babies. This rash is typically red with a well-defined border, and normally lasts more than three days. Treatment includes changing the infant’s diaper frequently and allowing them to wear loose-fitting clothes on top of the diaper. The antifungal nystatin may be prescribed.

Oral thrush is another common occurrence in newborns and infants under 6 months old. Symptoms can include cracked skin in the corners of the mouth and whitish patches on the lips, tongue, or inside of the cheeks. Your doctor can prescribe an antifungal medication that’s applied to the infant’s mouth several times a day.

If candidiasis infection is left untreated, it can enter the bloodstream and spread. See your doctor if you believe your baby has candidiasis.

Learn more: Oral thrush »

Although healthy children have strong immune systems, a 2010 study found that the rate of topical fungal infections among children is increasing rapidly. Children sometimes develop candidiasis infections after receiving antibiotics that treat another condition. Children who suck their thumbs may be prone to developing candidiasis infections in or around their nail beds.

If your child is 9 months or older and has reoccurring thrush or skin infections, this could point to an underlying health concern, such as HIV or another problem with the immune system. Older children with frequent or severe skin infections should also be tested for diabetes.

Candidiasis of the skin usually goes away with treatment, and most people fully recover without complications. If treated, the candidiasis typically resolves within one to two weeks. Without prescription treatment, recovery can take anywhere from a few days to a few weeks, depending on the severity of the infection.

Even with treatment, it is possible for the infection to return in the future. People with compromised immune systems, especially those undergoing chemotherapy and those with HIV or AIDS, are at a much higher risk of severe or life threatening Candida infections. If you’re undergoing chemotherapy or you have HIV or AIDs and you develop severe throat pain, headache, or high fevers, you should see your doctor immediately.


Answers represent the opinions of our medical experts. All content is strictly informational and should not be considered medical advice.

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Yeast Infection – All You Need to Know


A yeast infection is commonly referred to as candidiasis. This is a widespread infection caused by the yeast Candida Albicans. Fungal infections are common in warm, moist areas of the body, including the mouth, intestines, vagina, throat, and moist areas of the skin.

Candida usually causes no problems and can live inside the body. Normally, the body’s immune system is actively working to balance the growth of fungi. If the immune system changes, you can get candidiasis. When Candida gets out of control, you may experience a number of problems. Thrush occurs due to the abundance of fungi in the mouth. If it forms in the vagina, it is called a vaginal yeast infection.

Candidiasis is more likely to occur as a secondary infection in immunocompromised people. Candidiasis, moniliosis and thrush are synonymous with candidiasis. These organisms can be found in the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, genitals, and other parts of the body.

Fungi become pathogenic only under certain conditions. They can affect the oral cavity, vaginal area, penis, and other parts of the body. Thrush is the name of a type of candidiasis that affects the oral cavity. Oral candidiasis can be pseudomembranous, erythematous, and chronic hyperplastic.

Candidiasis is common in chronically ill people and newborns. It most often appears as white, soft, slightly raised plaques on the tongue and oral mucosa. The plaques look like cottage cheese and are composed of matted masses of fungal hyphae, desquamated epithelium, necrotic debris, keratin, leukocytes, fibrin, and bacteria. When the white plaque is removed, an erythematous area remains.

Antibiotic pain in the mouth is another name for erythematous candidiasis. This occurs after the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics or corticosteroids. Lesions present as persistently painful erythematous patches on the tongue, as well as atrophy of the central papillae. When the palate is involved and erythema occurs as a result of contact with the tongue, this is called kissing injury.

Candidiasis leukoplakia, also known as chronic hyperplastic candidiasis, is characterized by hard, white, persistent plaques on the lips, tongue, and buccal mucosa. These plaques may be uniform or nodular and may persist for years. This may be a precancerous condition.

Epidemiology of thrush

Candidiasis is more common in the elderly and children. Thrush affects approximately 37% of newborns in the United States during the first few months of their lives. Oral candidiasis is more common in children who use inhaled steroids. Quite common in pregnant women. Thrush can be an early sign of HIV infection. Thrush occurs worldwide and is more common in those who are malnourished. Thrush affects both men and women.

How does a yeast infection occur?

Yeast infections can occur for a number of reasons. As a result of fluctuations in hormones in some women, they appear during the menstrual cycle or during pregnancy. Some birth control pills can also make you more likely to develop a yeast infection.

Candida (yeast) is a form of fungus that can survive almost anywhere. It is normally present in the body; however, the immune system prevents it from spreading out of reach. Thus, infection occurs as most of the yeast multiplies inside the vagina.

Thrush can occur due to an imbalance in the natural balance between yeast and bacteria in the vagina. For example, antibiotics used to treat any bacterial infection can also kill lactobacilli. These are beneficial bacteria found in the vagina that inhibit the growth of yeast.

Fungal infections may be exacerbated by conditions that compromise the immune system, including sexually transmitted diseases. Women with diabetes who do not control their blood sugar are also at greater risk. This is due to the fact that elevated sugar levels stimulate the growth of yeast.

Yeast infections can sometimes also occur on the scrotum and penis, although this is less common. They can cause inflammation and redness around the penis or scrotum.

Generally, yeast infections are not STDs. They are not contagious and cannot be transmitted during sexual intercourse. However, intercourse can sometimes lead to fungal infections. This is because the body can react negatively to someone else’s natural genital yeast or bacteria, causing the yeast to develop.

Yeast infection risk factors

The following factors may increase your chances of getting a yeast infection;

Use of antibiotics. Yeast infections are common in women who take antibiotics frequently. Broad-spectrum antibiotics that kill all bacteria often kill the good bacteria in the vagina, leading to yeast overgrowth.

High estrogen levels. In most cases, yeast infections are more common in women with higher estrogen levels. This includes pregnant women or women taking high doses of birth control or estrogen hormones.

Uncontrolled diabetes. Most women with poorly controlled blood sugar levels are more prone to yeast infections than women with well controlled blood sugar levels.

Immune system dysfunction: Women with weakened immune systems, including those due to corticosteroid injections and HIV infection, are most likely to develop yeast infections.

Types of yeast infections

Thrush (oropharyngeal candidiasis):

Thrush is an infection that occurs when Candida is spread in the throat and mouth. It is more common in the elderly, newborns, and people with weakened immune systems.

Oral candidiasis is a fungus that affects the oral mucosa and is one of the most common fungal infections. These ulcers are caused by the yeast Candida albicans. Candida albicans is a common component of the normal oral microbiota, with 30 to 50 percent of people carrying the fungus. With the age of the patient, the frequency of carriage increases. Candida albicans is found on the lips in 60% of patients over 60 with dentures.

In addition, adults are more likely to get thrush if they;

  • Under treatment for cancer
  • Taking medications such as corticosteroids or broad-spectrum antibiotics.
  • Have diabetes
  • Wearing dentures

Thrush may not cause any symptoms in the early stages. However, as the infection worsens, you may develop one or more of the following signs and symptoms;

  • White or yellow bumps around the tongue, cheeks, lips, tonsils or gums
  • If the bumps of the yeast infection are scraped off, you may have some bleeding.
  • Burning and sore mouth
  • Cotton sensation in the mouth
  • Cracked and dry skin around the corners of the mouth
  • Problems with swallowing
  • Having an unpleasant taste in the mouth
  • Loss of taste

In some cases, thrush can also affect the esophagus, although this is rare. A similar fungus associated with oral thrush can also cause a yeast infection in another part of the body.

Yeast infection is contagious to people who are at higher risk. This includes people with compromised body immune systems or who use certain medications. The infection is rarely transmitted through kissing or other intimate contact in healthy people. In most cases, thrush is not contagious, but it can still spread.

If you are afraid of contracting thrush from an infected person, refrain from contact with his saliva. When you are in close proximity to a person with thrush, it is recommended that you wash your hands as often as possible.

  • Difference between “oral yeast infection” and “strep” infection.

A bacterial infection of the throat causes soreness and inflammation of the throat. Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic oral infection that often co-occurs with staphylococcus or streptococcus bacteria.

  • Oral Yeast Infection and Simple Tongue Ulcer

Ulcers are painful sores that develop in the inside of the mouth. Ulcers are caused by stress, minor trauma to the inside of the mouth, sour fruits and vegetables, and hot, spicy foods.

Genital yeast infection or genital candidiasis:

Approximately 3 out of every four adult women will develop a yeast infection at any time in their lives. This happens if there is so much yeast growing in the vagina. Genital yeast infections can also occur in men, but are much less common.

Thrush usually occurs when the vaginal balance changes. Diabetes, pregnancy, use of certain medications, spermicides, lubricants, or a weakened immune system can contribute to this. Sometimes the infection can be passed from one person to another during sexual intercourse.

A vaginal or genital yeast infection can be associated with numerous signs and symptoms:

  • Itching sensation in the vaginal and vulvar area.
  • White and thick cheesy vaginal discharge.
  • Swelling of the vulva and vagina.
  • Small cracks and tiny cuts in the skin around the vulva due to looseness of the skin.
  • Burning sensation in thrush, especially when urinating
  • In some cases, pain during intercourse may be associated with a vaginal yeast infection.

Invasive candidiasis:

Candida yeast can spread to the heart, eyes, blood, bones and brain if it enters the bloodstream. This can happen through medical instruments or devices, resulting in a severe fatal infection.

This usually occurs in patients who have been hospitalized or live in a medical facility such as a nursing home. You are more likely to have invasive candidiasis, especially if you have a weakened immune system, diabetes, kidney disease, or are taking antibiotics.

Fever and chills are some of the signs and symptoms of invasive candidiasis. Although a person with this infection is likely to develop another disease, it can be difficult to diagnose.

Diaper rash due to yeast infection:

Diaper rash usually occurs when a wet or dirty diaper is left on the baby for an extended period of time. When a child’s skin becomes irritated, infection becomes more likely. If the diaper rash persists, examine the child and check for reddened perineal skin. Also check for raised red borders on sores. If this is the case, ask the pediatrician to examine the child for candidiasis.

In general, the best way to avoid candidiasis and diaper rash is to keep your baby’s bottom clean and dry at all times.

Yeast infection symptoms

Intense itching and irritation in the vagina and vulva, burning sensation when urinating, which can be mistaken for a urinary tract infection. Vaginal discomfort or pain, a dry, erythematous rash, and a thick, white, cheesy discharge are all symptoms of vulvovaginitis.

Candida can also cause thrush, which is characterized by a white or yellow rash on the tongue and mucous membranes of the mouth, and redness and cracking pain around the corners of the mouth. In this case, it spreads into the oropharynx, causing discomfort when swallowing. Infants, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems are all susceptible to candidiasis. Fever, chills, hypotension, and confusion are all symptoms of systemic candidemia.

Candidal infection of the larynx is rare. Women suffer the most. They often express dysphoria. It is closely related to gastric reflux or a history of inhaled corticosteroid use. The presence of leukoplastic lesions can lead to damage to the glottis.

Diagnosis of thrush

To effectively diagnose a yeast infection, a gynecologist or other healthcare professional may;

  • Ask about your general medical history . This usually includes getting the necessary information about previous yeast infections and any STIs.
  • Gynecological examination. During the diagnosis, the doctor will evaluate the external genitalia for signs of a yeast infection. After that, he or she may insert a device known as a speculum into the vagina to examine the cervix and vagina. The cervix is ​​the lower and narrower region of the uterus.
  • Examination of vaginal discharge. If necessary, the doctor may take a sample of vaginal secretions to analyze the types of fungus, which will further provoke an infection. Determining the types of fungus allows a doctor to prescribe appropriate forms of treatment for recurrent yeast infections.

Yeast Infection Treatment

Yeast infection treatment usually depends on the type and nature of the infection, whether it is complex or uncomplicated.

For a less complex yeast infection, treatment includes two approaches including oral therapy and topical vaginal treatment. A short course of vaginal therapy is usually appropriate for treating an uncomplicated yeast infection.

Alternative medicine for yeast infection or over-the-counter yeast infection medications include butoconazole (ginazol-1), clotrimazole (gynelothrimine), miconazole (monistat 3) and terconazole (terazol 3). In addition, clotrimazole, monistat 3 and terciflunomide can be purchased online.

The effectiveness of oral and topical therapy is the same, although oral preparations are more expensive. Fluconazole should not be given during the first trimester of pregnancy. Fluconazole is taken on days 1, 4, and 7 for recurrent vaginal candida infection, and then monthly for six months.

Oral thrush can similarly be treated with oral lozenges as a replacement dosage form. Oral or intravenous antifungals such as caspofungin, fluconazole, and amphotericin B are used to treat systemic candidiasis.

In the case of fungal stomatitis, the patient should stop using a denture for at least two weeks and apply topical antifungal drugs. Loss of vertical dimension of the jaw causes angular cheilitis. As a result, when the infection subsides, it is necessary to fabricate a new denture with suitable vertical dimensions. Probiotics may be used as an adjunct in the treatment of oral thrush.

Complex yeast infection:

Treatment of complex yeast infection will require long-term vaginal treatment or multi-dose oral formulas. Maintenance medications may be recommended. Such drugs are used daily to prevent the recurrence of the disease.

Long-term vaginal therapy consists of 7-14 days of complex treatment using tablets, vaginal cream, thrush suppositories or ointment. Instead of direct vaginal treatment, two or three oral doses of fluconazole can sometimes be given. When symptoms are severe, a doctor may recommend topical steroids for a few days to relieve symptoms until antifungal treatment is effective.

Check if fungal infections are causing symptoms before taking antifungals. This is because overuse of antifungal medications can increase the chance of yeast resistance. This means that drugs can no longer function in the body in the way that they will in the future.

When maintenance prescriptions are needed, they should begin after completion of one of the above forms of treatment. This may be weekly oral fluconazole therapy for six months or weekly vaginal therapy with clotrimazole.

If your partner is showing symptoms of a yeast infection, they should also be treated. In this case, it is often recommended to use a condom.

Yeast Infection Prevention

Although there is no sure way to avoid a Candida infection, there are certain things you can do to reduce your chances of getting a vaginal yeast infection. In most cases, women at risk are strongly advised to:

  • Refrain from douching
  • Avoid using feminine deodorants, tampons, or deodorant pads.
  • Wear underwear made from cotton or other natural fabrics.
  • Wear slightly loose and fitted trousers and skirts.
  • Wash underwear at high temperatures
  • Refrain from wearing tight underwear or tights
  • Eat a balanced, varied diet
  • Change wet clothing, such as bathing suits, as soon as possible.
  • Avoid hot tubs and hot tubs if possible.

Health care providers may recommend oral or intravaginal probiotics for women with more than three infections per year. Also, if you notice or suspect any symptoms and signs of a yeast infection, talk to your doctor right away about a proper diagnosis.

Differential diagnosis

Pustular psoriasis, subcorneal pustulosis, and acute generalized basal pustulosis can all cause a spongy rash. To exclude the fungal etiology of psoriasis, certain dyes should be applied.

Impetigo is also spongy. Gram stain can be used to detect bacterial colonies in impetigo, although GMS and PAS stains do not stain fungal forms.

Tinea cruris and corporis are known for their spongy shape. Without developing candida yeast, special staining reveals septate hyphae. Sometimes it can be difficult to tell the difference. Candida infiltrates the keratinized epithelium, while dermatophytosis more often affects the stratum corneum.

It is difficult for an otolaryngologist to make a correct diagnosis of laryngeal candidiasis, a high degree of alertness is required. Patients with predisposed characteristics who present with a suspected lesion should include the disease in the differential diagnosis.


Although the most common candidal infections are localized, vaginal and skin infections are also common. As a result, antifungal drugs can be used to treat them, resulting in complete recovery and excellent prognosis and outcomes. Candida infection, if left untreated, can spread to other organs and cause systemic disease.

The extent and location of the Candida infection, the general health of the victim, and the timing of diagnosis and treatment all play a role in the long-term prognosis of systemic candidiasis.

Nearly a third of patients with candidemia develop septic shock as a result of host characteristics, including age and source of infection, rather than virulence characteristics of the organisms.

Complications of yeast infections

Complications of a yeast infection may occur in the following cases:

  • If you have extreme signs and symptoms, including widespread redness, itching, and swelling that cause cracks, tears, and sores.
  • Four or more episodes of yeast infections within one year
  • Infection due to less common forms of fungus.
  • Pregnancy
  • Compromised body immune system due to certain medications or health conditions such as HIV infection.
  • Uncontrolled diabetes

Is thrush contagious?

Although yeast infections are not classified as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), they are still contagious. Thrush can be transmitted through oral and vaginal sex. Also, a yeast infection is spread through sex toys or kissing someone who has oral candidiasis.

A baby may develop a fungal diaper rash during childbirth if the mother had vaginal thrush during childbirth. Also, if you have a Candida overgrowth around your breast area, you can pass the disease to your baby by mouth while breastfeeding.

Although a yeast infection can be passed from one person to another, it is not contagious like other diseases. Therefore, you will not get an infection through the air or from sharing a shower with someone who has it.

Yeast infections in men

Yeast infections in men can develop and affect the penis. When this happens, the condition is called a penile yeast infection. Candida is in all organs, not only in women. Yeast infection can result from overgrowth of this fungus. Due to moisture and skin folds, the groin area is particularly vulnerable to Candida overgrowth.

Yeast infections in women

Yeast infections in women are common. According to studies, three out of four women may have more than two vaginal yeast infections in their lifetime. Despite their widespread occurrence, it is extremely important to treat vaginal yeast infections as soon as possible. You will not only be able to relieve unpleasant symptoms, but you will also be able to minimize the possibility of the spread of the disease in the body.

Yeast infections in children

Yeast infections are usually associated with vaginal infections, but they can also affect children. Diaper rash is the most common yeast infection in children. However, not all diaper rash is caused by yeast overgrowth.

Sometimes your baby’s skin becomes excessively red and blotchy around the diaper or groin area, even after diaper rash cream is applied. With this, you will be able to determine if the disorder is more than a typical diaper rash. In other cases, a yeast infection may also occur in other skin folds, including under the armpits.

Your child’s pediatrician will likely recommend a topical antifungal cream to help fight fungal skin infections. If a child has oral candidiasis or a yeast infection in the mouth, oral treatment may be needed. While a yeast infection rash in children is usually harmless, it can be more serious if left untreated.

Thrush and intercourse

Fungal infection is not sexually transmitted. However, infection is possible after sexual intercourse. On the other hand, other factors can upset the balance of Candida in the vagina. The bacteria can be transmitted through vaginal intercourse, fingers, and sex toys.

Another risk is vaginal intercourse with a partner who has a penile yeast infection. A man can also get a penile yeast infection from a partner with a vaginal yeast infection. In addition, bacteria in the mouth, vaginal area, and also in the penis area can be destroyed by oral sex.

It is also likely that a yeast infection after sex is not associated with other symptoms. Sexual intercourse is just one of the major risk factors for a yeast infection.

Fungal infection and urinary tract infection (UTI)

UTI is one of the most common infections affecting most women. While it is possible to get one or both diseases at the same time, yeast infections and UTIs are two different diseases.

A urinary tract infection is a bacterial infection that develops in the urinary system. The urethra, bladder and kidneys are part of this complex structure. UTIs can also occur due to a variety of factors, including sexual intercourse, STIs, and lack of regular urination.

The signs and symptoms of a UTI are different from those of a yeast infection. As long as there is no visible discharge from a yeast infection, you may notice a small trace of blood in your urine. In addition to regular urination, a UTI can cause pain in the pelvis as well as in the abdomen.

A UTI can cause serious kidney problems if left untreated. Antibiotics must be obtained from a physician. Also, ask your doctor about the differences between a yeast infection and a urinary tract infection.

How do you tell a “yeast infection” from a “chlamydia” infection?

Yeast infections cause thick, white, cottage cheese-like discharge, while chlamydia can cause white, green, or yellow discharge. Gonorrhea discharge is white or green.

Thrush and menstrual periods

Having a yeast infection and menstruating at the same time can seem like a disaster. This, however, is rare. Yeast infections are common in women in the last days before menstruation.

Hormonal fluctuations are believed to be the cause of thrush before menstruation. This creates an imbalance of good bacteria in the vagina.

If you have white or yellow discharge about a week before your cycle, it may not always be due to a yeast infection. What matters is whether you already have these telltale signs, including redness, itching, or burning.

Although it may be uncomfortable, early treatment can clear up the yeast infection before your next period. Check with your doctor if signs of a yeast infection persist after a cycle is completed. You may also notice them if you continue to get thrush every month before your period.

Yeast infection during pregnancy

Due to the hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy, yeast infections are normal. If you are pregnant and think you have a yeast infection, you should consult your doctor and get a proper diagnosis.

Thrush during pregnancy is not treated in the same way as in non-pregnant women. Because of the potential risk of birth defects in the fetus, you will not be able to use oral antifungals. Doctors often recommend using topical antifungals during pregnancy.

Although yeast infections will not harm the baby, Candida can be passed at birth. Therefore, as a result of this, the child may develop diaper rash or stomatitis. Therefore, it is very important to treat a yeast infection as soon as possible during pregnancy to avoid complications.

Intestinal yeast infection

In immunocompromised individuals, fungal infections are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Invasive fungal infections, especially of the gastrointestinal tract, have become more common as the number of immunocompromised people has grown.

Mushroom growth in the intestines is also possible. As a result, candida may appear in your stool. When patients develop symptoms of colon inflammation, especially if they are immunosuppressed, doctors should be aware of the possibility of this fungal disease.

Yeast Infection Diet

It is possible that the foods you eat are contributing to the development of a yeast infection. Sugar is the favorite of yeast. Avoiding the foods listed below (sometimes called the Candida diet) will help you control the development of yeast in your body:

  • White flour and rice
  • Foods or drinks fermented with yeast
  • Products consisting of simple sugars

While avoiding certain foods can help you avoid a yeast infection, sticking to this diet can be difficult. Fortunately, you may not need to completely avoid these foods to reduce the frequency or severity of yeast infections. It may be helpful to simply reduce the amount of these foods.

It may also be helpful to increase your intake of healthy proteins and fats, as well as low starch fruits and vegetables. You don’t have to starve on a low sugar diet; you just need to consume more from other food categories.

When to see a doctor?

You should contact your doctor immediately if;

  • You are experiencing signs and symptoms of a yeast infection for the first time
  • You are not sure if you have a yeast infection.
  • Symptoms do not improve after using over-the-counter antifungal vaginal creams and suppositories.
  • Other symptoms appear.


Fungal infection occurs in any part of the body due to overgrowth of yeast. This is the most common infection caused by the yeast Candida Albicans. Fungal infections can develop in the mouth, vagina, underarms, and other moist areas of the skin.

Yeast infections are generally normal, but early treatment can help relieve symptoms in a short period of time. You can also avoid potential conditions by identifying your risk factors. If you have recurrent yeast infections that last more than two months, see your doctor.

Weight gain, wound healing, treatment of the gastrointestinal tract: the benefits and dangers of yeast

— Yeast is said to be the first organisms domesticated by humans. For what purposes did he learn to use them?

— Yeast is a microscopic fungus that releases carbon dioxide, alcohol, acids and other flavoring substances during fermentation. It is because of this ability that they are necessary for a person.

They are primarily used in the preparation of products that require fermentation processes. These are fermented drinks – beer, kvass, cider, and yeast is also needed for making mash, making bakery and some confectionery products. Sometimes people do not use the yeast as a whole, but a symbiotic culture. For example, kombucha. It contains lactic acid, peracetic microorganisms, yeast, etc. Now kombucha has again become super popular and the product obtained from it is called “kombucha”.

In everyday life, many people use yeast as a fertilizer, as a top dressing for plant organisms. In microbiology, yeast extracts are used as a nutrient medium component, they contain many essential components – nitrogenous substances, amino acids. In addition, yeast is used in folk medicine and cosmetology: in masks for hair and skin, in dietary supplements.

— Why do we need nutritional supplements with yeast?

– They contain a lot of amino acids that are important for our body and contribute to the processes of recovery and healing.

For example, many people use brewer’s yeast for amino acid enrichment or weight gain. There are also a number of yeast-based probiotic preparations that are an excellent remedy for dysbacteriosis and gastrointestinal problems. In fact, these are just dried yeast in a capsule, which have a sorbent and probiotic effect in our intestines.

— How different are yeasts depending on the environment of use?

— Colossally different, they are all different, like people. To be more precise, first of all, by metabolism, by what kind of sugars they consume. It is easier to explain here with the help of examples.

Brewing yeast actively consumes maltose, releasing alcohols, flavoring acids and operating in the temperature range from 12 to 30 degrees. In contrast, baking strains do not consume maltose and release a large amount of carbon dioxide during fermentation, which gives the product volume. Cider strains consume fructose but not maltose. Each strain has its own metabolism and profile. Therefore, we distinguish a separate class of beer, cider, wine, bakery and other yeasts.

If we talk about medicine, then a huge amount of yeast is used there – for example, Candida type yeast. They are not used in the food industry, only in the synthesis of substances. They are more resistant to temperature and their metabolic products can be amino acids, vitamins, and so on.

– What is the hardest yeast to grow?

– They are all difficult to grow. Each yeast needs its own substrate, that is, the product on which they grow. It is not possible to select one universal environment. You always need to select something special depending on the metabolism of the yeast cell.

In my opinion, the most complex in the food industry are Ludwig’s Saccharomycetes. It is a non-alcoholic, wild yeast strain. They do not ferment beer wort maltose, but only sucrose. Because of this, they are very, very weak, do not emit alcohols, but give only flavor. They are very whimsical: if any other microorganism gets into their habitat, it immediately suppresses and destroys Ludwig’s yeast cells. They do not withstand stress, it is impossible to produce them in a dry state.

This is the most defenseless yeast, it is very difficult to work with them, only in super sterile, aseptic conditions.

– You mentioned that brewer’s yeast is not resistant to high alcohol concentrations. Isn’t it possible to develop such a strain of brewer’s yeast so that it becomes stable?

– Generally possible, but such a task is not worth it. We have alcohol-resistant strains that are easier to work with. Of course, there are genetically modified yeast that have been given the desired properties, but their use is prohibited in Russia. We can say that this is such gene programming so that they are more resistant to environmental conditions, or ferment at some breakneck speed. But genetic modification is not fully understood, so it is not known what the consequences of this process may be.

— How many types of alcohol yeast are there?

– A huge variety of strains, the number of which is increasing every day. And they all have different flavors, different properties, fermentation ranges. About a hundred strains have taken root in the food industry. These are those that have been worked out, which experts know.

— And what type is used to create whiskey?

– Here again, many strains, and all osmotolerant. This means that they can live in an environment with a high concentration of sugars and at high temperatures. They give a lot of alcohol.

If you want to make whiskey, first prepare the mash. The simplest substrate is sugar with water, and sugar should be 25-30%. If we put any yeast – brewer’s or bread yeast – into this medium, they will simply die. If we put alcoholic yeast there, they will begin to consume sugar, release alcohol, acids.



Whiskey yeast is good in that the resulting product will have a pleasant aroma before infusion, as it contains volatile esters released by the yeast. Yeast gives us the most important, longest taste of the product.

In the microbiological laboratory Beer Genomics (part of the TechnoSpark Group, a subsidiary of the Fund for Infrastructure and Educational Programs of the RUSNANO Group), which is my main place of work, strain SD 001 was recently bred. It is also suitable for the production of any type of whiskey, in Scotch and malt features.

— Why is he remarkable?

– First of all, it has a special flavor. Very few yeasts give the taste and aroma of the final product at the mash stage. Braga turns out to be crystal clear even before distillation, that is, it does not require additional manipulations.

– What else are you working on?

— This year we plan to launch five more alcohol strains for other types of strong alcohol products. We are working not only on flavor, but also on high fermentability, when we can get the highest alcohol yield. In addition, we have and are intensively improving our cider and beer collection.

— Is wine yeast a separate species?

– Yes, they are vastly different from beer, alcohol. These are more individual strains. They can ferment only fruit and berry must and give a huge amount of CO2.

We work to ensure that all people who make cider work with pure cultures and not with spontaneous microflora. As they do now: apples are crushed and microorganisms are populated with spontaneous microflora from the air. That is, the presence of pathogenic microorganisms is possible. Moreover, some wild yeasts can also produce pathogenic substances. The product becomes potentially dangerous to consume.

We would like to change that and make strains that can match the fermentation speed of wild yeast but are safe to consume. Maybe we will even make some kind of symbiotic culture, which will consist of different types of microorganisms.

— Do you need liquid yeast to make drinks?

Yes. It is clear that a huge plus of dry yeast is storage and transportation. They are stored for a very long time and the conditions for them are not so important if the packaging is airtight. But they have a lower fermentation rate than liquid ones – this is the first. Liquid yeast is already active, it does not need to “wake up” as dry, it quickly ferments and gives off a huge amount of flavoring substances.

The second is that dry yeast has a small assortment. And liquid ones have a huge range. If you want a banana taste, we have yeast that gives a banana plume. If you want walnut, eat walnut. If you want the taste of citrus, it will be citrus. This cannot happen with dry yeast.

The third is the risk of infection. Many do not know, but the dry yeast production process is not sterile. When a living cell is dried, bacteria, other wild yeasts, and molds adhere to it. All this remains in a dry form with yeast. We add them to the wort, give them nutrition, naturally, in addition to yeast, pathogenic microflora also develops.

– What is the most expensive yeast for making drinks?

– If we focus on liquid cultures that are currently being sold in the Russian Federation, then these are yeasts from selective rare collections that were bred somewhere abroad by the world scientific community. The rarer the strain, the more special the strain in terms of production, isolation, the more difficult it is to care for the strain, the more expensive it is. If a wine strain was isolated somewhere in a vineyard in Venice, and it is super rare from some closed collection, then it will be, well, just very expensive.

— Is Russia far behind the rest of the world in terms of yeast cultivation?

— I wouldn’t say. We learn, among other things, from the experience of our foreign partners, because many scientific data are published in the public domain. But this industry in our country is developed especially in liquid yeast; in the production of dry yeast, we are still very far behind.


– Primarily because we don’t actually have drying equipment available. This is very specific equipment. Yeast is a living microorganism and must be dried properly. The most important thing is for the yeast cell to fall into a state of suspended animation, just “fall asleep”, and not collapse, not die. Now, unfortunately, in Russia you can count on the fingers of your hands where there are such installations. And industrially produced mainly only baker’s dry yeast.

But that’s not a problem, in my opinion. We can continue to develop the liquid yeast business.