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Topical cream for staph infection: Anti-staphylococcal treatment in dermatitis – PMC

Anti-staphylococcal treatment in dermatitis – PMC

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Topical Antibacterials in Dermatology – PMC

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How to effectively treat Staphylococcus aureus: tips and tricks

Learn how to effectively treat Staphylococcus aureus. Learn about various treatments, including antibiotics and topical treatments, and measures to prevent its spread.

Staphylococcus aureus, or Staphylococcus aureus, is one of the most common and dangerous pathogens. It can cause various infections, including skin, respiratory, and even septic. Staphylococcus aureus is highly resistant to antibiotics, which makes its treatment complex and requires an integrated approach.

Correct diagnosis is one of the keys to effective treatment of Staphylococcus aureus. To do this, it is necessary to analyze the microbiological material obtained from the patient. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus and its sensitivity to antibiotics will help you choose the best drug for treatment.

One of the main treatments for Staphylococcus aureus is antibiotic therapy. However, due to the high resistance of the bacterium to many antibiotics, the combined administration of several drugs may be required. It is also important to follow the rules for taking antibiotics and not skip doses to avoid the development of drug resistance.

In addition to antibiotics, in the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus, therapy with immunomodulators can be used, which is aimed at strengthening the immune system and increasing its protective functions. It is also important to practice good personal hygiene, wash your hands regularly, and treat wounds and cuts to prevent infection with Staphylococcus aureus.

What is Staphylococcus aureus?

Staphylococcus aureus (Staphylococcus aureus) is a Gram-positive bacterium that can cause various infections in humans. It got its name because of its ability to form golden colonies on nutrient media.

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causative agents of bacterial infections such as pyoderma (purulent skin infection), pneumonia, sepsis and urinary tract infections.

One of the features of Staphylococcus aureus is its ability to develop resistance to antibiotics. This makes the treatment of infections caused by this bacterium difficult and requires the use of strong drugs.

For the diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus, it is necessary to conduct a bacteriological study, during which the presence and sensitivity of the bacterium to antibiotics is determined.

Staphylococcus aureus is usually treated with antibiotics, but in some cases, surgery may be required to remove the purulent infection.

Symptoms of Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that can cause various infections in humans. Before starting treatment, it is important to be able to recognize the symptoms of this disease.

One of the most characteristic symptoms of Staphylococcus aureus is the formation of blisters on the skin filled with a yellowish liquid. These blisters can be very itchy and uncomfortable.

Another symptom of Staphylococcus aureus is the appearance of red, inflamed areas on the skin. These areas can be painful and are often accompanied by swelling.

If the infection spreads deeper, other symptoms may appear, such as fever, chills, headache, and muscle weakness.

In case of involvement of other organs, the symptoms may vary depending on the particular organ. For example, a lung infection can cause symptoms that are characteristic of pneumonia, such as coughing, difficulty breathing, and chest pain.

If you notice these symptoms, it is important to see a doctor for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

How to diagnose Staphylococcus aureus?

Diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus is an important step in determining the cause of the disease and prescribing effective treatment. Various methods are used for diagnosis, including clinical examination, laboratory and microbiological studies.

The doctor makes a visual examination of the affected area of ​​the skin or mucous membranes, looking for characteristic symptoms such as redness, swelling, blistering or sores. However, clinical symptoms may be intermittent and not always pronounced, so laboratory testing is necessary.

For laboratory diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus, culture methods are used. The doctor takes a swab or biopsy of the affected tissue and places it on a nutrient medium that promotes the growth of bacteria. Then, experts carry out the identification and antibiotic sensitivity of the isolated strain of Staphylococcus aureus.

Microbiological examination allows to determine the presence and concentration of bacteria, as well as to determine their sensitivity to antibiotics. This allows you to choose the most effective treatment and prevent the development of antibiotic resistance.

Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus: basic principles

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common infectious agents in humans. If it is found in the body, treatment should be started immediately. The main principles of the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus are:

  1. Antibiotic therapy: Antibiotics must be used to kill bacteria. The choice of drug depends on the sensitivity of the pathogen to antibiotics. It is important to follow your doctor’s advice and take antibiotics as prescribed.
  2. Hygiene: Regular handwashing with soap and water is one of the main measures to prevent the spread of Staphylococcus aureus. It is also necessary to regularly change and wash linen, towels and bed linen.
  3. Isolation: If Staphylococcus aureus is found in the body, it is necessary to isolate the patient from others to prevent transmission of the infection. It is important to observe the rules of personal hygiene and use individual hygiene items.
  4. Immunity booster: Strong immunity helps fight infection more effectively. To strengthen the immune system, proper nutrition, regular exercise, giving up bad habits and taking vitamin complexes are recommended.

Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus requires an integrated approach and supervision of a physician. It is important to follow all recommendations and not stop treatment ahead of schedule, even if the condition improves. This is the only way to completely get rid of the infection and prevent its recurrence.

Antibiotics for Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that can cause various infections in humans, including skin infections, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis. Treatment for Staphylococcus aureus usually involves the use of antibiotics, which can kill the bacterium or stop it from growing.

The choice of antibiotic for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus depends on the type of infection, its severity, and the sensitivity of the bacteria to specific drugs. The standard antibiotic for treating Staphylococcus aureus is methicillin, but many strains of Staphylococcus aureus have become resistant to this drug. In such cases, other antibiotics such as vancomycin or linezolid may be prescribed.

Vancomycin is an antibiotic that is effective against most strains of Staphylococcus aureus. It is usually used when methicillin is not effective or cannot be used for other reasons. Vancomycin can be taken intravenously or by injection.

Linezolid is another antibiotic that can be used to treat Staphylococcus aureus. It is usually used for mild or moderate infections. Linezolid is available as tablets or intravenous forms.

It is important to remember that antibiotics should only be prescribed by a doctor and taken in accordance with his recommendations. The independent use of antibiotics without consulting a doctor can lead to the development of bacterial resistance and complicate the treatment of the infection.

Prevention of Staphylococcus aureus

Prevention of Staphylococcus aureus plays an important role in preventing its spread. To do this, you must follow a number of measures and recommendations that will help minimize the risk of infection.

The first thing to remember is personal hygiene. Washing your hands regularly with soap and water is one of the main ways to prevent Staphylococcus aureus infection. Particular attention should be paid to washing hands after visiting public places, before eating, after contact with animals and other situations where infection is possible.

It is also important to take care of the condition of the skin. Integrity of the skin is the first line of defense against Staphylococcus aureus. It is necessary to avoid injuries and damage to the skin, and in case of cuts or abrasions, treat them with an antiseptic.

In addition, it is recommended to avoid close contact with people suffering from Staphylococcus aureus. This is especially important for people with weakened immune systems, as they are more susceptible to infections.

Proper use of antibiotics is important in prevention. They should not be used without a doctor’s prescription and the need. Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

Community prevention measures, such as regular surface disinfection, use of personal hygiene items, and good sanitation practices, also help prevent the spread of Staphylococcus aureus.

In general, good personal hygiene, taking care of your own health and the health of others, and promptly contacting a doctor in case of suspected infection with Staphylococcus aureus will help prevent its spread and maintain health.

How can I prevent the spread of Staphylococcus aureus?

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens, so it is important to take steps to prevent its spread. Here are some tips:

  1. Practice good hand hygiene. Wash your hands regularly with warm water and soap for 20 seconds. If it is not possible to wash your hands, use an antiseptic hand gel.
  2. Avoid contact with contaminated surfaces. Staphylococcus aureus can survive on a variety of surfaces, so try to avoid contact with shared items such as towels, bedding, or personal hygiene items.
  3. Do not share personal items. Avoid sharing personal hygiene items such as toothbrushes, razors, or manicure utensils.
  4. Clean and disinfect surfaces. Clean and disinfect surfaces regularly, especially in public areas such as the kitchen or bathroom.
  5. Avoid close contact with infected people. If someone in your community has Staphylococcus aureus, try to avoid close contact with that person, especially if you have open sores or cuts to your skin.

By following these guidelines, you can reduce your risk of contracting Staphylococcus aureus and prevent its spread.

Tips and Tricks for Treating Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that can cause a variety of infections, including skin, respiratory, and digestive infections. Treatment of this infection requires an integrated approach and adherence to certain recommendations.

It is important to start treating Staphylococcus aureus as soon as symptoms appear. It is recommended to consult a doctor who will diagnose and prescribe the appropriate treatment. Antibiotics are most often used to help kill the bacteria and prevent the spread of the infection.

In addition to taking antibiotics, it is important to practice good hygiene and take steps to prevent the spread of Staphylococcus aureus. Washing your hands regularly and thoroughly with soap and water is recommended, especially after contact with possible sources of infection such as broken skin or contaminated objects.

Medicated ointments or creams containing antibiotics or antiseptics can be used to relieve symptoms and speed up recovery. It is also recommended to avoid hypothermia and injury to the affected areas of the skin so as not to aggravate the infection.

It is important to remember that the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus may take some time, and you must follow the doctor’s recommendations and take all prescribed drugs until the end of the course. In the event of complications or lack of improvement in the condition, it is necessary to consult a doctor again to correct the treatment.

In general, hygiene, use of antibiotics, and proper skin care will help to effectively treat Staphylococcus aureus and prevent its spread.

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How can you get Staphylococcus aureus?

Staphylococcus aureus is spread from person to person, usually through contact with infected surfaces or objects. Transmission through skin contact with an infected person is also possible.

What symptoms can be caused by Staphylococcus aureus?

Staphylococcus aureus can cause a variety of symptoms, including redness and swelling of the skin, blistering or sores, itching, pain, and purulent discharge. In some cases, fever and general malaise may occur.

How is Staphylococcus aureus diagnosed?

Diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus is usually made by taking a sample from the affected skin or other infected areas. The sample is then analyzed in a laboratory for the presence of bacteria. Additional tests may also be done to determine the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics.

How to effectively treat Staphylococcus aureus?

Treatment for Staphylococcus aureus usually involves the use of antibiotics, which are effective against the bacteria. It is important to complete the full course of treatment and take medications as recommended by your doctor. Topical preparations may also be prescribed to treat the affected areas of the skin and reduce symptoms.

What should I do if Staphylococcus aureus does not go away after treatment?

If Staphylococcus aureus does not go away after treatment, it is necessary to consult a doctor for additional research and correction of treatment tactics. You may need to change antibiotics or use other treatments.

How can infection with Staphylococcus aureus be prevented?

To prevent infection with Staphylococcus aureus, it is recommended to maintain good hygiene, wash hands regularly with soap and water, avoid contact with infected surfaces and objects, do not share personal items with other people, cover wounds and cuts with bandages or plasters.


Alexey Petrov

The article is very useful and informative! I’m very glad I stumbled upon it, as I recently had problems with Staphylococcus aureus. The author talks in detail about the causes of this infection and how to treat it effectively. I especially liked that the article contains not only medical methods of treatment, but also recommendations for strengthening the immune system and preventing the disease. Now I know exactly what to do if I get symptoms of Staphylococcus aureus. Many thanks to the author for such useful information!

Ivan Sidorov

The article is very useful and informative! As a woman, I always pay special attention to my health and the health of my family. Staphylococcus aureus is a serious disease that requires immediate treatment. I found in the article a lot of useful tips and recommendations that will help me fight this infection. I especially liked that the author described in detail the main symptoms of the disease and suggested various methods of treatment. Now I know how to properly care for the skin to prevent the spread of infection, and what drugs to use for effective treatment. Thanks to the author for the valuable information! Now I feel more confident and ready to take all the necessary measures to combat Staphylococcus aureus.

Sergey Smirnov

The article is very useful and informative. I suffered from Staphylococcus aureus for a long time and did not know how to deal with this problem. Thanks to this article, I learned a lot of useful tips and recommendations for the effective treatment of this disease. I especially liked the fact that the author described in detail the causes of Staphylococcus aureus and gave recommendations for prevention. Now I know how to properly care for my skin to prevent re-infection. It is also worth noting that the author shared his experience of treating Staphylococcus aureus and talked about various methods and drugs that help get rid of this bacterium. Overall, the article is very helpful and I would recommend it to anyone who suffers from Staphylococcus aureus.

Ekaterina Smirnova

The article is very useful and informative! I have been struggling with Staphylococcus aureus for quite a long time, and all the advice offered seems to me very valuable. I especially liked that the author described in detail the causes of this bacterium and its symptoms. Now I know exactly what signs to look out for in order to start treatment on time. Also in the article are very useful tips for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus. I have tried different methods in the past, but not all have been effective. Now I have new ideas that I will definitely try. I was especially interested in the use of antibiotics and topical preparations, as well as the regular washing and disinfection of personal hygiene items. Thanks to the author for such useful information! I am sure that it will help many people suffering from Staphylococcus aureus. Now I know how to properly treat this infection and what to do to prevent it from reappearing. I will recommend this article to my friends and acquaintances who are also struggling with this problem.

Anastasia Ivanova

The article is very useful and informative. I suffered from Staphylococcus aureus for a long time and was constantly looking for effective ways to treat it. I’m very glad I stumbled upon this article. In it, I found many useful tips and recommendations that helped me deal with this problem. I especially liked the fact that the author described in detail the causes of Staphylococcus aureus and talked about various methods of treatment. Thank you very much for the information about the use of antibiotics and local treatment. Now I know how to use these remedies correctly and how long to continue treatment. It is also worth noting useful tips for preventing relapses and strengthening immunity. The article really helped me understand the causes and effective treatments for Staphylococcus aureus. Many thanks to the author for such useful information!

causes, types, treatment, preparations and ointments

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  3. Impetigo: treatment and preparations

What is impetigo and how does it look like?

Impetigo is a common skin infection transmitted by direct contact with rashes. The disease is most common in children, but it can also appear at a later age.

Peak incidence occurs in summer and autumn, warm and humid climate favors the spread 2 . The disease is contagious and is transmitted during direct contact with the skin of a sick person.

Often, outbreaks occur within families or in places of close contact, such as kindergartens or the military.

People with diabetes or a weakened immune system (eg after chemotherapy) are also prone to impetigo.

Impetigo causative agents

Impetigo is usually caused by one of two types of bacteria or a combination of them:

  • Staphylococcal impetigo
  • Streptococcal impetigo
  • Streptostaphylococcal impetigo

Currently, the most frequently detected pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) 1 , some species of which, for example, methicillin-resistant aureus staphylococcus aureus are resistant to many antibiotics.

Types of impetigo

Primary impetigo

In primary impetigo, the infection affects the healthy layers of the skin.

Secondary impetigo

Secondary impetigo occurs when an infection attaches to an existing disease.

For example , areas affected by eczema or psoriasis, as well as damaged skin, may develop secondary impetigo. Children infected with scabies are 12 times more likely to develop impetigo than children with healthy skin.

Also classified as non-bullous, bullous
(blistering) or ecthyma (ulcerative impetigo) 4.11 .

Non-bullous impetigo

Non-bullous impetigo is the most common form of the disease caused by Staphylococcus aureus and/or group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus, accounting for 70-80% of cases 2, 3 .

Rash usually appears 4-10 days after infection. At first, small fluid blisters form on the skin, which often go unnoticed as they quickly burst, leaving scab-like patches on the skin. Sometimes only one blister may appear, which is a moist golden crust on the skin, under which inflammation develops.

It happens that the affected areas simply look reddened and inflamed, as the crusts are removed or combed.

Impetigo most often affects the face, but can also occur on other areas of the skin. The size of the lesions varies, but they are usually quite small – about a centimeter at the onset of the disease. In the future, impetigo may grow, with smaller spots forming around the first spot.

Bullous impetigo

Bullous impetigo is almost always caused by Staphylococcus aureus 2 .

This type of impetigo is characterized by the presence of large bullae. The skin at the top of such a blister is very thin and easily damaged, it bursts, leaving large red irritated spots.

Impetigo may occur on the face, arms, legs or buttocks. It is most likely to appear on skin already affected by other diseases (for example, in areas with eczema).


This is a less common type of impetigo that causes sores on the skin.

Diagnosis of impetigo

The diagnosis is made by a dermatologist on the basis of anamnesis, visual examination and various research methods 2.9 :

  • Visual examination allows you to see the microstructure of the skin in detail.
  • Microscopic examination. Used to determine the type of pathogen and form of impetigo.
  • Clinical blood test. Allows you to identify the presence of common diseases associated with the occurrence of impetigo.
  • Microscopy of smears of discharge from the affected areas is necessary to identify the pathogen and confirm the diagnosis.
  • Bacterial inoculation consists in the fact that the discharge from the affected areas is “sown” on special nutrient media, on which microorganisms actively grow and multiply. Sowing allows not only to identify the pathogen, but also to analyze the reaction of bacteria to various antimicrobial drugs. Most often, this research method is used for suspected methicillin-resistant (methicillin-resistant) staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or when investigating an outbreak of impetigo in any group.

How is impetigo treated?

The goal of treatment is to eliminate the pain caused by lesions, unaesthetic manifestations of the disease (especially on the face), and to prevent the spread of infection or the development of complications.

As a rule, impetigo is treated with local remedies – ointments, creams, solutions. However, in some cases antibiotic treatment is indicated. This includes the following situations:

  • The rash affects large areas of the body.
  • Infection continues to spread despite topical treatment.
  • The infection returns after the end of treatment.
  • Reduced immunity.
  • General malaise due to high fever and sore throat.

    In such cases, oral (by mouth) antibiotics are indicated for 7 days. The selection of an antimicrobial drug is carried out by a doctor, based on many factors in a particular patient (pathogen sensitivity, allergic reactions, etc.).

    The use of antibacterial drugs does not exclude local antiseptic treatment, for example, with a solution of povidone-iodine.

Povidone iodine

Characteristics and properties of povidone iodine. What is povidone-iodine used for? Instructions for use of the solution, ointment, suppositories Betadine ® with povidone-iodine.

Read more

Topical treatment of impetigo

Uncomplicated impetigo responds well to topical treatment.

Treatment options for impetigo include the following ointments and creams:

  • Keratolytic ointments based on sulfur, salicylic acid. Used to soften and partially dissolve the stratum corneum of the skin.
  • Topical disinfectants – povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine, hexachlorophene.
    Used to disinfect damaged skin areas.
  • Antibacterial ointments/creams – eg neomycin, bacitracin, polymyxin B, gentamicin, fusidic acid, mupirocin, retapamulin.
  • Combination corticosteroid ointments/creams (combination of steroids and antibiotics) – betamethasone + gentamicin, hydrocortisone + neomycin + netamycin, betamethasone + fusidic acid. Used to reduce inflammation and eliminate severe itching.

At the time of treatment, it is recommended to refrain from visiting public places and contact with other people for at least 24-48 hours. In addition, it is forbidden to wash the affected areas. The skin around the foci must be wiped with antiseptic preparations. The nails are cut short, the subungual folds are smeared with an iodine solution, for example, povidone-iodine (Betadine ® ) 4.5 .

The use of topical antimicrobials in the treatment of impetigo can greatly facilitate the healing process of lesions. Antiseptics have a wide spectrum of activity against bacteria, fungi and viruses, so they are well suited for the treatment of various skin lesions and related complications.

Treatment of impetigo with iodine preparations (Betadine®)

Preparations based on povidone-iodine ( Betadine ® ) have a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity, are active against gram-positive bacteria (staphylococci and streptococci), gram-negative bacteria, fungi and viruses 7.8 .

In addition, povidone-iodine ( Betadine ® ) is active in vitro against biofilms formed by P. organisms. A protective “dome” is created in the biofilm, which reduces the effectiveness of both drugs and human antimicrobial immune cells. Therefore, wounds heal slowly, and the infection does not go away.

To date, there is no evidence that pathogens can be resistant to povidone-iodine, which makes it a key advantage in an era when resistance to antiseptics and antibiotics is steadily increasing 6 .

Preparations Betadine ® , in contrast to alcohol solutions of iodine and brilliant green, do not cause burning and persistent staining of the skin, which is especially important when treating affected areas in children and adults.


Where can I buy Betadine® solution?





Find your nearest pharmacy


Prevention of impetigo

Since impetigo is a contagious disease, the following guidelines should be followed 2 :

  • Try to avoid contact with the rash.
  • Wash hands immediately after contact with rashes and after handling skin and applying ointment.
  • Use individual towels and other hygiene products until the infection is completely eradicated.
  • Children who become ill should not attend school, and adults should remain on sick leave until the skin is completely clear or at least for at least 48 hours after starting antibiotic therapy.
  • If ​​impetigo recurs, screening for causative bacteria should be done.

Frequently Asked Questions

What if the treatment does not work?

Be sure to tell your doctor if the prescribed treatment does not help. One of the possible reasons may be the resistance of bacteria to prescribed drugs, in which case a change of antibiotic is necessary. In some cases, it is recommended to take a scraping to identify the causative agent of the infection and choose the optimal treatment regimen.

Which diseases have similar symptoms to impetigo?

Impetigo is often confused with another skin disease, panniculitis, which is a lesion of the deeper layers of the skin. Compared to impetigo, panniculitis has a much larger area of ​​skin involvement, swelling and redness, and no blisters or crusts. Panniculitis requires immediate treatment, especially when it comes to the skin of the face and the area around the eyes.

An impetigo rash near the lips is also often mistaken for a “cold” on the lips, which is a manifestation of a viral infection and can recur in the same place.

Why does impetigo reappear?

Children often have one or two episodes of impetigo. However, some people may suffer from constant relapses. One of the reasons is the presence in the body of the corresponding bacteria, for example, in the nasopharynx. In general, they do not harm health, but can spread over the face and provoke impetigo. If the doctor suspects the presence of bacteria in the body, he may take a swab from the nasopharynx for examination and subsequently prescribe a course of antibiotics.

Which doctor treats impetigo?

Since impetigo is a skin disease, the treating doctor is undoubtedly a dermatologist. Also, in the presence of concomitant diseases and for the correction of treatment, you will need to consult a pediatrician or therapist, depending on the age of the patient.

Tamrazova Olga Borisovna

MD, Professor of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor of the Department of Dermatovenereology with a Course of Cosmetology of the FNMO of the Medical Institute of the FGAEI VO RUDN University of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation, Moscow.

Read on topic

Ointment based on iodine

Ointment based on iodine: mechanism of action, scope. Ointment Betadine® based on povidone-iodine for the treatment of various skin diseases.


Polyvinylpyrrolidone (povidone)

Polyvinylpyrrolidone (povidone): application, use in the povidone-iodine complex.

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Pemphigus – the appearance of flaccid blisters and erosions on the skin and mucous membranes. Why does this disease occur and how is it treated?

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  1. Pereira LB. Impetigo review. An Bras Dermatol. 2014;89(2):293-299. doi:10.1590/abd1806-4841.20142283.
  2. Nardi NM, Schaefer TJ, Espil MO. Impetigo (Nursing). In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; August 11, 2021.
  3. Abrha S, Tesfaye W, Thomas J. Intolerable Burden of Impetigo in Endemic Settings: A Review of the Current State of Play and Future Directions for Alternative Treatments.