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Total glands in human body: You and Your Hormones from the Society for Endocrinology


About the Endocrine System – Endocrine Glands and Hormones

The Endocrine System Essentials

  • The endocrine system is made up of a network of glands.
  • These glands secrete hormones to regulate many bodily functions, including growth and metabolism.
  • Endocrine diseases are common and usually occur when glands produce an incorrect amount of hormones.

Simply put, the endocrine system is a network of glands that secrete chemicals called hormones to help your body function properly. Hormones are chemical signals that coordinate a range of bodily functions.


The endocrine system works to regulate certain internal processes. (Note: endocrine shouldn’t be confused with exocrine. Exocrine glands, such as sweat and salivary glands, secrete externally and internally via ducts. Endocrine glands secrete hormones internally, using the bloodstream.)


The endocrine system helps control the following processes and systems:

  • Growth and development
  • Homeostasis (the internal balance of body systems)
  • Metabolism (body energy levels)
  • Reproduction
  • Response to stimuli (stress and/or injury)


The Endocrine Network

The endocrine system completes these tasks through its network of glands, which are small but highly important organs that produce, store, and secrete hormones.


The glands of the endocrine system are:


These glands produce different types of hormones that evoke a specific response in other cells, tissues, and/or organs located throughout the body. The hormones reach these faraway targets using the blood stream. Like the nervous system, the endocrine system is one of your body’s main communicators. But instead of using nerves to transmit information, the endocrine system uses blood vessels to deliver hormones to cells.


Endocrine Diseases

To ensure that everything runs smoothly (that is, your body functions as it should), certain processes must work properly:

  • The endocrine glands must release the correct amount of hormones (if they release too much or too little, it is known as hormone imbalance).
  • Your body also needs a strong blood supply to transport the hormones throughout the body.
  • There must be enough receptors (which are where the hormones attach and do their work) at the target tissue.
  • Those targets must be able to respond appropriately to the hormonal signal. The model here would be like primary hypothyroidism, where the pituitary produces TSH, the TSH is carried via the bloodstream to the thyroid, the thyroid has the appropriate receptors, but for whatever reason it isn’t able to effectively make or secrete thyroid hormone.


Endocrine diseases are common and happen even when one step in the process doesn’t work as it should. If you have an endocrine disease or disorder, you may consult a specialist known as an endocrinologist who will effectively diagnose and help treat your condition.


Updated on: 05/18/21

An Overview of the Hypothalamus

Endocrine System | Biology for Majors II

Learning Outcomes

  • Identify the structure and function of the endocrine system

The endocrine system is a control system of ductless glands that secrete hormones within specific organs. Hormones act as “messengers,” and are carried by the bloodstream to different cells in the body, which interpret these messages and act on them.

It seems like a far fetched idea that a small chemical can enter the bloodstream and cause an action at a distant location in the body. Yet this occurs in our bodies everyday of our lives. The ability to maintain homeostasis and respond to stimuli is largely due to hormones secreted within the body. Without hormones, you could not grow, maintain a constant temperature, produce offspring, or perform the basic actions and functions that are essential for life.

The endocrine system provides an electrochemical connection from the hypothalamus of the brain to all the organs that control the body metabolism, growth and development, and reproduction.

There are two types of hormones secreted in the endocrine system: Steroidal (or lipid based) and non-steroidal, (or protein based) hormones.

The endocrine system regulates its hormones through negative feedback, except in very specific cases like childbirth. Increases in hormone activity decrease the production of that hormone. The immune system and other factors contribute as control factors also, altogether maintaining constant levels of hormones.

Types of Glands

Exocrine Glands are those which release their cellular secretions through a duct which empties to the outside or into the lumen (empty internal space) of an organ. These include certain sweat glands, salivary and pancreatic glands, and mammary glands. They are not considered a part of the endocrine system.

Figure 1. Major endocrine glands. (Male left, female on the right.) 1. Pineal gland 2. Pituitary gland 3. Thyroid gland 4. Thymus 5. Adrenal gland 6. Pancreas 7. Ovary 8. Testis

Endocrine Glands are those glands which have no duct and release their secretions directly into the intercellular fluid or into the blood. The collection of endocrine glands makes up the endocrine system.

  1. The main endocrine glands are the pituitary (anterior and posterior lobes), thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal (cortex and medulla), pancreas and gonads.
  2. The pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus of the lower forebrain.
  3. The thyroid gland consists of two lateral masses, connected by a cross bridge, that are attached to the trachea. They are slightly inferior to the larynx.
  4. The parathyroid glands are four masses of tissue, two embedded posterior in each lateral mass of the thyroid gland.
  5. One adrenal gland is located on top of each kidney. The cortex is the outer layer of the adrenal gland. The medulla is the inner core.
  6. The pancreas is along the lower curvature of the stomach, close to where it meets the first region of the small intestine, the duodenum.
  7. The gonads (ovaries and testes) are found in the pelvic cavity.

Hormones and Types

A hormone is a type of chemical signal. They are a means of communication between cells.

The endocrine system produces hormones that are instrumental in maintaining homeostasis and regulating reproduction and development. A hormone is a chemical messenger produced by a cell that effects specific change in the cellular activity of other cells (target cells). Unlike exocrine glands (which produce substances such as saliva, milk, stomach acid and digestive enzymes), endocrine glands do not secrete substances into ducts (tubes). Instead, endocrine glands secrete their hormones directly into the surrounding extra cellular space. The hormones then diffuse into nearby capillaries and are transported throughout the body in the blood.

The endocrine and nervous systems often work toward the same goal. Both influence other cells with chemicals (hormones and neurotransmitters). However, they attain their goals differently. Neurotransmitters act immediately (within milliseconds) on adjacent muscle, gland, or other nervous cells, and their effect is short-lived. In contrast, hormones take longer to produce their intended effect (seconds to days), may affect any cell, nearby or distant, and produce effects that last as long as they remain in the blood, which could be up to several hours.

Table 1 shows the major hormones, their target and their function once in the target cell.

Table 1. Major Horomes
Endocrine Gland Hormone Released Chemical Class Target Tissue/Organ Major Function of Hormone
Hypothalamus Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones Peptide Anterior pituitary Regulate anterior pituitary hormone
Posterior Pituitary Antidiuretic (ADH) Peptide Kidneys Stimulates water reabsorption by kidneys
Oxytocin Peptide Uterus, mammary glands Stimulates uterine muscle contractions and release of milk by mammary glands
Anterior Pituitary Thyroid stimulating (TSH) Glycoprotein Thyroid Stimulates thyroid
Adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) Peptide Adrenal cortex Stimulates adrenal cortex
Gonadotropic (FSH, LH) Glycoprotein Gonads Egg and sperm production, sex hormone production
Prolactin (PRL) Protein Mammary glands Milk production
Growth (GH) Protein Soft tissue, bones Cell division, protein synthesis and bone growth
Thyroid Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronie (T3) Iodinated amino acid All tissue Increase metabolic rate, regulates growth and development
Calcitonin Peptide Bones, kidneys and intestine Lowers blood calcium level
Parathyroids Parathyroid (PTH) Peptide Bones, kidneys and intestine Raises blood calcium level
Adrenal Cortex Glucocorticoids (cortisol) Steroid All tissue Raise blood glucose level, stimulates breakdown of protein
Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) Steroid Kidneys Reabsorb sodium and excrete potassium
Sex Hormones Steroid Gonads, skin, muscles and bones Stimulates reproductive organs and brings on sex characteristics
Adrenal Medulla Epinephrine and norepinephrine Modified amino acid Cardiac and other muscles Released in emergency situations, raises blood glucose level, “fight or flight” response
Pancreas Insulin Protein Liver, muscles, adipose tissue Lowers blood glucose levels, promotes formation of glycogen
Glucagon Protein Liver, muscles, adipose tissue Raises blood glucose levels
Testes Androgens (testosterone) Steroid Gonads, skin, muscles and bone Stimulates male sex characteristics
Ovaries Estrogen and progesterone Steroid Gonads, skin, muscles and bones Stimulates female sex characteristics
Thymus Thymosins Peptide T lymphocytes Stimulates production and maturation of T lymphocytes
Pineal Gland Melatonin Modified amino acid Brain Controls circadian and circannual rhythms, possibly involved in maturation of sexual organs


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Hormones: the body’s chemical messengers

The human body secretes and circulates some 50 different hormones. A wide variety of these chemical substances are produced by endocrine cells, most of which are in glands. The hormones then enter the blood system to circulate throughout the body and activate target cells. The endocrine system, tightly linked to the nervous system, controls a large number of the body’s functions: metabolism, homeostasis, growth, sexual activity, and contraction of the smooth and cardiac muscles.

The endocrine glands

The endocrine system is composed of nine specialized glands (the pituitary, the thyroid, the four parathyroids, the two adrenals and the thymus) and a number of organs capable of producing hormones (including the pancreas, heart, kidneys, ovaries, testicles and intestines). The hypothalamus, which is not a gland but a nerve center, also plays a major role in the synthesis of hormonal factors.

The endocrine system

The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland: the control centers of the endocrine system

Located under the thalamus, the hypothalamus is composed of several nuclei that control the autonomic nervous system and regulate hunger, thirst, body temperature and sleep. The hypothalamus also influences sexual behavior and controls the emotions of anger and fear. Closely linked to the pituitary gland, it acts as a coordinator between the nervous and endocrine systems.
Generally considered the master endocrine gland, the pituitary secretes 10 different hormones. Some of these substances then act on the other endocrine glands.
Unlike substances produced by the exocrine glands, which flow through ducts, the hormones are released directly into the space that surrounds them by secreting cells. The very high vascularization of endocrine glands enables hormones to spread throughout the blood system via the capillaries. Some of them circulate freely in the blood, while others must attach to carrier proteins to reach the target cells.

How hormones work

When a hormone diffuses outside of a capillary, it can act on a target cell – a cell with receptors that correspond to it. There are two types of hormonal activity. A steroid hormone is capable of crossing through the cell membrane of the target cell. It unites with a receptor protein located inside the nucleus, which stimulates or blocks the cell’s genetic activity. A protein hormone, on the other hand, cannot penetrate the target cell. It attaches to the cell’s membrane and activates a receptor that releases, in turn, a messenger within the cell.



What is the pituitary gland? | The Pituitary Foundation

You are here:


..and what does it do?

Your pituitary gland is about the size of a pea and is situated in a bony hollow, just behind the bridge of your nose. It is attached to the base of your brain by a thin stalk. The pituitary gland is often called the master gland because it controls several other hormone glands in your body, including the thyroid and adrenals, the ovaries and testicles.

What does the pituitary gland do?

It secretes hormones from both the front part (anterior) and the back part (posterior) of the gland. Hormones are chemicals that carry messages from one cell to another through your bloodstream.

If your pituitary gland is not producing sufficient amounts of one or more hormones this is called hypopituitarism.

If, on the other hand, you are over-producing certain hormones, then you would have features due to the over production of the specific hormone concerned.

For more information about the pituitary gland and more, as well as educational resources, visit the Society for Endocrinology’s ‘You and Your Hormones’ website

The hypothalamus

The hypothalamus, which controls the pituitary by sending messages, is situated immediately above the pituitary gland.

This serves as a communications centre for the pituitary gland, by sending messages or signals to the pituitary in the form of hormones which travel via the bloodstream and nerves down the pituitary stalk. These signals, in turn, control the production and release of further hormones from the pituitary gland which signal other glands and organs in the body.

The hypothalamus influences the functions of temperature regulation, food intake, thirst and water intake, sleep and wake patterns, emotional behaviour and memory.

What can go wrong with my pituitary gland?

The most common problem with the pituitary gland occurs when a benign tumour (used to describe a ‘growth’), also called an adenoma, develops.

Pituitary tumours are not ‘brain tumours’. The term benign is used by doctors to describe a swelling which is not cancerous. Some pituitary tumours can exist for years without causing symptoms and some will never produce symptoms.

Most pituitary tumours occur in people with no family history of pituitary problems and the condition is not usually passed on from generation to generation. Only very occasionally are tumours inherited – for example, in a condition known as multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN1).

By far the most common type of tumour (about half of all cases) is the ‘non-functioning’ tumour.

This is a tumour which doesn’t produce any hormones itself. It can cause headaches and visual problems or it can press on the pituitary gland, causing it to stop producing the required amount of one or more of the pituitary hormones. This effect can also occur following treatment you are given for a tumour, such as surgery or radiotherapy.

Alternatively, your pituitary tumour may begin to generate too much of one or more hormones.

The more common pituitary conditions include acromegaly, Cushing’s, diabetes insipidus, hypogonadism, hypopituitarism and prolactinoma.

Click here for more information about these and other pituitary conditions >

Pituitary surgery

Many pituitary problems are caused by a benign tumour and an operation is often the best course of action – and surgical methods are continually improving.

We can reassure you that surgery carried out by a specialist neurosurgeon is safe and a relatively straightforward procedure.

Most tumours are removed by making a small incision inside your nostril, or under the upper lip. This surgery is called ‘transsphenoidal surgery’. By using this route, the surgeon can see your pituitary without disturbing the main part of your brain.

The operation will usually require about five days in hospital and you should be up and about the day after surgery, eating normally. You will be on a drip for a day or two and may also be given antibiotics to prevent any infection in your nose. Recovery times do vary according to the individual, with an average of perhaps four to eight weeks off from work, if employed.

Sometimes pituitary tumours need other surgical approaches and for this and for further and more detailed information please read our Surgery & Radiotherapy Booklet.

Radiotherapy for pituitary conditions

This follow-up treatment is sometimes used as a follow up to surgery, or it can be recommended instead of surgery.

Please be assured that the use of radiotherapy does not mean that you have cancer.

Most radiotherapy is accomplished over several weeks with an initial visit to have an individual mask made which guides the radiotherapist accurately to where the X-rays will be focussed. Radiotherapy can also be given in a focused beam (e.g. ‘Gamma knife’ or ‘X-knife-Linac’) as a single treatment, but this is not appropriate for all tumours.

For further and more detailed information please read our Surgery & Radiotherapy Booklet.

Medical therapy Most people with a pituitary condition will require treatment with drugs, either on their own or in addition to surgery and/ or radiotherapy. These drugs may be used to reduce the levels of a hormone that your pituitary is overproducing, or to replace a hormone that your pituitary is under producing.

Please see our following section on hormones.

Follow-up treatment for pituitary conditions

Most people with a pituitary tumour and/ or condition will have regular check-ups at a specialist endocrine clinic for the rest of their life.

These check-ups enable the specialist to monitor your condition and pick up any changes as soon as possible. In most patients their condition remains stable after initial treatment(s).

Regrowth of a pituitary tumour can occasionally occur if it was not possible to remove the entire tumour during surgery. The chance of this happening is lower if you had radiotherapy after your operation. If regrowth does occur, you may need another operation, or radiotherapy; all cases are individual and can vary.

Overview of the Pituitary Gland – Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders

The pituitary gland can malfunction in several ways, usually as a result of developing a noncancerous tumor (adenoma). The tumor may overproduce one or more pituitary hormones, or the tumor may press on the normal pituitary cells, causing underproduction of one or more pituitary hormones.

The tumor may also cause enlargement of the pituitary gland, with or without disturbing hormone production. Sometimes there is overproduction of one hormone by a pituitary tumor and underproduction of another at the same time due to pressure.

Sometimes excess cerebrospinal fluid can fill the space around the pituitary gland and compress it (resulting in empty sella syndrome). The pressure may cause the pituitary to overproduce or underproduce hormones.

Too little or too much of a pituitary hormone results in a wide variety of symptoms.

Overproduction of pituitary hormones causes disorders, including

Underproduction of pituitary hormones causes disorders, including

Doctors can diagnose pituitary gland malfunction using several tests. Imaging tests, such as a computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), can show whether the pituitary has enlarged (for example, if a pituitary tumor is present) or shrunk (for example, in hypopituitarism). Such tests can usually determine whether a tumor exists in the gland.

Doctors can measure the levels of pituitary hormones, usually by a simple blood test. Doctors select which pituitary hormone levels they want to measure depending on the person’s symptoms. Sometimes, levels of pituitary hormones are not easy to interpret because the levels vary greatly during the day and according to the body’s needs. For these hormones, measuring a random blood sample does not provide useful information.

For some of those hormones, doctors give a substance that would normally affect hormone production and then they measure the level of the hormone. For example, if a doctor injects insulin, the levels of ACTH, growth hormone, and prolactin should increase. Rather than measuring growth hormone levels directly, doctors often measure another hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Growth hormone is produced in bursts and its levels quickly fall, but IGF-1 levels reflect the overall daily production of growth hormone. For all of these reasons, interpreting the results of blood tests for pituitary hormones is complex.

Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Physicians

Everyone knows what hormones are, but most of us have little idea of what hormones actually do within our bodies. At Osteopathic Center for Healing, one of the services that Dr. Neil Spiegel and Physician Assistant Jennifer Gularson,PA-C offer is hormone balancing. Your hormones impact your health in myriad ways, some of which may surprise you. 

Hormones are part of your endocrine system and are secreted by a network of glands. When your glands make too much or too little of any given hormone, your internal processes such as metabolism, body temperature, and reproduction (among many others) may be impacted.  

There are many more than six hormones in your body, and they’re all important for various reasons, but these six hormones are often problematic for patients.

1. T3 and T4 

T3 and T4 are the two main thyroid hormones. Your thyroid regulates your metabolism, which means it plays a role in digestion, hunger, and your overall energy level. Your thyroid can make too much hormone, which is called hyperthyroidism, or it can make too little, referred to as hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is more common. 

2. Melatonin

Several hormones help to control your sleep/wake cycles or your circadian rhythm. One of them is melatonin. Sunlight prevents the production of melatonin, which is secreted by your pineal gland. As it gets dark at night, your body makes more melatonin and you get sleepier.  Your computer, cell phone and TV all reduce the amount of melatonin you produce, so either use blue blocking glasses at night or don’t use these devices 1-2 hours before bedtime.  

3. Progesterone and testosterone

These two hormones are sometimes called “female” and “male” hormones, because progesterone is mostly produced in the ovaries and testosterone is mainly produced in the testicles. Both hormones are involved in reproduction.

When women don’t have enough progesterone, they may have irregular menstrual cycles and experience headaches or sudden mood changes and more importantly loss of sleep!. Men with low levels of testosterone may have a low sex drive, lose hair, feel fatigued, and lose muscle mass, among other symptoms. 

4. Cortisol

Stress, both short term and long term, triggers certain processes in your endocrine system. For example, in the classic fight-or-flight response, your body makes both cortisol and adrenaline. 

When you are under long-term (chronic), stress, your body continues to make cortisol and other stress-related hormones. Chronic stress has been associated with obesity, cardiovascular disease, anxiety and depression, and a host of other problems.  

5. Insulin

Most everyone knows that people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes have high blood sugar. The hormone insulin is necessary for the cells in your body to properly use the glucose in your bloodstream. With diabetes, there’s either little-to-no insulin or the body can’t use the insulin it does have properly.

Usually, before a person develops Type 2 diabetes, they have prediabetes and insulin resistance, which means they have more glucose in their bloodstream than normal because their body is not as sensitive to the insulin anymore, The blood sugar is not high enough to be diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, but the risk of developing it is much greater. 

6. Estrogen

As menopause approaches, women’s bodies produce less estrogen. Estrogen is critical to bone health, and having less of it is associated with osteoporosis, a condition in which your bones become porous and much more fragile. 

If your body is making too much or too little of any of these six hormones, you may have vague symptoms that you can’t quite put your finger on. You may simply feel “off” and be unable to articulate exactly what is wrong. If that’s the case, you should consider booking an appointment with us at Osteopathic Center for Healing.

We’re happy to answer your questions, as well as provide an evaluation to help identify where your problem may be. Scheduling is flexible and convenient. We’re offering telehealth visits, or you can book an in-person appointment online or by calling us at 301-245-1940.

Which is the largest gland in the human body A Pancreas class 11 biology CBSE

Hint: A gland is a group of cells in an animal’s body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones, saliva etc) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into body cavities or its outer surface (exocrine gland).

Complete answer:
A gland is a group of cells in an animal’s body that produces substances for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into body cavities or its outer surface (exocrine gland).
There are two types of glands:
Endocrine glands secrete substances directly into the bloodstream.
Exocrine glands secrete substances into body cavities or its outer surface.

The liver is large, reddish-brown organs that lie on the right side of the belly weighing about 3 pounds.
It is the largest gland. The liver is an exocrine gland that secretes bile into the intestine is also an endocrine gland and a blood filter.
The liver is a metabolic factory that synthesizes and breaks down a number of substances.
It is a pea-shaped gland located at the base of the brain.
It is considered to be a master gland as it secretes many hormones to regulate the organs as well as the other glands.
It secrete different hormones: Growth hormone, Thyroid stimulating hormone, Adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH), Gonadotropic hormone, Follicle stimulating hormone, Luteinizing hormone, Prolactin, Melanocyte –stimulating hormone, Oxytocin, Vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
It is located in the neck, ventral to the larynx and the major hormones produced by this gland are triiodothyronine and thyroxine.
Thyroxine is a hormone that regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats in the body.
It is located just below the stomach and is both exocrine and endocrine in function.
It secretes hormones such as insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide.

So the correct answer is (B) Liver.

Note: The main job of liver is to:
> Filter the blood coming from the digestive tract
> Liver detoxifies chemicals and metabolizes drugs.

90,000 Scintigraphy, radionuclide diagnostics at the Central Clinical Hospital of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow) – Sign up for an examination

Scintigraphy (radionuclide diagnostics) is a modern method of radiation diagnostics, which is used to assess the functioning of various organs and tissues. Diagnostic methods such as X-ray, ultrasound, CT or MRI are focused on identifying structural changes in the tissues of the body, and are not always able to distinguish the disease in its early stages, when deviations manifested themselves at the level of biochemical changes in tissues.At this time, scintigraphy comes to the rescue, which is why it is called molecular diagnostics. Radionuclide research methods are indicated for diseases of the heart, brain, kidney and liver diseases, and are also an indispensable method in identifying and assessing the prevalence of oncological processes.

Benefits and preparation for scintigraphy:

An advantageous difference between scintigraphy and other diagnostic methods is the recognition of the pathological process in the early stages of the disease, i.e.That is, until the moment when the disease had time to manifest itself.

Information about the function of an organ and obtaining quantitative characteristics of the degree of its damage at the earliest stages.

In most cases, scintigraphy does not require special training, and only pregnancy is a contraindication to scintigraphy.

The radiopharmaceutical that is administered during the study usually does not cause any side effects, and the radiation exposure during scintigraphy is comparable to that of X-ray studies.

How is scintigraphy performed in Moscow?

Scintigraphy is performed according to modern protocols and clinical guidelines of the European Society of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the Society for Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI).

A small amount of a radioactively labeled substance is injected into the patient’s blood, which accumulates in damaged or healthy tissues.

The accumulation is recorded by a special sensitive device – a gamma camera.

The gamma camera creates a “photographic” image of the human organs that have accumulated the injected drug.

The injected substance is practically safe for the patient, does not cause allergic reactions and is quickly excreted from the body after examination, which ensures minimal radiation exposure. The procedure for scanning the bones of the skeleton and other organs is comfortable and painless.

The procedure itself, from the introduction of the radiopharm of the drug to the start of the scintigraphic study, takes from 30 minutes to 3 hours, depending on the type of study.This is necessary in order for the injected substance to be distributed in the human body. The study is analyzed by qualified specialists, doctors – radiologists, who work with each patient individually. If necessary, the results of the study are consulted by the staff of the Department of Radiation Diagnostics and Therapy of the Russian National Research Medical University (RNRMU) named after V.I. N.I. Pirogov in Moscow, which is located on the basis of the department. The conclusion on the results of scintigraphy is issued on the day of the study.

You can examine almost any organ, including the bones of the skeleton, and there are several ways to do the examination. With a well-defined task and continuous feedback between the radiologist and doctors of clinical departments, the possibilities of scintigraphy are almost endless, and assistance in making complex diagnoses is invaluable, while the cost of the examination is affordable for each patient.

Indications and contraindications for the study

It is recommended to scan the bones of the skeleton in the following cases:

  • for the detection of oncological pathologies with bone metastases;
  • for the diagnosis of fractures and tumor processes in the bones;
  • as a control method for the dynamics of treatment;
  • to identify areas with altered bone tissue in degenerative processes.

Also, a scan of the bones of the skeleton is irreplaceable if the X-ray could not reveal cracks, fractures and other bone injuries.

Advantages of scintigraphy with us:

Our department is equipped with a single-photon emission computed tomograph, combined with an X-ray computed tomograph, which allows us to conduct studies of almost all organs and systems of a person, including scanning the skeleton, obtaining cross-sectional images of organs for precise localization of the pathological process.

Each report is prepared by two doctors of the department (the “double reading” method), if necessary with the involvement of the staff of the Department of Radiation Diagnostics and Therapy of the leading medical university of Russia – Russian National Research Medical University named after V.I. N.I. Pirogov.

The conclusion is issued on the day of the study, as a rule, within 40-60 minutes after the completion of the study.

If necessary, images in additional projections or SPECT are performed free of charge.

A modern department, built according to modern building and sanitary standards, equipped with a waiting room before the examination, will ensure the comfort of the procedure, whether it is a scan of a skeleton or any other organ.

Download the brochure “Scintigraphy”

Various types of scintigraphy are performed at the Central Clinical Hospital of the Russian Academy of Sciences:

Cost of scintigraphy

Service name Cost, rub

Bone scintigraphy


Perfusion lung scintigraphy


Resting myocardial scintigraphy


Liver and spleen scintigraphy


Thyroid scintigraphy


Salivary gland scintigraphy


Parathyroid scintigraphy


Brain scintigraphy

Scintigraphy of the kidneys and urinary system 6200

90,000 causes of occurrence, in what diseases it occurs, diagnosis and treatment methods


The information in this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-medication.In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, only the attending physician should prescribe diagnostic tests. For a diagnosis and correct treatment, you should contact your doctor.

Hyperhidrosis: causes of appearance, in what diseases it occurs, diagnosis and methods of treatment.


Hyperhidrosis is defined as increased sweating that occurs occasionally or persistently. There are from two to five million sweat glands on the human body – most of all in the armpits, on the palms, and feet.

Sweating is a physiological process necessary to maintain body temperature.

However, there are a number of conditions in which sweat begins to be released too intensely, which indicates certain dysfunctions and brings significant physical and psychological discomfort to a person. According to statistics, about 3% of people of both sexes complain of hyperhidrosis.

Sweating is controlled by the autonomic nervous system, of which the parasympathetic nervous system is a part – a malfunction in its work can be either a consequence of other diseases or an independent disorder.

Varieties of hyperhidrosis

By localization:

  1. Local hyperhidrosis – occurs in certain parts of the body – on the palms, soles, in the armpits, skin folds, on the forehead, above the upper lip.
  2. Generalized – increased sweating is noted over the entire surface of the body, but most noticeable in places where sweat glands are most concentrated.

Depending on the cause, are distinguished:

  1. Primary hyperhidrosis, when excessive sweating is not associated with other diseases.Usually manifests itself in childhood or adolescence.
  2. Secondary hyperhidrosis – occurs against the background of other diseases.

By intensity:

  1. Light.
  2. Moderate.
  3. Heavy.

Possible causes of hyperhidrosis

Primary hyperhidrosis is one of the most common causes of increased sweating. It is based on the individual physiological characteristics of the organism.

On the one hand, people with primary hyperhidrosis have a greater number of sweat glands, on the other hand, sweat glands are more sensitive to various stimulating factors that cause sweating.

Usually, this type of hyperhidrosis manifests itself in childhood and worsens in adolescence. This pathology is hereditary and is often transmitted from one of the parents. The severity can vary from moderate to very severe.

Secondary generalized hyperhidrosis is observed in infectious diseases in response to an increase in body temperature.

Purulent processes in the body, such as abscesses, phlegmon, and destructive pneumonia, can lead to sudden temperature jumps during the day.

These are serious conditions that require hospitalization, and often surgical treatment.

Excessive sweating can be the result of chronic infections – tuberculosis, malaria, brucellosis, etc.

Generalized hyperhidrosis is observed in endocrine pathologies – for example, with an increase in the level of thyroid hormones. In addition, there is a loss of body weight with normal appetite, palpitations, emotional arousal. Patients with diabetes mellitus often complain of increased sweating – special attention should be paid to the appearance of cold, sticky sweat, which may indicate a sharp drop in blood sugar levels.Hormonal changes during pregnancy, with menopause, are often accompanied by hyperhidrosis.

People with oncological diseases of the hematopoietic system are characterized by increased sweating, especially at night. In addition, patients have no appetite, they lose weight, there is severe fatigue, body temperature can fluctuate between 37-38 ° C, one or more groups of lymph nodes can increase.

Neuroses, panic attacks are often accompanied by increased sweating.

In what diseases does hyperhidrosis occur?

  1. Acute viral or bacterial infections.
  2. Chronic infections (tuberculosis, malaria).
  3. Endocrinological diseases (diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, pheochromocytoma, acromegaly, carcinoid).
  4. Cardiovascular failure.
  5. Neurosis, panic attacks.
  6. Obesity.
  7. Neurological diseases (polyneuropathy, syringomyelia, string drum syndrome).
  8. Lymphomas.

Which doctors should I contact for hyperhidrosis

Since hyperhidrosis can be not only an independent condition, but also a symptom of other diseases, first of all it is worth contacting a general practitioner. After a thorough examination, anamnesis, laboratory and instrumental studies may require consultation of narrow specialists: endocrinologist, neurologist, cardiologist, oncologist, infectious disease specialist, dermatologist.

Diagnostics and examinations for hyperhidrosis

The extent of hyperhidrosis and its boundaries can be determined using the Minor test.You need to apply a 2% iodine solution to the area where there is increased sweating, let the liquid dry and sprinkle the skin with starch. If you have excessive sweating, your skin will take on a purple, sometimes black tint.

To clarify the diagnosis, the doctor prescribes the following examinations:

  1. Clinical blood test with an expanded leukocyte count to detect inflammatory processes in various infectious and viral diseases.


Medical Science Endocrinology, about the functions of the secretory activity of the endocrine glands, began to develop in the 19th century.The first substances that affect the development of certain diseases were isolated. Such substances are called “Hormone” which are produced in the human endocrine organs and affect certain functions of the body, regulate many biochemical processes, coordinate the interaction of various human systems. Hormones as “initiators of life and internal interaction” are present in all living organisms and plants.

Hormones are released into the blood and regulate biological processes, some hormones are released inside (intestines) and maintain the integrity and constancy of the internal environment, provide interaction between the cellular components of the body, regulate the processes of growth, maturation and reproduction.Hormones regulate the activity of all cells in the body. They affect a person’s thinking and physical activity, shape the physique and height, monitor hair growth and tone of voice, puberty and sex drive, behavior. Thanks to the endocrine system, a person can adapt to fluctuations in the external environment, excess or lack of food, to physical and emotional stress. We now understand why people are attracted to each other, why some people are tall and others are short, some are fat, others are thin, some are slow, others are nimble, some are strong, others are weak.The science of endocrinology has come close to in vitro fertilization and childbirth.

In a normal physiological state, there is a balance between the activity of the endocrine glands, the state of the nervous system and the response of the tissues to which the effect is directed. Any violation of these links quickly leads to deviations from the norm. Excessive or insufficient production of hormones causes various diseases, accompanied by profound chemical changes in the body.Endocrinology studies the role of hormones in the vital activity of the body and the normal and pathological physiology of the endocrine glands.

The organs of internal secretion (into the blood) of the endocrine system include: Pituitary gland, Hypothalamus, Thyroid gland, Parathyroid glands; Adrenal glands, ovaries and testes; The pancreas (has the functions of both external and internal secretion).

Exocrine glands – exocrine, secreting through the excretory ducts the substances they produce onto the surface of the body or mucous membranes, into certain cavities.Exocrine glands include sebaceous, salivary, sweat, milk, lacrimal, musky glands, as well as the liver, gastrointestinal glands, etc., secreting secretions into the cavity of the alimentary canal.

Violations of synthesis or excessive secretion of hormones lead to dysfunction and provoke the development of the disease.

The goal and task of the endocrinologist is to find the cause and conduct therapy, and, if necessary, replace the lost functions.

Main diseases treated by endocrinologist:

Diabetes mellitus.This group of diseases includes pathologies that have arisen due to insufficient production of the hormone insulin by the pancreas.

Diabetes insipidus. It occurs due to a malfunction of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus, manifested by thirst, frequent urination.

Diseases of the thyroid gland: hypothyroidism, malignant tumors, iodine deficiency.

Itsenko-Cushing’s disease. This is a pathology that leads to dysfunction of the adrenal glands.

Obesity. It manifests itself due to metabolic disorders, which leads to an excess of adipose tissue.

Calcium deficiency or excess.

Synthesis of excess growth hormone.

The initial appointment with an endocrinologist begins with an examination and inquiry about your complaints. The doctor will carefully listen to your complaints about the source of the disease, study medical records, ask about your lifestyle and diet, heredity, and also clarify your allergic predisposition.
After the interview, the doctor proceeds to a detailed examination and physical examination. Your blood pressure will be measured, heart sounds and breathing in your lungs will be listened to.If necessary, the doctor will also prescribe additional studies, tests, ECG and other necessary studies. After the tests are received, the examination data is diagnosed, the doctor will prescribe the treatment and the approximate date when you will need a second consultation with the therapist. If diseases are detected in a different profile, the endocrinologist will refer you to another specialist doctor, depending on the disease.

Experienced doctors work in the network of NeoMed medical centers. Based on the diagnostic capabilities of the medical center, such as ECG, Endoscopic studies of the stomach and intestines, Holter monitoring of heart activity, monitoring of blood pressure (blood pressure), Spirography, Ultrasound diagnostics, ultrasound of the heart and blood vessels, Elastography of the thyroid and mammary glands, Ecephalography, Myography, Rheoencephalography , Neurosonography, Echoencephalography, Radiography, Mammography, Densitometry, Puncture biopsy of the mammary and thyroid glands – an accurate diagnosis can be made for successful treatment.

So in the medical center “NeoMed” experienced doctors work in the following specialties: Therapist, Cardiologist, Allergologist-Immunologist, Endocrinologist, Dermatologist, Rheumatologist, Gastroenterologist, Neurologist, Hematologist, Urologist, Obstetrician-gynecologist, Ophthalmologist, Traumatologist, Orthopedist Pediatrician, ENT, Ultrasound doctor, Psychotherapist, Surgeon, Pediatric surgeon, Cardiovascular surgeon (phlebology), Obstetrician-gynecologist, Coloproctologist, Neurosurgeon, Dentist.

90,000 Obesity pandemic: seven out of ten children are overweight | Articles

In terms of obesity among women, our country is in the five world leaders.About 40% of the population has a polymorphism in the FTO gene – the “sweet tooth gene”. According to endocrinologists, as soon as a man begins to gain weight, he slowly “turns into a woman,” and vice versa. At a round table in Izvestia, doctors named two correct ways to produce the “weight loss hormone”, explained why slender first graders grow into obese teenagers, why it makes no sense to go on a diet without doctor’s control, and why Russia needs a national program to combat obesity.

The world is getting harder

Izvestia: The topic of obesity affects the whole world.Experts say it has already become an epidemic. Why is this term applicable to obesity?

Alexey Kovalkov, Russian dietitian, doctor of medical sciences, Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, professor: I would already call obesity a pandemic. But no one has accurate statistics of morbidity in Russia, because most of the sick do not reach the doctor.

The development of obesity at such a rate is associated with several reasons. The main one is that the treatment of this systemic disease in no country in the world is included in health insurance.There are no such specialists in district polyclinics.

Photo: Izvestia / Artem Korotaev

Aleksey Kovalkov, Russian dietitian, doctor of medical sciences of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, professor

The second reason is the lack of nutritionists themselves. The third is the absolute illiteracy of the population regarding proper nutrition.

Alexander Baturin, Professor, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Head of the Scientific Direction “Optimal Nutrition”, Federal State Budgetary Institution FITS Nutrition and Biotechnology: According to the prevalence of obesity among women, we are among the five leading countries, Russian men are in the middle of the list.

In foreign countries, obesity is less common among educated people with high income, while in our country it is the opposite. Even educated people do not know how to balance diet and physical activity.

Alexey Kovalkov: In America, a person is proud to have his own nutritionist. And here, if you tell your friends that you go to a nutritionist, you will immediately hear: “How many diets are on the Internet, you only spend money. You need to eat less and move more. ”

Alexander Baturin: The obesity epidemic has arisen due to an imbalance between the energy that a person spends and the energy that he receives from food.A little more than 20 years ago, the question was raised by the United States, Great Britain, a number of European countries, where about 30% of the adult population and 20% of children were obese.

In 2013, Rosstat, with our participation, carried out an epidemiological examination of 100 thousand people. It turned out that at that time 27-28% of women and 16-17% of men were obese. This year, Rosstat is conducting a second survey, and we will be able to see its results early next year.

Anna Goncharova, endocrinologist, Center named afterFedorova, SSC RF IBMP RAS, MD: This morning I looked at 12 patients, and nine of them were either overweight or obese.

Izvestia: Does obesity lead to endocrine system problems or vice versa?

Anna Goncharova: Obesity is a collective concept. There is a genetically determined type, there are consequences of malnutrition, and there are diseases. In each case, we observe a tangle of psychosomatic and somatopsychological problems.

As a doctor, it bothers me that food has become a pleasure and people are not ready to give it up. I ask a 12-year-old girl, frankly fat: “Maybe you want to become a talented manager in the future? Playing in the theater? After all, looks are important. ” She looks at me slyly and says: “While the fat one dries, the thin one dies.” What will we answer?

Photo: Izvestia / Artem Korotaev

Anna Goncharova, endocrinologist, Center named after Fedorova, SSC RF IBMP RAS, MD

Another girl, realizing that her parents are struggling with her weight, eats packets of nuts under the pillow, secretly goes to McDonald’s.Yes, she has elevated insulin and C-peptide levels as the root cause of the disease, but obesity is also a colossal psychological problem, rooted primarily in family relationships and values.

Izvestia: Are there diseases in which excess weight cannot be avoided?

Alexey Kovalkov: Endocrine diseases that lead to the development of obesity, only 5%, but in all obese people we find changes in hormones or enzymes or inadequate production of endorphins, which they replace with sweet and fatty foods.

Alexander Baturin: As soon as a man begins to gain weight, he slowly turns into a woman. Testosterone decreases and estrogens begin to prevail. For a woman it is the same, but the situation with hormones is the opposite.

About 40% of the population have polymorphisms in the FTO gene – the “sweet tooth gene”. It promotes fat storage.

Izvestia: What type of obesity is the most dangerous?

Alexander Baturin: There are types of obesity of the “pear” type and of the “apple” type.The risk of severe complications associated with the development of diabetes, heart attacks, and strokes is significantly higher in those with apple-type obesity.

Izvestia: To whom should a person who wants to lose weight run first of all: to a psychologist, to an endocrinologist?

Anna Goncharova: Of course, to the endocrinologist. He is obliged to give recommendations on healthy eating, if necessary, prescribe medication, advise on the specifics of physiotherapy exercises.

Alexey Kovalkov: Obesity should be treated by a nutritionist, and even better, a nutritionist-endocrinologist. Without eliminating the root cause – hormonal imbalance, you will not achieve stable remission.

Alexander Baturin: With obesity, patients must visit a psychologist, because many addictions are formed.

Photo: Izvestia / Artem Korotaev

Alexander Baturin, professor, doctor of medical sciences, head of the scientific direction “Optimal nutrition” of the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Federal Research Center of Nutrition and Biotechnology” fat traps that do not go away by themselves.Ideally – and a nutritionist to cope with the “hunger for micronutrients.” This is when you are hungry, go to the refrigerator and understand that nothing suits you, but you start eating everything. And the body simply lacks some trace elements.

Obesity is a systemic disease that must be treated in a multifunctional clinic. But we have almost no such people.

Thin children of a full mother

Alexey Kovalkov: When I worked in America, I observed a typical picture: very fat mothers all have thin children.But this is temporary. In the first grade, there will be two fat men among the children, in the fifth grade there will already be ten people.

Anna Goncharova: Children under seven years old “grow on hormones” of the thyroid gland and growth hormone, which are lipolytics, anabolic steroids. They have “everything goes into growth.” During puberty, fluctuations in hormonal status appear. In some, because of this, thyroid dysfunction develops with going into hypothyroidism, which can provoke obesity. Others develop primary insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, the first sign of metabolic syndrome.The third group is children with neuroendocrine syndrome. It is associated with inadequate daily cortisol production and associated insulin resistance. Each of these groups can have its own clinical characteristics and requires a different approach.

The second period of hormonal instability occurs after childbirth. Many women have a physiological delay in the decline of prolactin after prolonged physiological lactation, many provoke thyroid disease a year after each birth.All of these factors can lead to weight changes.

Finally, in the period of early postmenopause, hormonal status changes again, both in men and women. Most people are either under-examined, or do not want to be treated, or do it sporadically.

Izvestia: Has the number of obese children been increasing or decreasing recently?

Svetlana Zaitseva, Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry.A.I. Evdokimova, pediatrician, Central Children’s Clinical Hospital, FMBA of Russia: In the 1980s, one out of 10 children was obese. Now seven out of ten are overweight. The problem of obesity, from my point of view, begins in the first years of a child’s life and is largely determined by both his diet and physical activity. The nutritional characteristics of children in the first years of life and, in particular, breastfeeding prevent the development of increased weight gain in children in the first year. And subsequent proper nutrition and physical activity reduce the risk of obesity in adulthood.

Photo: IZVESTIA / Artem Korotaev

Svetlana Zaitseva, Associate Professor of the Department of Pediatrics, Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry. A.I. Evdokimova, pediatrician of the Central Children’s Clinical Hospital of the FMBA of Russia

Alexey Kovalkov: Up to one and a half years, the number of fat cells is laid. The second period occurs during the onset of the monthly cycle.

Svetlana Zaitseva: Realizing this, pediatricians pay great attention to assessing the physical development of a child. It is the pediatrician who first identifies the overweight patient at the appointment, gives recommendations on nutrition and, if necessary, refers to the endocrinologist. All this is a mandatory procedure for pediatric observation and is paid for by the compulsory medical insurance system.

Alexey Kovalkov: Why only an endocrinologist and not a nutritionist?

Svetlana Zaitseva: In the compulsory health insurance system, children with obesity are examined and monitored by an endocrinologist free of charge. The OMS standard also includes consultations of a gastroenterologist, neurologist, and nutritionist.However, the tactics of patient management is determined by the endocrinologist.

Alexander Baturin: According to the relevant orders of the Ministry of Health, a nutritionist can see a doctor in the clinic, but there are not so many of them.

One for all

Izvestia: Why are there not enough nutritionists?

Alexey Kovalkov: Not a single medical university prepares them. I need to get a diploma in therapy, gastroenterology. Only after that you can independently, most often with your own money, receive additional education in dietetics at a university where there is postgraduate training for nutritionists.But the program is very narrow, and only one or two lectures are devoted to overweight.

Alexander Baturin: The specialty “dietetics” has now been introduced in the residency, but such training is not available in every medical school.

Anna Goncharova: “Nutrition and Diet Therapy” is included in the course of the specialty “General Medicine”. In the appendix to each diploma in this specialty there is a mark that a course of lectures has been attended.

Alexander Baturin: There is no scientific specialty “Dietetics” in the Higher Attestation Commission, just as there is no specialty “Nutrition” – a specialist in nutrition.The departments of food hygiene of the preventive faculties used to train good specialists in food hygiene, but only a few of them remained.

Armed with a centimeter

Izvestia: The Internet is full of tables of the ratio of height and weight, which can be used to determine whether a person is overweight. How correct is this approach?

Alexey Kovalkov: These formulas are very imprecise, they exist for everyday needs, and doctors always work with devices.Every obesity clinic has a bioimpedance meter. It allows you to accurately determine the composition of the body and measures the specific basal metabolism, the amount of water in the body. A person can gain weight from water, fat mass. My weight is 110 kg. This is muscle mass because I have been in bodybuilding for six years. Muscle weighs much more than fat, so it is nonsense to focus only on height and weight. Loss of muscle mass is especially dangerous in the elderly, in whom it is extremely difficult to recover.

Photo: TASS / Barcroft Media

Five-year-old obese boy

Anna Goncharova: The determination of body mass index is still the international standard, and the tool is a banal centimeter for measuring the volume of the hips and waist.

Izvestia: “Growth minus 100”, “growth minus 110” – these are incorrect formulas?

Anna Goncharova: These are approximate formulas for hypersthenic persons and asthenics.But do we need it in our real life? Everyone, looking in the mirror, knows if he is overweight.

Alexey Kovalkov: The time of scales and centimeters is long gone. It is necessary to monitor the deficiency of iron, vitamin D, insulin, insulin resistance, blood glucose, prolactin, and the mass of hormones.

Alexander Baturin: This equipment is required. The effectiveness of weight loss must be constantly monitored. It is very easy to get rid of the first two kilograms: put a person on a hyponatric diet, add potassium – the same rice is more, and after a couple of days there is no kilogram – water is lost.But then the difficulties begin.

At McDonald’s for carrots

Izvestia: How dangerous are low-calorie and protein diets?

Alexander Baturin: Low-calorie diets should be treated very carefully. A person gains body weight not in one day, it takes months and years, and he wants to lose weight in a month, rushes to extremes. If the calorie content is significantly lower than the basal metabolic rate, muscles will definitely fly. In no case should you limit your protein intake.Even with a decrease in calories, a person should eat about a gram of protein per kilogram of body weight.

High-protein diets are also unsafe: nitrogen metabolism changes, and the kidneys, which remove the end products of nitrogen metabolism, may not be able to cope with such a load.

Anna Goncharova: During a food shortage – war, famine, bursts of environmental and social disasters – those who could work a lot and hard on a small amount of food survived. The genotype has adapted to these conditions.Most of us can survive on a handful of berries and fish from the river. But the food came with a completely different ingredient composition. He gave not only obesity, but also vitamin deficiency. Every third resident of the country has an iron deficiency, 95 out of 100 have a vitamin D deficiency, regardless of the area of ​​residence.

Photo: Global Look Press / imagebroker / Marina Horvat

Izvestia: What is the reason?

Alexander Baturin: We were spoiled by the food industry.We have no time to cook our own food from ordinary products. We bought sausages, semi-finished products, stuffed them into the microwave and ate them. As a result, problems with excess fat and salt and lack of vitamins.

I often hear McDonald’s being scolded. I ask: “How many times have you and your daughter cooked food recently?” – “And I have a person who cooks.” But when the child is involved in the cooking process, he is interested in later both to eat and to treat someone. You can cook something that will contain less sugar, fat, salt.If this chain can be created, there will be no need to engage in bioimpedance measurements.

Anna Goncharova: If you go to McDonald’s with a child, you can choose carrot sticks, lettuce without dressing, ice cream. It is not necessary to fill it with caramel syrup. We’ll get a pretty nice snack.

Svetlana Zaitseva: Child will not go to McDonald’s if they feed him with food that does not give him pleasure. This trip is a joy for him because he spends time with his parents, eats there “tasty” food for him, often receiving toys as a gift.But it would be better if parents would often go with their children to sports fields or to the pool.

That is why it is necessary to start solving the problem of obesity with the family. Russian traditions have long assumed that a grandmother and a mother should first of all feed their children – not talk, but feed. In the store, the grandmother most often takes sweets as a gift for the child. She doesn’t seem to know any other gifts.

Izvestia: If parents observe a child’s increased body weight, can you put him on a diet yourself?

Svetlana Zaitseva: The doctor should explain the peculiarities of the diet to the parents of children with increased body weight, and also recommend an extension of the motor regime.In case of obesity in a child, it is necessary to consult an endocrinologist – to exclude organic pathology.

Alexey Kovalkov: If the parents constantly overfeed the child, something breaks down in his body, for example, the production of growth hormone. Food ceases to provide energy, fat begins to accumulate. The child does not have enough energy, he eats even more and gets fat. Parents begin to educate him, but they only cause anger and irritation in him, even reaching suicidal attempts.And no one realizes that he is simply sick!

Not parents should deal with such children, but doctors, because this is a disease.

Photo: Global Look Press / Nikolay Gyngazov

Healthy people can eat both flour and sweet and not gain weight, because this mechanism is not broken. Normally, at night, somatotropic hormone is produced, which is capable of burning 150 g of adipose tissue in 50 minutes. To lose weight, you need to fall asleep before 12 at night – this hormone is produced exclusively in sleep between 12 and 1 am.In addition, growth hormone will be produced if two boiled chicken egg whites are eaten in the evening.

On a diet for the whole country

Izvestia: Do we need a national program to combat obesity?

Alexey Kovalkov: Needed! In our country, there is only one institute of nutrition, and in America there are 40 institutes and clinics specializing only in the treatment of obesity.

Alexander Baturin: The Ministry of Health and Rospotrebnadzor are developing healthy lifestyle programs.They will help prevent the development of obesity, explain to people how to avoid or stop the formation of excess weight.

Svetlana Zaitseva: It is necessary not only to fight excess food intake, but to promote an active motor regime. Previously, the school had TRP standards. The return of these norms can be a good motivation for the population.

Alexey Kovalkov: The obesity growth statistics inexorably show that real experienced specialists are needed.And there are very few of them!

Izvestia: What should be done in order not to get fat?

Svetlana Zaitseva: You need to start from the prenatal period. Remove diets that are unreasonably assigned to expectant mothers: with the restriction of fish, dairy products, in order to defeat allergies.

Rational nutrition should start from the first days of a child’s life. Breastfeeding is the prevention of obesity. You need to start complementary foods from six months, and not with juices, which are rich in glucose, but with vegetable and meat products – to prevent iron deficiency.

Alexander Baturin: The whole world is talking about an obesity epidemic, but not a single country has achieved a tangible result.

We need a systematic approach that would include training, education, education, prevention. Then it will not come to high-cost interventions.

Photo: Global Look Press / imagebroker / Michaela Begsteiger

Alexey Kovalkov: Obesity prevention should be carried out in several directions.

Firstly, the predisposition to it should be determined in the earliest childhood at the genetic level.

Secondly, the lessons of teaching dietetics in schools should be conducted already from the 1st grade. And they simply do not exist! Instead, they bother children with the fact that they will never be useful for life again.

Thirdly, it is necessary to engage in the education of the adult population through educational programs in the media.

Fourth, clinics with an integrated approach to obesity treatment should be created.


Modern possibilities of ultrasound diagnostics of pancreatic tumors

The human pancreas is the largest gland with exocrine (exocrine) and internal secretory (endocrine) functions.

The pancreas is located behind the stomach in the left side (except for the head) of the abdominal cavity about 6-8 cm above the umbilical region, at the point of transition from the thoracic spine to the lumbar.

The pancreas can be divided into head, body and tail. The head is the thickest part of the organ (up to 5 cm). It lies in the horseshoe-shaped loop of the duodenum, slightly shifted to the right of the line of the spinal column. The body of the pancreas passes behind the stomach to the left and into the abdominal cavity. The tail (up to 2 cm) is slightly raised and approaches the spleen.

The exocrine function of the organ is realized by the secretion of pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes.The parenchymal tissue (98% of the total mass of the pancreas) are lobules (acini). They produce pancreatic juice and transfer it through micro-ducts to the main organ canal – the Wirsung duct, which opens together with the bile duct into the duodenum, where food is digested. The remaining 2% of the organ is occupied by small islets of Langerhans, most of which are located in the tail. These groups of cells, have no ducts, are located next to the blood capillaries and secrete hormones directly into the blood, in particular insulin.By producing hormones, the pancreas plays an important role in the regulation of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. When ultrasound examination (ultrasound) of the pancreas, its echogenicity (that is, the reflection of ultrasonic waves by the tissues of the organ) is comparable to the results of examination of the liver, usually described as fine-grained and homogeneous. But it is also considered normal to have increased echogenicity in obese people and reduced echogenicity in thin people.

Distinguish between benign and malignant tumors of the pancreas, which in turn are divided into endocrine tumors and tumors from cells of the exocrine system.Benign tumors include adenoma, cystadenoma; tumors from the endocrine cells of the pancreas include, for example, insulinoma, glucogonoma, somatostinoma. Some benign tumors can develop into malignant ones. Due to the variety of functions of the pancreas and the peculiarities of the anatomical location with other organs, such as the liver, duodenum, bile ducts, stomach, the symptoms of tumor lesions are very diverse. The most common symptom is obstructive jaundice with invasion or compression of the bile ducts.Tumors of the endocrine system depend on the nature of the tumor.

Pancreatic cancer is a malignant cancer with the worst prognosis and the lowest patient survival rate. In Russia, in 2017, among malignant neoplasms of the digestive system, pancreatic cancer ranks 4th in terms of morbidity and 1st place in terms of mortality. In 2017, 13,757 new cases of pancreatic cancer were detected, of which stage IV was diagnosed in 60.3% of patients.

Ultrasound examination is widely used in the diagnosis of tumors of the hepatobiliary system. Quite often, it is ultrasound that is the first method for examining patients with obstructive jaundice and abdominal pain. Ultrasound examination is highly informative, safe for the patient and generally has no contraindications. According to the results of recent studies, the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in detecting pancreatic tumors is comparable to computed tomography and reaches 87-90%, and when using the study of blood flow in the tissues of the so-called color Doppler mapping – 94%.The method of ultrasound diagnostics allows you to obtain detailed information about the neoplasms of the pancreas, clearly describe their location, the nature of growth, visualize altered lymph nodes, focal lesions of the liver. Various additional techniques: determination of blood flow in tissues and adjacent vessels (color Doppler mapping, power Doppler, contrasting) provide additional information about the degree of involvement of the great vessels in the process, which helps in planning further treatment.Ultrasound allows you to detect the prevalence of the process in the pancreas, metastatic changes in the lymph nodes (regional and distant), liver, and in some cases determine the spread of the tumor along the peritoneum.

There is a difficulty in diagnosing cancer in chronic pancreatitis, one of the varieties of which, the so-called pseudotumorous pancreatitis, can simulate a tumor. Pseudotumorous pancreatitis is a form of chronic pancreatitis resulting from inflammation of the pancreas, causing the development of partial fibrosis and hypertrophy of pancreatic tissue structures.The peculiarity of the development of this disease lies in a local increase in any part of the pancreas, which is a good reason for differential diagnosis with an oncological neoplasm. In most cases, it is the head of the gland that is affected, therefore, the clinic of this form of the disease is often accompanied by obstructive jaundice and subhepatic hypertension. In this case, to confirm the diagnosis, a tumor fragment is taken for analysis – a tumor biopsy.An important feature of ultrasound is the ability to obtain an image in real time, which helps to biopsy neoplasms with minimal risk of damage to the great vessels and intestinal walls, as well as to obtain adequate material for histological or cytological studies, which is undoubtedly important for making an accurate diagnosis. Another promising ultrasound method is endosonography – ultrasound examination using endoscopic equipment through the stomach cavity.

It should be noted that the accuracy of the patient’s examination results directly depends on the level of the ultrasound scanner used, the patient’s level of preparation for the examination, the patient’s constitution, the anatomical location and size of the tumor. Tumors of the tail of the pancreas are usually poorly visualized. Tumors of the head and body can be detected at an early stage, at a size of 1.5 cm. The presence of obesity, intestinal pneumatosis significantly impair visualization up to their complete absence.

Ultrasound examination is important not only for direct diagnosis or screening of pancreatic tumors, but is used to determine the stage, select the volume and the actual possibility of surgical treatment, as well as to assess the effectiveness of treatment. However, screening for pancreatic neoplasms remains the main goal of abdominal ultrasound.

In the department of ultrasound diagnostics of the State Budgetary Healthcare Institution “TOKB im. VD Babenko “annually carries out up to 7000 examinations of the abdominal organs.The studies are carried out on devices of high and expert class with the possibility of detecting tumor formations of the pancreas. Among the masses of the pancreas, cystic formations are detected, about 4% of all studies. Cysts, abscesses of the omental bursa, fluid formations of the retroperitoneal tissue against the background of acute pancreatitis, pancreatic necrosis are also considered in our medical institution for the possibility of minimally invasive interventions under the control of ultrasound.Pancreatic tumors occur in 0.5%, which is also associated with referral of these patients from the entire area. In obstructive jaundice caused both by neoplastic diseases of the pancreato-duodenal region and calculi of the terminal section of the common bile duct, percutaneous transhepatic puncture cholecystostomies, percutaneous transhepatic puncture cholangiostomies under ultrasound control are performed as preoperative preparation.

Names of parts of the human body in English

We will not give a complete anatomical reference here, but consider the main common names for parts of the human body in English.

Head and face

It is known that young children first of all learn to recognize and name facial features. So we will begin to study the names of body parts from above, from the head.

Part Name Body to English












back of the head

[, bækɒvðiːˈhed]

































[‘nɔstr (ə) l]











tooth ( teeth )

[tuːθ] ([tiːθ])

tooth (teeth)

Some examples with these words:

I’ve got toothache. – I have a toothache.

Where does Sarah normally get her hair cut? – Where does Sarah usually get her hair cut?

The actress had pale blue eyes and a little snub nose. – The actress had blue eyes and a small snub nose.

Lenny had beaten his tongue. – Lenny bit his tongue.

In English, the word hair is usually used as an uncountable noun and means a collective “hair”.But if we are talking about one hair, then add the article – a hair .


Now consider the main parts of the human body:

Part Name Body to English











chest (chest)



breast (mammary gland)




navel / belly button

[ˈneɪvəl], [ˈbelɪ, bʌtn]











small of the back

[, smɔːlɒvðiːˈbæk]


Here’s how to use them in speech:

My neck was so sore. – My neck was tugging so hard.

Ann hasn’t gone running today because she still has a bad chest. – Anne didn’t go running today because she still has chest pain.

This green dress emphasizes your narrow waist. – This green dress highlights your narrow waist.

Andrew was laying on his back. – Andrew was lying on his back.


Limbs in English are called limbs .But, as in Russian, individual parts of the hands and feet have different names, even the fingers on them.


Name of body part in English





arm (whole)
















index finger

[, ɪndeksˈfɪŋgə]

index finger

middle finger

[, mɪdlˈfɪŋgə]

middle finger

ring finger

[, rɪŋˈfɪŋgə]

ring finger (a ring is worn on it – ring )

little finger, pinky finger

[, lɪtlˈfɪŋgə], [, pɪŋkɪˈfɪŋgə]








For example:

My daughter got her index finger caught in a dresser drawer and now it hurts. – My daughter got her index finger pinched by the drawer of the dresser, and now it hurts.

We have to wash our hands more often. – We must wash our hands more often.

Eric is going to get a tattoo on his left arm. – Eric is going to get a tattoo on his left arm.


Part name body in English





leg (from thigh to foot)



thigh (from pelvis to knee)



thigh, side (outer side of the pelvis and upper leg)




calf ( calves )

[kɑːf] ([kaːvz])

caviar (caviar)




foot ( feet )

[fʊt] ([fiːt])

feet (s)







big toe

[, bigˈtəʊ]

big toe

little toe

[, litlˈtəʊ]

little toe

Examples from everyday speech:

I still cannot find knee-length shorts in this shop. – I still cannot find knee-length shorts in this store.

You need to get the weight on your heels. – You need to shift your weight onto your heels.

This holiday period is always giving me itchy feet. – During the holidays, I always want to go somewhere. ( Itchy – itchy; itchy feet – “desire to go somewhere new”).

Internal organs

If you are interested in medicine or like original doctor series (e.g. House M.D. or Grey’s Anatomy ), you will need these words:

Part name body in English






spinal chord

[, spaɪnlˈkɔːd]

spinal cord











[, gɔːlˈblædə]








small intestine

[, smɔːlɪnˈtestɪn]

small intestine

large intestine / colon

[, lɑːʤɪnˈtestɪn]

large intestine




(urinary) bladder



Some examples with the names of internal organs:

It was discovered that COVID-19 primarily affects lungs. – COVID-19 has been found to primarily affect lung function.

It’s better not to workout on a full stomach. – Better not to train on a full stomach.

The patient was just told that he had a kidney stone. – The patient has just been told that he has a kidney stone.


Let’s look even further inside the human body and find out what the main parts of the skeleton are called:

Part name body in English


















collar bone






rib cage












The doctors will take another look at the X-rays of your skull. – Doctors will take another x-ray of your skull.

Daniel has got broken bones on his right hand. – Daniel has broken bones on his right arm.

Take care of your knee joints. – Take care of your knee joints.

Blood vessels, muscles and connective tissues

Even more anatomical details:

Part name body in English











blood vessel









muscle, musculature



biceps, biceps



quadriceps, quadriceps



triceps, triceps










vocal cords


vocal cords

abdominal muscles

[æb’dɔmin (ə) l’mʌslz]

abdominal muscles


Medical staff is trying to restart his heart. – The medical staff is trying to start his heart.

Kate fell badly on the skating rink and teared the tendons in her right ankle. – Kate fell painfully on the rink and sprained the tendons on her right ankle.

Regular physical activity can help to tone your muscles. – Regular exercise can help tone your muscles.

Native speakers rarely speak abdominal muscles and prefer the contraction abs instead.In informal conversation, you may also hear phrases such as six-pack (because six abs are like a top view of a six-pack of beer or other beverage) or washboard abs (when your abs are as tough as a washboard ).

I dream of six-pack abs. – I dream of abs cubes.

Rocky had washboard abs. – Rocky had a steel press.

10 slang names for body parts

Now let’s digress a little from anatomy and talk about body parts using slang expressions in English.We hope you don’t have to hear this, as body slang is usually offensive and refers to excess weight:

Literally this expression is translated as “turkey neck”. This is what native speakers call a fold of fat under the chin or double chin ( double chin ).

Only plastic surgery completely removes a turkey neck. – Only plastic surgery completely removes the second chin.

Nancy looks like she has a double chin on this photo. – In this photo, Nancy looks like she has a double chin.

Chubby means “chubby” in a good way. Usually they say this about small children who look very cute with their chubby cheeks. If they say so about an adult, then usually it means “chubby”.

Nastya’s chubby cheeks remind me of the fresh-baked pies from the school canteen. – Nastya’s chubby cheeks remind me of freshly baked pies from the school cafeteria.

“Bat wings” English speakers refer to the flabby muscles of the shoulders (from the shoulder joints to the elbows), which are especially noticeable when the arms are stretched out to the sides. It is also called a type of wide sleeves on clothing that taper towards the wrist.

What exercises can help me tone my bat wings? – What exercises will help me tone flabby arm muscles?

This word in English appeared as a result of the merger of the words man (man) and boobs (slang expression for the word “chest”) . This is the name given to the folds of fat in the chest area of ​​overweight men.

Stuart’s moobs bounce when he runs. – Stewart’s chest shakes as he runs.

If you imagine the top of a muffin, you can easily draw an analogy with a bulging belly from very tight trousers or jeans.

Stylists advise choosing jeans of larger size to prevent the “muffin-top” effect. – Stylists advise choosing oversized jeans to avoid looking like a muffin top.

  • Spare tire or just tire

This expression literally translates as “spare tire” or simply “tire”, and in Russian we say “lifebuoy”, meaning the fat around the waist. By the way, in American English the word “tire” is written with the letter i tire .

Samanta decided to cut down on junk food because she is troubled with her spare tire. – Samantha decided to eat less fast food because she doesn’t like her lifebuoy.

  • Beer belly or pot belly

Literally it means “beer belly” or “belly like a pot” and means a very protruding belly that appears from the abuse of beer or other high-calorie foods.

If Tom doesn’t get his beer belly under control, we’ll ask him to play Santa Claus next year. – If Tom doesn’t take care of his beer belly, we’ll invite him to play Santa Claus next year.

Jack would never wear a tight shirt over his pot belly. – Jack would never wear a tight shirt over his bulging belly.

Saddlebags were originally called bags or bags hanging down the sides of a horse on either side of the saddle. In this case, we are talking about full hips: in Russian colloquial speech they are called “breeches”.

Saddle bags or not, my wife is beautiful. – With or without breeches, my wife is beautiful anyway.

The word stovepipe means “chimney, chimney”.This expression describes massive chubby legs that resemble chimneys. Native speakers also call this word straight cut of trousers or jeans.

That woman with stovepipe legs might have varicose veins. – That woman with thick legs may have varicose veins.

This is a combination of the words calf (calf) and ankle (ankle). So they say about very full shins, when the ankles are practically invisible.

If I wear these boots with black jeans, nobody will notice my cankles. – If I wear these boots with black jeans, no one will notice my thick ankles.

You will learn more slang expressions with another very important part of the body from the video (in Russian with Russian and English subtitles):


The human body is a theme close to everyone. We talk about parts of our body when we choose clothes, complain about discomfort, and discuss sports and healthy eating. You cannot do without these words at a doctor’s appointment or in a beauty salon.Even just describing your own or someone else’s appearance without knowing this vocabulary will not work.

Related topics:

“My pain …”: learning to complain about health in English

“Tell me about yourself”: a description of a person’s appearance in English

Pressure, apathy, lethargy. How to understand that the thyroid gland is sick | HEALTH

Disorders in the thyroid gland, according to WHO, affect more than 665 million people in the world. Among endocrine problems, thyroid diseases rank second after diabetes mellitus.How to diagnose and start treatment on time, “AiF-Yug” told doctor-methodologist of the Center for Medical Prevention of the Krasnodar Territory Alexander Goryachev.

Monotonous food and “nerves”

“The thyroid gland consists of two lobes connected by an isthmus. It is the largest of all the glands of the endocrine system, explains Alexander Goryachev. – Its weight is on average 15-30 grams, the size of each lobe reaches four centimeters in length, and one or two centimeters thick.Thyroid hormones regulate the maturation of tissues and organs, thereby determining their functional activity, growth and metabolism. The absence, deficiency or excess of these hormones leads to various, sometimes the most serious diseases. ”

According to the doctor, according to medical statistics, up to a third of the entire population of the planet suffers from various malfunctions of the thyroid gland. Nodules are detected in 30% of adults. Goiter, that is, an enlargement of the gland due to iodine deficiency – in 10-30%.Women are affected four to eight times more often than men. Pathology appears mainly after 60 years.

If the thyroid gland is zealous, the body works “for wear and tear.”

Today, endocrinologists state a surge in thyroid diseases and the “rejuvenation” of the disease. Among the causes of pathology, first of all, they name a lack of iodine in food, an improper monotonous diet, a lack of vitamins, radioactive contamination and nervous disorders.

“Life seems to be fading away”

“There are two main types of malfunctions in the work of the thyroid gland – a lack of hormone production (hypothyroidism) or their increased production (hyperthyroidism),” the doctor continues. – Lack of hormones often manifests itself as malaise, fears for no reason, depression, lethargy, drowsiness.

The normal functioning of the heart is disturbed, blood pressure is lowered or raised. With hypothyroidism, there is a “brake” in the body.Life seems to be fading away. Symptoms such as severe fatigue, apathy, memory impairment, drowsiness, and decreased performance appear. Weight gradually increases, hearing decreases, speech becomes slower, general lethargy manifests itself. The patient’s appearance changes: a wide, swollen face with very poor facial expressions, narrow eye slits, pronounced swelling of the eyelids, lips, and cheeks. On the part of the nervous system, there are also changes – from a decrease in intelligence and depression to psychosis and delirium. Replacement therapy with modern drugs can help.They make up for the lack of thyroid hormones. The patient again feels like a full-fledged member of society. ”

If the thyroid gland is zealous, the body works “for wear and tear.” There are three main symptoms of the disease. The first is goiter. The thyroid gland is enlarged, it is noticeable even visually. The second is bulging eyes: from harmless shine to eyelid deformation. The third is tachycardia or palpitations. Patients complain of weakness, rapid fatigue, tearfulness, irritability, a feeling of squeezing in the neck, trembling of the limbs, palpitations, rapid weight loss.In the treatment, conservative (antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine treatment) and surgical methods are used.

If salt, then iodized

Problems with the thyroid gland often arise from a lack of iodine. Endemic goiter is the most common form of non-toxic goiter. There are entire areas where this disease is epidemic. The human need for this element is 100-200 milligrams per day, but a person does not receive this amount of iodine in foods in endemic areas.

“The need for iodine depends not only on the place of residence, but also on the age and physiological state,” says Alexander Goryachev. – So, women need iodine medications during pregnancy and lactation so that the child is born healthy and develops normally, adolescents – during puberty. A healthy adult should use iodized salt instead of ordinary salt for the prevention of diseases. By the way, only ready meals can be salted with it; iodine evaporates during heat treatment. “

At the onset of the disease, weakness, fatigue, and lack of interest in life are disturbing. As the euthyroid goiter increases, nearby organs begin to squeeze. A person feels a “lump” in his throat, as if someone is squeezing his neck, especially this sensation increases in the lying position, therefore sleep is disturbed. Treatment methods depend on the size, shape, and functional state of the thyroid gland.

The biggest enemy of the thyroid gland is stress.

“A good prophylaxis of thyroid diseases is rest on the seashore, where there is a lot of iodine fumes,” explains the doctor. – The most serious enemy of this organ is stress. Therefore, no matter what kind of trouble occurs, you first need to suppress negative emotions, and then calmly analyze the situation. Relieve daytime fatigue, restful, prolonged sleep at night. It is recommended that you sleep at least eight hours. Do not forget about moderate regular physical activity.

If you find the symptoms described, you need to consult an endocrinologist.The specialist will recommend donating blood for thyroid hormones and an ultrasound scan of the gland. According to the results of the examination, it is possible to say for sure whether there is a dysfunction of the gland and by what type. Against the background of selected modern therapy, the life of a person with thyroid dysfunction is practically no different from usual. ”