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Treatment of hemorrhagic cyst: CA 125 test – Mayo Clinic


CA 125 test – Mayo Clinic


A CA 125 test measures the amount of the protein CA 125 (cancer antigen 125) in your blood.

A CA 125 test may be used to monitor certain cancers during and after treatment. In some cases, a CA 125 test may be used to look for early signs of ovarian cancer in people with a very high risk of the disease.

A CA 125 test isn’t accurate enough to use for ovarian cancer screening in general because many noncancerous conditions can increase the CA 125 level.

Many different conditions can cause an increase in CA 125, including normal conditions, such as menstruation, and noncancerous conditions, such as uterine fibroids. Certain cancers may also cause an increased level of CA 125, including ovarian, endometrial, peritoneal and fallopian tube cancers.

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Why it’s done

Your doctor may recommend a CA 125 test for several reasons:

  • To monitor cancer treatment. If you have ovarian, endometrial, peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer, your doctor may recommend a CA 125 test on a regular basis to monitor your condition and treatment.

    But such monitoring hasn’t been shown to improve the outcome for those with ovarian cancer, and it might lead to additional and unnecessary rounds of chemotherapy or other treatments.

  • To screen for ovarian cancer if you’re at high risk. If you have a strong family history of ovarian cancer or you have the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation, your doctor may recommend a CA 125 test as one way to screen for ovarian cancer.

    Some doctors may recommend CA 125 testing combined with transvaginal ultrasound every six months for those at very high risk.

    However, some people with ovarian cancer may not have an increased CA 125 level. And no evidence shows that screening with CA 125 decreases the chance of dying of ovarian cancer. An elevated level of CA 125 could prompt your doctor to put you through unnecessary and possibly harmful tests.

  • To check for cancer recurrence. Rising CA 125 levels may indicate that ovarian cancer has come back after treatment. Regular monitoring of CA 125 has not been shown to improve outcomes for those with ovarian cancer and may lead to additional and unnecessary rounds of chemotherapy or other treatments.

If your doctor suspects you may have ovarian cancer or another type of cancer, he or she may recommend a biopsy to collect a sample of cells. Other tests that may be helpful in evaluating these cancers include a transvaginal or pelvic ultrasound, serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4), and computerized tomography (CT).

How you prepare

If your blood is being tested only for CA 125, you can eat and drink normally before the test.

What you can expect

For a CA 125 test, a member of your health care team takes a sample of blood by inserting a needle into a vein, usually in your hand or arm. The blood sample is sent to a lab for analysis. You can return to your usual activities immediately.


Results of the CA 125 test are measured in units per milliliter (U/mL). The normal value is less than 46 U/mL.

If your CA 125 level is higher than normal, you may have a benign condition, or the test result could mean that you have ovarian, endometrial, peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer. Your doctor may recommend other tests and procedures to determine your diagnosis.

If you’ve been diagnosed with ovarian, endometrial, peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer, a decreasing CA 125 level often indicates that the cancer is responding to treatment. A rising CA 125 level may indicate a return or continued growth of the cancer.

A number of normal and noncancerous conditions can cause an elevated CA 125 level, including:

  • Endometriosis
  • Liver disease
  • Menstruation
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Pregnancy
  • Uterine fibroids

None of the major professional organizations recommend using the CA125 as a screening test for those with an average risk of ovarian cancer.

Feb. 27, 2020

Ovarian Cysts & Fertility | TN Reproductive Medicine

Ovarian cysts at a glance

  • Ovarian cysts are solid or fluid-filled sacs located within or on the surface of the ovaries.
  • Women of any age can develop ovarian cysts, though they are most common during childbearing years.
  • Ovarian cysts can result in abnormal ovulation, and according to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine ovulation dysfunction accounts for 25 percent of female infertility cases.
  • Large ovarian cysts or those resulting from endometriosis or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can hamper a woman’s fertility.
  • Most ovarian cysts are harmless, produce no symptoms and disappear on their own.
  • Ovarian cysts can rupture. Large ovarian cysts can press against organs, both of which can result in painful symptoms.
  • Treatment options include observation, hormone therapy and surgical removal.

What are ovarian cysts?

Ovarian cysts are solid or fluid-filled sacs that form on the surface or within one or both ovaries. They range in size usually between 1 – 4 centimeters but in some cases can grow quite large and measure 5 cm or more.  Many women have ovarian cysts at some point in their lives, most commonly during childbearing years (19-45). The majority of ovarian cysts present minimal to no discomfort and are harmless. However certain types of ovarian cysts, or cysts that have ruptured, can produce serious symptoms.

Women have two ovaries, one located on each side of the uterus. Ovaries produce eggs during reproductive years. The ovaries produce hormones, including estrogen and progesterone that trigger the monthly menstruation cycle. Normally, every month the ovaries ovulate, meaning one of the ovaries releases an egg that makes its way down the fallopian tube, where sperm may fertilize it.

Ovulation problems account for about 25 percent of all cases of female infertility, and ovarian cysts can cause such problems.

Primary types of ovarian cysts


Functional cysts, also known as follicular cysts, are created by normal ovarian activity, or function. Typically, they also have a role in getting a woman pregnant or keeping her pregnant. For these reasons, they are called functional ovarian cysts.

They are part of the ovulation process, starting as small egg follicles. On ultrasound, egg follicles look like small dark circles in the ovary. As the egg matures, the egg follicle grows (typically to 1.8-3 cm in size) before it releases an egg.  Once the egg releases, the cysts undergo changes so that it can make a hormone called progesterone. At this point, the cyst takes on a yellow color and is called a corpus luteum (see below).  Unless a woman is pregnant, the corpus luteum typically lasts about 2 weeks before it regresses.

Occassionally functional cysts will linger around into the next menstrual cycle, even though they are not producing any hormones. This happens more frequently when fertility medications are used. In most cases, functional cysts go away without medical treatment and do not cause infertility.

If a woman has pain most months with ovulation, the pain may not be due to her cyst; however, it is possible her ovary has scar tissue around it and the egg follicle is growing in an enclosed space. This person may want surgery to see if the ovary is trapped and if it can be freed.

Corpus luteum

Corpus luteum cysts are common ovarian cysts. After a follicle releases an egg, it transforms into a corpus luteum structure, which produces progesterone. These cysts are usually not painful, but can cause pressure. If release of the egg causes bleeding into the cyst, it can swell to a larger size and cause pain. In rare cases, these cysts can become very large and in sometimes rupture or twist the ovary, causing painful symptoms.


Hemorrhagic cysts are blood-filled cysts that occur when the wall of a cyst ruptures. This rupture can cause bleeding into the cyst, or corpus luteum, resulting in a hemorrhagic cyst. They can also bleed into the pelvis causing discomfort.


Cystadenoma cysts develop from cells on the surface of the ovary. These cysts are usually fluid-filled and can become very large. Cystadenomas can be asymptomatic, but often produce painful symptoms. Rarely do they resolve on their own. They are benign, and are removed by surgery.


Dermoid cysts develop from cells that produce human eggs (pluripotential cells, meaning they can develop into numerous different cell types). They can develop into bone, fat, hair or cartilage, among other cell types as well. When dermoid cysts occur in the ovaries, they can cause pain and/or cause the ovaries to twist, resulting in painful symptoms. They are very rarely malignant; however, women who develop dermoid cysts have a risk of them returning even after surgery.

Polycystic ovaries

A common condition that causes female infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is often thought to be diagnosed by ovarian cysts; however, in reality the patient is not filled with ovarian cysts. Rather, the name describes a condition characterized by insulin resistance and ovarian dysfunction in which the patient has irregular cycles, numerous small ovary follicles (the small sacs of fluid that surround the egg, that in a normally menstruating woman would grow and ovulate each cycle)  that don’t change month to month as they would in a normally menstruating female. The ultrasound appearance is of many tiny follicles, which gives the condition its name (poly, meaning many, cystic), however the tiny follicles are never so big that they would cause pain as a typical cyst would. Therefore, PCOS patients do not typically require surgery to take out these “cystic” findings, because the cystic appearing follicles are simply their egg houses/follicles. PCOS does not typically cause pain.


Ovarian cysts known as endometriomas, are caused by endometriosis, a condition where cells from the endometrium (lining of the uterus) grow outside of the uterus. These can cause damage or scarring that blocks the fallopian tubes and interferes with other aspects of the pelvic region, often resulting in infertility. This condition affects women during their reproductive years endometrioid ovarian cysts are a common cause of chronic pelvic pain.

Ovarian Malignancy

Malignant ovarian tumors typically present without symptoms, but can have a wide variety of vague symptoms. On ultrasound they appear to be complex lesions, with solid and fluid components. Because they are extremely rare in our patient population, we will not discuss them further here.

Causes of ovarian cysts

  • Hormonal imbalance. Functional cysts can be a result of a hormonal imbalance. A common cause of hormonal imbalances are the drugs used to help women ovulate.
  • Ovarian cysts can develop due to endometriosis when tissue attaches to an ovary and forms a growth.
  • Abnormal cell growth. As in any organ, cells should alternately grow and then undergo cell death and resolve. Sometimes, cell growth becomes abnormal and can cause some cells to grow too much and either develop a cyst, or can cause cells to grow abnormally and develop into cancer.
  • Pelvic infections. Ovarian cysts can form due to pelvic infections that spread to the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
  • Ovarian cysts can develop during the early stages of pregnancy to help support the pregnancy until the placenta forms. Rarely the cyst does not go away on its own and remains on the ovary through later stages of pregnancy, and if it becomes large and painful it may need to be surgically removed.

Symptoms of ovarian cysts

In most cases, ovarian cysts do not cause symptoms. In the occasion that symptoms occur, a woman may experience lower abdominal pain, pressure, swelling or bloating where the cyst is located. She may also experience pain during sex caused by an ovarian cyst, according to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine.

Pain may be sharp or dull and can be intermittent or constant, depending on the type and condition of the cyst. If a woman experiences severe, continuous abdominal or pelvic pain, she should seek medical attention.

Since ovarian cysts often do not show symptoms, sometimes women do not realize they have one until visiting their healthcare provider for a routine pelvic exam. As a woman ages, it is especially important to have regular pelvic exams to check for cysts. Pelvic masses diagnosed in menopause can indicate more dangerous pathology, as cancerous (malignant) cystic ovarian masses are more common in the menopausal years.

Though most cysts are symptom-free they may cause problems if they twist, bleed or rupture. A cyst that becomes large can cause the ovaries to shift from their usual position in the abdomen. This shift can increase the chance of ovarian torsion (the twisting of an ovary), which can cause severe pain and vomiting. A cyst that has ruptured causes severe pain and can lead to internal bleeding.

Ovarian cysts are often diagnosed in a pelvic exam. Physicians also may use ultrasound tests to reveal the location and size of ovarian cysts. Hormone levels may also be checked to evaluate for hormone-related causes. A pregnancy test may be done to rule out pregnancy as the cause of symptoms.

Schedule a Pelvic Exam

Treatment for ovarian cysts

Treatments for ovarian cysts vary depending on the type of cyst, the size of the cyst and the symptoms. In many situations, doctors encourage women with ovarian cysts to keep a close eye on them and wait for their bodies to treat themselves. If no symptoms are associated with the cyst and an ultrasound shows the cyst to be harmless, medical providers will often recommend follow-up exams to ensure no changes occur.

In certain cases, hormonal medications including a birth control pill, hormone injections, hormone patches and hormone vaginal rings may be prescribed to control hormone levels. These can prevent ovulation, reducing the chances of new cyst development. Pain medications may be used to treat painful symptoms.

Medical providers may suggest the surgical removal of an ovarian cyst if it is not functional or is large and persists. Cysts that are extremely painful or causing a woman other symptoms may also be removed with surgery.

The cyst is most often removed alone. Sometimes the ovary is removed along with the cyst. Physicians may use laparoscopic (minimally invasive) surgery that involves small incisions, a video camera feed and special instruments to remove ovarian cysts.

A laparotomy may be performed if the cyst is large and might be cancerous. This involves a large incision in the abdomen and a biopsy of the removed cyst to test for cancer.

As with any surgery, these for ovarian cysts carry some risks that include blood loss, pain, damage to tissue and organs, reaction to anesthesia and scarring.

Ovarian Cyst | Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Uterus and ovaries


Most ovarian cysts are small, non-cancerous (benign), and cause no symptoms. Some ovarian cysts cause problems which may include one or more of the following:


Cysts on the ovary are very common. Ovarian cysts can vary in size – from less than the size of a pea to the size of a large melon (occasionally even larger). There are various types which include:

Functional ovarian cysts

These are the most common type. They form in some women of childbearing age (women who still have periods) when there is a functional fault with ovulation. They are very common. There are two types:

  • Follicular cysts. A follicle (see in ‘Ovulation’, above) can sometimes enlarge and fill with fluid. They can occur commonly in women who are receiving infertility treatment.
  • Corpus luteum cysts. These occur when the corpus luteum (see in ‘Ovulation’, above) fills with fluid or blood to form a cyst. A blood-filled cyst is sometimes called a haemorrhagic cyst.

Dermoid cysts (sometimes called benign mature cystic teratomas)

Dermoid cysts tend to occur in younger women. These cysts can grow quite large – up to 15 cm across. These cysts often contain odd contents such as hair, parts of teeth or bone, fatty tissue, etc. This is because these cysts develop from cells which make eggs in the ovary. An egg has the potential to develop into any type of cell. So, these cysts can make different types of tissue. In about 1 in 10 cases a dermoid cyst develops in both ovaries. Dermoid cysts can run in families.


These develop from cells which cover the outer part of the ovary. There are different types. For example, serous cystadenomas fill with a thin fluid and mucinous cystadenomas fill with a thick mucous-type fluid. These types of cysts are often attached to an ovary by a stalk rather than growing within the ovary itself. Some grow very large. They are usually benign but some are cancerous.


Many women who have endometriosis develop one or more cysts on their ovaries. Endometriosis is a condition where endometrial tissue – the tissue that lines the womb (uterus) – is found outside the uterus. It sometimes forms cysts which fill with blood. The old blood within these cysts looks like chocolate and so these cysts are sometimes called chocolate cysts. They are benign. See the separate leaflet called Endometriosis for more information.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic means many cysts. If you have PCOS you develop many tiny benign cysts in your ovaries. The cysts develop due to a problem with ovulation, caused by an hormonal imbalance. PCOS is associated with period problems, reduced fertility, hair growth, obesity, and acne. See the separate leaflet called Polycystic Ovary Syndrome for more detail on PCOS.


There are also other rare types of ovarian cysts. There are also various types of benign ovarian tumours which are solid and not cystic (do not have fluid in the middle).


  • Sometimes a cyst may bleed into itself, or burst. This can cause a sudden severe pain in the lower abdomen.
  • Occasionally, a cyst which is growing on a stalk from an ovary may twist the stalk on itself (a torsion). This stops the blood flowing through the stalk to the cyst and causes the cyst to lose its blood supply. This can cause sudden severe pain in your lower abdomen.
  • Large cysts can cause your abdomen to swell, or press on nearby structures. For example, they may press on your bladder or rectum, which may cause urinary symptoms or constipation.

Possible complications

How is an ovarian cyst diagnosed?

As most ovarian cysts cause no symptoms, many cysts are diagnosed by chance – for example, during a routine examination, or if you have an ultrasound scan for another reason.

If you have symptoms suggestive of an ovarian cyst, your doctor may examine your tummy (abdomen) and perform an internal (vaginal) examination. He or she may be able to feel an abnormal swelling which may be a cyst.

An ultrasound scan can confirm an ovarian cyst. An ultrasound scan is a safe and painless test which uses sound waves to create images of organs and structures inside your body. The probe of the scanner may be placed on your abdomen to scan the ovaries. A small probe is also often placed inside your vagina to scan your ovaries, to obtain more detailed images.

A blood test called a CA125 test is often done as well as an ultrasound scan. If this test is normal it is unlikely your cyst is cancerous. In itself a normal blood test does not completely rule out ovarian cancer, but it can do in combination with an ultrasound appearance of a benign cyst.

Some women may have other tests – for example, a computerised tomography (CT) scan or a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. For the most common type of benign ovarian cysts this is not needed. It may be useful when the ultrasound scan is not conclusive and/or the CA125 result is higher than normal. 


Your specialist will advise on the best course of action. This depends on factors such as:

  • Your age.
  • Whether you are past the menopause.
  • The appearance and size of your cyst from the ultrasound scan.
  • Whether you have any symptoms. 


Many small ovarian cysts will resolve and disappear over a few months. You may be advised to have a repeat ultrasound scan after a few months or so. If the cyst goes away then no further action is needed.


Removal of an ovarian cyst may be advised, especially if you have symptoms or if the cyst is large. Sometimes the specialist may want to remove it to determine exactly which type of cyst it is and to make sure there are no cancer cells in it. Most smaller cysts can be removed by ‘keyhole’ (laparoscopic) surgery. Some cysts require a more open style of operation, with a cut in the lower part of the tummy.

The type of operation depends on factors such as the type of cyst, your age, and whether cancer is suspected or ruled out. In some cases, just the cyst is removed and the ovary tissue preserved. In some cases, the ovary is also removed, and sometimes other nearby structures such as the womb (uterus) and the other ovary. Your specialist will advise on the options for your individual situation.

Endometriosis-related cysts and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

See the separate leaflets called Endometriosis and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome for information on these conditions and their treatment.

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Ruptured Ovarian Cyst: 9 Signs You Shouldn’t Ignore

And if your ovarian cyst actually bursts, as it releases fluid into your body the pain can definitely make you take notice. Although you might be unaware as this happens, sometimes it can cause pain because it irritates the lining of your abdomen, Stephanie V. Blank, M.D., director of women’s health at Mount Sinai Downtown Chelsea and professor of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive science at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, tells SELF.

Causes of Cysts and Ruptures

As we mentioned, most ovarian cysts (as in, those functional ones) develop as a result of your menstrual cycle, the Mayo Clinic says. Other types of cysts are much less common. And since certain ovarian cysts, like cystadenomas and endometriomas, are more likely to become large, that can also make them more likely to rupture, the Mayo Clinic explains.

Ovarian cysts can rupture randomly, or they can break open due to intense physical activity like sex, the Mayo Clinic says. “We often see someone come to the ER at night with terrible pain that came on all of a sudden during intercourse [from a ruptured ovarian cyst],” Dr. Dweck says.

Ruptured Ovarian Cyst Symptoms

When an ovarian cyst ruptures, the fluid inside of it ends up in your pelvic cavity, where it’s usually reabsorbed over time, explains Jason James, M.D., medical director at Miami’s FemCare Ob-Gyn. If you’re lucky, as we mentioned, you might not even feel a cyst as it bursts. Other times, though, you will.

Per the Mayo Clinic, signs that you may have a ruptured ovarian cyst include:

  1. Dull or sharp pain on one side of your lower abdomen

  2. A feeling of fullness or heaviness in your abdomen

  3. Bloating

  4. Pain that comes with a fever

  5. Pain accompanied by vomiting

  6. Lightheadedness or weakness

  7. Breathing at a rapid rate

  8. Chilly, clammy skin

  9. Vaginal bleeding

Many of these ruptured ovarian cyst symptoms aren’t anything to really worry about, Dr. Dweck says, like pain that isn’t too severe and a sensation of heaviness or bloating.

When to See a Doctor for a Ruptured Ovarian Cyst

There are definitely times when a ruptured ovarian cyst is a sign you should see a doctor ASAP, the Mayo Clinic says. That includes having a fever, vomiting, feeling weak, breathing too quickly, having clammy skin, and bleeding vaginally.

And you can take an even broader approach. Dr. Ghodsi’s rule of thumb: If you experience a sudden abdominal pain that isn’t relieved by over-the-counter medicine, call your doctor or go to the emergency room. There are so many different things that can be going on—it could be one of a variety of cysts or something entirely different, such as appendicitis or a kidney stone—that it’s good to get checked out.

Burst Ovarian Cyst Diagnosis

To see if you’ve had an ovarian cyst burst, medical professionals may do a pelvic exam, lab tests, or a transvaginal ultrasound, i.e., an ultrasound with a wand that goes inside your vagina, to try to see what’s going on, the Mayo Clinic says. If you had a cyst that burst, your doctor will usually be able to see some fluid or blood in your pelvis.

Ovarian Cysts | ACOG

Benign: Not cancer.

CA 125: A substance in the blood that may increase in the presence of some cancerous tumors.

Cyst: A sac or pouch filled with fluid.

Cystectomy: Surgical removal of a cyst.

Endometriosis: A condition in which tissue that lines the uterus is found outside of the uterus, usually on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and other pelvic structures.

Laparoscope: An instrument that is inserted through a small incision to view internal organs or to perform surgery.

Laparoscopy: A surgical procedure in which an instrument called a laparoscope is inserted into the pelvic cavity through a small incision. The laparoscope is used to view the pelvic organs. Other instruments can be used with it to perform surgery.

Malignant: A term used to describe cells or tumors that are able to invade tissue and spread to other parts of the body.

Menopause: The time in a woman’s life when menstruation stops; defined as the absence of menstrual periods for 1 year.

Minimally Invasive Surgery: Surgery done through a very small incision.

Obstetrician–Gynecologist (Ob-Gyn): A physician with special skills, training, and education in women’s health.

Oophorectomy: Removal of one or both of the ovaries.

Ovary: One of the paired organs in the female reproductive system that contain the eggs released at ovulation and produce hormones.

Pelvic Exam: A physical examination of a woman’s reproductive organs.

Transducer: A device that emits sound waves and translates the echoes into electrical signals.

Ultrasound Exam: A test in which sound waves are used to examine internal structures.

Neonatal follicular ovarian hemorrhagic cyst

Laparotomy revealed right adnexal torsion, an infarcted right fallopian tube and ovary, and a large hemorrhagic ovarian cyst.

Ovarian cysts occurring in fetuses and newborn girls are of four different types:1 (a) benign cysts of graafian epithelial origin. These are the most common comprising 97% of fetal–neonatal ovarian cysts2 and including simple cysts, corpus luteal cysts and cystadenomas, (b) granulosa cell tumors, (c) benign cystic teratoma and (d) mesonephroma. Ovarian graafian follicles begin to appear at the fourth month of gestation life and increase in size and number after that. The etiology of simple ovarian cyst in the neonate is not certain. However, it presumably represents disordered folliculogenesis, perhaps complicated by abnormal hormonal levels, especially excessive human chorionic gonadotropin.1, 3 An association between elevated levels of human chorionic gonadotropin and slightly increased incidence of ovarian cysts has been reported in infants of diabetic mothers.

Many ovarian cysts are now detected on prenatal sonograms. They have been found in fetuses as early as 19 weeks of gestation. These cysts have varied in size from 2.5 to 10 cm in largest diameter,4 although the maximum reported was 20 cm in maximum diameter.5 Cysts of sizes between 10 and 20 cm in maximum diameter may be an indication for elective cesarean section to prevent cystic rupture during delivery. However, this rarely occurs and cesarean section is mostly a theoretical consideration.2

Complications of ovarian cysts include torsion, infarction, hemoperitoneum, cyst rupture, intestinal obstruction, incarceration in inguinal hernia, polyhydramnios, dystocia and death from shock due to rupture.6, 7 There are four sonographic appearances of fetal–neonatal ovarian follicular cysts:4 (a) entirely cystic, (b) cystic with debris fluid level, (c) organizing cyst, which can appear solid sonographically and (d) cyst with septations. The entirely cystic lesions have not undergone torsion and are usually less than 5 cm in maximum diameter. Cystic lesions with debris fluid level indicate the presence of liquid blood products within the cyst. These cysts have undergone torsion and include cysts as small as 2 cm in maximum diameter, but more commonly cysts over 5 cm in maximum diameter. Solid-appearing lesions contain organizing clot. Multilocular lesions contain clotted and involuted blood products. The last three sonographic appearances are associated with adnexal torsion, which is the most common complication. Rupture of the cyst may be associated with the presence of hemorrhagic ascites.8

Many cysts involute postnatally, as human chorionic gonadotropin levels fall. Conservative treatment is considered adequate for simple, fluid-filled cysts less than 5 cm in maximum diameter. These smaller, simple follicular cysts frequently involute. Cysts followed sonographically usually involute, that is, they are no longer sonographically visualized between 2 weeks and 6 months after delivery.2 Simple cysts that are larger than 5 cm in maximum diameter are at risk of torsion. The risk of torsion is between 50 and 78%.2 Several authors have recommended cyst aspiration under sonographic guidance to confirm the ovarian origin by hormonal levels and to reduce the risk of torsion.9, 10 Follicular cysts are associated with elevated hormonal levels, especially estradiol, which may be elevated 20 times over cord blood levels.1 Complicated cysts are treated by surgery and almost always result in oophorectomy and adnexal resection as in the patient seen here. The chance of salvaging the ovary is very less.2 Some authors have recommended treating all ovarian cysts, regardless of size and appearance by percutaneous drainage under sonographic guidance, which allows preservation of ovarian tissue.11

The sonographic differential diagnosis of ovarian cysts include intestinal duplication cysts, mesenteric cysts, lymphangiomas and meconium pseudocysts.2 MRI has been used both in prenatal and postnatal evaluation of abdominal masses including ovarian cysts. There is some evidence that MRI may more accurately detect complicated ovarian cysts than sonography.12

90,000 causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cysts in women in Moscow at the Center of Surgery “CM-Clinic”

General information

An ovarian cyst is a neoplasm in the form of a bladder filled with liquid of various composition and consistency (thick mucus, old blood, etc.). It is formed in the ovarian cavity, as a result of which the organ increases significantly in size. Among the reasons for the appearance of an ovarian cyst, hormonal disruptions, inflammatory processes, metabolic disorders, etc.are more common.NS.

Types of ovarian cysts

There are two large groups of cysts of the right and left ovaries: functional (normal, physiological) and true. A functional cyst is not a “real” tumor. It occurs due to a malfunction of the ovary and disappears on its own after 1-3 cycles. Sometimes your doctor will prescribe oral hormonal drugs to treat this cyst. A neoplasm that does not disappear after three cycles and is actively growing is called a true cyst.Such structures require compulsory surgical treatment, since they have a high oncological risk.

Depending on the composition and cause of the ovarian cyst, several types of formations are distinguished.

  • Follicular. This functional cyst occurs if the follicle that has matured during ovulation does not burst and the egg does not come out. Usually, such a cyst does not cause discomfort to a woman and dissolves within several menstrual cycles.
  • Corpus luteum cyst (luteal). Also applies to physiological cysts. Its formation provokes the accumulation of tissue and fluid in the corpus luteum. It has thick walls and reaches 2–7 cm in diameter. Inside, the luteal cyst can be yellow, and its contents are light or bloody.
  • Hemorrhagic. Occurs as a result of bleeding from the vessel of the follicle and filling the ovary with blood. A hemorrhagic cyst is accompanied by severe pain and requires urgent surgical treatment, since the probability of bladder rupture and the development of peritonitis is high.
  • Endometrioid. Is a complication of endometriosis. The formation of an endometrioid ovarian cyst is accompanied by regular pulling pain, which intensifies during menstruation, and sometimes a slight increase in temperature.
  • Dermoid. Inside the capsule there is a content consisting of adipose, nervous, cartilaginous tissue of the body.
  • Mucinous. Differs in an uneven inner surface and mucous contents, can have several chambers and grow to large sizes.
  • Serous. The inner surface is lined with serous epithelium. Contents – transparent, light straw color. At the initial stage, it responds well to conservative treatment. With an increase or development of complications, surgical intervention is indicated.
  • Germ cell tumors. It is rare and has the fastest development.

Ovarian cysts also vary in size: large, medium and small.With fast-growing cysts, surgical treatment is indicated.


Most often, the development of a cyst in the right or left ovary does not cause any suspicious symptoms in a woman. Unpleasant sensations arise with the rapid growth of education or when it reaches a significant size.

The most common signs of an ovarian cyst include:

  • Pain in the lower abdomen, groin or lumbar region.They are usually dull, aching in nature, but when ruptured or twisted, they turn into sharp ones.
  • Abdominal enlargement and asymmetry caused by tumor growth or fluid in the abdominal cavity.
  • Menstrual irregularities caused by hormonally active structures.
  • Constipation, urination disorders as a result of pressure of the cyst or ovary on the intestines, bladder.

Experts recommend that women visit a gynecologist at least once a year in order to identify a neoplasm in time and choose an effective course of treatment.

Diagnostics of the cyst of the right and left ovaries

First of all, the gynecologist asks the patient about her complaints and collects a detailed history, and also conducts a full examination on a chair with the obligatory taking of smears. To obtain information about the state of the pelvic organs, specialists conduct a transvaginal or transabdominal ultrasound of the reproductive system.

Complicated cases may require abdominal CT or MRI. To exclude oncological processes, it is recommended to pass tests for tumor markers (C125, CEA, NECH).

90,000 Ovarian cysts – what is and why are they dangerous during pregnancy

When planning a pregnancy, women undergo various examinations, including ultrasound of the pelvic organs – the uterus and ovaries. In this case, the diagnosis is sometimes made “ovarian cyst”. Can such cysts interfere with the onset of pregnancy and do they need to be treated or operated on to give birth to a healthy baby?

Ovarian cyst – formation in the ovary, which is a bladder filled with fluid.The size of this formation can be different, which determines the symptoms of this disease. Small cysts usually do not manifest themselves in any way and, as a rule, are accidentally detected during ultrasound examination. Large ovarian cysts cause a feeling of heaviness in the lower abdomen and even pain.

Causes of ovarian cyst

Normally, every woman during the menstrual cycle in the ovary matures a dominant follicle, from which in the middle of the cycle a germ cell – an egg cell – emerges.In place of the ruptured follicle, the so-called corpus luteum is formed – a formation with thick walls, which releases the hormone progesterone into the blood, which contributes to the attachment of the ovum in the uterine cavity and its development until the placenta is formed. If the egg is not fertilized and pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum undergoes reverse development.

If the maturation of follicles and ovulation processes are disturbed, ovarian cysts can form. The mechanisms of their growth are very diverse.For example, if the follicle in the ovary reaches 20 mm in diameter, but for some reason ovulation (the release of the egg – female reproductive cell – from the ovary) does not occur, that is, the follicle does not burst, it continues to grow further, and the so-called follicular ovarian cyst.

If ovulation occurs, but hormonal imbalances lead to excessive accumulation of fluid in the lumen of the corpus luteum, a corpus luteum cyst may form.

Cysts can occur for no apparent reason, against the background of climate change, stressful situations, hormonal disorders in the body.

Types of ovarian cysts: their signs and symptoms

By their nature, ovarian cysts are functional and organic.

To functional include follicular cysts and cysts of the corpus luteum, most often they spontaneously resolve during several menstrual cycles. If functional cysts are small in diameter, do not squeeze the surrounding organs and do not cause pain, they are usually not treated.
With large cysts, hormonal treatment is carried out, most often hormonal contraceptives are prescribed, which normalize the hormonal background and contribute to the resorption of the cyst.

As a rule, functional cysts have no effect on the course of pregnancy. When pregnancy occurs, they usually resolve before 16-19 weeks.

In addition, at small stages of pregnancy, the doctor very often diagnoses the presence of a corpus luteum cyst, which promotes gestation due to increased production of progesterone (pregnancy hormone). Such cysts decrease in size and dissolve after the placenta has formed, that is, after 12 weeks of pregnancy.

Organic cysts are cysts that do not dissolve by themselves and most often require surgical treatment.These include endometrioid cysts, cystoadenomas, dermoid and paraovarian cysts.

Endometrioid cysts 90 100

These are benign organic cysts, they grow slowly and are easily treated with surgery. Inside them is the endometrial tissue – the inner lining of the uterine cavity, which changes monthly and is rejected during menstruation.

The endometrium is a hormone-dependent tissue, accordingly, all the same processes occur inside the cyst as in the uterine cavity, that is, the endometrium grows in the first phase of the menstrual cycle, matures in the second phase and is rejected with bleeding during menstruation.Due to these processes, there is a gradual increase in the diameter of the endometrioid cyst.

Most often, small endometrioid ovarian cysts are asymptomatic, and they are accidentally found on ultrasound.
Large cysts can cause pain that gets worse during your period. They are often double-sided and can reach significant sizes. Endometrioid cysts have a small risk of degeneration into a malignant ovarian cyst, most often it occurs in women after 40 years.

The presence of endometrioid ovarian cysts can prevent pregnancy and is an indication for surgical treatment. First, the cyst is removed, and then hormone therapy, since endometrioid cysts tend to reappear. Most often, hormonal contraceptives and drugs that cause artificial menopause are prescribed. In the absence of hormonal stimulation, endometrioid cells die, which prevents the recurrence of the disease. Depending on the diameter and number of endometrioid cysts, the presence of foci of endometriosis on the fallopian tubes and internal tissues of the abdominal cavity, a drug is chosen.


This is a fairly common type of ovarian cysts, most often cystadenomas are small unilateral cysts. Depending on the content, a distinction is made between serous cystadenoma, inside which there is a clear liquid of light straw color, and mucinous cystadenoma, with thick mucus inside.


These are benign cysts, but they can become malignant, which determines the tactics of their treatment: surgical removal of the formation.

During pregnancy, cystadenomas can increase in volume and cause persistent abdominal pain.

Dermoid cyst (mature teratoma) 90 100

This is a congenital tumor of the ovary, is a round formation in the ovary and contains in its structure elements of hair, skin, nails, fat. Such cysts can be of different sizes – from a few centimeters to gigantic formations. However, most often they are small and therefore do not manifest themselves clinically in any way.Dermoid cysts of small size, as a rule, do not have an effect on the conception and gestation of pregnancy, however, since there is a small likelihood of malignant degeneration of teratomas, their treatment is surgical.

Paraovarian cysts

This is a fluid-filled mass located between the ligaments of the uterus, next to the ovary. The paraovarian cyst is most often small in size and does not decrease over time or under the influence of drugs.However, it can increase. Most often this occurs due to prolonged overheating – for example, if a woman likes to go to the sauna, abuses wraps, often takes baths with a water temperature of more than 38 degrees C. The progression of the paraovarian cyst is also facilitated by tanning under the sun or in a solarium.

This type of formation, with its small size, usually does not affect the course of pregnancy and does not require any treatment. With the active growth of the cyst, its surgical removal is indicated.

Why are ovarian cysts dangerous?

There are cases when a follicular cyst or a cyst of the corpus luteum bursts, and its contents are poured into the abdominal cavity. In this case, bleeding may begin, and, as a result, the need for hospitalization in a hospital. In addition, torsion of the ovarian cyst is possible, which is accompanied by severe abdominal pain and also requires hospital treatment.
During pregnancy, large ovarian cysts pose a potential danger, since cyst rupture or torsion may occur, in this case, surgical intervention is indispensable.

In rare cases, the formation of multiple ovarian cysts causes infertility.

Diagnostics of cysts

The first stage in the diagnosis of cysts is an examination by a gynecologist in a chair, the doctor can detect a unilateral (less often bilateral) enlargement of the ovary, with large cysts, soreness is sometimes noted during the examination.

For the diagnosis of ovarian cysts, ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs is widely used, which makes it possible to determine the type of cyst, since all the formations described above have their own distinctive features.

In some cases, for the correct diagnosis, it is necessary to carry out repeated ultrasound examinations during one or more menstrual cycles.
In case of controversial issues, the doctor may additionally recommend an MRI of the pelvic organs.

Methods for the treatment of ovarian cysts

Treatment of cysts is carried out in two ways – conservatively, that is, with the help of drugs, and promptly, that is, surgically.

Conservative therapy

Conservative therapy in this case is based on the use of hormonal drugs.For the treatment of cysts, hormonal contraceptives are widely used, most often MARVELON is prescribed.

Hormonal contraceptives are prescribed for the treatment of functional ovarian cysts and in the postoperative period after removal of the remaining ovarian cysts to prevent their re-formation.

With endometrioid ovarian cysts in the postoperative period, in order to prevent relapse, hormonal agents are usually used that cause artificial menopause.

Surgical treatment

Surgical treatment for functional cysts is required only in case of complications such as rupture of the cyst or torsion. With organic cysts, surgery is most often necessary.

Operations to remove ovarian cysts are performed by laparoscopic access (special instruments inserted into the abdomen through small incisions under the control of a video camera). Laparoscopy is also possible during pregnancy, in case of complications from the ovarian cyst.Only with large cysts is it necessary to make an incision in the anterior abdominal wall.

A feature of ovarian surgery is the removal of a cyst or tumor within healthy tissues, that is, the ovarian tissue, which contains many follicles, must remain intact, and the cyst, together with its capsule, is carefully “removed” from the ovary. In rare cases, the so-called resection of the ovary is performed, that is, the removal of a part of it. If the size of the cysts is very large, then in some situations it is practically impossible to find ovarian tissue.In this case, the entire ovary is removed.

After surgical treatment with laparoscopic access, a woman recovers quickly, usually a week after the operation, she can already go to work.

Pregnancy management with ovarian cyst 90 100

The planning of pregnancy usually depends on the type of cyst. Most often, conception is recommended 3-6 months after surgery.

During pregnancy, ovarian cysts are monitored using ultrasound and Doppler studies – studying the blood flow in the ovary and in the cyst, monitoring the tumor marker CA-125, the concentration of which increases sharply if the cyst degenerates into a malignant tumor.

If surgical treatment is required during pregnancy, it is safest to perform laparoscopy at 16-18 weeks.

Prevention of ovarian cysts 90 100

For the prevention of cysts, timely diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases, as well as normalization of weight, are of great importance, since this will help to avoid hormonal disorders in a woman’s body.

It is important to observe personal hygiene and prevent inflammatory diseases of the uterus and ovaries, as well as sexually transmitted diseases.

Ovarian cysts can often occur after abortion.

The use of hormonal contraceptives significantly reduces the risk of any ovarian cysts.

90,000 ᐈ 【Ovarian cyst】 Treatment and removal of ovarian cysts in Kiev, the cost of the operation – “Dobrobut”


Prices for services

Service Cost

  • Ovarian cyst removal (laparoscopic or classical)
  • 10500


    To order

  • Diagnostic laparoscopy
  • 7170


    To order

  • Ovarian tumor marker (NOT 4)
  • 565


    To order

  • Ovarian tumor marker (CA 125)
  • 265


    To order

  • ROMA Index (calculating the risk of ovarian cancer CA 125; HE-4)
  • 740


    To order

  • MRI Female pelvis (uterus, ovaries, bladder, rectum)
  • 2465


    To order

  • MRI Female pelvis (uterus, ovaries, bladder, rectum) with contrast injection
  • 4480


    To order

  • Ovarian cyst removal_case
  • 22373


    To order

  • Histological examination after biopsy and wedge resection of the ovaries (one side)
  • 2500


    To order

  • Histological examination after removal of the uterine appendages with ovarian tumors more than 5 cm (on one side) *
  • 2500


    To order

    Types, symptoms and treatment of ovarian cysts

    An ovarian cyst is a benign neoplasm that contains fluid inside and has a diameter of 3-20 cm.Symptoms and treatment of ovarian cysts should be known to every woman, because the uncontrolled course of this disease leads to serious consequences.

    Classification of ovarian cysts

    In medicine, there is a clear classification of the benign disease under consideration:

    • Follicular cyst. It is most often diagnosed in women, the reason for the formation is the “overripe” of the follicle in the ovary without rupture, which is normal. A cyst of this type often disappears on its own – it dissolves immediately after menstruation.
    • Hemorrhagic cyst. It is formed if a vessel ruptures inside the corpus luteum or follicle.
    • Dermoid cyst. Signs of a dermoid ovarian cyst will appear in adolescence, when the girl begins puberty, and this is due to the fact that this type of neoplasm is classified as congenital.
    • Functional cyst. It is often called a corpus luteum cyst, but it is rarely diagnosed in gynecological practice.The causes of the cyst of the corpus luteum of the ovary have not yet been fully elucidated; many doctors associate this pathological process with hormonal disorders.
    • Endometrioid cyst. This is a manifestation of endometriosis, when the lining of the uterus begins to grow actively and goes beyond the cavity.
    • Dysontogenetic cyst. It is formed only if a girl’s ovary does not develop correctly during puberty.

      Dermoid and endometrioid cysts are always considered by doctors separately – such neoplasms can form not only in the ovaries, but also in other parts of the appendages and uterus.These types of ovarian cysts are dangerous for women, as they can degenerate into malignant formations.

      How the ovarian cyst manifests itself

      Very often the pathology is asymptomatic and it is diagnosed “accidentally”. Even if the doctor suspects the presence of a benign formation in a woman, then it will be possible to find out the size of the ovarian cyst on an ultrasound scan or assess its condition and potential health hazard only during examinations.

      Signs of pathology:

      • “unauthorized” discharge of blood from the vagina
      • persistent menstrual irregularities
      • the appearance of pain in the lower abdomen of a pulling character during physical exertion
      • problems with urination – in the process the woman feels pressure in the lower abdomen
      • severe pain during menstruation
      • discomfort during intercourse.

      Of course, these symptoms may indicate the development of other diseases of the reproductive system, but with a periodic increase in temperature, lowering blood pressure, fever, unexplained weight loss, you should immediately seek qualified medical help.

      Very often women ask “what to do if an ovarian cyst appears during pregnancy?” Doctors recommend not to take any therapeutic measures, but to be under the constant supervision of specialists.And after delivery, it will be possible to choose an effective treatment and prevent the development of complications.

      If an ovarian cyst bursts, the woman will feel a sharp / sharp pain, usually she faints, her skin becomes markedly pale, and her pulse is rare. This condition requires surgical intervention, and the count goes on for minutes – often the patient develops peritonitis, which ends in death.

      Treatment of an ovarian cyst

      Treatment of an ovarian cyst without surgery is possible only if it is diagnosed at an early stage of development, has a small size and does not cause inconvenience to a woman.In this case, doctors choose observational tactics, the patient may be prescribed hormonal drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs.

      Many women ask how endometrioid ovarian cyst is treated. Doctors carry out a number of tests, find out whether there are malignant cells in the neoplasm tissue, and only after that they prescribe a surgical intervention.

      Doctors prefer to perform surgical removal of a benign neoplasm, because it is unreasonable to drag out time and wait for the problem to resolve itself.The consequences of a ruptured ovarian cyst (and this can happen at any moment) can be dangerous for the patient, up to and including death.

      As a rule, doctors remove a benign neoplasm by the laparoscopic method – it is recognized as less traumatic, excludes profuse blood loss and accelerates the recovery period. The price of laparoscopy of an ovarian cyst in women is quite acceptable, so any patient can take advantage of this treatment.

      The postoperative period should be described separately.It proceeds, as a rule, without complications, in some cases it lasts 3 days. After surgery to remove the follicular ovarian cyst, the patient will have to take hormonal drugs for 2-3 months, which will help normalize the menstrual cycle and prevent the re-formation of a benign formation.

      More information about what are the reasons for the formation of cysts, how dangerous an ovarian cyst in a girl is and what the prognosis of the disease are, can be obtained on the pages of our Dobrobut website.com.

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      Ovarian cyst – causes, diagnosis and treatment

      Initial appointment with an obstetrician-gynecologist 1500
      Follow-up appointment with obstetrician-gynecologist 1300
      Vulvoscopy 1500
      Extended Colposcopy 2500
      Rehabilitation of the vagina 350
      Medical early termination of pregnancy 13,000
      Radio wave coagulation of genital warts 1 unit up to 5 mm. 1200
      Radio wave coagulation of genital warts 1 unit more than 5 mm. 1500
      Radio wave coagulation. resection of neoplasms: papilloma. keratom, etc. from 5 mm and above (1 unit) 1500
      Removal of superficial polyp of the cervical canal 2200
      Removal and insertion of the IUD without the cost of the coil 2200
      Removal and insertion of IUD with spiral clinic 3500
      Treatment of the cervix with drugs 1200
      Inserting a drug swab 1000
      Endometrial aspiration biopsy with histology 5000
      Hemostatic complex 1500
      Antispasmodic complex 1100
      Analgesic therapy for pain 1100
      Tocolytic therapy 1100
      Metabolic therapy 1100
      Anti-inflammatory complex 1400
      Removal of a foreign body from the vagina 700
      Curettage of the cervical canal 2000
      Swab sampling 400
      Registration of the PrivatKlinik dispensary book 2000
      Radio wave coagulation of the cervix 3500
      Radiofrequency biopsy of the cervix 5500
      Application on the cervix with Solkovagin’s solution (1 procedure) with the clinic’s solution 3000
      Cone-shaped biopsy of the cervix (conization) 6000
      Separation of synechia 1500
      Bougie of the cervical canal 1500
      Installation of the uterine cavity with drugs 2200
      Lancing of cervical cysts 5000
      Insertion of the gynecological support ring (with patient ring). 1000
      Insertion of the gynecological support ring (with clinic ring). 2000
      Intimate contour correction with Yvoire 2 ml. 20,000
      Intimate contour correction with Yvoire 4 ml. 49,000
      Autoplasma therapy (subcutaneous / submucous administration of one’s own plasma – to maintain immunity). 4200
      Autoplasma application.1 tube (9 ml) 1500
      The course of treatment “Allokin alpha” (3 injections with our drug) 5500
      Subcutaneous installation of the Implanon NKST implant. long-term reversible (with the cost of the drug) 18,000
      Subcutaneous installation of the Implanon NKST implant. long-term reversible (drug cost not included) 5000
      Permeability of fallopian tubes 8000
      Removal of subcutaneous contraception 2500
      Lancing of the Bartholin gland abscess 6000
      Laser therapy for diseases of the female genital organs 1 session 700
      Laser therapy for diseases of the female genital organs 10 sessions 6000
      Placental anti-aging therapy Melsmon (1 injection) 3900
      Placental anti-aging therapy Melsmon (10 injections) 35,000
      Consultation (reception of 2 or more doctors) 2000
      The course of HPV treatment “PANAVIR” (5 injections – with our drugs) 7500
      Placental therapy Laennec.intramuscular injection. 1 amp. 3000
      Placental therapy Laennec. intramuscular injection. 10 amp. 22,000
      Placental therapy Laennec. introduction by intravenous drip. 2 amp. 5000
      Placental therapy Laennec. introduction by intravenous drip. 5 amp. 11,000
      CamRow Injection 1500ME / 2 ml. 1 injection 12,000
      I / O injection Buserelin Long 7500
      Installation of a vaginal ring (Novaring Sachet No. 1) 4400
      Intimate plasty of the labia minora (1 degree) 25000
      Intimate plasty of the labia minora (2 degrees) 30000
      Intimate plasty of the labia minora (3 degrees) 35000
      Human immunoglobulin standards.25 ml i / v drip 6500
      Kolpotest RN 400
      Schiller’s test 400
      Clitoroplasty (enlargement of the clitoris) 20000
      G-spot augmentation 15000-25000
      Reneoplasty (correction of the threshold of the moisture walls) 20000
      Correction of age-related changes in the walls of the vagina (flabbiness, prolapse) 20000
      AmniSure ROM Test 3000
      Non-surgical intimate contouring Amalain Intimate 1.0 ml 15500
      Non-surgical intimate contouring Amalain Intimate 2.0 ml 29000
      Insertion of the Mirena IUD 21000
      IUD extraction (simple) 2200
      IUD extraction (complex) 3000
      IUD insertion (without spiral cost) 2200
      IUD insertion (with clinic spiral) 3500
      Colposcopy 1500

      symptoms and causes – treatment of cysts in the ovaries in the gynecological clinic “MedOk” – Women’s Medical Center MedOK

      Despite the fact that functional types of neoplasms in the ovary are able to resolve on their own, other types of tumors pose a serious threat to the woman’s body and require immediate treatment (including surgery).

      The main danger of an ovarian cyst lies in its predisposition to degeneration into an oncological malignant neoplasm. This happens especially often with mucinous and endometrioid cysts. The probability of such a rebirth is the higher, the older the woman is; patients over 45 years of age are at greatest risk.

      Since the cyst is a mobile neoplasm, twisting of the narrowest part of it, the cyst leg, is a frequent complication.With this twisting, the blood supply is disrupted, necrosis and tissue death occurs, which ultimately leads to peritonitis – a condition that is a real threat to life. Sometimes the twisting of the cyst leg occurs together with the fallopian tube and ovary – the cyst seems to capture them with its enlarged soft tissues. In this case, the only possible option is emergency surgery.

      In addition to the complications already listed, there is another serious threat, which also requires immediate surgical intervention, is a ruptured ovarian cyst.When the cyst ruptures, its contents penetrate into the peritoneum, causing peritonitis. This complication is typical for endometrioid cysts, but also occurs in other types of ovarian tumors. The clinical picture with a ruptured ovarian cyst is similar to the symptoms of acute appendicitis, a woman has:

      • temperature rise;
      • acute abdominal pain;
      • firm belly;
      • weakness, dizziness;
      • nausea, vomiting;
      • decrease in pressure and sometimes loss of consciousness;
      • pallor of the skin.

      For these symptoms, call for emergency help.

      Also, ovarian cysts often become infected, inflamed and start the process of suppuration of this neoplasm. Endometrioid cysts cause adhesions and, as a result, can lead to infertility. However, other types of cysts also prevent pregnancy.

      Hemorrhagic ovarian cyst: how to treat a capsule with blood contents

      By Alexey VostretsovRead time 4 min.Views 351Posted on

      The ovaries are a paired organ of the endocrine system that plays a key role in the reproductive function of women. In the ovaries, an egg matures, which by the time of ovulation comes out of the burst follicle and is ready for fertilization. This process can be disrupted if there are any problems in the glands.

      One of the common phenomena that is found in the ovaries is a cyst. It is a benign encapsulated tumor filled with various types of fluid.There are functional hollow cysts that do not pose a threat to a woman’s health; over time, many of them dissolve. Sometimes they are filled with bloody contents, and are transformed into hemorrhagic cysts. Such formations cannot be ignored, as a capsule rupture and hemorrhage in the abdominal region can occur, which is very dangerous for a woman’s health.

      Reasons for the formation

      Hemorrhagic cyst can be considered a complication of functional cystic formations (corpus luteum and follicular).Experts believe that the main reason for the development of a hemorrhagic cyst is damage to the vessel when the egg leaves the ovary during ovulation. As a result, hemorrhage occurs in the follicle or corpus luteum. Most often, the disease occurs in women aged 20-35 years. The right ovary is more susceptible to the development of education, since its blood supply is more intense than that of the left. The beginning of the formation of hemorrhagic cysts occurs in the middle of the menstrual cycle, when the follicle ruptures and the corpus luteum forms.

      The development of cystic formations is more often associated with hormonal changes. Their causes may be:

      • inflammation in the small pelvis,
      • genetic predisposition,
      • stressful situations,
      • bad habits.

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      The degeneration of a functional cyst into a hemorrhagic one can provoke:

      • excessive physical exertion,
      • hypothermia,
      • intense sexual intercourse,
      • absence or insufficient treatment of infectious processes.

      Clinical picture

      With the transformation of functional cysts into hemorrhagic, patients have a number of complaints:

      • pain in the lower abdomen that can be stopped with analgesics,
      • painful menstruation,
      • profuse bleeding during menstruation,
      • heaviness at the bottom of the abdominal wall and in the groin,
      • irregular periods.

      Some patients experience nausea and vomiting. Painful sensations can appear during urination and during intercourse.

      Pay attention! Hemorrhagic cysts are dangerous because there is always a risk of rupture. In this case, the contents spread into the abdominal cavity, which can lead to sepsis.


      The doctor can make a preliminary diagnosis even at the examination stage, taking into account also the patient’s complaints about certain symptoms.Additionally, an ultrasound scan is performed, if necessary, a laparoscopy of the ovarian cyst is prescribed, during which the formation can be removed (according to indications).

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      For the symptoms and treatment of autoimmune thyroiditis during pregnancy, see this page.

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      Effective treatments

      How to treat an ovarian cyst? The tactics of therapy will depend on the patient’s condition, the possible risks of complications of the hemorrhagic cyst. In some cases, the formation can regress, like most functional cysts. In such cases, an observational tactic is chosen, surgical intervention is not performed. Hormone therapy and the use of absorbable agents may be recommended. This treatment is rarely used due to its low effectiveness.If necessary, use anti-inflammatory drugs, homeopathy (Alice).

      Observation as a method of treating ovarian cysts is not suitable in case of neoplasm in girls. The anatomical features of the child’s reproductive system often cause the development of torsion of the cyst, rupture of its capsule, which is fraught with hemorrhages in the abdominal cavity and in the ovary. Intervention must be carried out immediately.

      Among the operative methods, exfoliation of the cyst or removal of the affected ovary can be used.After the intervention, the material must be sent for histological examination in order to exclude the presence of ovarian cancer.

      The ovary is removed completely if there is a high likelihood of cyst rupture or hemorrhage. Women of reproductive age try to preserve their reproductive function as much as possible, more often they resort to husking education. After the operation, a course of antibiotics, hormonal drugs, means for general strengthening and rapid recovery of the body is prescribed. When a cyst ruptures, cystadenomectomy is performed to preserve the ability to become pregnant.

      Hemorrhagic cysts are a consequence of functional formations, which usually do not pose a threat to a woman’s health. With early diagnosis and correct treatment tactics, complications that this education can entail can be avoided. The main thing: not to ignore the problem and be attentive to your health.

      Video about the causes of hemorrhagic ovarian cysts and about the features of neoplasm therapy:

      Hemorrhagic ovarian cyst – treatment, symptoms, prognosis

      Cysts, which are benign neoplasms, can form in all organs and tissues, but in women they very often arise in the ovaries.

      Such formations have a capsule, inside of which liquid is contained. Sometimes they are filled with blood, then hemorrhagic ovarian cysts are diagnosed.

      Causes of hemorrhagic ovarian cyst

      The main reason for the appearance of cystic cavities is a violation of the hormonal background of a woman, which is provoked by a lot of factors, including:

      • pregnancy;
      • by taking a number of medicines, in particular hormonal ones;
      • menstrual irregularities and age-related changes;
      • 90,009 abortions;

      • stress;
      • endocrine diseases, especially hypothyroidism, obesity, anorexia.

      Nevertheless, cysts often occur against the background of inflammation of the internal genital organs and sexually transmitted diseases.

      Functional cysts are found in most cases. This term refers to neoplasms that have arisen during the normal operation of the ovaries from follicles, which, for unknown reasons, do not rupture to release a mature egg. They often disappear on their own, and the woman does not even know about their recent presence. .

      But due to the fact that there are many blood vessels in the ovaries, sometimes hemorrhage occurs in the cavity of the neoplasm, and the gynecologist can diagnose the presence of a hemorrhagic cyst.

      Thus, any cyst can turn into a hemorrhagic, since each such formation is prone to bleeding and hemorrhage due to its structural features.

      Also, cysts of the corpus luteum of the ovary often become hemorrhagic. They form at the site of a ruptured follicle.

      Attention! Unlike ordinary functional cysts, hemorrhagic cysts are subject to compulsory treatment.

      As a rule, women are diagnosed with a hemorrhagic cyst of the right ovary. Some scientists attribute this to its greater follicular activity and more intense blood supply, although there is still no convincing research data to support this point of view. However, cystic cavities can also form in the left ovary.

      How dangerous is a hemorrhagic ovarian cyst

      Since a cyst is a fluid-filled cavity, under the influence of physical exertion, active sexual intercourse, or even an inaccurate gynecological examination, its capsule can rupture.

      As a result, the contents will leak out either into the ovarian tissue or into the abdominal cavity, depending on the location of the neoplasm.

      This is what determines how dangerous a hemorrhagic ovarian cyst is. Indeed, with the penetration of the pathological contents of the cystic cavity into the peritoneum, there is a high risk of developing peritonitis and ovarian apoplexy.

      In such cases, only urgently performed surgical intervention can save the patient’s life.

      These complications are manifested:

      • severe abdominal pain;
      • weakness;
      • blue skin;
      • chills with cold sweat;
      • a sharp drop in blood pressure;
      • fainting is possible.

      Also, the cyst may fester, which will lead to inflammation of the pelvic organs, or its base will twist. This condition is quite dangerous, since it disrupts the blood flow in the organ.

      Ovarian tissue necrosis and infertility can become a consequence of the torsion of the pedicle of the formation. In addition, the presence of a hemorrhagic cyst can lead to miscarriages . Therefore, when planning a pregnancy, it is recommended to undergo a comprehensive examination, and if a pathology is detected, appropriate treatment.

      Symptoms of a hemorrhagic cyst

      While the neoplasm is small, it does not cause any discomfort to the patient, therefore, usually women turn to the gynecologist only when the cysts grow and begin to squeeze the surrounding tissues. This is followed by:

      • frequent pain from the affected ovary in the lower abdomen;
      • weakness;
      • painful and heavy periods;
      • feeling of heaviness and discomfort in the abdomen;
      • irregular menses.

      Typical pain sensations often occur after physical work, intimacy or urination. Symptoms of a hemorrhagic ovarian cyst also include bouts of nausea and vomiting.

      To make a diagnosis, the patient’s complaints and a medical examination are usually sufficient, in which soreness is found in the suprapubic and iliac regions. Sometimes the gynecologist can even feel the enlarged ovaries, which is not the norm.

      To confirm the diagnosis, the patient is prescribed ultrasound, less often MRI or laparoscopy.The latter method allows you to accurately establish the nature of the cyst and its contents, which will allow you to choose the optimal method of treatment, and, if necessary, immediately carry out an operation.

      How to treat a hemorrhagic ovarian cyst

      Since hemorrhagic cysts are functional, surgery is required only if there is a high risk of rupture. In other cases, patients are prescribed conservative therapy, which consists in taking hormonal drugs.

      If such a tactic for treating a hemorrhagic cyst is chosen, then women should regularly undergo ultrasound so that the doctor can monitor the dynamics of the process, since in the absence or stop of regression of the neoplasm, the patient is recommended to remove the formation by surgery.

      If the patient has obesity or anorexia, she is advised to take measures to normalize body weight in order to normalize hormonal levels and increase the effectiveness of the therapy.

      Depending on the size, location of the cystic cavity, the woman’s age and her desire to have children in the future, the type of operation is determined.

      Hulling cysts 90 100

      This method of surgical intervention is used most often, since it allows you to preserve the ovary and its fertility, as it involves removing only the cyst. It is indicated in the absence of prerequisites for the development of cancer.

      Wedge-shaped resection

      During the operation, in addition to the cyst, a section of the ovary in the shape of a triangle is to be removed.It is carried out when the tissues of the organ change due to their prolonged squeezing by a neoplasm or other reasons.

      How is an operation to remove an ovarian cyst performed

      Removal of ovary with cyst 90 100

      Such a radical operation is carried out less and less today. Typically, patients after 45 years of age with large or multiple neoplasms and a high risk of rupture are exposed to it.

      • But if a woman has a hemorrhagic cyst of the left ovary and it is decided to remove it, she can still get pregnant thanks to the remaining right ovary.
      • In postmenopausal women, the fallopian tube may be removed along with the ovary.

      What are the consequences of treatment and surgery

      The removed material is sent for histological examination, during which it is examined for the presence of malignant cells . This eliminates the possibility of having cancer.

      Cyst exfoliation and wedge resection are usually performed by laparoscopy, so that no visible scars are left on the woman’s body.After all, such operations are endoscopic and involve surgical manipulations with special instruments inserted into the patient’s body through puncture punctures.

      The advantage of these methods is that after them women recover much faster and can leave the walls of the medical institution on the third day after the operation. In addition, the rehabilitation period is easy, and the pains in the lower abdomen that occur within several days are quickly eliminated with conventional over-the-counter pain relievers.

      After the surgical intervention, the woman is prescribed a long-term intake of oral contraceptives in order to normalize the hormonal background, and, therefore, the menstrual cycle. Also, during the recovery period, antibacterial and restorative therapy is required.

      After the operation, it is recommended to refrain from sexual intercourse, lifting weights and significant physical exertion for several months. A couple of weeks are not worth visiting baths, saunas and swimming pools.

      Functional ovarian cyst – treatment, causes, symptoms