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Tuberlagation surgery: Tubal ligation – Mayo Clinic

Tubal Ligation | Johns Hopkins Medicine

What is tubal ligation?

Tubal ligation is surgical procedure to prevent pregnancy. It has commonly been called “getting your tubes tied.” It is also called a female sterilization.

  • Tubal refers to the fallopian tubes. Each month, an egg is released from an ovary and travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus.
  • Ligation means to tie off. This prevents the egg and male sperm from connecting to prevent pregnancy.

During this surgery, both fallopian tubes are blocked or cut. It is usually done in the hospital or in an outpatient surgical clinic. In most cases, you will be able to go home on the day of surgery. You may have this surgery done under general anesthesia (being asleep), or local or spinal anesthesia (anesthesia that leaves you awake, but unable to feel pain).

After the procedure, you will still have your periods and have sex normally. In fact, women may feel more at ease because they do not have to worry about unwanted pregnancy.

Tubal ligation is permanent birth control. Although it may be reversed by another operation, only about 50% to 80% of women are able to become pregnant after having their fallopian tubes reattached. This surgery doesn’t prevent sexually transmitted disease. You will still need to practice safe sex.

Why might I need a tubal ligation?

Reasons for choosing this birth control include:

  • You are an adult woman
  • Pregnancy would be a health risk for you
  • You or your partner has a genetic disorder that you don’t want to pass on to a child

This form of birth control may not be the best choice for you if you are unsure if you will want to become pregnant in the future. It also may not be a good choice if you may have other partners in the future. Having a new partner might make you reconsider getting pregnant.

What are the risks of a tubal ligation?

Tubal ligation is safe, but all surgeries carry some risks. Serious problems occur in less than 1 out of 1,000 women. You will need to sign a consent form that explains the risks and benefits of the surgery and you should discuss these risks and benefits with your surgeon. Some potential risks include:

  • Bleeding from an incision or inside the abdomen
  • Infection
  • Damage to other organs inside the abdomen
  • Side effects from anesthesia
  • Ectopic pregnancy (an egg that becomes fertilized outside the uterus)
  • Incomplete closing of a fallopian tube that results in pregnancy

Even though tubal ligation is a safe and effective form of birth control, about 1 out of 200 women may still become pregnant after the procedure. Having the surgery just after your period starts may avoid the chance that an already fertilized egg will reach your uterus after surgery.

These conditions may increase your risk for problems after surgery:

  • Diabetes
  • Previous abdominal surgery
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Lung disease
  • Overweight

You may have other risks, depending on your specific health condition. Be sure to discuss any concerns with your healthcare provider before the procedure.

How do I get ready for a tubal ligation?

In the days before your surgery, tell your surgeon about any medicines you take. This includes herbal supplements and over-the-counter medicines. You may have to stop taking aspirin or other medicines that thin your blood and may increase bleeding.

Other points to go over include:

  • Tell your surgeon if you or someone in your family has ever had a reaction to general or local anesthesia.
  • If you smoke, you may be told to stop smoking well before surgery.
  • On the day and night before surgery you may be given instructions for when to stop eating and drinking. If you are having general anesthesia, it is common to have nothing to eat or drink after midnight.
  • Ask your surgeon if you should take your regular medicines with a small sip of water on the morning of the procedure.
  • Wear loose comfortable clothing on the day of surgery to have an easier time getting dressed afterward.
  • If you are having the surgery as an outpatient, arrange for someone to drive you home and stay with you during the early recovery period.

What happens during a tubal ligation?

Before the procedure starts you will have an intravenous line (IV) started so you can receive fluids and medicines to make you relaxed and sleepy. If you are having general anesthesia, you may get medicine through the IV to put you to sleep. A tube may be inserted in your throat so that you can inhale the anesthesia through your lungs.

If you are having local or spinal anesthesia, you will be given a numbing medicine in your abdomen or in your spinal area. You may remain awake during surgery, but you should not feel any pain. The actual surgery takes about 30 minutes.

Here is what typically happens during the procedure:

  1. The surgeon will make one or more small cuts (incisions) near your belly button. Sometimes the surgeon makes a small incision in your lower abdomen as well.
  2. Gas may be pumped into your belly to inflate it. This gives your surgeon a better view and more room to work.
  3. The surgeon will put a narrow tube with a light and a camera on the end into your abdomen. This tube is called a laparoscope.
  4. Your surgeon will use long, thin instruments put through the laparoscope or through another tiny cut to find and grab hold of the fallopian tubes.
  5. The tubes may be cut, tied, clamped, banded, or sealed off with an electric current. 
  6. After surgery is done, the surgeon will close the incisions in the skin, probably using 1 to 2 stitches. He or she will cover the area with small dressings.

What happens after a tubal ligation?

After your surgery, you will be taken to the recovery room to be watched while you recover from the anesthesia. Your IV will be removed once you can drink fluids. You will probably be able to go home in a few hours.

Here is what you can probably expect at home:

  • You will be able to gradually resume your normal diet.
  • Some discomfort is normal. Ask your surgeon what medicines to take for pain.
  • You may have shoulder pain for a few days. This is from the gas that was pumped into your belly. Lying down for a while often relieves this pain.
  • Keep your incision areas dry for a few days. Follow your surgeon’s instructions on bathing and dressing care. You may need to go back to have your stitches removed. Keep all your follow-up appointments.
  • Gradually resume normal activities in a few days.
  • Avoid heavy lifting for a few weeks. Ask your surgeon when you can return to specific activities.
  • You may be able to return to sexual activity in about 1 week.

Tell your surgeon about any of the following:

  • Increasing pain or pain that is not relieved by medicine
  • Any drainage, bleeding, redness, or swelling
  • Fever
  • Vomiting or nausea
  • Dizziness or fainting spells

Next steps

Before you agree to the test or the procedure make sure you know:

  • The name of the test or procedure
  • The reason you are having the test or procedure
  • What results to expect and what they mean
  • The risks and benefits of the test or procedure
  • What the possible side effects or complications are
  • When and where you are to have the test or procedure
  • Who will do the test or procedure and what that person’s qualifications are
  • What would  happen if you did not have the test or procedure
  • Any alternative tests or procedures to think about
  • When and how will you get the results
  • Who to call after the test or procedure if you have questions or problems
  • How much will you have to pay for the test or procedure

Tubal Sterilization (Tubal Ligation) – familydoctor.


Tubal sterilization (tubal ligation) is a surgical method of birth control. It is commonly referred to as “getting your tubes tied.” The surgery prevents a person from getting pregnant by closing off their fallopian tubes. These tubes carry an egg from the ovary to the uterus each month. Sperm swim up the fallopian tubes to join with the egg, resulting in pregnancy. When the tubes are closed, the egg and sperm cannot reach each other.

Tubal sterilization is a permanent form of birth control. It is one of the most effective options for preventing pregnancy. It is possible to reverse it, but it is difficult and not always successful. It doesn’t protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

You don’t need your partner’s consent to have a tubal sterilization. But talking about the procedure beforehand is best for most relationships.

Path to improved health

Tubal sterilization is performed in a hospital or an outpatient surgery center. The procedure can be done on an outpatient basis at any time. Postpartum sterilization can take place right after a person gives birth, if it was a cesarean delivery (C-section). It can also be performed within hours or days of a vaginal delivery.

You will receive anesthesia before the procedure is done. You won’t feel anything. During the procedure, your doctor will likely make 1 or 2 incisions (cuts) in your abdomen. They will insert special instruments into the incisions. Using the instruments, they will seal off the fallopian tubes by blocking them with plastic clips, clamps, or rings. They may remove or destroy a small piece of each tube.

After the procedure, your doctor will close your incisions. You should be able to go home in a few hours. If the procedure follows childbirth, you shouldn’t have to spend any extra time in the hospital.

After the procedure

You may have some symptoms after the procedure, including:

  • Abdominal pain, cramping
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Discomfort at incision site(s)
  • Shoulder pain (this is due to a gas that is pumped into your abdomen to help separate your organs and give doctors room to perform the surgery)

As with any surgical procedure, problems can sometimes occur. Contact your doctor right away if you:

  • Develop a fever
  • Bleed from an incision
  • Have severe stomach pain that won’t stop
  • Have fainting spells

Recovery after tubal sterilization is usually complete in a couple of days. You may want to take it easy for a week or so. Avoid heavy lifting for 1 week.

You will still have a period after your tubes are tied. Some temporary forms of birth control, such as the pill, help irregular menstrual cycles. Sterilization does not impact your menstrual cycle. If you had irregular periods before using any type of birth control, you will likely have irregular periods again after sterilization.

Ask your doctor how long you should wait after the procedure before having sex. Don’t have sex until you feel comfortable. You usually need to wait about a week after surgery. You’ll have to wait at least 4 weeks if sterilization is done shortly after childbirth.

Things to consider

Tubal sterilization is a permanent form of birth control. If you think you might want to reverse the procedure someday, you should not have it done. Reversal is possible, but it’s a complicated, major surgery. Even a successful reversal doesn’t guarantee that you can get pregnant again. If you do get pregnant, you have an increased risk of complications, such as ectopic pregnancy. Plus, the surgery is expensive and is usually not covered by health insurance.

Remember that sterilization won’t protect you against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Always use a condom during sexual activity to prevent STIs.

Some people worry that sterilization will change them, but it doesn’t. It won’t make you less feminine. It doesn’t cause weight gain or the growth of facial hair. It won’t decrease your sexual pleasure or cause menopause to start.

Talk to your doctor anytime you’re thinking about a new form of birth control, especially a permanent one. You have many choices. Make sure it’s the best choice for you.

Questions to ask your doctor

  • Does permanent birth control offer the best choice for me?
  • Are there other forms of permanent birth control?
  • What if I want to reverse the procedure later on?
  • When is the best time for me to have the procedure done?
  • What are the risks involved with the procedure?
  • Could I get pregnant after having a tubal sterilization?
  • Does the procedure increase the risk of ovarian cancer?


National Institutes of Health, MedlinePlus: Tubal Ligation

S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women’s Health: Birth control methods

U.S. Food and Drug Administration: Birth Control

Copyright © American Academy of Family Physicians

This information provides a general overview and may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject.

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Facial biorevitalization in Moscow – price of 1 procedure

Natural hydration with age of the skin, the synthesis of collagen and elastin, which are responsible for its elasticity, decreases, the production of hyaluronic acid decreases, thanks to which our skin remains elastic and beautiful. As a result of the lack of moisture, the face loses volume, the skin begins to sag, becomes flabby and inelastic, wrinkles appear, and the contour of the face ceases to be clearly defined. Biorevitalization is a modern cosmetology technique, the essence of which is the subcutaneous injection of a preparation containing hyaluronic acid, vitamins, and antioxidants.

In our clinic in Moscow, you can undergo a course of procedures that restores the hydrobalance of the skin, activates the production of collagen and elastin fibers, rejuvenates, and improves local immunity. The results are noticeable after the first visit to the beautician.

How the biorevitalization method works

Biorevitalization is injections of hyaluronic acid into the skin of the face and body. The essence of the procedure is the subcutaneous injection of a rejuvenating cocktail, which includes:

  • hyaluronic acid;
  • vitamin complexes;
  • antioxidants.

Injected under the skin, the drug causes a stress effect, affecting soft tissues at the intracellular level. This reaction causes cells to more actively synthesize collagen and elastin fibers. As a result, the density of the skin increases, wrinkles, dryness and other age-related defects disappear.

Injections stop the process of skin aging, help tighten the oval of the face and get rid of the double chin without resorting to surgical intervention. Biorevitalization is also prescribed for patients with acne and post-acne.

Our beauticians will help:

  • reduce the number of rashes,
  • smooth micro-relief,
  • get rid of deep wrinkles and age folds, eliminate age spots, scars, scars, stretch marks;
  • get rid of bags and dark circles under the eyes.

Pros and cons of biorevitalization

Subcutaneously injected hyaluronic acid is a natural component of the human body, so injections of the drug practically do not cause side effects and are safe, which is considered the main advantage of the method. Another significant advantage is the absence of a long rehabilitation period. Recovery after the procedure will take only 2-3 days, while the skin will not need special complex care. Biorevitalization can be carried out at any time of the year, among other advantages of the procedure are such as:

  • relative painlessness with subcutaneous injection of anti-aging composition;
  • high efficiency at an affordable cost of drugs;
  • minimal risk of side effects and complications;
  • no specific contraindications;
  • use of drugs that are chemically close to the natural components of metabolism;
  • the possibility of carrying out the procedure at any age.

Minus the method: hyaluronic acid, having entered the process of intracellular metabolism, slowly begins to decompose and is excreted from the body naturally. Therefore, the course will have to be repeated again as soon as the effect after it begins to disappear.

Types of biorevitalization

Modern cosmetology offers many methods of facial rejuvenation. One of the most effective is the biorevitalization procedure. There are several varieties of it: injection and non-injection.

The essence of the injection procedure is the point injection of the composition into the dermis using a special syringe with a thin needle. The manual method of administration is carried out by a specialist manually, and the hardware method involves the use of cosmetic equipment and nozzles.

Non-injection biorevitalization does not injure the skin, but the introduction of hyaluronic acid is carried out deep into the dermis. Among the varieties noted:

  1. Oxygen biorevitalization – a preparation with hyaluronic acid in the composition is injected into the skin with oxygen, which is supplied under a certain pressure.

  2. Laser biorevitalization – the drug is injected into the dermis with an infrared laser.

  3. Aquaphoresis – the drug is applied to the layers of the dermis with simultaneous lymphatic drainage, myostimulation and laser therapy.

  4. Magnetophoresis – the introduction of the composition using magnetic waves.

  5. Cryobiorevitalization – the introduction of the drug into the skin is carried out by exposure to liquid nitrogen.

  6. Ultraphonophoresis – the supply of the drug is possible with the help of ultrasonic vibrations.

The price of the procedure directly depends on the method of introducing hyaluronic acid into the skin. In addition, the composition of the drug affects the cost, since it may contain vitamins and minerals, amino acids and antioxidants. Preparations differ in the spectrum of indications, the area of ​​​​application. The choice should be made by a specialist, focusing on the needs of the skin.

Side effects

After administration of the formulation, side effects are not excluded. These include:

  • allergic manifestations;

  • scarring;

  • redness, itching, feeling of tightness;

  • swelling of the skin and small hematomas;

  • inflammatory processes;

  • exacerbation of chronic pathologies.

Such consequences are possible if the patient neglected the doctor’s recommendations, or the specialist did not follow the protocol during the procedure.


Injection rejuvenation is carried out by different techniques, based on the condition of the skin and the treated area. When performing papular technique, the composition is injected into the superficial or middle layers of the skin. The specialist holds the needle with the cut up and inserts it at an angle of 15 °. After injection, papules are formed on the skin, which are filled with the drug. In the future, it is distributed over the entire surface, and the formations disappear. The recovery process can take up to 3 days.

The micropapular or tuberculous technique is characterized by deep injection of the drug. To do this, injections are made at an angle of 45 ° with a needle of at least 4 mm. At the same time, the skin remains even, only traces of the injection are visible on them.

The essence of the linear retrograde technique is the deep injection of the drug with a long needle at a right angle. The composition is injected with the reverse movement of the syringe. Thus, specialists manage to reduce the number of injections.

How is the procedure?


The client sits comfortably in the beautician’s office and relaxes. The specialist of our clinic performs make-up removal, cleanses the face of dirt and cosmetic residues with a special composition, then treats the affected area with an anesthetic gel. For guidance and accuracy of manipulations, markings are applied to the face.

Injection or machine treatment

After the anesthetic has taken effect, the doctor proceeds directly to the procedure. Using cosmetic syringes with ultra-thin needles, or a laser machine, he injects the composition under the skin in small doses, observing a certain distance between injections.

Application of a soothing mask

After the drug is fully administered, a soothing and healing mask is applied to the face, which will relieve inflammation and accelerate tissue regeneration.

What preparations are used?

For biorevitalization of the face, we use the rejuvenating agent Juvedrum Hydrate (“Juvederm Hydrate”). The drug was developed by the cosmetic company Allegran (France-USA). It contains:

  • high molecular weight synthetic HA,
  • mannitol,
  • phosphate buffer pH 7.2.

The drug is maximally compatible with biological tissues and breaks down slowly, so the skin remains elastic and moisturized for a long time. Juvedrum Hydrate is recommended for women aged 25-35.

With a non-injection technique, the rejuvenating composition penetrates deep into the soft tissues using a laser or ultraphonophoresis apparatus. Punctures are not made on the skin. Exposure in this way does not cause tissue heating, does not injure and introduces a beneficial cocktail into cell membranes. The gel, which includes hyaluronic acid, is applied to pre-cleansed skin. The cosmetologist, using a special device equipped with a laser nozzle, treats problem areas with smooth movements for 20-30 minutes. Low-intensity laser radiation delivers the drug to every cell, so the effect after the procedure appears instantly.

When is biorevitalization indicated?

Natural age-related changes are aggravated due to unhealthy lifestyle, stress, excessive loads. In addition, the ecological situation in Moscow leaves much to be desired, which negatively affects the condition of the skin. A course of restorative procedures is recommended for women and men who experience:

  • dryness, thinning, dehydration, decreased skin density and elasticity;
  • mimic and age wrinkles;
  • enlarged pores;
  • oily skin;
  • acne, acne;
  • pronounced vascular network;
  • grey, dull, sickly complexion;
  • scars, stretch marks, scars;
  • hyperpigmentation;
  • blurring of the oval of the face, flew;
  • spasm of facial muscles caused by a deficiency of nutrients.

The technique is also useful for skin resurfacing after chemical peels or laser resurfacing.

Contraindications to the procedure

With all the advantages, biorevitalization has a number of limitations. It cannot be carried out if a patient has:

  • oncological diseases,
  • inflammatory processes,
  • diabetes mellitus,
  • autoimmune pathologies,
  • acute infectious diseases,
  • epilepsy,
  • mental disorders,
  • skin lesions in the treatment area,
  • moles and large age spots,
  • individual intolerance to the drug,
  • blood clotting disorders.

Women during pregnancy and lactation should also postpone the procedure, since the effect of hyaluronic acid preparations on the fetus and the composition of breast milk has not been studied.

How long does the effect last?

The result of the procedure is already noticeable after the first session:

  • deep hydration and skin rejuvenation;
  • increase in turgor, elasticity, firmness;
  • disappearance of fine wrinkles, age spots, bags and bruises under the eyes;
  • elimination of edema, couperous mesh;
  • face oval correction;
  • narrowing of enlarged pores, normalization of the functioning of the sebaceous glands;
  • smoothing the microrelief, getting rid of scars, scars, stretch marks.

Immediately after biorevitalization, the skin of the face and hands looks smoother, softer and toned. After 1-2 weeks, the introduced hyaluronic acid undergoes natural biodegradation, however, during this time, the processes of synthesis of its own components of the intradermal matrix are activated, which provides a stable prolonged effect of skin rejuvenation and healing. The results of the biorevitalization course are fixed at 6-8 months. The skin becomes much more elastic, a hydro-reserve is created, which moisturizes and normalizes the dermis.

Sometimes, after the first injections, dryness is felt on the face, especially if the procedures are carried out during the heating season, or bumps-papules. This is a variant of the norm. The symptoms will disappear in 1-3 days and soon the dryness will disappear. The cosmetologist, having assessed the condition of the skin, will offer the optimal schedule of visits to the clinic for the client. Most often, biorevitalization is performed in a course of 4-6 procedures with a two-week interval between them. Support procedures are required between courses.

How to care for the skin after biorevitalization

After anti-aging therapy, it is necessary to create gentle conditions for 2-3 days. In order not to cause complications, it is recommended to protect the treated areas from exposure to direct sunlight. Therefore, before going out, the face should be lubricated with sunscreen, and a wide-brimmed hat should be worn on the head. It is also desirable to protect the skin from sudden changes in temperature, to refuse to visit the solarium, baths, saunas, swimming pools.

In the first days after biorevitalization, it is forbidden to apply decorative cosmetics to the face, do scrubs, peels and other aggressive traumatic procedures. There are restrictions on the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol abuse accelerates the excretion of hyaluronic acid from tissues and negates the effect of the procedure. During the recovery period, it is desirable to limit physical activity.

What determines the cost of the course?

The price of biorevitalization depends on the treated area (face, hands, neck, décolleté), drug consumption and the number of required procedures. An individual program is drawn up for each patient. To clarify the details and sign up for a consultation with a cosmetologist for a biorevitalization service in Moscow, order a call back or fill out an online form.