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15 benefits of drinking water and other water facts

Keeping hydrated is crucial for health and well-being, but many people do not consume enough fluids each day.

Around 60 percent of the body is made up of water, and around 71 percent of the planet’s surface is covered by water.

Perhaps it is the ubiquitous nature of water that means drinking enough each day is not at the top of many people’s lists of priorities.

Share on PinterestPossible benefits of drinking water range from keeping the kidneys healthy to losing weight.

To function properly, all the cells and organs of the body need water.

Here are some reasons our body needs water:

1. It lubricates the joints

Cartilage, found in joints and the disks of the spine, contains around 80 percent water. Long-term dehydration can reduce the joints’ shock-absorbing ability, leading to joint pain.

2. It forms saliva and mucus

Saliva helps us digest our food and keeps the mouth, nose, and eyes moist. This prevents friction and damage. Drinking water also keeps the mouth clean. Consumed instead of sweetened beverages, it can also reduce tooth decay.

3. It delivers oxygen throughout the body

Blood is more than 90 percent water, and blood carries oxygen to different parts of the body.

4. It boosts skin health and beauty

With dehydration, the skin can become more vulnerable to skin disorders and premature wrinkling.

5. It cushions the brain, spinal cord, and other sensitive tissues

Dehydration can affect brain structure and function. It is also involved in the production of hormones and neurotransmitters. Prolonged dehydration can lead to problems with thinking and reasoning.

6. It regulates body temperature

Water that is stored in the middle layers of the skin comes to the skin’s surface as sweat when the body heats up. As it evaporates, it cools the body. In sport.

Some scientists have suggested that when there is too little water in the body, heat storage increases and the individual is less able to tolerate heat strain.

Having a lot of water in the body may reduce physical strain if heat stress occurs during exercise. However, more research is needed into these effects.

7, The digestive system depends on it

The bowel needs water to work properly. Dehydration can lead to digestive problems, constipation, and an overly acidic stomach. This increases the risk of heartburn and stomach ulcers.

8. It flushes body waste

Water is needed in the processes of sweating and removal of urine and feces.

9. It helps maintain blood pressure

A lack of water can cause blood to become thicker, increasing blood pressure.

10. The airways need it

When dehydrated, airways are restricted by the body in an effort to minimize water loss. This can make asthma and allergies worse.

11. It makes minerals and nutrients accessible

These dissolve in water, which makes it possible for them to reach different parts of the body.

12. It prevents kidney damage

The kidneys regulate fluid in the body. Insufficient water can lead to kidney stones and other problems.

13. It boosts performance during exercise

Some scientists have proposed that consuming more water might enhance performance during strenuous activity.

More research is needed to confirm this, but one review found that dehydration reduces performance in activities lasting longer than 30 minutes.

14. Weight loss

Water may also help with weight loss, if it is consumed instead of sweetened juices and sodas. “Preloading” with water before meals can help prevent overeating by creating a sense of fullness.

15. It reduces the chance of a hangover

When partying, unsweetened soda water with ice and lemon alternated with alcoholic drinks can help prevent overconsumption of alcohol.

Water helps dissolve minerals and nutrients, making them more accessible to the body. It also helps remove waste products.

These two functions make water vital to the kidneys.

Every day, the kidneys filter around 120-150 quarts of fluid.

Of these, approximately 1-2 quarts are removed from the body in the form of urine, and the rest is recovered by the bloodstream.

Water is essential for the kidneys to function.

If the kidneys do not function properly, waste products and excess fluid can build up inside the body.

Untreated, chronic kidney disease can lead to kidney failure. The organs stop working, and either dialysis or kidney transplantation is required.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common type of infection in the body. They account for around 8.1 million visits to health care providers in the U.S. every year.

If infections spread to the upper urinary tract, including the kidneys, permanent damage can result. Sudden, or acute, kidney infections can be life-threatening, particularly if septicemia occurs.

Drinking plenty of water is a simple way to reduce the risk of developing a UTI and to help treat an existing UTI.

Kidney stones interfere with how the kidneys work. When present, can complicate UTIs. These complicated UTIs tend to require longer periods of antibiotics to treat them, typically lasting 7 to 14 days.

The leading cause of kidney stones is a lack of water. People who report them often do not drink the recommended daily amount of water. Kidney stones may also increase the risk of chronic kidney disease.

In November 2014, the American College of Physicians issued new guidelines for people who have previously developed kidney stones. The guidelines state that increasing fluid intake to enable 2 liters of urination a day could decrease the risk of stone recurrence by at least half with no side effects.

Dehydration happens if we use and lose more water than the body takes in. It can lead to an imbalance in the body’s electrolytes. Electrolytes, such as potassium, phosphate, and sodium, help carry electrical signals between cells. The kidneys keep the levels of electrolytes in the body stable when they function properly.

When the kidneys are unable to maintain a balance in the levels of electrolytes, these electrical signals become mixed up. This can lead to seizures, involving involuntary muscle movements and loss of consciousness.

In severe cases, dehydration can lead to kidney failure, which can be life-threatening. Possible complications of chronic kidney failure include anemia, damage to the central nervous system, heart failure, and a compromised immune system.

Some of the water required by the body is obtained through foods with a high water content, such as soups, tomatoes, oranges, but most come through drinking water and other beverages.

During everyday functioning, water is lost by the body, and this needs to be replaced. We notice that we lose water through activities such as sweating and urination, but water is lost even when breathing.

Drinking water, whether from the tap or a bottle, is the best source of fluid for the body.

Milk and juices are also good sources of fluid, but beverages containing alcohol and caffeine, such as soft drinks, coffee, and beer, are not ideal because they often contain empty calories. Drinking water instead of soda can help with weight loss.

It was previously thought that caffeinated beverages had diuretic properties, meaning that they cause the body to release water. However, studies show that fluid loss because of caffeinated drinks is minimal.

The amount of water needed each day varies from person to person, depending on how active they are, how much they sweat, and so on.

There is no fixed amount of water that must be consumed daily, but there is general agreement on what a healthy fluid intake is.

According to the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, the average recommended daily intake of water from both food and drink is:

This would be around 15. 5 cups for men and just over 11 cups for women. However, around 80 percent of this should come from drinks, including water, and the rest will be from food.

This means that:

  • Men should drink around 100 ounces, or 12.5 cups of fluid
  • Women should drink around 73 ounces, or just over 9 cups

Fresh fruits and vegetables and all non-alcoholic fluids count towards this recommendation.

Times when it is most important to drink plenty of water include:

  • when you have a fever
  • when the weather is hot
  • if you have diarrhea and vomiting
  • when you sweat a lot, for example, due to physical activity

Here are some facts about water:

  • Babies and children have a higher percentage of water than adults. When babies are born, they are about 78 percent water, but this falls to 65 percent by the age of 1 year.
  • Fatty tissue has less water than lean tissue.
  • Men have more water than women, as a percentage.

Do we drink enough water?

A study carried out by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2013 analyzed data from the National Cancer Institute’s 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey.

Out of a sample of 3,397 adults, the researchers found:

  • 7 percent of adults reported no daily consumption of drinking water
  • 36 percent of adults reported drinking 1-3 cups of drinking water a day
  • 35 percent of adults reported drinking 4-7 cups of drinking water a day
  • 22 percent of adults reported drinking 8 cups or more a day

People were more likely to drink less than 4 cups of drinking water daily if they consumed 1 cup or less of fruits or vegetables a day.

The study only measured the intake of drinking water. Fluid can be gained from other beverages, but water is best because it is calorie-free, caffeine-free, and alcohol-free.

Seven percent of respondents reported drinking no water at all daily, and those who drank a low volume of water also consumed less fruit and vegetables. This suggests that a certain number of people are risking their health by not getting enough fluid.

Even if the respondents reporting low levels of water intake were obtaining enough fluid, it is likely that they would be obtaining it from sources that could potentially compromise their health in other ways.

“The biologic requirement for water may be met with plain water or via foods and other beverages,” write the study authors. “Results from previous epidemiologic studies indicate that water intake may be inversely related to volume of calorically sweetened beverages and other fluid intake.”


Did you know that your body weight is approximately 60 percent water?
Your body uses water in all its cells, organs, and tissues to help regulate its temperature
and maintain other bodily functions. Because your body loses water through breathing, sweating,
and digestion, it’s important to rehydrate by drinking fluids and eating foods that contain water. The amount of water you need depends on a variety of factors, including the climate you live in, how physically active you are, and whether you’re experiencing an illness or have any other health problems.

  • Water Protects Your Tissues, Spinal Cord, and Joints

    Water keeps the tissues in your body moist. You know how it feels when your eyes, nose, or mouth gets dry? Keeping your body hydrated helps it retain optimum levels of moisture in these sensitive areas, as well as in the blood, bones, and the brain. In addition, water helps protect the spinal cord, and it acts as a lubricant and cushion for your joints.

  • Water Helps Your Body Remove Waste

    Adequate water intake enables your body to excrete waste through perspiration, urination, and defecation. The kidneys and liver use it to help flush out waste, as do your intestines. Water can also keep you from getting constipated by softening your stools and helping move the food you’ve eaten through your intestinal tract. However, it should be noted that there is no evidence to prove that increasing your fluid intake will cure constipation.

  • Water Aids in Digestion

    Digestion starts with saliva, the basis of which is water. Digestion relies on enzymes that are found in saliva to help break down food and liquid and to dissolve minerals and other nutrients. Proper digestion makes minerals and nutrients more accessible to the body. Water is also necessary to help you digest soluble fiber. With the help of water, this fiber dissolves easily and benefits your bowel health by making well-formed, soft stools that are easy to pass.

  • Water Prevents You From Becoming Dehydrated

    Your body loses fluids when you engage in vigorous exercise, sweat in high heat, or come down with a fever or contract an illness that causes vomiting or diarrhea. If you’re losing fluids for any of these reasons, it’s important to increase your fluid intake so that you can restore your body’s natural hydration levels. Your doctor may also recommend that you drink more fluids to help treat other health conditions, like bladder infections and urinary tract stones. If you’re pregnant or nursing, you may want to consult with your physician about your fluid intake because your body will be using more fluids than usual, especially if you’re breastfeeding.

How Much Water Do You Need?

There’s no hard and fast rule, and many individuals meet their daily hydration needs by simply drinking water when they’re thirsty. In fact, most people who are in good physical health get enough fluids by drinking water and other beverages when they’re thirsty, and also by drinking a beverage with each of their meals, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. If you’re not sure about your hydration level, look at your urine. If it’s clear, you’re in good shape. If it’s dark, you’re probably dehydrated.

Why Drinking Water Is the Way to Go (for Kids)

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How much water should you drink?

Drink plenty of water throughout the day to avoid dehydration

How much water should you drink a day? You probably know that it’s important to drink plenty of fluids when the temperatures soar outside. But staying hydrated is a daily necessity, no matter what the thermometer says. Unfortunately, many of us aren’t getting enough to drink, especially older adults. “Older people don’t sense thirst as much as they did when they were younger. And that could be a problem if they’re on a medication that may cause fluid loss, such as a diuretic,” says Dr. Julian Seifter, a kidney specialist and associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School.

Benefits of drinking water

Water keeps every system in the body functioning properly. The Harvard Medical School Special Health Report 6-Week Plan for Health Eating notes that water has many important jobs, such as:

  • carrying nutrients and oxygen to your cells
  • flushing bacteria from your bladder
  • aiding digestion
  • preventing constipation
  • normalizing blood pressure
  • stabilizing the heartbeat
  • cushioning joints
  • protecting organs and tissues
  • regulating body temperature
  • maintaining electrolyte (sodium) balance.

Giving your body enough fluids to carry out those tasks means that you’re staying hydrated.

If you don’t drink enough water each day, you risk becoming dehydrated. Warning signs of dehydration include weakness, low blood pressure, dizziness, confusion, or urine that’s dark in color.

So how much water should you drink? Most people need about four to six cups of water each day.

How much water should you drink a day?

The daily four-to-six cup rule is for generally healthy people. It’s possible to take in too much water if you have certain health conditions, such as thyroid disease or kidney, liver, or heart problems; or if you’re taking medications that make you retain water, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opiate pain medications, and some antidepressants.

How much water a day should you drink if you fit into that category? There’s no one-size-fits-all answer. Dr. Seifter says water intake must be individualized, and you should check with your doctor if you are not sure about the right amount for you.

But even a healthy person’s water needs will vary, especially if you’re losing water through sweat because you’re exercising, or because you’re outside on a hot day. If you’re wondering how much water you should drink on those occasions, speak with your doctor, but a general rule of thumb for healthy people is to drink two to three cups of water per hour, or more if you’re sweating heavily.

Tips for avoiding dehydration

It’s not just water that keeps you hydrated. All beverages containing water contribute toward your daily needs. And it’s a myth that caffeinated beverages or those containing alcohol are dehydrating because they make you urinate. They do, but over the course of the day, the water from these beverages still leads to a net positive contribution to total fluid consumption.

Of course, there are many reasons why water is still the better choice. Remember, sugary drinks can lead to weight gain and inflammation, which can increase your risk for developing diseases such as diabetes. Too much caffeine can give you the jitters or keep you from sleeping. And, alcohol intake should be limited to one drink per day for women, and 1-2 drinks per day for men.

To ward off dehydration, drink fluids gradually, throughout the day. An easy way to do this is to have a drink at each meal, as well as socially, or with medicine.

And know that you also get fluids from water-rich foods, such as salads, fruit, and applesauce.

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Please note the date of last review or update on all articles. No content on this site, regardless of date,
should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.

Water | The Nutrition Source

There are many options for what to drink, but water is the best choice for most people who have access to safe drinking water. It is calorie-free and as easy to find as the nearest tap.

Water helps to restore fluids lost through metabolism, breathing, sweating, and the removal of waste. It helps to keep you from overheating, lubricates the joints and tissues, maintains healthy skin, and is necessary for proper digestion. It’s the perfect zero-calorie beverage for quenching thirst and rehydrating your body.

How much water do I need?

Water is an essential nutrient at every age, so optimal hydration is a key component for good health. Water accounts for about 60% of an adult’s body weight. We drink fluids when we feel thirst, the major signal alerting us when our body runs low on water. We also customarily drink beverages with meals to help with digestion. But sometimes we drink not based on these factors but on how much we think we should be drinking. One of the most familiar sayings is to aim for “8 glasses a day,” but this may not be appropriate for every person.

General recommendations

  • The National Academy of Medicine suggests an adequate intake of daily fluids of about 13 cups and 9 cups for healthy men and women, respectively, with 1 cup equaling 8 ounces. [1] Higher amounts may be needed for those who are physically active or exposed to very warm climates. Lower amounts may be needed for those with smaller body sizes. It’s important to note that this amount is not a daily target, but a general guide. In the average person, drinking less will not necessarily compromise one’s health as each person’s exact fluid needs vary, even day-to-day.
  • Fever, exercise, exposure to extreme temperature climates (very hot or cold), and excessive loss of body fluids (such as with vomiting or diarrhea) will increase fluid needs.
  • The amount and color of urine can provide a rough estimate of adequate hydration. Generally the color of urine darkens the more concentrated it is (meaning that it contains less water). However, foods, medications, and vitamin supplements can also change urine color. [1] Smaller volumes of urine may indicate dehydration, especially if also darker in color.
  • Alcohol can suppress anti-diuretic hormone, a fluid-regulating hormone that signals the kidneys to reduce urination and reabsorb water back into the body. Without it, the body flushes out water more easily. Enjoying more than a couple of drinks within a short time can increase the risk of dehydration, especially if taken on an empty stomach. To prevent this, take alcohol with food and sips of water.
  • Although caffeine has long been thought to have a diuretic effect, potentially leading to dehydration, research does not fully support this. The data suggest that more than 180 mg of caffeine daily (about two cups of brewed coffee) may increase urination in the short-term in some people, but will not necessarily lead to dehydration. Therefore, caffeinated beverages including coffee and tea can contribute to total daily water intake. [1]

Keep in mind that about 20% of our total water intake comes not from beverages but from water-rich foods like lettuce, leafy greens, cucumbers, bell peppers, summer squash, celery, berries, and melons.

Aside from including water-rich foods, the following chart is a guide for daily water intake based on age group from the National Academy of Medicine:

Age Daily Adequate Intake
1-3 years 4 cups, or 32 ounces
4-8 years 5 cups, or 40 ounces
9-13 years 7-8 cups, or 56-64 ounces
14-18 years 8-11 cups, or 64-88 ounces
men, 19 and older 13 cups, or 104 ounces
women, 19 and older 9 cups, or 72 ounces
pregnant women 10 cups, or 80 ounces
breastfeeding women 13 cups, or 104 ounces

Preventing dehydration: Is thirst enough?

A healthy body is designed to send thirst signals when the body becomes depleted of fluids. Thirst is the desire to drink, and is not only driven by physiological cues but behavioral cues. [2] An example of a behavioral prompt is water temperature; research suggests that people tend to drink the most water when it is served at room temperature even though cooler drinks are rated as most pleasing to taste. We are also often influenced to drink (and eat) more in social settings.

As we age, however, the body’s regulation of fluid intake and thirst decline. Research has shown that both of these factors are impaired in the elderly. A Cochrane review found that commonly used indicators of dehydration in older adults (e.g., urine color and volume, feeling thirsty) are not effective and should not be solely used. [3] Certain conditions that impair mental ability and cognition, such as a stroke or dementia, can also impair thirst. People may also voluntarily limit drinking due to incontinence or difficulty getting to a bathroom. In addition to these situations, research has found that athletes, people who are ill, and infants may not have an adequate sense of thirst to replete their fluid needs. [2] Even mild dehydration may produce negative symptoms, so people who cannot rely on thirst or other usual measures may wish to use other strategies. For example, aim to fill a 20-ounce water bottle four times daily and sip throughout the day, or drink a large glass of water with each meal and snack.

Symptoms of dehydration that may occur with as little as a 2% water deficit:

  • Fatigue
  • Confusion or short-term memory loss
  • Mood changes like increased irritability or depression

Dehydration can increase the risk of certain medical conditions:

  • Urinary tract infections
  • Kidney stones
  • Gallstones
  • Constipation 

Should I drink alkaline water?

Like most trends of the moment, alkaline water has become popular through celebrity backing with claims ranging from weight loss to curing cancer. The theory behind alkaline water is the same as that touting the benefits of eating alkaline foods, which purportedly counterbalances the health detriments caused by eating acid-producing foods like meat, sugar, and some grains.

From a scale of 0-14, a higher pH number is alkaline; a lower pH is acidic. The body tightly regulates blood pH levels to about 7.4 because veering away from this number to either extreme can cause negative side effects and even be life-threatening. However, diet alone cannot cause these extremes; they most commonly occur with conditions like uncontrolled diabetes, kidney disease, chronic lung disease, or alcohol abuse.

Alkaline water has a higher pH of about 8-9 than tap water of about 7, due to a higher mineral or salt content. Some water sources can be naturally alkaline if the water picks up minerals as it passes over rocks. However, most commercial brands of alkaline water have been manufactured using an ionizer that reportedly separates out the alkaline components and filters out the acid components, raising the pH. Some people add an alkaline substance like baking soda to regular water.

Scientific evidence is not conclusive on the acid-alkaline theory, also called the acid-ash theory, stating that eating a high amount of certain foods can slightly lower the pH of blood especially in the absence of eating foods supporting a higher alkaline blood pH like fruits, vegetables, and legumes. Controlled clinical trials have not shown that diet alone can significantly change the blood pH of healthy people. Moreover, a direct connection of blood pH in the low-normal range and chronic disease in humans has not been established.

BOTTOM LINE: If the idea of alkaline water encourages you to drink more, then go for it! But it’s likely that drinking plain regular water will provide similar health benefits from simply being well-hydrated—improved energy, mood, and digestive health

Is it possible to drink too much water?

There is no Tolerable Upper Intake Level for water because the body can usually excrete extra water through urine or sweat. However, a condition called water toxicity is possible in rare cases, in which a large amount of fluids is taken in a short amount of time, which is faster than the kidney’s ability to excrete it. This leads to a dangerous condition called hyponatremia in which blood levels of sodium fall too low as too much water is taken. The excess total body water dilutes blood sodium levels, which can cause symptoms like confusion, nausea, seizures, and muscle spasms. Hyponatremia is usually only seen in ill people whose kidneys are not functioning properly or under conditions of extreme heat stress or prolonged strenuous exercise where the body cannot excrete the extra water. Very physically active people such as triathletes and marathon runners are at risk for this condition as they tend to drink large amounts of water, while simultaneously losing sodium through their sweat. Women and children are also more susceptible to hyponatremia because of their smaller body size.

Fun flavors for water  

Water is an excellent calorie-free, sugar-free choice.  For some people who are accustomed to drinking sweet beverages, water can initially taste bland. To increase water consumption without losing flavor or to spice up your daily water intake, try these refreshing water-based beverages:

Infused water

Instead of purchasing expensive flavored waters in the grocery store, you can easily make your own at home. Try adding any of the following to a cold glass or pitcher of water:

  • Sliced citrus fruits or zest (lemon, lime, orange, grapefruit)
  • Crushed fresh mint
  • Peeled, sliced fresh ginger or sliced cucumber
  • Crushed berries

Sparkling water with a splash of juice

Sparkling juices may have as many calories as sugary soda. Instead, make your own sparkling juice at home with 12 ounces of sparkling water and just an ounce or two of juice. For additional flavor, add sliced citrus or fresh herbs like mint.

TIP: To reduce waste, reconsider relying on single-use plastic water bottles and purchase a colorful 20-32 ounce refillable water thermos that is easy to wash and tote with you during the day. 

Water becomes bubbly through the process of carbonation and is sometimes suggested as a healthier alternative to soda. Carbonation involves dissolving carbon dioxide gas in water under high pressure; when the pressure is released, bubbles form. This process lowers the pH of water from 7 to 4, which is more acidic. The acid level has raised concerns that seltzer and soda water may harm dental enamel or bone health. However, research has not shown that carbonated beverages are associated with dental decay unless they also contain sugar or other sweeteners like high fructose corn syrup. Furthermore, studies have not found that carbonated beverages are associated with decreased bone mineral density; the culprit is more likely the high phosphorus content specific to dark cola soft drinks than the carbonation.

BOTTOM LINE: Carbonated waters, if unsweetened, are safe to drink and a good beverage choice. They are not associated with health problems that are linked with sweetened, carbonated beverages like soda.


  • Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health is a member of the Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network’s (NOPREN) Drinking Water Working Group. A collaborative network of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the NOPREN Drinking Water Working Group focuses on policies and economic issues regarding free and safe drinking water access in various settings by conducting research and evaluation to help identify, develop and implement drinking-water-related policies, programs, and practices. Visit the network’s website to access recent water research and evidence-based resources.
  • The Harvard Prevention Research Center on Nutrition and Physical Activity provides tools and resources for making clean, cold, free water more accessible in environments like schools and afterschool programs, as well as tips for making water more tasty and fun for kids.


  1. The National Academy of Sciences. Dietary References Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. https://www.nap.edu/read/10925/chapter/6#102 Accessed 8/5/2019.
  2. Millard-Stafford M, Wendland DM, O’Dea NK, Norman TL. Thirst and hydration status in everyday life. Nutr Rev. 2012 Nov;70 Suppl 2:S147-51.
  3. Hooper L, Abdelhamid A, Attreed NJ, Campbell WW, Channell AM, et al. Clinical symptoms, signs and tests for identification of impending and current water-loss dehydration in older people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Apr 30;(4):CD009647.

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The contents of this website are for educational purposes and are not intended to offer personal medical advice. You should seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website. The Nutrition Source does not recommend or endorse any products.

Healthy Hydration – How Your Body Uses Water

You eat to fuel your life. But your body needs more than the energy and nutrients in your diet.  It also needs water to survive. Healthy hydration is required for your body to reach its full potential. And while healthy eating may look different for each individual, water is a universal requirement. There’s no question your body is healthiest when you practice proper hydration.

Although essential, there can be some confusion about why hydration is important. By the time you’re done reading, you’ll learn:

  • How water works in your body
  • Why you need to drink water
  • How to get and stay hydrated
  • How to spot dehydration

And you’ll hopefully have a whole new appreciation for H2O.

How Water Works in Your Body

Water facilitates countless physiological processes, including, digestion, elimination of waste, and protection. It can be hard to see the role water plays in your body since it is everywhere, all the time. But it is possible to breakdown how healthy hydration keeps your body in working order.

The mouth is the first stop along the digestive tract. And it’s the first stop on your tour of the ways water works in your body. It all starts with saliva. This is secreted into the mouth by salivary glands, but it’s primarily water. Saliva begins the digestion of food by breaking down your meal into smaller pieces.

Water is a great solvent. This means that things, food and its nutrients especially, dissolve and break apart easily in water. So, it’s no surprise water is involved in this part of digestion. Washing down food with water helps digestion run quickly and efficiently.

After mixing with your meal, water continues through your stomach and toward the small intestine. That’s where most of the water you drink is absorbed. The lining of the small intestine is covered with tiny, finger-like projections called villi. These increase the surface area of the small intestine and allow for maximum water absorption.

Water absorbed by the small intestine is transported through your body in blood. So, drinking plenty of water helps you maintain a healthy blood supply.

Sometimes waste material builds up in your blood and needs to be removed. That brings us to the next step on the proper hydration journey—your kidneys.

They filter blood for waste and toxins. They remove unwanted material from your body through urination. This is why it is so important to maintain healthy hydration levels—especially when you don’t feel great.

Another way you remove toxins is through normal bowel movements. Drinking water can also help alleviate constipation. Water softens stool and helps push it through the colon.

Your skin is the final stop on your tour of water’s body benefits. That’s because perspiration is another body function that relies on water. Sweat is composed of water, minerals, electrolytes, and a variety of compounds your body wants to eliminate. Healthy hydration gives your body plenty of fluid to sweat bad stuff out.

In addition to removing waste, perspiring helps you maintain a normal body temperature. How does it cool you off? Water leaves your body through pores, the moisture that accumulates on your skin. When that moisture evaporates—turns from liquid to gas—it helps cool you down. That’s because it takes energy (in this case body heat) to transform liquid water to its gaseous state, water vapor. This process leaves you feeling nice and cool.

Water, Please: Why You Need to Practice Healthy Hydration

With the knowledge of how your body uses water, you can see how important it is to drink plenty. Every bodily function relies on water. Proper hydration helps your body maintain homeostasis—the balance between physiological processes. Without this balance, your body can’t maintain your health.

An example of this was highlighted in a British scientific journal article in 2013. Researchers found that as many as 60 percent of children arrived at school already dehydrated. This lack of fluid early in the day makes learning in the classroom difficult. Concentration and cognitive skills decrease when you’re not fully hydrated.

But the brain fog caused by dehydration isn’t permanent. Researchers concluded that drinking an additional glass of water during the school day enhanced fine motor skills and visual focus.

Staying hydrated does a lot to keep your body achieving peak performance:

  • Proper hydration supports beautiful, healthy skin.
  • Water helps in wound-repair processes, diminishing wrinkles, and keeping skin looking plump and bouncy.
  • Immune function and germ-fighting power are strengthened when your body gets enough water.

Healthy hydration helps protect delicate bones, your brain, spine, and other vital organs. Spinal fluid, the fluid between joints, and the space around organs is made up largely of water. This liquid acts as a shock absorber and a barrier, protecting your body from damage caused by impact.

How to Attain Proper Hydration—And Stay Hydrated

As you can see, water is a part of all bodily functions. That’s why proper hydration is so critical. Drinking enough water can help your health and make your body happy. But what is healthy hydration, and how can you achieve it?

Recommendations for daily water intake run the gamut. They vary in suggested volume, but one thing is consistent. Drinking water is the best way to stay hydrated. While juice, soda, tea, and coffee all contain water, regular, plain water is the most effective way to hydrate.

Why just water? Juice and soda are high in added sugar that can upset your stomach if you’re dehydrated. And can wreak havoc on your healthy diet. Sports drinks may be appropriate for hydrating, but should only be used if you’ve been exercising hard and sweating a lot. It may be more beneficial to drink plenty of water before vigorous exercise and eat a snack like fruit or low-fat granola afterward.

With all the recommendation for water intake, start with a simple goal—adults should drink at about eight, 8-ounce (or about 236 milliliter) glasses of water every day. Being consistent and drinking water before exercise will keep your body happy. If remembering to drink water is difficult, carry a reusable water bottle around with you. Write down how much water you need each day and cross off ounces (or liters) as you drink them.

Don’t forget about the fruits and veggies that are naturally full of water. Apples, grapes, melons, cucumbers, lettuce, and celery are dietary sources of water. These whole foods are not only healthy choices, they help you maintain proper hydration, too.

If you prefer some extra flavor with your drink, adding fruits and veggies to a glass of cold water could be your ticket to healthy hydration. Berries, mint, and cucumber mix together nicely to give a simple glass of water some extra punch without extra sugar. Start replacing sugary drinks with infused water and treating your taste buds to a more wholesome beverage.

How to Spot Dehydration

It’s easy to forget to drink water when you’re busy. But your body can alert you to dehydration with several symptoms. Thirst is the most obvious indicator, but it often comes a little too late. Mild dehydration can set in before you become thirsty, leaving your body to play catch up.

Other signs of dehydration include fatigue, difficulty focusing, and headache. These can be subtle, so it’s important to pay attention to what your body is telling you. Should these symptoms creep in, wash them down with a tall drink of water. And keep drinking through the rest of the day for total body re-hydration.

To truly know if you are drinking enough water, look no further than the bathroom stall. The color of your urine points strongly to your state of hydration. Dark urine lets you know you need to drink more. If what’s left behind in the toilet is light and pale, pat yourself on the back. You are well on your way to healthy hydration.

All Water is the Same, Right?

If your drinking water comes from a municipal supply, you may notice a chlorine odor and taste. Chlorine is often used in safe, monitored doses to treat public drinking water and keep bacteria from tainting the supply. Should you want to eliminate the taste or smell of chlorine from your tap water, there are easy and inexpensive ways to do so.

Activated carbon filters can effectively remove chlorine from drinking water. These can be attached to the faucet in your home or used in water-filtering pitchers and vases. Installing an aerator on your faucet can also help reduce the taste of chlorine.

Bottled water is often regarded as better tasting than tap water. If drinking bottled water is suitable to your lifestyle, purchase it in recyclable containers. Reduce plastic bottle waste by reusing water bottles and recycling old ones. Being an accountable and well-hydrated citizen means purchasing bottled water responsibly.

About the Author

Sydney Sprouse is a freelance science writer based out of Forest Grove, Oregon. She holds a bachelor of science in human biology from Utah State University, where she worked as an undergraduate researcher and writing fellow. Sydney is a lifelong student of science and makes it her goal to translate current scientific research as effectively as possible. She writes with particular interest in human biology, health, and nutrition.

Hydration: Why It’s So Important

Your body depends on water to survive. Every cell, tissue, and organ in your body needs water to work properly. For example, your body uses water to maintain its temperature, remove waste, and lubricate your joints. Water is needed for overall good health.

Path to improved health

Look to water first

You should drink water every day. Most people have been told they should drink 6 to 8, 8-ounce glasses of water each day. That’s a reasonable goal. However, different people need different amounts of water to stay hydrated. Most healthy people can stay well hydrated by drinking water and other fluids whenever they feel thirsty. For some people, fewer than 8 glasses may be enough. Other people may need more than 8 glasses each day.

Other options

While plain water is best for staying hydrated, other drinks and foods can help, too. Fruit and vegetable juices, milk, and herbal teas add to the amount of water you get each day. Even caffeinated drinks (for example, coffee, tea, and soda) can contribute to your daily water intake. A moderate amount of caffeine (400 milligrams) isn’t harmful for most people. Here are the caffeine amounts found in popular drinks:

  • 12 ounces of soda: 30 to 40 milligrams
  • 8 ounces of green or black tea: 30 to 50 milligrams
  • 8 ounces black coffee: 80 to 100 milligrams
  • 8-ounce energy drink: 40 to 250 milligrams

However, it’s best to limit caffeinated drinks. Caffeine may cause some people to urinate more frequently or feel anxious or jittery. Plus, be mindful of what you drink. Some choices may add extra calories from sugar to your diet.

Water can also be found in fruits and vegetables (for example, watermelon, tomatoes, and lettuce), and in soup broths.

Sports drinks can be helpful if you’re planning on exercising at higher than normal levels for more than an hour. They contain carbohydrates and electrolytes that can increase your energy. They help your body absorb water. However, some sports drinks are high in calories from added sugar. They also may contain high levels of sodium (salt). Check the serving size on the label. One bottle usually contains more than one serving. Some sports drinks contain caffeine, too. Remember that a safe amount of caffeine to consume each day is no more than 400 milligrams.

Energy drinks are not the same as sports drinks. Energy drinks usually contain large amounts of caffeine. Also, they contain ingredients that overstimulate you (guarana, ginseng, or taurine). These are things your body doesn’t need. Most of these drinks are also high in added sugar. According to doctors, children and teens should not have energy drinks.

If staying hydrated is difficult for you, here are some tips that can help:

  • Keep a bottle of water with you during the day. To reduce your costs, carry a reusable water bottle and fill it with tap water.
  • If you don’t like the taste of plain water, try adding a slice of lemon or lime to your drink.
  • Drink water before, during, and after a workout.
  • When you’re feeling hungry, drink water. Thirst is often confused with hunger. True hunger will not be satisfied by drinking water. Drinking water may also contribute to a healthy weight-loss plan. Some research suggests that drinking water can help you feel full.
  • If you have trouble remembering to drink water, drink on a schedule. For example, drink water when you wake up, at breakfast, lunch, and dinner, and when you go to bed. Or, drink a small glass of water at the beginning of each hour.
  • Drink water when you go to a restaurant. It will keep you hydrated, and it’s free.

Things to consider

If you don’t drink enough water, you may become dehydrated. This means your body doesn’t have enough fluid to operate properly.

Your urine can be an indicator if you’re dehydrated. If it’s colorless or light yellow, you’re well hydrated. If your urine is a dark yellow or amber color, you may be dehydrated.

There are other signs that can signal you may be dehydrated. They include:

  • Little or no urine.
  • Urine that is darker than usual.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Sleepiness or fatigue.
  • Extreme thirst.
  • Headache.
  • Confusion.
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness.
  • No tears when crying.

Some people are at higher risk of dehydration, including people who exercise at a high intensity (or in hot weather) for too long, have certain medical conditions (kidney stones, bladder infection), are sick (fever, vomiting, diarrhea), are pregnant or breastfeeding, are trying to lose weight, or aren’t able to get enough fluids during the day. Older adults are also at higher risk. As you get older, your brain may not be able to sense dehydration. It doesn’t send signals for thirst.

Note that water makes up more than half of your body weight. You lose water each day when you go to the bathroom, sweat, and even when you breathe. You lose water even faster when the weather is really hot, when you’re physically active, or if you have a fever. Vomiting and diarrhea can also lead to rapid water loss. Be sure to actively drink plenty of water to avoid becoming dehydrated.

Questions for your doctor

  • I don’t like water. What’s the next best thing to keep me hydrated?
  • Are there foods I can add to water to make it taste better?
  • What if I can’t consume as many fluids as doctors recommend?
  • What does it mean if I drink a lot of fluids but don’t urinate often?
  • How does drinking alcohol affect hydration?


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Water & Nutrition

National Institutes of Health, MedlinePlus: Dehydration

Copyright © American Academy of Family Physicians

This information provides a general overview and may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject.

90,000 Influence of water on our body / Articles / New Jerusalem water

Normal functioning of the human body is impossible without regular consumption of clean drinking water. In the absence of fluid, the human body stops working as expected. Subsequently, this can lead not only to a malfunction of the vital organs, but even to their complete failure. Therefore, it is so important to monitor the level of fluid in the body.

It has been experimentally determined that the body of an adult is 70% water.To maintain water balance, you must drink at least two liters of fluid per day. In this way, excessive concentration of toxins can be prevented. But it is worth noting that the recommended 2 liters is a rather subjective indicator. An adult should consume water daily at the rate of 40 ml per 1 kg of body weight. Thus, the average man weighing 80 kg needs to drink more than three liters of fluid daily. If this norm is not met, there is a risk of dehydration, which can lead to metabolic disorders and subsequent gain in excess weight.

Water as a way to lose weight

Considering that water does not contain extra calories, it can be consumed in liters without worrying about your figure. In addition, water contributes to the normal digestion of food and the formation of gastric juice. Lack of water can lead to a deficiency of gastric juice. As a result, a significant portion of food will be converted to fat, which will eventually develop into obesity. At the same time, clean water protects the body from spending excess energy.It is she who helps to process soda, alcohol, fast food and other unhealthy foods. Drinking the recommended amount of water makes a person feel more alert and energized.

Thus, regular consumption of a sufficient volume of clean drinking water allows you to normalize weight and improve health. It should be added that to achieve the desired effect, it is recommended to drink at least 200 ml of water 15-20 minutes before meals.

Other ways of influence of water on the body

Compliance with the water balance also contributes to skin rejuvenation.The fluid used does not allow skin cells to dry out, regularly nourishing them with moisture. Water is also used as a natural “joint and muscle lubricant”. Due to its effect, muscle spasms are prevented. That is why athletes are advised to drink water both before and after training or competition.

Athletes regularly use water to restore energy. In addition, non-compliance with the water balance makes a person distracted and irritable. Do not forget that a lack of fluid in the body can cause headaches.

Regular consumption of clean drinking water also guarantees:

  • reduced risk of heart attack;
  • delivery of all essential nutrients and trace elements;
  • removal of recycled materials;
  • reducing the risk of infectious diseases;
  • natural thermoregulation of the body;
  • improvement of general well-being.

Consequences of water deficiency in the body

In conclusion, it is worth recalling once again the possible consequences of non-compliance with the water balance in the body.So, with a decrease in the recommended level of water in the body by 2%, health may worsen, nausea and drowsiness may occur. As a result of a decrease in the water balance by 7-9%, headaches and disturbances of consciousness occur. If the volume of water fluid is reduced by 10-20% of the norm, then the person experiences muscle spasms, as well as hearing and vision impairments. Finally, a 25% drop in water level is fatal.

Water without harm: all about the benefits for the body of women, men and children

MOSCOW, March 3 RIA Novosti. Water is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. When it is beneficial, and when it is harmful, how much it can be drunk per day, how to use it correctly, as well as how to drink water to lose weight – in the material of RIA Novosti.

Properties of water

– Water is the main component of all living organisms, and, of course, man is no exception. Inside each of us, depending on age, it contains from 60 to 70%. With the help of water, the most important biochemical processes take place, toxins are removed.She also participates in thermoregulation, – told RIA Novosti gastroenterologist and nutritionist Daria Burtseva.

Composition and caloric content of drinking water

The quality of drinking water in the territory of the Russian Federation is determined by the SanPiN standards, as well as GOSTs.

According to the documents, it should be transparent, odorless and with a pleasant taste, with a pH of 7-7.5 and a hardness not higher than 7 mmol / l, in which the total amount of useful minerals is not more than 1 g / l.

In addition, harmful chemical impurities in water must either be completely absent, or their concentration must be so low that its percentage cannot be determined by any modern analytical method.Also, there should be practically no pathogenic bacteria and viruses in the water.

– Drinking water for supplying settlements is taken either from artesian layers or from surface sources. Depending on the terrain, it has different mineralization and hardness. Mineralization is understood as the presence of organic and inorganic substances in water (bicarbonates, chlorides and sulfates of calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and others). With a mineralization of 0.2 g / l – 0.5 g / l, the water is considered fresh. With an indicator of 1 g / l – 3 g / l – mineralized, – told RIA Novosti dietology consultant Svetlana Andreeva.

KBZHU of drinking water for each indicator – 0.

According to the expert, filtration of water from a tap or from a spring at home is mandatory in order to exclude an increased content of salts of heavy metals, as well as calcium.

Also already filtered quality product can be bought in the supermarket. When choosing, it is important to make sure that the label says “water of the highest category”, as well as the category of water (drinking, mineral, table, medical-table, medicinal) and the source (“purified from a central water supply source” or the number and name of the well, its depth, location).In addition, the manufacturer (legal address, phone numbers and other data) and chemical composition (amount of anions and cations, total mineralization, PH level or description in one phrase, for example, “sodium chloride-sulfate-slightly alkaline water”) should be noted.

What happens to the body when dehydrated

If the body does not receive water, dehydration develops and then death. With a shortage of 10% of water in the human body, cell damage and irreversible changes begin.

– The skin becomes rough, dry mucous membranes appear, the tongue swells, general weakness, drowsiness, headache and further loss of consciousness and death are observed. Therefore, in case of dehydration, it is important to replenish water reserves in time and rehydrate the body, – said Daria Burtseva.

Why you shouldn’t drink too much water

With an excess of fluid in the human body, overhydration occurs.

– Excessive water intake is an increased burden on the heart, kidneys and the entire body.Also, there is pasty (pallor, decrease in elasticity, a feeling of pastiness on palpation. – Ed.) Of tissues and edema. Even by consuming about 3 liters of fluid a day constantly, without reason and desire, we increase the load on the kidneys, which negatively affects their work, – explained Daria Burtseva.

Increased drinking regime is necessary for viral diseases, sports, in hot climates, breastfeeding and bad habits. For example, smoking 1 pack of cigarettes a day increases the need for water by 40%.In case of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, for example, constipation, it is very important not to forget about water: drink it in small portions during the day, and especially in the morning.

December 23, 2019, 09:19

The doctor told who should not drink mineral water

The benefits of water for the human body

– A person is thirsty when the amount of water in his body decreases by only 1-2% (0.5 liters ). Loss of 10% can lead to irreversible changes in the body and death, – said Svetlana Andreeva.

A person loses 2-3 liters of water per day. Almost half a liter of it leaves the body only through breathing. At the same time, the consumption increases in hot weather, with high humidity, during sports.

The benefits of water for the human body are invaluable. It moisturizes oxygen for breathing, regulates body temperature, transports nutrients, vitamins and minerals throughout the body, flushes out dead cells and waste products of microorganisms and bacteria. A number of pathological processes are triggered from a lack of water in the body, which in the long term can lead to negative consequences.

– For example, when there is a shortage of water in the body, the blood becomes thick, as a result of which there are many serious diseases, up to heart attacks and infertility, – explained Svetlana Andreeva.

Benefits of water on an empty stomach

According to Daria Burtseva, it is recommended to start the day with 100-150 milliliters of clean drinking water. Its temperature should be room temperature.

– By consuming water in the morning, we, firstly, replenish what our body has lost at night with sweat and breathing.And secondly, we encourage the body to wake up, stimulate metabolism, start the work of the gastrointestinal tract and, accordingly, improve digestion, ” the doctor said.

Benefits of warm water

Warm water, that is, at a temperature a couple of degrees higher than body temperature, is comfortable for the body, in contrast to cold water, which is stressful for the gastrointestinal tract.

Warm drinking promotes rapid cleansing of the digestive organs from impurities, food debris, improves metabolism, renews blood, and also more quickly removes toxins and toxins, helps the skin become elastic and tight.

In addition, warm water relaxes muscles, relieves spasmodic and menstrual pains, and helps relieve migraines.

Benefits of melt water

During the freezing process, the water’s molecular structure changes. It persists for an extremely short time in melt water, which contains ice crystals. Approximately 50-70 grams of water are considered useful within 30 minutes after thawing. They promote self-regulation of the body and improve metabolism.

Experts point out that freezing water followed by thawing is a rather effective way to purify it.

Harm to water

Water can be harmful if you drink a lot – 3-4 liters or more – in one sitting. Overhydration is an overload on the kidneys and the cause of edema. In addition, excess water intake lowers the concentration of electrolytes in the blood, in particular sodium, which maintains a balance between the fluid inside and outside the cells.

If overhydration develops rapidly, then its first signs include vomiting and imbalance and coordination.However, it can be chronic – with a decrease in the volume of excreted urine and edema (including subcutaneous tissue).

11 May 2019, 08:00

Bottled water: the biggest fraud in history

Benefits and harms of boiled water

Boiling water does no harm or benefit, because when heated strongly, the liquid becomes chemically sterile.

Boiling tap water not only kills germs, but also reduces hardness values.Salts that are harmful to the body when raw water is consumed remain on the bottom and walls of the container in which the boiling took place. However, chlorine, which may be present in tap water, is converted to carcinogenic compounds that are not safe for health.

Moisture from a well or source is best suited for boiling. It is especially important to subject such water to heat treatment in the hot season, when the intensive multiplication of bacteria leads to frequent infectious diseases of the intestines.

Benefits and harms of mineral water

Table mineral water with low mineralization is especially useful for residents of regions poor in minerals. This liquid replenishes the balance of salts, perfectly replacing various dietary supplements.

Table mineral water improves metabolism, helps to reduce weight, reduce cholesterol, normalize stool, regulates acid-base balance, digestive system and kidney function.

But medicinal-table and medicinal mineral water should be used only for a certain period of time as prescribed by a doctor.Buying it and drinking it “for prevention” is contraindicated.

Pay attention to carbonation of water. In diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, gastritis, peptic ulcer, the use of liquids saturated with carbon dioxide is contraindicated.

Benefits and harms of water with lemon and honey

Water with lemon is an excellent detox agent – it helps to remove toxins, cleanse the blood, and accelerate metabolism. Water with honey enhances immunity, normalizes sleep and has soothing properties.These supplements can be mixed in water at the same time, which will bring double benefits to the body.

However, drinking water with lemon and honey is contraindicated for ulcers and gastritis, for stomatitis and highly sensitive tooth enamel, as well as for people with citrus and honey allergies and people with diabetes.

April 13, 2020, 18: 30The nutritionist told what would happen if you drink water with lemon on an empty stomach

Daily norms of drinking water by human weight

Water must enter our body evenly throughout the day in order to satisfy the daily requirement.The amount of water depends on the climate, type of activity, body size and sex of a person.

– In a healthy person, the need for water is regulated by the feeling of thirst, which occurs when there is a shortage of only 1%, therefore the average amount of water per day is 1500-2500 milliliters or about 30 milliliters per kilogram of weight in a temperate climate and with quiet work. At the same time, do not forget that the body receives part of the water endogenously, that is, as a result of the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. This means that by consuming food (soups and juices as well), we get water as well, – said Daria Burtseva.

Based on this, adults in a certain weight need per day:

  • per 50 kilograms – 1.5 liters of water;

  • for 60 – 1.8 liters;

  • for 70 – 2.1 liters;

  • 80 – 2.4 liters;

  • 90 – 2.7 liters;

  • per 100 – 3 liters.

How much water a child needs to drink

As Svetlana Andreeva explained, children aged from six months to a year are advised to drink up to 260 ml of clean drinking water per day.This amount should be gradually increased. From 5 years old, you need already from 1 to 1.5 liters.

How much water an adult man or woman needs to drink

“A healthy adult is recommended to drink about 30 milliliters of water per kilogram of weight a day,” Svetlana Andreeva noted.

For pregnant women and people with kidney disease, the amount of water is determined by their attending physician. A nursing mother needs 1 liter more fluid than usual.

How much water does an elderly need

The amount of liquid (pure water, juices, compotes, decoctions, teas) should correspond to the physiological needs of a person.From 55-60 years old it is about 1.5 liters per day. Limiting the liquid or increasing its amount is possible only according to indications.

How to drink water correctly

– You can drink water at any time of the day, as well as before, after and during meals. Water does not mix with food, but flows down the back of the stomach. Information that water can cause food rotting or other fantasies are all myths. The main thing is to take into account your own needs. If you want to drink – drink, – said Svetlana Andreeva.

Drinking is best done while sitting or standing. You should not do this while walking or lying down, as you can choke.

Water for weight loss

Although water is not an “elixir” that can quickly give you slimness, it helps to convert food into energy, participates in metabolism. Daily intake of the recommended daily allowance for fluids, combined with proper nutrition, will help you lose those extra pounds.

– Burning fats release energy necessary for all important processes in the human body, and endogenous water, which we do not need.When the body is replenished with clean water, the endogenous one leaves, and in conjunction with the breakdown of fats, you can lose weight well. If we are experiencing a moisture deficit, the cells begin to absorb and retain endogenous water inside them. As a result, weight loss is slow or does not occur at all, – said Daria Burtseva.


Ask a question Question:

How much water should you drink in the morning on an empty stomach?


Eduard Zagidullin


The need to drink water in the morning on an empty stomach is not strictly regulated.If you wish, you can have a drink. But neither water nor food should be used by humans by force.

Ask a question Question:

Why can’t you drink a lot of water in one gulp?


Daria Burtseva


It is important to drink water calmly, in small sips. Otherwise, having received the entire volume in one gulp, we load the stomach, causing a feeling of heaviness, and speed up the trip to the toilet. When consumed calmly, water is absorbed slowly, saturating our body and eliminating thirst.

31 July 2020, 17:00 AM The nutritionist told how much water you need to drink per day Ask question Question:

Can you drink 3 liters of water a day?


Eduard Zagidullin


The required daily volume of fluid even for the same person may vary depending on environmental factors. If a person, for example, is under the summer sun in hot weather and is engaged in physical activity, then he may well need 3 liters of fluid.In addition, you need to understand that water is also contained in the products that we eat (vegetables, fruits include up to 90% water, and soups are also considered). Moreover, if the choice is between a glass of pure water and a glass of sweet drink, it is better to prefer the first one.

Ask a question Question:

Should I drink water at night?


Eduard Zagidullin


At night, as at any time of the day, you need to drink water if you want.The feeling of thirst is the main thing to be guided by. Listen to your body. All that can be found on the Internet about the “need for 8 glasses of water per day” is an advertisement for bottled water producers. The recommendation to “drink as much as possible” has no scientific basis. And the wrinkles will not decrease, unfortunately.

Ask a question Question:

Why is it harmful to drink water while standing?


Daria Burtseva


There is a version that the water should not be drunk while standing, but it has not received scientifically proven justification.Of course, it is better to take food and drinks in a calm, seated position, but there is no pronounced difference in this.

Ask a question Question:

What is body rehydration?


Eduard Zagidullin


This is the replacement of lost fluid. Rehydration is necessary in case of dehydration, for example, with acute intestinal infection, high temperature, as well as with significant physical exertion, accompanied by severe sweating.

Ask a question Question:

What happens if you don’t drink water every day?


Daria Burtseva


If the body does not receive water, dehydration develops in it. With a shortage of only 1% of water, a person begins to feel thirst, and at 10%, cell damage begins.

Ask a question Question:

How to determine dehydration in an adult?


Eduard Zagidullin


Symptoms of dehydration are weakness, lethargy, pale and inelastic skin, dry mucous membranes, decreased blood pressure and urinary volume.These symptoms require medical advice.

Ask a question Question:

How quickly does death occur with dehydration?


Daria Burtseva


In time, the process of complete dehydration takes about 3-4 days. It all depends on environmental conditions, age and the initial state of the body. Therefore, when dehydrated, it is important to replenish water reserves in time and rehydrate the body.

Ask a question Question:

How to drink water correctly for constipation?


Eduard Zagidullin


Only water is unlikely to cure real constipation.But with a tendency to such conditions, it is advisable to take water on an empty stomach, at room temperature in order to “revitalize” intestinal motility. If there is no effect, you should consult a doctor for the selection of drug therapy.

Drinking water properties | Delivery of drinking water Aqualine

Physiologically high-grade drinking water (47; 78) with a mineralization level of 150-350 mg / l can rightfully be considered the standard of drinking water quality for St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region.This is the kind of water that our company produces and delivers to consumers.

A bit of history

At the end of the 90s of the last century, the market for bottled drinking water , processed from a water supply system according to Western technology – water purification by reverse osmosis, began to form in St. Petersburg. This method raised great doubts about the advisability of its use, since the water during purification is made close to distilled, which does not contain salts and, with prolonged use, can unbalance the work of the human body.

Godin V.Yu. chose the direction of research, search and use of physiologically high-grade underground drinking water that fully meets the needs of the interests of the region’s population. As a result of lengthy research in 2008, he discovered natural physiologically high-grade artesian drinking water – FPPV (47; 78). It took more than 10 years of continuous, intense research and practical work. In the course of this work, an analysis of domestic and foreign literature was carried out in the field of assessing the influence of the water factor on human health, the properties of the Neva water were studied and its comparative analysis was given with the underground drinking waters of the city.St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region. Based on the results of studies of the chemical composition and specific flow rates of the main aquiferous hydrogeological subdivisions on the territory of the Leningrad region within the boundaries of the administrative districts in accordance with the standards of physiologically high-grade drinking water (FPPV), the monograph V.Yu. Godin, G.Yu. “Hydrogeological conclusion: the state of drinking groundwater in the Leningrad region”, St. regional offices of Rospotrebnadzor in the period from 1980 to 2013.and etc.

Water grade: FPPV (47; 78) – physiologically high-grade drinking water
for regions No. 47 (Leningrad region) and 78 (St. Petersburg).

PPPV (47; 78;) in its chemical, microbiological and physical parameters fully complies with the basic scientific criteria of really useful drinking water. It is such water that can carry a full, healthy life, if it is local, energetically and informationally pure, biologically active and with an optimal composition for the body.

Despite the fact that there is a lot of water in the region, there is not enough really useful drinking water. This is confirmed by long-term studies and numerous complex analyzes of groundwater. Only four districts of the Leningrad Region have physiologically high-grade underground drinking water and their flow rate allows bottling for drinking purposes. These are unique underground waters – chemical composition and energy-informational properties of which were formed over millennia.The depth of the deposits of the desired waters of the Vendian aquifer is 100 -195 m. The complex is well protected from surface pollution by a thick layer of clay (from 70 to 100 m).

In the natural environment, groundwater is structured by long-term filtration from the surface of the earth to the place of carbonation in the underground strata of the aquifer, penetrated by energy flows of the earth and cosmic radiation, which ensures natural purity and pristine water.

The locations of water sources are distinguished by special natural properties – these are areas of clean lakes, springs and large forests.

Information saturation of drinking water occurs under the influence of the unique landscape of the area – it is a lake surface, a drop of dew on a pine branch, leaves, the murmur of a stream, freshness and tranquility. The energy of life is stored in such waters. Energy Information The effect of such saturated water has a positive effect on the entire human body.Such waters allow you to mobilize the body’s defenses – increase the immunity and energy level of a person.

Russian physician-therapist M. Mudrov wrote in the 18th century: “Knowing the mutual actions of soul and body on each other, I consider it my duty to note that there are also mental medicines that heal the body” . The word possesses such a medicine (energy information effect). To date, many different studies have been carried out on informational and energetic effects on water that change its properties.In particular, the famous scientist Masaru Emoto discovered that the molecular structure of water reacts differently to external information. For example, if you play classical music, the crystals acquire the correct symmetrical shape, and after listening to rock, they are arranged in a chaotic order. Likewise, water reacts differently to different words, sounds, and even thoughts. There are also known cases when experimental animals died after drinking water, which for some time stood in an absolutely sealed vessel next to the poison.In other words, water is not just a substance, but living matter, capable of “saturating” the surrounding information and then “broadcasting” it to the surrounding world.

At present, the fact of the existence of energy-information exchange in nature has received universal recognition. Science – eniology is engaged in the formation and study of its phenomena. In the light of this teaching, our body is an energy-informational system, which is an integral part of the Universe.

In terms of mineral composition and micro and macro elements, FPPV (47: 87) is ideal for the human body. Soft drinking water. Very hard or very soft water is equally unsuitable for the normal functioning of the body’s cells. The diameter of the FPPV water molecules (47; 78) makes it easy to pass through the membrane of the body’s cells, therefore, chemical reactions in the body proceed faster and the metabolism is activated.

FPPV (47; 78) is biologically available, easily digestible, has a maximum penetrating ability through the membranes of body cells, basic physical and physiological characteristics comparable to the intracellular environment.

Content of main vital biogenic elements of FPPV (47; 78): calcium – 15 mg / l, magnesium – 10 mg / l, potassium – 5 mg / l, bicarbonates – 100-300 mg / l, fluoride ions – 0 , 5-1.0 mg / l, iodide ions – 5-100 μg / l, Ph – 7.4-8.3, total hardness – 1.5-2.5 mEq / l. The water is soft, tea and coffee are well brewed in it. Water is considered hard, which contains high concentrations of calcium and magnesium salts. Soft water is water that is low in salt. Hard water is not recommended for drinking purposes becausebecause the mineral salts contained in them in excess amount are poorly absorbed by the body and they are deposited in the joints, cartilage, on the walls of blood vessels. Unlike hard water, soft water mainly acts as a health factor.

FPPV (47; 78) due to sterility, freshness, natural mineralization, biological activity caused by the circulation of water in nature, carries vital energy and is the main prophylactic agent of diseases and a means of non-drug health improvement of the population.Water has its own bioenergy, given by its natural property – it is fractal, dissymmetric drinking water.

The use of FPPV (47; 78) reduces the risk of arthritis and atherosclerosis. This water is useful for people, predisposed to hypertension, coronary heart disease, kidney disease, salt deposition in joints. FPPV drinking water (47; 78) does not contain any negative, negative information for the human body.The beneficial properties of water are fully revealed when used correctly. Water must be drunk raw in the required quantity, then this water will contribute to the healing of the whole organism. The daily norm of drinking water for a person weighing 70 kg is 1.5-2.5 liters. With physical exertion and heat, the amount of water consumed increases. FPPV (47; 78) restores the entire body, restores the natural state of health. The water factor provides in all areas of human physiology the correct energy supply e and contributes to the healing of the whole organism.

The statement that food supplies energy to the body due to the formation of adenosine triphosphate tric acid (ATP) is erroneous. In fact, it is water that participates in the mechanism of energy production, which makes the ionic protein “pumps” of cell membranes work like in turbines of power plants, promoting the push of nutrients into the cell and removing metabolic products from it. Water activates the sodium-potassium e “pumps”, thereby generating the energy necessary for the normal functioning of cells, which is the trigger mechanism for extracellular and intracellular metabolism.

FPPV (47; 78) helps to maintain conditions in the body that prevent the development of pathologies in the body. The water is bacteriologically safe and has excellent organoleptic properties.

The physiologically high-grade drinking water Aqualine Natural Premium, which can be ordered on our website, can rightfully be considered the standard of drinking water in St. Petersburg!

Drinking water


Safe and affordable water is an important factor in human health, whether it is used for drinking, domestic use, cooking or recreational purposes.Improved water supply and sanitation systems and more efficient water use can contribute to economic growth in countries and contribute significantly to poverty reduction.

In 2010, the UN General Assembly clearly recognized the human right to water and sanitation. Everyone has the right to an adequate, uninterrupted, safe, physically accessible and affordable water supply for personal and domestic needs.

Drinking water supply services

Task 6.1 of the Sustainable Development Goals is aimed at ensuring universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water. This target is monitored by the indicator “Safely managed water services”, that is, the supply of drinking water from an improved water source located in the community, available as needed and free from contamination by faeces and priority chemicals.

In 20175.3 billion people used safe water services, which means they have an improved water source that is locally located, accessible when needed, and free of pollutants. The remaining 2.2 billion people without securely organized services in 2017 were:

90,024 90,025 1.4 billion people with 90,240 basic 90,241 services, an improved water source that requires less travel to and from 30 minutes; 90,026 90,025 206 million people with 90,240 limited 90,241 services or an improved water source that takes more than 30 minutes to get water from; 90,026 90,025 435 million people receiving water from unprotected wells and natural sources; 90,026 90,025 144 million people withdrawing untreated surface water from lakes, ponds, rivers and streams.

There are still distinct geographical, socio-cultural and economic inequalities in the world, not only between rural and urban areas, but also in small and large cities, in which people living in poor, informal and illegal settlements, generally have more limited access to improved drinking water sources than other residents.

Water and health

Contaminated water and poor sanitation are associated with the transmission of diseases such as cholera, diarrhea, dysentery, hepatitis A, typhoid fever and polio.Inadequate or inadequately managed water and sanitation services, or lack of them, pose preventable risks to human health. This is especially true for health care facilities, where both patients and staff are exposed to additional risks from infection and disease in the absence of water, sanitation and hygiene services. Globally, 15% of patients develop an infection during their hospital stay, and this rate is much higher in low-income countries.

Treatment of urban, industrial and agricultural wastewater means that drinking water, which is used by millions of people, is characterized by dangerous levels of contamination or contamination from chemicals.

An estimated 829,000 people die each year from diarrhea due to unsafe drinking water, unsafe sanitation and unsafe hand hygiene. However, diarrhea is largely preventable. For example, 297,000 deaths of children under 5 years of age could be avoided annually if the associated risk factors were addressed.Where water is not available, people may think that hand washing is not a priority, which increases the likelihood of diarrhea and other illnesses.

Diarrhea is the most well-known disease associated with contaminated food and water, but there are other hazards associated with it. In 2017, more than 220 million people needed preventive treatment for schistosomiasis, an acute and chronic disease caused by parasitic worms that enter the human body through contact with water contaminated with parasites.

In many parts of the world, insects that live or reproduce in water are carriers and vectors of diseases such as dengue fever. Some of these insects, called vectors of infection, do not breed in dirty water, but in clean water, and containers used in everyday life for storing drinking water can serve as breeding grounds. A simple measure such as the use of lids for these containers can help reduce the breeding levels of vectors and also has additional benefits in preventing household faecal contamination of the water.

Economic and social impact

When water comes from improved or more affordable sources, people spend less time and effort collecting it physically, which means they could be doing other productive work. It could also lead to increased human safety by limiting the need for long and risky water trips. Better sources also mean fewer health costs, because in this case people are more likely to get sick, they do not have to bear medical costs and they are more able to remain economically productive.

Given that children are particularly at risk of water-related illnesses, access to improved water sources means less time collecting water, better health and more regular school attendance, which would have a positive effect in the long term. their lives.


Climate change, increasing water scarcity, population growth, demographic change and urbanization are already creating problems for water supply systems.By 2025, half of the world’s population will live in water-stressed areas. Currently, one of the important strategies is to reuse waste water for the purpose of recovering water, nutrients or energy. Countries are increasingly using wastewater for irrigation – in developing countries, it accounts for 7% of total irrigated land. However, if irrigation is not performed correctly, this practice can create certain health risks that need to be weighed against the potential benefits of increased food production.

Water source options for drinking water and irrigation will continue to evolve, with a greater emphasis in this work on groundwater and alternative sources, including wastewater. Climate change will lead to greater fluctuations in rainwater harvesting. In order to ensure the availability and quality of water, it is necessary to improve the management of all water resources.

WHO activities

As an international body on public health and water quality, WHO leads global efforts to prevent waterborne diseases by advising governments on health targets and policies.

WHO is preparing a series of guidelines on water quality, including drinking water quality, the safe use of wastewater and the creation of a safe environment for recreational waters. The Water Quality Guidelines build on the need to address risks and, since 2004, under the Drinking Water Quality Guidelines, have encouraged the adoption of the Drinking Water Safety Framework. The proposed Framework recommends setting health-conscious targets, water suppliers to develop and implement Water Safety Plans to best identify and manage risks across the catchment-to-consumer chain, and countries to establish a system of independent supervision to ensure the effective implementation of these Plans and the achievement of the established targets.

In addition, WHO assists countries in the implementation of drinking-water quality guidelines by developing practical guidelines and providing direct support to them. This includes the development of locally responsive drinking-water quality regulations aligned with the principles outlined in the Guidelines, as well as the development, implementation and audit of Water Safety Plans and the strengthening of surveillance practices.

Drinking water quality guidelines

Water safety plans

Drinking water quality regulation

Since 2014WHO tests household water treatment products against the WHO health-oriented criteria under the WHO International System for the Assessment of Household Water Treatment Technologies. This project aims to ensure that the distributed products protect users from pathogens that cause diarrheal diseases and to strengthen mechanisms for policy, regulation and monitoring at the national level to support the proper targeting and continued and correct use of such products.

WHO works closely with UNICEF on a range of water and health issues, including water, sanitation and hygiene in health care settings. In 2015, the two agencies jointly developed a guide for improving water supply and sanitation in health care settings (WASH FIT), an adaptation of a water safety planning method. The WASH FIT Guidelines are designed to help small primary care settings in low- and middle-income countries implement a continuous improvement cycle of assessing, ranking risks and identifying specific targeted actions.The 2019 report outlines practical steps that countries can take to improve water, sanitation and hygiene in health-care settings.

90,000 in water. How to properly water the body so that it is grateful? – Murmansk Bulletin

How much water should you drink, which is preferable and with what frequency? Never before have people sought answers to these questions with such attention as they do now. Previously, in general, the majority treated the concept of “drinking regimen” as something purely medical: a person fell ill, and the doctor prescribes, depending on the condition and ailment, an appropriate order of fluid intake – frequency, volume, composition, and so on.

Drink of Life

With an increased focus on the right food, the water theme has also gained immense popularity. Moreover, many people think that water should be drunk as much as possible, since it helps the body fight old age. In addition, the advertised brands of bottled H 2 O reinforced the idea that water is not only the best drink, but also fashionable. And how many situations there are when the opportunity to buy a plastic vessel at every corner is salvation in the literal sense of the word.For example, when you urgently need to take a pill to prevent the worst. And just a sip of water at a critical moment is the most important help.

Even in antiquity it was known that man consists mainly of liquid. And studies have shown that in our body water is 70 percent. In confirmation of the inseparable connection of human nature with the universe in which we exist, the fact is often cited that the World Ocean also makes up 70 percent of the Earth’s surface.

Undoubtedly, water is present in every cell of our body (it is 2/3 in it), and all physiological processes are carried out in an aqueous solution. By the way, in a child before his birth, this ratio is even more significant: his body is 90 percent water. Naturally, by the required date, its volume begins to decrease, and in babies it is already 80 percent. This is the reason for the divinely tender skin of a child. And then everything happens according to the well-known life scenario: in the elderly, the water content in the body decreases to 55 percent.The inevitable truth is that over the years, each of us gradually begins to get dryness, wrinkles appear, the state of health loses its former vigor. So water consumption – the very “drinking regime” – is not in vain among the top important issues for those who seek not to lose energy and health ahead of time.

Thirst is everything!

It is no coincidence that a person can live without food for quite a long time – 4-6 weeks, and without water from the strength of day 3. The fact that H 2 O is the basis of all living things is known to anyone from school.Also, everyone is aware that dehydration is extremely dangerous. Its signs, if you do not take an extreme situation, are generally well known, but we do not always pay attention to them. Indicators that the body does not have enough water, rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, dizziness, the appearance of a headache despite the fact that the skin is dry. This means that a person loses more water every day through the kidneys, intestines, skin and lungs than they receive. And, if you do not permanently replenish its reserves, you can earn dehydration, scientifically – dehydration of the body.

From a lack of fluid, first of all, the blood thickens, which leads to the occurrence of thrombosis. Doctors not in vain with increased blood clots, in addition to drugs, prescribe to their patients an increase in water consumption. Of course, dehydration can occur due to some kind of medical condition. However, this happens much more often in the conditions of ordinary everyday life: during physical exertion, overheating, but especially after a stormy rest with alcohol.

You can also feel what dehydration means by taking diuretics.There is such a little female trick – they resort to these pills to eliminate swelling on the face caused by addiction, for example, to salty foods. Indeed, it’s easy: well, you run to the toilet once again, but you don’t refuse a herring for dinner, and in the morning – without traces of “salty weakness” on your face.

It should be borne in mind that without a sufficient amount of fluid, brain activity decreases, including due to poor blood supply. If a person does not receive enough water every day, this causes lethargy, memory loss, and performance.Therefore, if you are constantly haunted by a feeling of fatigue, experts advise not to immediately write off the reason for stress, neurosis, and the like. First of all, the simplest thing should be excluded – the lack of water consumption. By the way, studies have revealed that thirst appears when 2 percent of body weight is lost, with a loss of 8 percent – a semi-fainting state, 10 percent – hallucinations begin, with a shortage of 12 percent – a person dies.

But in everyday life we ​​often confuse the feeling of thirst and hunger.Therefore, instead of water, sweets, a sandwich, a cutlet and so on are often used, worse than that – junk food such as chips, popcorn or something like that. Such “confusion” for the body leads to a violation of its water-salt balance. An insufficient amount of water slows down the breakdown of fats – the liver has to rush to the aid of the kidneys, and the metabolism slows down. But he is a guarantee of good health. In the end – hello, extra pounds! Therefore, nutritionists advise to drink water and wait a little.If the feeling of hunger has passed, it means that it was imaginary – just thirsty. And if not, then it’s really time for a snack.

In the vortex of the norm

Adequate water consumption is really a good thing. It prevents the occurrence of urolithiasis, reduces the risk of developing bladder cancer, as the concentration of harmful substances in the product produced by the kidneys decreases. In the morning, one or two glasses of plain water stimulates the intestines well and protects it from various dysfunctions.

Several decades ago, foreign scientists conducted studies that showed that a person needs 2 – 2.5 liters of liquid per day, including in the form of food, including tea, coffee and all other dishes. But at the exit of the research results, food was left on the sidelines (for whatever reason, different assumptions can be made). As a result, the norm turned out to be overestimated, considering all the food consumed per day.

It should be borne in mind that an excessive volume of fluid leads to disruption of mineral metabolism, leaching of salts, hits the kidneys, cardiovascular system, and causes insomnia.The problem of water stress on the kidneys is especially relevant for hot regions. Many have probably noticed that when flying south they turn into water lovers.

It is believed that the daily rate of water is 30 milliliters per kilogram of weight. Those are with a weight of 70 kilos – from 2 to 2.5 liters, taking into account all foodstuffs, which must be taken into account, first of all, on vacation, when we start to eat more fruits and vegetables, especially for watermelon and melon lovers.

There are many points of view when it is better to drink water – before, after or during meals.More and more experts say that it doesn’t matter. You need to drink it when the body requires it. But to start every morning with a glass of water on an empty stomach, many advise to make it a rule. And you still drink your one and a half liters of clean water a day in order to insure your health from problems.

Important to know:

Excessive consumption of water worsens digestion, increases the volume of circulating blood, creates a load on the cardiovascular system and kidneys, increases the release of substances necessary for the body.A one-time intake of a large amount of water disrupts the work of the muscles, leading to their rapid fatigue.

In case of insufficient water consumption, the state of health worsens, the temperature rises, the pulse and respiration become more frequent, the working capacity decreases, the memory fails.


A healthy person with a normal body mass index (BMI = weight / height), weighing 60-70-80 kg, requires at least 1.5 liters of water per day. This volume does not include tea, coffee, juice, compote, soup, which he consumes during the day.

Body hardening – Nizhnesortymsk district hospital


Any of the hardening procedures is based on the systematic effect of sunlight, heat or cooling on the human body. This leads to the fact that a person gradually forms adaptation to the external environment, as well as the work of all systems of his body is improving.Hardening is of great importance for strengthening health, increasing efficiency, improving well-being, mood, vigor.

When hardening the body, it is necessary to adhere to several principles:

1) Carrying out hardening procedures only on condition that the person is completely healthy.

2) Careful consideration of the individual characteristics of the organism, its age, the possibility of increased sensitivity to hardening activities.

3) The intensity of the hardening procedures increases gradually and sequentially (from gentle to more intense), with the expansion of the impact zones and an increase in the time of hardening.

4) Systematic and consistent use of hardening procedures. Hardening of the body should be carried out day after day throughout the year, regardless of weather conditions and without long breaks. Breaks in hardening reduce the body’s acquired resistance to temperature effects.

5) Inadmissibility of hardening procedures if a person has negative emotional reactions (fear, anxiety). It is important that the procedures evoke only positive emotions in a person.

6) The complex impact of all natural factors. The most effective is the use of a variety of hardening procedures, reflecting the whole complex of natural forces of nature, affecting a person every day.

Means and methods of hardening.

(to increase the degree of impact on the body)

1) Air hardening.

2) Sunbathing.

3) Water procedures (rubdown, douche, shower, bathing in natural reservoirs, pools or in sea water).

4) Snow rubdown.

5) Walking barefoot.

6) Bath or sauna with a dip in cold water.

Air hardening

Air is the environment that constantly surrounds a person. It comes in contact with the skin, directly or through clothing, and with the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract. Staying in the fresh air improves the overall well-being of the body, influencing the emotional state, causes a feeling of vigor and freshness. The hardening effect of air on the body is the result of the complex effect of a number of physical factors: temperature, humidity, direction and speed of movement.According to temperature sensations, the following types of air baths are distinguished: hot (over 30C), warm (over 22C), indifferent (21-22C), cool (17-21C), moderately cold (13-17C), cold (4-13C), very cold (below 4C).

Hardened by the sun

Solar infrared rays have a pronounced thermal effect on the body. They contribute to the formation of additional heat in the body. As a result, the activity of the sweat glands increases and the evaporation of moisture from the skin surface increases: the subcutaneous vessels expand and skin hyperemia occurs, blood flow increases, and this improves the blood circulation of air baths in all tissues of the body.Ultraviolet irradiation has a great biological effect: it promotes the formation of vitamin D in the body, which has a pronounced antirachitic effect; accelerates metabolic processes; under its influence, highly active products of protein metabolism are formed – biogenic stimulants. Ultraviolet rays improve blood composition, have a bactericidal effect, thereby increasing the body’s resistance to colds and infectious diseases; they have a tonic effect on almost all body functions.

Water hardening

A powerful agent with a pronounced cooling effect, since its heat capacity and thermal conductivity are many times greater than that of air. An indicator of the effect of water hardening procedures is the reaction of the skin. There are three phases of the body’s reaction to the effect of low water temperature. The first is an increased spasm of blood vessels of the skin. The second phase – due to adaptation to low water temperature, vasodilation occurs, the skin becomes red, blood pressure decreases, mast cells and leukocytes of vascular depots of the skin and subcutaneous tissue are activated with the release of biologically active substances.This phase is characterized by an improvement in well-being, an increase in activity. The third phase (unfavorable) – the adaptive capabilities of the body are exhausted, vasospasm occurs, chills appear. With the systematic use of water hardening, the first phase is shortened and the second begins faster. The most important thing is that the third phase does not come.

There are several separate methods of water hardening:

a) Rubdown – the initial stage of water hardening.Rubdowns can be general and partial. Rubdown is carried out with a towel, sponge or just a hand moistened with water. First, they wipe the upper half of the body (arms, neck, chest, back), wipe it dry and rub it with a dry towel until redness, and then do the same with the lower half of the body (stomach, lower back, lower extremities). The limbs are rubbed from the fingers to the body. The body is rubbed in a circular motion towards the armpits and groins. The duration of the procedure does not exceed 4-5 minutes, including rubbing the body.For wiping, first use cool water (20-24 C), and then gradually switch to cold water (below 16 C). In this case, it is necessary to ensure that the air temperature in the room where the procedure is carried out is within + 18-20 C. After the procedure, it is recommended to wear warm clothes.

b) Pouring is the next stage of hardening. Initially, the water for dousing should have a temperature of + 37-38 ° C. At the end of each week, the water temperature is reduced by 1 C. The duration of the procedures, initially, is 1 minute and gradually increases to 2-3 minutes.It can be local and general. Local douche – douche the feet. For the first douches, it is advisable to use water with a temperature of about + 30C, further reducing it to + 15C and below. After dousing, vigorous rubbing of the body with a towel is carried out. The general douche should be started with a higher temperature, mainly in summer, and in the autumn-winter period it is necessary to organize so that the water covers as much of the body surface as possible, the back, then the chest and abdomen, then the right and left sides. After finishing – rub with a towel.The time under the stream is 20-40 seconds.

c) Shower is an even more effective water procedure. At the beginning of hardening, the water temperature should be about + 30-32C, and the duration should not exceed 1 minute. In the future, you can gradually reduce the temperature and increase the duration up to 2 minutes, including rubbing the body. With a good degree of hardening, you can take a contrast shower, alternating 2-3 times water 35-40 C with water 13-20 C for 3 minutes. When bathing, a complex effect on the body of air, water and sunlight is carried out.You can start swimming at a water temperature of 18-20 C and 14-15 C of the air.

So, hardening is one of the most important components of a healthy lifestyle. Tempering should be understood as various measures associated with the rational use of the natural forces of nature to increase the body’s resistance to the harmful effects of various meteorological factors.

A seasoned person has a high vitality, is not susceptible to diseases, in any conditions he is able to maintain calmness, good spirits, and optimism.

BU “Nizhnesortymskaya district hospital”

Medical Prevention Cabinet

Water | United Nations

Clean water is essential to sustain human life and is of paramount importance to human health. Fortunately, there is enough fresh water on the planet for every inhabitant. However, a weak economy and lack of infrastructure are causing millions of people, mostly children, to die from diseases associated with inadequate water supply, sanitation and hygiene.

Water scarcity affects over 40 percent of the world’s population. According to experts, more than 700 million people on the planet are deprived of access to clean water and more than 1.7 billion people living in the territory of river basins need additional sources of fresh water.

In addition to vital functions, having access to clean drinking water has a number of other important benefits that are essential for living with dignity and prosperity. These include security, privacy and basic convenience.

UN and water

One of the most important areas of UN activity has long been overcoming the global crisis caused by an underdeveloped water supply system, which is so necessary to meet basic human needs. The problem is also exacerbated by the growing demand for water, both for domestic use and for commercial and agricultural activities.

Water-related issues were addressed by the United Nations Conference on Water (1977), the International Decade for Drinking Water and Sanitation (1981-1990), the International Conference on Water and the Environment (1992) and the World Summit on the highest level “Planet Earth” (1992).As a result of this work, 1.3 billion people in developing countries gained access to safe drinking water during the Decade.

The Role of Water

To raise public awareness of the importance of water to life, the General Assembly declared 2003 the International Year of Freshwater. In the same year, the UN System Chief Executives Board for Coordination established a system-wide UN-Water framework that covers all fresh water and sanitation issues.

In order to further strengthen global action to achieve the water-related Millennium Development Goals, the General Assembly proclaimed the period 2005-2015 as the International Decade for Action “Water for Life”. The Decade started on 22 March 2005 and since then this day has been celebrated annually as World Water Day.

The right to water

An important milestone in modern history was the recognition of the human right to water and sanitation. According to a resolution adopted by the UN General Assembly in July 2010, everyone has the right to access sufficient water for personal and domestic needs (from 50 to 100 liters per day per person).At the same time, the water should be safe, acceptable in quality and price (the cost of water should not exceed three percent of household income), as well as physically accessible (the water source should be within 1000 meters from the house and it should take no more than 30 minutes).

Special attention in the activities of the UN system is paid to the maintenance of sources with limited and absent fresh water supplies. The burden on them is constantly increasing due to the increase in population, environmental pollution, and the needs of agriculture and industry.

Ahead of reaching the MDGs

The Millennium Development Goals called for a halving, by 2015, of the proportion of the population without sustainable access to reliable water supplies. This task was completed five years ahead of schedule in 2010.

According to UNICEF, 91 percent of the world’s population now has access to an improved drinking water source.
Since 1990, 2.6 billion people have gained access to such sources, including 42 per cent of the population in the least developed countries.
Improved drinking water sources are used by 96 percent of the urban population and 84 percent of the rural population. However, as of 2015, the number of the world’s inhabitants who were denied access to quality drinking water was 663 million. Moreover, 80 percent of them lived in rural areas.

SDGs and water

The UN Agenda for Sustainable Development has identified access to water and sanitation as a separate Goal 6. Goal 6 is inextricably linked to health, food security and climate change, and resilience to natural disasters and ecosystem management.

Among the tasks to be accomplished to achieve Goal 6 are improving water quality, increasing the efficiency of water use and protecting water-related ecosystems such as mountains, forests, swamps, rivers, lakes.

Achieving this goal will include increased international cooperation and support to strengthen the capacity of developing countries to implement activities and programs related to water supply and sanitation. These activities include water collection and desalination, water efficiency and wastewater treatment, and water recycling and reuse technologies.

Water and security

In 2011, the UN Security Council recognized that climate change has significant security implications, highlighting that the aquatic environment is the most vulnerable in this regard.

In his speech at the landmark meeting of the Security Council in 2011, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon noted: “The scarcity of water and food threatens hundreds of millions of people around the world. This undermines the very foundations of stability at the local, national and global levels.There is growing competition between communities and countries to gain access to scarce resources available, primarily water resources, exacerbating longstanding security challenges and generating new ones. ”

The 2013 UN-Water Policy Brief, Water Security and the Global Water Agenda, argues that water itself is a threat to security and water scarcity can create tensions and the emergence of regional conflicts.It also notes that reliable water supply contributes to the maintenance of peace and security in the regions for the long term.

Key Facts:

• 2.21 billion people lack access to safe drinking water. (WHO / UNICEF, 2019)

• More than half of the world’s population, or 4.52 billion people, lack access to safe sanitation and hygiene. (WHO / UNICEF, 2019)

• 297,000 children under the age of five die each year from diarrhea due to inadequate sanitation, poor hygiene or unsafe drinking water.(WHO / UNICEF, 2019)

• 2 billion people live in water-stressed countries. (UN, 2019). Water scarcity already affects four out of every 10 people. (WHO)

• 90% of all natural disasters are water related.

• 80% of wastewater is returned to the ecosystem without treatment. (UNESCO, 2017).

• There are no joint management arrangements for two thirds of the world’s transboundary rivers. (SIWI)

• Agriculture accounts for 70% of the world’s water withdrawals.(FAO)

• Approximately 75% of all industrial water withdrawals are used for energy production. (UNESCO, 2014)

Water, sanitation and hygiene

Contaminated water and lack of basic sanitation undermine efforts to eradicate poverty and disease in the world’s poorest countries. Currently, 2.4 billion people around the world still lack access to modern sanitation systems to avoid human exposure to excreta.

According to the WHO / UNICEF monitoring of access to safe water and sanitation, at least 1.8 billion people worldwide are forced to drink water contaminated with faeces. Even more people get their drinking water through systems that do not meet basic sanitation standards.

Key facts on sanitation:

  • every third inhabitant of the planet lives in unsanitary conditions;
  • every seventh – still practices open defecation; 90,026 90,025 75 percent of open defecation practices occur in five countries, including India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Pakistan; 90,026 90,025 2.6 billion people have gained access to improved sanitation since 1990.

Contaminated water and infant mortality

Contaminated water and unsanitary conditions are major contributors to child mortality in developing countries. Poor water supply and the presence of infectious agents in water, as well as lack of basic hygiene and sanitation, lead to diarrhea in children. The disease is estimated to kill up to 1.5 million children under the age of 5 each year in the poorest regions.