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Cystitis vs. UTI causes | Prevalence | Symptoms | Diagnosis | Treatments | Risk factors | Prevention | When to see a doctor | FAQs | Resources
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are most common in women, although men and children can get them too. There are three types of UTIs—urethritis (inflammation of the urethra), cystitis (bladder infection/lower UTI), and pyelonephritis (kidney infection/upper UTI). The two conditions are very similar and share many symptoms. Let’s take a look at the similarities and differences between UTIs and cystitis.
Most often, cystitis (inflammation of the bladder) is caused by bacteria, but ongoing use of a urinary catheter, sensitivity to chemicals in feminine hygiene products, reaction to a medication or treatment for another illness (radiation or chemotherapy), and other conditions (kidney stones or diabetes) can cause cystitis. Cystitis can be acute or interstitial. Acute cystitis occurs suddenly whereas interstitial cystitis is a long-term condition affecting several layers of bladder tissue.
Urinary tract infections are caused when microorganisms on the skin or rectum enter the urethra, infecting any part of the urinary system: the urethra, ureters, bladder, or kidneys. Ninety percent of uncomplicated UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli), a bacterium found in the digestive system, but other microorganisms can cause UTIs. Typically, UTIs occur in the urethra (urethritis) and bladder (cystitis), but bacteria sometimes travels to and infects the kidneys (pyelonephritis), making prompt treatment important. In rare cases, untreated infection can lead to kidney disease or sepsis.
|Cystitis vs. UTI causes|
Recent studies show 10 out of 100 women have uncomplicated cystitis at least once a year, half of whom will have cystitis again within one year. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), women are much more likely to get cystitis than men.
Research shows 50% to 60% of women will experience at least one UTI during their lifetime. UTIs can also recur. More than a quarter of women experience a recurrent UTI within six months of their first episode. And the prevalence of UTIs increases with age. Though they mostly occur in women, men and children are also at risk.
|Cystitis vs. UTI prevalence|
There is some overlap between urinary symptoms of cystitis and UTIs, including blood in urine, frequent or painful urination (dysuria), persistent urge to urinate but with little output, pelvic pressure, and pain in the lower abdomen.
Cystitis can cause problems urinating and cause you to feel unwell overall. Many cases are mild and improve on their own over a few days, but be sure to see your provider if your symptoms are severe or they’re not improving.
Symptoms of complicated UTIs not seen with cystitis include fever or back and side pain, both indicative of a kidney infection (pyelonephritis).
|Cystitis vs. UTI symptoms|
If you’re experiencing symptoms of cystitis, a urinalysis will be conducted to examine a sample of your urine for bacteria. A cystoscopy, a procedure using a thin tube with a camera to examine the urinary tract, or imaging (X-ray, ultrasound, CT, or MRI) may be conducted by a urologist to identify possible causes of bladder inflammation and bladder pain.
Your healthcare provider will ask about symptoms, conduct a physical examination, and order a simple urinalysis to look for white blood cells (pus), red blood cells (blood), and bacteria in a sample of your urine. The presence of these cells indicates an infection. Bacteria from a urine sample are typically grown in a lab to identify the source of the UTI and determine the best course of treatment. For recurring UTIs, a CT scan or MRI may be ordered to identify abnormalities to the urinary tract, or your doctor may conduct a cystoscopy, evaluating the bladder and urinary tract using a small flexible cystoscope.
|Cystitis vs. UTI diagnosis|
Mild cases of noninfectious cystitis can be treated at home, but you should see your general practitioner if symptoms do not improve within a few days. Self-help measures to manage symptoms include drinking plenty of water, avoiding caffeine and citrus foods, abstaining from sex, and drinking unsweetened cranberry juice. Avoid caffeine and alcohol, apply a heating pad, and don’t hold your urine. Seek medical advice for unresolved cases of cystitis, which usually require a course of antibiotics. Medications often used for cystitis include:
The same home remedies for cystitis can be helpful for UTIs. It can be helpful to increase your intake of vitamin C and probiotics in order to support the immune system and urinary tract health. Pay close attention to symptoms, as severe bacterial infections of the bladder or kidneys may need to be treated with intravenous antibiotics in a hospital. Because most UTIs are caused by bacterial pathogens, antibiotics are usually warranted to eradicate the infection. Your healthcare provider may recommend one of the cystitis medications above, or prescribe a course of one of these antibiotics based on the type of bacteria present:
|Cystitis vs. UTI treatments|
RELATED: What are probiotics?
Females are more likely to contract cystitis than males. Older adults are also more likely to get cystitis because the bladder may not empty completely due to other health conditions such as an enlarged prostate or bladder prolapse.
UTIs are far more common in women than in men because their urethras are shorter and closer to the rectum; therefore, bacteria can enter the urinary tract and travel to the bladder more easily. People with diabetes are also more likely to experience UTIs because their urine has higher sugar levels—an environment where bacteria grow more easily. Hormonal changes during pregnancy make urine output slower and create an environment conducive to bacterial growth. During menopause, the body produces less estrogen, a factor that increases the risk of UTIs.
|Cystitis vs. UTI risk factors|
While there’s no proven way to prevent cystitis, making lifestyle modifications can go a long way in minimizing symptoms and infection risk. Lifestyle changes include good genital hygiene, urinating after sexual intercourse, and taking showers instead of baths.
The same preventive measures for cystitis also apply to UTIs. To prevent UTIs from occurring, be sure to practice good hygiene: always wipe from front to back and avoid the use of genital douches, powders, and sprays. Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water, never hold your urine for extended periods of time, and be sure to urinate after having sex. Unsweetened cranberry juice may help prevent the bacteria E. Coli from attaching to the bladder wall. Your healthcare provider may prescribe an antibiotic to be taken after sex in cases of recurring UTIs.
|How to prevent cystitis vs. UTI|
When to see a healthcare provider for cystitis or UTI
Young children and men should see a healthcare provider when experiencing symptoms of a UTI or cystitis to rule out other conditions because both conditions can be more serious among these groups.
For women experiencing symptoms of a UTI lasting longer than three days, see a healthcare provider to get a diagnosis and proper treatment. Because severe cases may lead to more serious infections of the bladder or kidney that need to be treated in a hospital setting, it’s important to seek treatment as early as possible. Any of the following symptoms warrant a medical provider’s advice:
- Painful, burning/ stinging urination
- An urgent need to pee frequently but in small amounts
- Bloody, dark, cloudy, or foul-smelling urine
- Pain in the bladder or surrounding areas
Discuss your symptoms in detail with your healthcare provider, seeking their advice regarding diagnostic testing to rule out other diseases.
Frequently asked questions about cystitis and UTI
What is the difference between cystitis and UTI?
A UTI can occur in any part of the urinary tract: the urethra, ureters, kidneys, or bladder. If the infection stays in the urethra, it’s considered urethritis. The urethra is a tube that allows the body to expel urine and is connected to the bladder. If the infection occurs in the lower urinary tract and bladder, it’s considered cystitis. The ureters, two narrow tubes, drain urine from the kidneys into the bladder. Kidneys are responsible for removing waste and excess water from the body. If the infection moves to the upper urinary tract and kidneys, it’s considered pyelonephritis.
Can a UTI cause cystitis?
While not all urinary tract infections lead to cystitis, it is possible for untreated UTIs to spread to the bladder. A bladder infection causing cystitis is a specific type of urinary tract infection that often occurs when bacteria from another part of the urinary tract enter the bladder. To prevent this from occurring, see your healthcare provider to obtain treatment for a UTI promptly.
What could be mistaken for a UTI?
There are several conditions whose symptoms mimic UTIs. Sexually transmitted infections (gonorrhea, chlamydia, and mycoplasma) cause symptoms also common in UTIs, such as painful urination and discharge.
Vaginitis, caused by bacteria or yeast, can result in a burning sensation when urinating and similar discomfort that may mimic a UTI.
Often mistaken for a UTI, interstitial cystitis (IC), or painful bladder condition, is a chronic condition affecting the bladder that does not improve with antibiotic treatment. Symptoms of IC include increased urgency and more frequent urination as well as pain in the pelvic area.
Other conditions to rule out are overactive bladder, pregnancy, prostatitis, diabetes, cancer, and kidney stones.
What is the fastest way to get rid of cystitis?
If symptoms are severe or they do not improve within three days, it’s important to see your healthcare provider. Though self-help measures may serve to relieve symptoms, antibiotics are the fastest and most effective way to cure cystitis.
Urinary Tract Infections – Learn How to Spot and Treat Them
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) account for more than 8.1 million visits to the doctor each year. About 40 percent of women and 12 percent of men will feel the symptoms of at least one UTI during their lifetime. About one in five young women who have a UTI will have another one. Men are less likely to get a UTI in the first place. But if they get one, they are likely to have another because the bacteria tends to hide inside the prostate.
Nora Yoshimura knows all too well how to spot the signs of a UTI. The 83-year-old grandmother has been dealing with UTIs for 55 years. “I know from how often I urinate and the burning feeling when I urinate,” she says. After struggling with UTIs for many years, she has been able to get them under control. She works closely with her urologist to start treatment at the first sign of infection.
“I still get them, especially when I travel,” Nora says. “The worst thing about a UTI is having to keep running to the bathroom. It’s embarrassing. I’ve been in some tough situations, such as being on an airplane and being told I couldn’t leave my seat to go to the bathroom.”
Nora’s urologist, Dr. Anthony J. Schaeffer, explained it wasn’t her fault that she keeps getting UTIs. “I’ve tried everything to prevent them, and nothing works,” she says. Dr. Schaeffer, American Urological Association member and Chair of the Department of Urology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, says, “Most older women have bacteria in their urine which do not cause symptoms and should not be treated. But Nora has UTIs with symptoms.”
Normal urine has no bacteria. But if bacteria get into the urethra (the tube that empties urine from the bladder to the outside) and travel into the bladder, a UTI can occur. The infection most often starts in the bladder, but can spread to the kidneys.
UTIs can cause pain in your abdomen and pelvic area. It can make you feel like you need to urinate more often. You may even try to urinate but only produce a few drops. And you may feel some burning as your urine comes out. At times, you may lose control of your urine. Kidney infections often cause fever and back pain. These infections need to be treated quickly. A kidney infection can quickly spread into the bloodstream and be life-threatening.
There are two types of UTIs: uncomplicated and complicated. Uncomplicated UTIs are infections that happen in healthy people with normal urinary tracts. Complicated UTIs happen in abnormal urinary tracts or when the bacteria causing the infection cannot be treated by many antibiotics. Most women have uncomplicated UTIs, while the UTIs in men and children should be thought of as complicated, says Dr. Schaeffer. “Men and boys with UTIs should see a urologist as we assume they have complicated UTIs, unless proven otherwise.”
Some people, like Nora, are more likely to get UTIs. Sexual intercourse and low levels of estrogen in the vagina raise the frequency of the infections. Using condoms with sperm-killing foam is also known to be linked to an increase in UTIs in women. Diseases such as diabetes also put people at higher risk. This is because they lower the body’s immune system function and make it harder to fight off infections.
If you think you may have a UTI, you should call your doctor. Your first UTI should be assessed in your doctor’s office. In most cases, the doctor may use a urine test (called a culture) to look for signs of infection. These signs are bacteria or white blood cells in the urine. A urine culture is not needed for women with occasional uncomplicated UTIs, but Dr. Schaeffer says it is important for those who have recurring uncomplicated UTIs and complicated UTIs. If you ever see blood in your urine, you should call your doctor right away. Blood in the urine may be caused by a UTI, but it may also be from a different problem in the urinary tract.
“When infections start to occur frequently, you need to see a doctor for a more thorough evaluation, including urine cultures,” Dr. Schaeffer advises. “Start with your primary care doctor, who may refer you to a urologist. If your urine culture shows you don’t have a UTI, you’ll need further testing to find out the cause of your symptoms.” In rare cases, a person with symptoms similar to a UTI, but with repeated negative cultures (meaning they don’t show a bacterial infection) may in fact have bladder cancer. A positive culture (which finds bacteria) confirms a woman has a UTI. The test also shows whether the bacteria will respond to treatment with antibiotics.
Treatment for an uncomplicated UTI is a short course of oral antibiotic without a urine culture to confirm you have an infection. This treatment is often just three days. Depending on the type of antibiotic used, you may take a single dose a day or up to four doses a day. A few doses may get rid of the pain or urge to urinate often. But you should still finish the full course of medication prescribed for you even if you feel better. Unless UTIs are fully treated, they can often return. It’s important to follow the doctor’s instructions for taking the medication exactly. This will help you avoid side effects and make sure the bacteria don’t become resistant, Dr. Schaeffer explains. If your symptoms don’t disappear quickly, your doctor may need to prescribe a different antibiotic. If you have a complicated UTI, you may need IV antibiotics.
If you get frequent UTIs, your doctor may suggest a six-month course of low-dose, nightly antibiotics. This will reduce UTIs by 95 percent. But when a person stops taking the drugs, UTIs usually come back. Some doctors may then suggest “self-start” treatment. The doctor gives you a urine culture device and a course of antibiotics. If you think you have an infection coming on, you do a urine culture at home and start taking the antibiotics. The culture is returned to the doctor’s office to see if you have an infection and are using the right drug. This is how Nora handles her UTIs. “When I feel one coming on, I do a urine culture, and I take antibiotics prescribed by the doctor’s office. This way, I can get it right away, before it gets too bad.”
Dr. Schaeffer says patients often ask if cranberry juice will help prevent or reduce UTIs. They are often disappointed to learn research studies have not proven this to be true.
“For women who are genetically predisposed to get frequent UTIs, the recurrent infections may be a lifetime issue,” says Dr. Schaeffer. “But careful management can keep the incidence and cost to a minimum.”
Symptoms of a UTI
- You feel an urge to urinate often, but you can only produce small amounts
- Burning on urination
- Pain or discomfort in your abdomen or pelvis (can sometimes be felt in rectum in men)
- Blood in urine (urine is pink, red or cola colored)
Symptoms your UTI is a KIDNEY INFECTION and needs to be treated quickly
When Should I See A Health Care Provider?
- If you think you have a UTI, you should call your health care provider.
- If you have recurring UTIs, ask your health care provider for a urine culture.
- If your UTIs recur often, ask your health care provider for a more thorough exam or a referral to a urologist.
- If you see blood in your urine, call your health care provider right away.
Living With a Disease That Feels Like an Incurable UTI
Photo: TomFoldes/Getty Images/iStockphoto
Interstitial cystitis, or IC, is a mysterious, painful bladder condition with no known cause or cure. Patients typically experience symptoms resembling those of a urinary tract infection, minus the actual infection: the burning, the urgency, the constant need to pee, the overall pelvic pain and discomfort. The condition is often misdiagnosed — and is typically considered only after all other bladder issues have been ruled out — but by one estimate, up to 12 percent of women may have some symptoms of IC.
One of them is Simone Gorrindo, 34, who’s lived with IC for half her life. Below, she shares what the past 17 years have been like, including painful sex, strict diets, and the calculus that goes into never being able to stray too far from a restroom.
It started out with UTI symptoms: the pain and the urgency that comes with having to go to the bathroom, the burning sensation. I had to go to the bathroom a good bit more than your average person, and I experienced the need to go to the bathroom and I wouldn’t be able to go. And then it changed: After a few years, it became more like a deep ache in my lower back and down my sides, like a pelvic ache that was deeper and more disquieting.
The way it began was, when I was 17, I left high school early and I went on a backpacking trip to Europe, and I got a UTI right before I left. I just kind of willed it to go away for a while as we were traveling — I think because I was so young and so broke, I didn’t really do the things I needed to do to take care of myself, to get to a clinic immediately. Eventually, I did go to a clinic in Switzerland and I did get mediation, but it didn’t really seem to do the trick of getting the UTI out of my system.
After that, I moved to New York to go to college, and the symptoms just persisted. I just kept getting diagnosed, every time I went to the doctor, with recurrent UTIs. When you have a UTI, they’ll do an initial culture where they’re looking for the presence of white blood cells in your urine, which are a reaction to the bacteria. And I always had that, which is super common with IC patients. So even though they sent things to the lab and they came back clean for bacteria, they just kept treating me with more and more intense antibiotics. That went on for literally all of college, and it became clear that it wasn’t getting cured by antibiotics, but I wasn’t getting a diagnosis for what it was.
One of the main things it affected for me was sex. Sex was painful. It was kind of like sandpaper tearing at my insides, and burning, and also these trigger points — he’d go too deep, it would cause this isolated point of pain that would then reverberate out. What happens with IC is, your pelvic floor is overactive. It tightens to compensate for that feeling of having to go to the bathroom all the time.
So sex, for me, became associated with pain at a young age. I was in my first real relationship at the time when I first got the symptoms — we’d gone to Europe together and then we moved to New York together — and there were a lot of factors that went into the breakdown of that relationship, but one of them was that we were young and we didn’t know how to handle the fact that sex was challenging. It was difficult because I didn’t know what was happening: I went from being able to have sex to it suddenly being quite painful.
I think it affected just my experience of intimacy in general. Because my first boyfriend didn’t deal with it well, it made me wary of sharing that information. Ultimately, it kind of became a source of shame. For a few years between then and my next serious partner, I just had casual things, and I did not tell them about the pain. And I think that contributed a lot to the fact that drinking was part of my experience of sex: It helped physically numb the experience, and also the emotional experience of intimacy becoming challenging.
However, there were some instances when I had to share, times when I was in a tremendous amount of pain. There was one instance where I was in so much pain that the guy just left — not in an asshole way, but he was like, “You probably want to be alone with your pain.” I never went out with that guy again. It freaked people out when I had to share. When I started dating my husband, Andrew, he already sort of knew my whole backstory — we’d been friends at first — which was helpful when we ultimately did have sex.
I don’t think it affected my social life greatly in those first four years, but it should have. I should have been taking better care of myself, but I got so frustrated going doctor to doctor to doctor and not getting an answer that I just went into let’s ignore this mode, to be a normal 20-year-old in New York. I was going out way too much and staying out way too late, and paying for it in feeling worse and worse and worse. So there’s no question that I’m responsible for making my symptoms worse during those years.
And then it did affect my social life, kind of abruptly. I had learned to live with a level of pain that was a low simmer, but it suddenly took a turn when I was 21 where it got a lot more debilitating. It was like my body was saying, “You cannot ignore this anymore.” That radically changed my social life: My friends who were partyers kept on partying, and I stopped. My life got suddenly small and quiet, and the people in my life who were moving on to careers and relationships, their lives were getting bigger and expanding while mine was kind of doing the opposite.
Getting a diagnosis felt weird and good. Weird in that it was so easy for a doctor to be like, “Oh, this is clearly what you have.” I’d been going to doctors for four-and-a-half years in search of a diagnosis, and then I found this specialist, and it was so easy for him to see that that’s what I had. So that was a shock to the system. I also felt like I’d somehow failed, like I should have been able to find the right specialist earlier. So there was part of me that almost felt bad, and then I felt really bad for the way I’d been treating my body. But it was also exciting, like I suddenly had a path forward, and then it was incredibly daunting because I had to find a way to get health insurance, and I had to radically change my entire life.
I never thought it was all in my head like some doctors suggested, but I did worry that it was a symptom of anxiety, or that possibly my own mind was contributing to my inability to get better. But then I would have a bad flare or bad day, and it felt so completely out of my control that I just couldn’t imagine that it was in my head. So mostly I was incredibly frustrated with the doctors. My feeling was like, How are you specialists if you don’t understand this? It changed my whole understanding and experience of medicine in general, which is that doctors are limited people just like the rest of us.
At a certain point, I didn’t think I would find a diagnosis. I came to a point where I was like, Something is terribly wrong with me, but no one’s going to be able to name what it is. I guess that’s just the mystery of the human body. I thought it was just this thing I had to live with and had no name for, which was particularly frustrating because if you have no name for something, no one believes that you’re suffering. So I think having a name for it was a huge turning point. I was at such a low point in my life in every way, and having a diagnosis with some kind of management plan gave me a reason to climb out of it. I left New York and I went back to California, where I’m from, and I moved in with my mom. I got county-run insurance and just took time off from working for a few months, and really concentrated on getting better.
I went back to California for almost a year, and then I went back to New York and was living much more healthfully: I got a nine-to-five job and was going to bed at ten and getting up at six every day, and just had a very routine, organized existence. I didn’t drink coffee, almost never drank alcohol. That was the period of time during which I would say the IC affected my social life the most because my oldest friends in New York, I basically didn’t see most of them anymore.
As I’ve gotten older, though, I would say more than socially, there have been times when it’s affected my career. I ended up going to grad school in New York, for journalism, and I had this professor who used to say to me, “When you hit it, you really hit it out of the park, but other times it just dribbles.” Essentially, he was saying that my work was inconsistent, and there were a lot of reasons for that, but one was my health. I would work myself to the bone, and then I would hit a wall where I couldn’t anymore because I was in pain. When I started working as an editor afterward, I had the same problem in my career: I could work really hard and do great work, but I couldn’t pull off the 80-hour workweek that was necessary. Or I could do it, but my health would suffer and then I would drop the ball on things.
And just living in New York became really hard. I couldn’t have physically dealt with the strenuousness of living there long-term. Sometimes when your bladder’s bad, literally just a walk down the street to go get a few groceries is really tough. Eventually, I did leave: My husband is in the army, so I moved with him to Georgia, and now we live in Tacoma, Washington. So my move wasn’t because of my health, but at the time, things were getting bad enough that when I told my boss I was leaving, he thought I was going to tell him I was going to take medical leave.
I always have symptoms. Some people with IC go into remission, but I always have the urgency, always have to go to the bathroom fairly frequently, always have a little bit of pain. The acute, debilitating flare-ups — they can happen every three months, maybe. But it’s very varied: Sometimes it happens every six months, or it might be every month. It’s been particularly bad recently because I’m pregnant, which some people say brings relief of symptoms and other people say makes them experience worse symptoms.
But that really deep, intense, aching pain, I haven’t had probably in years. I used to be on a pain-blocking medication called Elavil, which is an old antidepressant that’s used now at low doses for things like migraines, and that was the only way I could function. I was on that for almost ten years, and I’m now able to function without it.
My bladder is not as sensitive as it used to be, but the legacy it’s left is a lot of issues with my pelvic muscles, which creates urgency and pain and even sometimes burning. But you can do internal physical therapy where they massage the vaginal walls and use dilators to relax the pelvic floor, and also massage trigger points. It’s almost like massaging knots that you would have anywhere else in your body. My husband learned how to do that to an extent, and sometimes he will do that before sex and it helps quite a bit. It also helps with urinating.
So I think working more than ever on those muscles in physical therapy, and also going to yoga, is probably my biggest form of management. Really trying to relax and prepare for sex helps — I can’t be quite as spontaneous — and also being with a partner who knows me and my body really well, and knowing what areas and trigger points for avoid. I’m working from home, so that helps.
And I just try to take good care of myself. I avoid lots of foods: The big ones are alcohol, coffee, tomatoes, tomato sauce, oranges, chocolate, cultured stuff like sour cream and yogurt, food with nitrates like salami or hot dogs. The list goes on. Giving up alcohol was hard, but coffee was harder. And giving up oranges was very sad. I really miss orange juice — I haven’t had orange juice in like ten years. I’m less rigid than I used to be, though. I had a doctor who said, “If you want a piece of chocolate, have a piece of chocolate.” You kind of know how much you’re going to pay for something, but it’s really hard to stringently follow that diet for your entire life.
I know what my limits are. It’s different for different people, and one thing that might bother me won’t bother another person. I haven’t had my period now in so long because I have a toddler, didn’t get my period back, and then somehow got pregnant again, but when I had it, my symptoms really formed around the rhythms of my menstrual cycle. During the PMS period, it gets really bad, and then it kind of chilled out afterward. I could eat something after getting my period that I couldn’t eat beforehand. You learn these tricks that you don’t really know at first because it takes so long to get to know the effects of this on your body. It takes years to figure it out.
The Mysterious Medical Condition that Defined All My Relationships
Urinary Tract Infections in Children: Why They Occur and How to Prevent Them
Please note: This information was current at the time of publication. But medical information is always changing, and some information given here may be out of date. For regularly updated information on a variety of health topics, please visit familydoctor.org, the AAFP patient education website.
Information from Your Family Doctor
The urinary tract has these parts:
The kidneys, where urine is made.
The ureters, tubes that carry urine from each kidney to the bladder.
The bladder, where urine is stored.
The urethra, a tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. The opening is at the end of the penis in boys and near the vagina in girls.
What is a urinary tract infection?
A urinary tract infection (or UTI, for short) can occur in any of the parts of the urinary tract (see the box above). Normally, urine in the kidneys, the ureters and the bladder doesn’t have any bacteria (germs) in it. Bacteria are normally present only at the very end of the urethra and on the skin around the opening of the urethra. The bacteria that are normally present around the urethra don’t usually cause an infection. When harmful bacteria get into the urinary tract, though, they may cause an infection. The bacteria that cause a UTI can get into the urinary tract at the opening of the urethra.
If bacteria get into your child’s bladder, they can cause a bladder infection. The medical word for a bladder infection is cystitis. When bacteria are in the bladder, they can irritate the bladder. The irritation makes it hurt when your child urinates. Your child might have a burning feeling when he or she urinates. Your child may also have a constant feeling of needing to urinate. Sometimes, children with a bladder infection lose control and wet themselves. There is usually little or no fever with a bladder infection.
If the bacteria travel from the bladder up the ureters to the kidneys, they may cause a kidney infection. The medical word for a kidney infection is pyelonephritis (say: pie-ell-oh-nef-right-us). A kidney infection is more serious than a bladder infection. The kidneys might be damaged if the infection isn’t treated with medicine. A kidney infection can cause fever. Your child might also have pain in the side or the back. This infection can make your child feel really sick. It’s possible to have the symptoms of both a bladder infection and a kidney infection.
How do I know if my child has a urinary tract infection?
UTIs are sometimes hard to diagnose in babies and young children, because they can’t tell us how they’re feeling. Therefore, urine should be tested in a baby or a young child who has an unexplained fever for three days. A UTI may be the cause of the fever. Fever might be the only symptom in a baby with pyelonephritis.
An older child might be able to tell you that it hurts to urinate. Children who have a sudden need to urinate and who hold themselves or squat to keep from urinating might have a UTI. If your child has a kidney infection, you may be able to tell that he or she is sick. Your child may act tired, or have a fever, or have nausea and vomiting.
Of course, babies and children can get a fever from many other illnesses, such as colds, ear infections and the flu. Also, other things can cause pain with urination or loss of urine control. Irritation at the opening of the urethra (for example, from wearing tight panties or leotards) may cause pain with urination. Bubble baths can irritate the tender skin around the urethra and make urination hurt. Dirty diapers or underpants can irritate the skin around the genital area and cause pain. (But dirty diapers and dirty underwear don’t cause a UTI).
If you think your child has a UTI, call your doctor.
How does my doctor find out my child has a UTI?
Your doctor can find out if your child has a UTI by testing some of your child’s urine. A test called a “culture” can tell the doctor if there are bacteria in the urine. If bacteria are in the urine, your child has a UTI.
What if my child has had quite a few bladder or kidney infections?
If your child has had pyelonephritis or cystitis more than a few times, your doctor may want to get x-rays of your child’s urinary tract. The x-rays would show the bladder, the ureters and the kidneys. Or your doctor might get a sonogram. The x-ray or the sonogram can show if there is a problem in the kidneys, the ureters or the bladder that causes infections. Your doctor may refer your child to a special doctor who treats urinary tract problems. Sometimes taking a low dose of an antibiotic for a long time can stop repeat infections.
Most children who have many UTIs don’t have a problem in the urinary tract. Instead, they have poor urinary habits. Teaching your child good bathroom habits can help prevent UTIs.
What are some good bathroom habits that my child should follow?
Teach your daughter to wipe herself from front to back after she goes to the bathroom.
Teach your daughter to lower her pants and underpants to her ankles and to sit comfortably on the toilet. If her feet don’t touch the floor, put a step stool in front of the toilet, so she can put her feet on it and be comfortable.
Teach your son to completely open his pants and underpants so his penis isn’t pressed by clothing when he is urinating.
Teach your child to urinate regularly. Tell your child to not hold in urine for a long time. Going to the bathroom frequently can help prevent UTIs. Children who have had repeat UTIs should urinate every 1½ to 2 hours during the day. Drinking lots of fluids will help your child urinate more often.
Treat constipation. Constipation can give your child a sudden need to urinate.
Teach your child to empty the bladder all the way when he or she urinates. No “quickie” bathroom visits during a TV commercial!
Give your child antibiotics only when your doctor tells you to. Antibiotics can kill the good bacteria that normally live on the skin of the genital area. When the good, protective bacteria are gone, harmful bacteria can grow and cause a UTI.
Dysuria: What You Should Know About Burning or Stinging with Urination
Please note: This information was current at the time of publication. But medical information is always changing, and some information given here may be out of date. For regularly updated information on a variety of health topics, please visit familydoctor.org, the AAFP patient education website.
Information from Your Family Doctor
Am Fam Physician. 2015 Nov 1;92(9):online.
See related article on dysuria
What is dysuria?
Dysuria (dis-YUR-ee-uh) means pain with urination.
What causes it?
The most common causes of dysuria are infections, such as bladder infections or urinary tract infections (UTIs). In women, vaginal infections are a common cause. In men, prostate infections can cause it. In both men and women, sexually transmitted infections can cause it. Sometimes using soaps, spermicides, or lotions can cause irritation and pain. Some skin problems can cause dysuria. There are many other less common causes.
What are the symptoms of a UTI?
When you have a UTI, the lining of the bladder and urethra (yuh-RE-thra) become red and irritated. This can cause pain in your stomach and pelvic area. You may feel the need to empty your bladder more often. You may try to urinate but only produce a few drops or feel some burning as your urine comes out. You may lose control of your urine sometimes. Your urine may smell bad or look cloudy.
Sometimes UTIs spread to the kidneys. Kidney infections may cause fever, chills, sweats, and back pain. These infections need to be treated quickly because they can spread into the bloodstream and make you very sick.
What should I do if I have dysuria?
Men who have dysuria should see their doctor. Women who have fever, back pain, vaginal discharge, or irritation or sores in the vaginal area should see their doctor. Women with mild dysuria can first try drinking extra water to flush the urinary system. Taking an anti-inflammatory medicine like ibuprofen or naproxen may help. There are also medicines just for bladder pain (some brand names: Azo and Uristat). Women should see their doctor if dysuria continues, if symptoms are severe, or if fever or other symptoms of a more serious infection develop. Sometimes women can be diagnosed and treated without going to the doctor’s office.
What will my doctor do?
Your doctor will ask questions about your symptoms to find out the possible cause of dysuria. If you have an infection, your doctor will give you a prescription for an antibiotic. For many patients, a physical examination may be needed. Often, a urine test will be done in the office or sent to a lab.
Sometimes other tests are needed if the cause is not clear or if there are signs of more serious illness. These may include blood tests, imaging studies, and tests on samples from the urethra or from vaginal discharge in women. Some patients may need to see a bladder and kidney specialist (urologist) or gynecologist.
When to worry about persistent UTIs
It’s no surprise that women are prone to urinary tract infections (UTIs). It’s just how the female anatomy is made. Since women have a shorter urethra, bacteria have a shorter distance to travel compared to men. Even though UTIs are more common in women, men can get them too.
A UTI can infect any part of your urinary system — kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. They are one of the most common types of infections and account for around 8.1 million visits to a doctor every year.
The most common symptoms of a UTI include:
- Pain, burning or stinging when you use the restroom
- Hyperactive or overactive bladder (using the bathroom more than 8 times in 24 hours, including a couple times overnight)
- Passing frequent, small amounts of urine
- Uncontrollable leakage
- Cloudy urine, blood in your urine or urine that is red or pinkish
- Urine with a strong, foul odor
Your doctor can test your urine, determine if you have a urinary tract infection, and prescribe you an antibiotic to fight it.
If you continue to notice blood in your urine or if your symptoms persist after a course of antibiotics for a UTI, it may be a sign of something more, like bladder cancer.
Bladder cancer symptoms are almost identical to those of a bladder infection. Because they share many related symptoms, the most important thing for you to do is keep track of how you are feeling.
While UTIs are very common, blood in your urine is never normal. It is often the first sign of bladder cancer and for women, it can be easily misdiagnosed as menstruation or menopause.
Just like a UTI, bladder cancer symptoms include:
- Having to urinate more than usual
- Pain or burning during urination
- Feeling as if you need to go right away, even when the bladder is not full
- Having trouble urinating or having a weak urine stream
Smoking is the greatest risk factor for bladder cancer, and causes about half of all bladder cancers in both men and women. Smokers are 4 to 7 times more likely to develop bladder cancer than nonsmokers.
Although screening tests are usually not recommended for people at average risk, bladder cancer can often be found early because it causes blood in the urine or other persistent symptoms.
What’s important to remember is that if something doesn’t look or feel right, it probably isn’t. If you notice blood in your urine or have any symptoms of a UTI, have your symptoms checked by your doctor. Cancer is treated most effectively when it is found early.
Detect cancer early with regular checkups and screenings
Learn more about cancer support services at Edward-Elmhurst Health.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) – NHS
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect your urinary tract, including your bladder (cystitis), urethra (urethritis) or kidneys (kidney infection). UTIs may be treated with antibiotics, but they’re not always needed.
Check if it’s a urinary tract infection (UTI)
Symptoms of a UTI may include:
- pain or a burning sensation when peeing (dysuria)
- needing to pee more often than usual during the night (nocturia)
- pee that looks cloudy
- needing to pee suddenly or more urgently than usual
- needing to pee more often than usual
- blood in your pee
- lower tummy pain or pain in your back, just under the ribs
- a high temperature, or feeling hot and shivery
- a very low temperature below 36C
Children with UTIs may also:
- have a high temperature – your child is feeling hotter than usual if you touch their neck, back or tummy
- appear generally unwell – babies may be irritable and not feed properly
- wet the bed or wet themselves
- be sick
Older, frail people or people with a urinary catheter
In older, frail people, and people with a urinary catheter, symptoms of a UTI may also include:
- changes in behaviour, such as acting confused or agitated
- wetting themselves (incontinence) that is worse than usual
- new shivering or shaking (rigors)
Non-urgent advice: See a GP if:
- you have symptoms of a UTI for the first time
- your child has symptoms of a UTI
- you’re a man with symptoms of a UTI
- you’re pregnant and have symptoms of a UTI
- you’re caring for an older, frail person who may have a UTI
- you have symptoms of a UTI after surgery
- your symptoms get worse or do not improve within 2 days
- your symptoms come back after treatment
Coronavirus (COVID-19) update: how to contact a GP
It’s still important to get help from a GP if you need it. To contact your GP surgery:
- visit their website
- use the NHS App
- call them
Find out about using the NHS during COVID-19
Urgent advice: Get advice from 111 now if:
you think you, your child or someone you care for may have a UTI and:
- a very high temperature, or feeling hot and shivery
- a very low temperature below 36C
- are confused, drowsy or have difficulty speaking
- have not been for a pee all day
- have pain in the lower tummy or in the back, just under the ribs
- can see blood in their pee
These symptoms suggest a kidney infection, which can be serious if it’s not treated.
111 will tell you what to do. They can arrange a phone call from a nurse or doctor if you need one.
Go to 111.nhs.uk or call 111.
Other ways to get help
Ask your GP surgery for an urgent appointment.
A GP may be able to treat you.
What happens at your appointment
You’ll be asked about your symptoms and may need to give a urine sample.
Treatment from a GP
Your doctor or nurse may offer self-care advice and recommend taking a painkiller.
They may give you a prescription for antibiotics if they think you may need them.
You may be asked to start taking these immediately, or to wait to see if your symptoms improve.
It’s important to finish the whole course of antibiotics, even if you start to feel better.
Treatment from a GP for UTIs that keep coming back
If your UTI comes back after treatment, you may have a urine test and be prescribed different antibiotics.
Your doctor or nurse will also offer advice on how to prevent UTIs.
If you keep getting UTIs and regularly need treatment, a GP may give you a repeat prescription for antibiotics.
If you have been through the menopause, you may be offered a vaginal cream containing oestrogen.
Things you can do yourself
To help ease pain:
- take paracetamol up to 4 times a day to reduce pain and a high temperature – for people with a UTI, paracetamol is usually recommended over NSAIDs such as ibuprofen or aspirin
- you can give children liquid paracetamol
- rest and drink enough fluids so you pass pale urine regularly during the day, especially during hot weather
It’s important to follow the instructions on the packet so you know how much paracetamol you or your child can take, and how often.
It may also help to avoid having sex until you feel better.
You cannot pass a UTI on to your partner, but sex may be uncomfortable.
Taking cystitis sachets or cranberry products has not been shown to help ease symptoms of UTIs.
A pharmacist can help with UTIs
You can ask a pharmacist about treatments for a UTI. A pharmacist can:
- offer advice on things that can help you get better
- suggest the best painkiller to take
- tell you if you need to see a GP about your symptoms
Some pharmacies offer a UTI management service and can prescribe antibiotics if they’re needed.
Causes of urinary tract infections (UTIs)
UTIs are usually caused by bacteria from poo entering the urinary tract.
The bacteria enter through the tube that carries pee out of the body (urethra).
Women have a shorter urethra than men. This means bacteria are more likely to reach the bladder or kidneys and cause an infection.
Things that increase the risk of bacteria getting into the bladder include:
- having sex
- conditions that block the urinary tract – such as kidney stones
- conditions that make it difficult to fully empty the bladder – such as an enlarged prostate gland in men and constipation in children
- urinary catheters (a tube in your bladder used to drain urine)
- having a weakened immune system – for example, people with diabetes or people having chemotherapy
- not drinking enough fluids
- not keeping the genital area clean and dry
How to prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs)
There are some things you can try to help prevent UTIs returning.
wipe from front to back when you go to the toilet
keep the genital area clean and dry
drink plenty of fluids, particularly water – so that you regularly pee during the day and do not feel thirsty
wash the skin around the vagina with water before and after sex
pee as soon as possible after sex
promptly change nappies or incontinence pads if they’re soiled
do not use scented soap
do not hold your pee in if you feel the urge to go
do not rush when going for a pee – try to fully empty your bladder
do not wear tight, synthetic underwear, such as nylon
do not drink lots of alcoholic drinks, as they may irritate your bladder
do not have lots of sugary food or drinks, as they may encourage bacteria to grow
do not use condoms or diaphragms with spermicidal lube on them – try non-spermicidal lube or a different type of contraception
Other ways to prevent recurring UTIs
If you have more than 3 UTIs in 1 year, or 2 UTIs in 6 months, there are other things that may help prevent UTIs.
There is some evidence that women under 65 years old who keep getting UTIs may find it helpful to take:
- a supplement called D-mannose – this is not recommended for pregnant women
- cranberry products, such as juice or tablets
Speak to your doctor before taking any of these during pregnancy.
Be aware that D-mannose and cranberry products can contain a lot of sugar.
Page last reviewed: 18 November 2020
Next review due: 18 November 2023
Lexi ENB – ENB – Mods for Skyrim – Mod catalog
Requires permission from the author
nexusmods.com / skyrim / mods / 82041
mod for Skyrim
This is a new ENB preset for your Skyrim game client.
The author promises high performance with good image quality improvement.
When creating screenshots, plugins were also used:
Realistic Water Two
Enchanced ligth and FX
Requires ENB Kernel version 0.308 or later to work.
Copy the contents of the archive to the game folder.
↓ Download links ↓
Total entries: 1769
Instrukcja obsługi Grill elektryczny GORENJE KR1800SDP
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correct the part.
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a qualified technician.
The device is marked in accordance with European Directive
2012/19 / EU, concerning waste from use
electrical and electronic equipment (IUEEO).
Directive outline base principle, valid
in Europe, for goods and recycling from
used electrical and electronic equipment.
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