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Vaccine polio side effects: Side Effects of Ipol (Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated), Warnings, Uses

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Polio Vaccination: What Everyone Should Know

At a Glance

CDC recommends that children get polio vaccine to protect against polio, or poliomyelitis. Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is the only polio vaccine that has been given in the United States since 2000. IPV is given by shot in the leg or arm, depending on the patient’s age. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is used in other countries.

CDC recommends that children get four doses of polio vaccine. They should get one dose at each of the following ages: 2 months old, 4 months old, 6 through 18 months old, and 4 through 6 years old.

Who Should Get Polio Vaccine?

Infants and Children

Children in the United States should get inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) to protect against polio, or poliomyelitis. They should get four doses total, with one dose at each of the following ages:

  • 2 months old
  • 4 months old
  • 6 through 18 months old
  • 4 through 6 years old

Children who will be traveling to a country where the risk of getting polio is greaterexternal icon should complete the series before leaving for their trip. If a child cannot complete the routine series before leaving, an accelerated schedule is recommended as follows:

  • 1 dose at age 6 weeks or older
  • a second dose 4 or more weeks after the first dose
  • a third dose 4 or more weeks after the second dose
  • a fourth dose 6 or more months after the third dose

If the accelerated schedule cannot be completed before leaving, the remaining doses should be given in the affected country, or upon returning home, at the intervals recommended in the accelerated schedule. In addition, children completing the accelerated schedule should still receive a dose of IPV at 4 years old or older, as long as it has been at least 6 months after the last dose.

Adults

Most adults do not need polio vaccine because they were already vaccinated as children. But three groups of adults are at higher risk and should consider polio vaccination in the following situations:

  • You are traveling to a country where the risk of getting polio is greater. Ask your healthcare provider for specific information on whether you need to be vaccinated.
  • You are working in a laboratory and handling specimens that might contain polioviruses.
  • You are a healthcare worker treating patients who could have polio or have close contact with a person who could be infected with poliovirus.

Adults in these three groups who have never been vaccinated against polio should get 3 doses of IPV:

  • The first dose at any time,
  • The second dose 1 to 2 months later,
  • The third dose 6 to 12 months after the second.

Adults in these three groups who have had 1 or 2 doses of polio vaccine in the past should get the remaining 1 or 2 doses. It doesn’t matter how long it has been since the earlier dose(s).

Adults who are at increased risk of exposure to poliovirus and who have previously completed a routine series of polio vaccine (IPV or OPV) can receive one lifetime booster dose of IPV.

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Who Should Not Get Polio Vaccine?

Tell the person who is giving the vaccine:

  • If the person getting the vaccine has any severe, life-threatening allergies.
    If you ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction after a dose of IPV, or have a severe allergy to any part of this vaccine, you may be advised not to get vaccinated. Ask your health care provider if you want information about vaccine components.
  • If the person getting the vaccine is not feeling well.
    If you have a mild illness, such as a cold, you can probably get the vaccine today. If you are moderately or severely ill, you should probably wait until you recover. Your doctor can advise you.

This information was taken directly from the Polio Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) dated 7/20/2016.

What are the Types of Polio Vaccine?

Two types of vaccines protect against polio, or poliomyelitis.

  • Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV)
    • IPV is the only polio vaccine that has been used in the United States since 2000.
    • It is given by shot in the leg or arm, depending on the patient’s age.
    • Children should get four doses total, with one dose at each of the following ages:
      • 2 months old,
      • 4 months old,
      • 6 through 18 months old, and
      • 4 through 6 years old.

For more information about IPV, see Vaccine Composition, Dosage, and Administration.

  • Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV)
    • This vaccine is no longer licensed or available in the United States.
    • It is still used in some parts of the world.
    • Children receive doses of the vaccine by drops in the mouth.

For more information, see About Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV)external icon.

Since 2000, only IPV has been used in the United States to eliminate the risk of vaccine-derived poliovirus that can occur with OPV. This decision was also based on the decreased risk of wild poliovirus being brought into the country and because the U.S. is currently polio-free.

The IPV that has been used in the United States since 1987 is as effective as OPV for preventing polio. Two doses of IPV provides 90% immunity (protection) to all three types of poliovirus; 3 doses provides at least 99% immunity.

How Well Does the Polio Vaccine Work?

Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), which is the only polio vaccine that has been given in the United States since 2000, protects almost all children (99 out of 100) who get all the recommended doses. For best protection, children should get four doses of polio vaccine.

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What are the Possible Side Effects of Polio Vaccine?

With any medicine, including vaccines, there is a chance of side effects. These are usually mild and go away on their own, but serious reactions are also possible.

Some people who get IPV get a sore spot where the shot was given. IPV has not been known to cause serious problems, and most people do not have any problems with it.

Other problems that could happen after this vaccine:

  • People sometimes faint after a medical procedure, including vaccination. Sitting or lying down for about 15 minutes can help prevent fainting and injuries caused by a fall. Tell your provider if you feel dizzy, or have vision changes or ringing in the ears.
  • Some people get shoulder pain that can be more severe and longer-lasting than the more routine soreness that can follow injections. This happens very rarely.
  • Any medication can cause a severe allergic reaction. Such reactions from a vaccine are very rare, estimated at about 1 in a million doses, and would happen within a few minutes to a few hours after the vaccination.

As with any medicine, there is a very remote chance of a vaccine causing a serious injury or death.

The safety of vaccines is always being monitored. For more information, visit CDC’s Vaccine Safety site.

This information was taken directly from the Polio Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) dated 7/20/2016.

What are the Childcare and School Polio Vaccine Requirements?

All 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) have state laws that require children entering childcare or public schools to have certain vaccinations. There is no federal law that requires this.

CDC recommends that all children get four doses of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), with one dose at each of the following ages:

  • 2 months old,
  • 4 months old,
  • 6 through 18 months old, and
  • 4 through 6 years old.

All children who have received three doses of IPV before age 4 years should receive a fourth dose at 4 to 6 years of age (before or at school entry).

For more information, see State Vaccination Requirements.

How Can Parents Pay for Polio Vaccine?

Most health insurance plans cover the cost of vaccines. However, you may want to check with your insurance provider before going to the doctor. Learn how to pay for vaccines.

If you don’t have health insurance, or if your insurance doesn’t cover vaccines for your child, the Vaccines for Children Program may be able to help. This program helps families of eligible children who might not otherwise have access to vaccines. To find out if your child is eligible, visit the VFC website or ask your child’s doctor. You can also contact your state VFC coordinator.

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Educational Materials

Polio Vaccination: Who Needs It?

Fall, 2014

CDC is working with partners in Colorado to investigate reports of 10 children hospitalized for acute neurologic illness with limb weakness of unknown cause. These children are being tested for poliovirus, West Nile virus, and enteroviruses. Investigations into these and other possible infectious and non-infectious causes are ongoing. See CDC Health Advisory Notice (HAN).

Poliomyelitis (polio) is a highly infectious disease caused by a virus that invades the nervous system.

There are two types of vaccine that can prevent polio: inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and oral polio vaccine (OPV). Only IPV has been used in the United States since 2000; however OPV is still used throughout much of the world.

IPV is a shot, given in the leg or arm, depending on age. Polio vaccine may be given at the same time as other vaccines.

Who Needs It?

Does my infant or child need this vaccine?

Children should be vaccinated with 4 doses of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) at the following ages:

  • A dose at 2 months
  • A dose at 4 months
  • A dose at 6-18 months
  • A booster dose at 4-6 years

These are the recommended ages, but children traveling to areas where wild poliovirus (WPV) has circulated in the last 12 months should complete the series before international travel. If a child cannot complete the routine series before departure, an accelerated schedule is recommended. See Vaccination for International Travelers, Infants and Children.

For additional details, consult the Polio Vaccine Information Statement and the Childhood Immunization Schedule.

As an adult, do I need this vaccine?

Most adults do not need polio vaccine because they were already vaccinated as children. But three groups of adults are at higher risk and should consider polio vaccination in the following situations:

  • You are traveling to polio-endemic or high-risk areas of the world. Ask your healthcare provider for specific information on whether you need to be vaccinated.
  • You are working in a laboratory and handling specimens that might contain polioviruses.
  • You are a healthcare worker treating patients who could have polio or have close contact with a person who could be infected with poliovirus.

Adults in these three groups who have never been vaccinated against polio should get 3 doses of IPV:

  • The first dose at any time,
  • The second dose 1 to 2 months later,
  • The third dose 6 to 12 months after the second.

Adults in these three groups who have had 1 or 2 doses of polio vaccine in the past should get the remaining 1 or 2 doses. It doesn’t matter how long it has been since the
earlier dose(s).

Adults who are at increased risk of exposure to poliovirus and who have previously completed a routine series of polio vaccine (IPV or OPV) can receive one lifetime booster dose of IPV.

For additional details, consult the Polio Vaccine Information Statement and the Adult Immunization Schedule.

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Polio Vaccine: Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus | CDC

Questions and Answers

What is a vaccine-derived poliovirus?

A vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus. This means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an infected person. These viruses may cause illness, including paralysis.

For this reason, the global eradication of polio requires stopping all OPV in routine immunization, as soon as possible after the eradication of wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission.  To protect against all three types of WPV, the United States exclusively has used IPV since 2000. For more information on OPV cessation, please visit the Global Polio Eradication Initiative’s websiteexternal icon.

What is vaccine-associated paralytic polio?

Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) is an adverse event following exposure to OPV. OPV is made with live attenuated (weakened) polioviruses that can result in a case of VAPP. VAPP is sporadic and rare. There is very little evidence that the vaccine virus circulates from VAPP cases, and there are no outbreaks associated with VAPP.

Is there a difference in a disease caused by a VDPV and one cause by wild poliovirus or OPV?

No, there is no clinical difference between the paralysis caused by wild poliovirus, OPV, or VDPV.

Has VDPV been found in the United States?

In 2005, a VDPV was found in the stool of a child in Minnesota who was not vaccinated and had a weakened immune system. The child most likely caught the virus through contact in the community with someone who had received live oral vaccine (OPV) in another country two months before. Subsequently, seven other unvaccinated children in the Minnesota community were found to have poliovirus infection. None of the infected children had paralysis. For more information about this case, visit http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/199/3/391.full.pdf pdf icon[7 pages]external icon.

Also in 2005, a healthy, unimmunized young adult from the United States acquired vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP) in Central America, most likely from an infant grandchild of the host family who recently had been immunized with OPV. For more information about this case, visit https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5504a2.htm.

In 2009, an adult with a weakened immune system developed VAPP and died of polio-associated complications. VDPV was isolated, and the infection likely occurred where her child received OPV 12 years before.

In 2013, a fatal case was reported in an infant who received OPV in India and was severely immunocompromised.

Where do vaccine-derived polioviruses come from, and should I be concerned if there is a case in the United States?

VDPVs can cause outbreaks in countries where vaccine coverage is low. Long-term excretion can also occur in people with certain immunodeficiency disorders. Because OPV has not been used in the United States since 2000 and vaccine coverage with IPV is high, it is unlikely that any vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) would become widespread in the United States.

Also, polio vaccination protects people against naturally occurring polioviruses and vaccine-derived polioviruses.

Your Child’s Immunizations: Polio Vaccine (IPV) (for Parents)

What Is Polio?

Polio is an infection caused by a virus that can lead to permanent paralysis.

IPV Immunization Schedule

Children usually get the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) at ages 2 months, 4 months, 6–18 months, and 4–6 years.

Sometimes IPV is given in a combination vaccine along with other vaccines. In this case, a child might receive a fifth dose of IPV. This is safe.

The oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is a weakened live vaccine that is still used in many parts of the world, but hasn’t been used in the United States since 2000. Using IPV eliminates the small risk of developing polio after receiving the live oral polio vaccine.

OPV doses given before April 2016 can count toward a child’s U.S. polio vaccination requirements. Doses given after that will not count.

Why Is the IPV Vaccine Recommended?

The vaccine offers protection against polio, which can cause paralysis and death.

What Are the Possible Side Effects of IPV Immunization?

Side effects include fever and redness or soreness at the injection site. There is a very small chance of an allergic reaction with any vaccine.

The IPV vaccine contains a killed (inactivated) virus, so it cannot cause polio.

When to Delay or Avoid IPV Immunization

The vaccine is not recommended if your child:

  • has a severe allergy to the antibiotics neomycin, streptomycin, or polymyxin B
  • had a serious allergic reaction to an earlier IPV shot

Caring for Your Child After IPV Immunization

IPV may cause mild fever, and soreness and redness where the shot was given for several days. Check with your doctor to see if you can give either acetaminophen or ibuprofen for pain or fever and to find out the right dose.

When Should I Call the Doctor?

Call the doctor if:

  • You aren’t sure whether the vaccine should be postponed or avoided.
  • Your child has any problems after getting the vaccine.

Adverse events following immunization with oral poliovirus in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: preliminary results

Pathog Glob Health. 2013 Oct; 107(7): 381–384.

Didier Nzolo

1Centre National de Pharmacovigilance, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

Michel Ntetani Aloni

2University Hospital of Kinshasa, School of Medicine, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

Thérèse Mpiempie Ngamasata

1Centre National de Pharmacovigilance, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

Bibiche Mvete Luemba

1Centre National de Pharmacovigilance, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

Sandrine Bazundama Marfeza

1Centre National de Pharmacovigilance, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

Mathilde Bothale Ekila

3Division of Infectiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Kinshasa, School of Medicine, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

Célestin Ndosimao Nsibu

1Centre National de Pharmacovigilance, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

Narcisse Lutete Tona

1Centre National de Pharmacovigilance, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

1Centre National de Pharmacovigilance, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

2University Hospital of Kinshasa, School of Medicine, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

3Division of Infectiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Kinshasa, School of Medicine, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

Correspondence to: M. N. Aloni, Division of Hemato-oncology and Nephrology Paediatric, University Hospital of Kinshasa, School of Medicine, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Email: [email protected] article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract

Aim

We investigated the nature and frequency of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) associated with oral polio vaccines (OPV) in the general population in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo).

Methods

The DR Congo National Pharmacovigilance Centre organized active AEFI surveillance during mass immunization campaigns for the general population from March to June 2011. A patient individual case safety report was used as a questionnaire and addressed to pupils and students from high schools and universities who had any adverse events after OPV administration. We used the preferred term from the WHO Adverse Reaction Terminology for AEFI designation. Here is presented the results of the second step of the mass immunization campaign.

Results

A total of 767 patients reported AEFI during the second step. Sex distribution shows that 512 (66.8%) students were females, while 255 (33.2%) were males, giving a female/male ratio 2∶1. The average age was 16.8±5.19 years (ranged: 6–35.5 years). Each person reported a mean of 1.33±0.6 AEFI. The average AEFI onset duration was 1.74±1.16 days post-vaccination, ranging from 1 to 9 days. Headache (22.4%), abdominal pain (17.2%), fever (11.7%), diarrhea (9.9%), and asthenia (7.5%) were the common symptoms. Paralysis and asthma-like reactions were rare and serious adverse events in this study. The most affected systems were gastro-intestinal (33.5%) and nervous system (29.3%). Rechallenge was positive for 173 persons (22.6%).

Conclusion

OPV-related AEFIs are not uncommon, although it is under-reported. Active AEFI surveillance during mass immunization campaigns is very important and may help to detect rare and serious adverse events. Further investigation will be important to identify risk of AEFI with OPV in adults and is warranted to elucidate the cause of this association in the Congolese environment.

Keywords: Adverse events following immunization, Oral poliovirus, Students, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

Introduction

In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis worldwide. The global campaign to eradicate polio achieved a more than 90% reduction in the number of polio cases worldwide during the last 11 years, since it was launched.1 The live attenuated oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) has many advantages compared to the inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV) for poliovirus eradication in mass immunization campaign. It confers intestinal immunity, making recent OPV recipients resistant to infection by wild polioviruses; it provides long-term protection against paralytic disease through durable humoral immunity; its oral use excludes problems of injection safety and programmatic errors related to injection; immunization with OPV has lower cost than with IPV and should be the choice for mass vaccination campaign in developing countries. Because of the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis, OPV has been replaced by IPV in some countries.2

AEFI surveillance systems are important tools to monitor associations between vaccination and suspected adverse events. In European countries, reporting and surveillance of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) was advised to be introduced in each country as part of the monitoring system.3 In Africa, AEFI are less documented and particularly those related to OPV.4,5 Furthermore, OPV is most of the time administered to infants, which makes AEFI description less precise, and during routine immunization, poliomyelitis vaccine is administered with other vaccines, which makes difficult causality assessment.

In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo), OPV is given four times during routine immunization to infants, in birth, in the sixth, tenth, and fourteenth weeks. Every year there are National Immunization days, when immunization campaign is organized for the whole country. If there are new cases of paralysis related to wild poliovirus in some areas, there may be a limited immunization campaign in the related area and then Supplementary Immunization Activities can be conducted.

In 2010 and 2011, after outbreak of poliomyelitis mutant virus in Central African Region, some cases were reported even among adults.6 Ministry of health of the DR Congo launched mass immunization campaign for the general population. Most people, including adults, received OPV four times in 4 months. During the first and the second steps, monovalent OPV type 1, was administered. Bivalent OPV types 1 and 3 were administered during the third step. The ‘Centre National de Pharmacovigilance (CNPV)’ of DR Congo, which is located in the University of Kinshasa, developed active AEFI surveillance during these mass immunization campaigns to gain further information about OPV-associated AEFI.

Our ultimate goals are to develop the basis for designing and implementation of effective preventive interventions. Our research was designed to inform clinical practice, education, counseling guidelines, and all the stakeholders involved in the immunization system. The aim of this work is to assess the nature and frequency of AEFI associated with OPV in the general population in Kinshasa.

Patients and Methods

This is a cross-sectional study conducted among pupils and students attending universities between March 2011 and June 2011 in Kinshasa, DR Congo. In 23–27 March, monovalent OPV type 1 (mOPV1) was administered to 9 863 458 patients. From 28 April to 2 May, 10 091 567 persons received mOPV1. In 26–30 May, bivalent OPV types 1 and 3 (biOPV) were administered to 9 724 982 patients and 10 206 785 received mOPV1 in 25–29 June.

A questionnaire created by the CNPV was addressed mainly to those who experienced any AEFI after immunization with OPV. The questionnaire was provided as a patient individual case safety report (patient ICSR) and included necessary information for AEFI reporting in successive mass campaigns. Mandatory information included in the questionnaire were: patient initial, age, sex, drug therapy history during the last week before immunization, and information about the adverse event including patient description, onset date, end date, and history of a reaction on previous immunization. Before completing the questionnaire, vaccination benefit was explained as well as the possibility of occurrence of adverse events. All questionnaires were gathered and processed by CNPV.

This study is the result of active surveillance of AEFI by the National Pharmacovigilance Center of the University of Kinshasa, as recommended by the World Health Organization for a mass immunization campaign as well as for routine immunization.

Each month, data collection started on the fourth day of immunization, which normally was the end date, and had 10 days duration after the end of the immunization campaign. Data collection was completed only on the first three steps of this four-step mass immunization campaign. Over 1500 persons reported occurrence of AEFI during the first three steps. In this preliminary study, we focused only on the results of the second step, which allow us to assess the frequency of re-challenge related to AEFI-associated with monovalent type 1 OPV.

A written consent was obtained from institutional authorities before addressing the students. Students’ reporting of AEFIs was free.

For analysis, we used the preferred term from the WHO Adverse Reaction Terminology. Data are represented as means±SD when the distribution was normal and median with range when the distribution was not normal. Frequency of various symptoms and sign findings are expressed as proportions (%).

Results

The CNPV received and analyzed AEFI reports from 767 persons during the second step. All the patients who completed the questionnaire were healthy during immunization. Sex distribution shows that 512 (66.8%) were females, while 255 (33.2%) were males, giving a female: male ratio of 2∶1. The average age was 16.8±5.19 years.

Each person reported a mean of 1.33±0.6 AEFI. We recorded a total of 1020 AEFI. Headache, abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, and asthenia were the common symptoms at presentation with a frequency of 22.4%, 17.2%, 11.7%, 9.9%, and 7.5% respectively (). There were five cases of muscle weakness and two cases of paralysis after immunization. One of them recovered before 1 month, the second was still paralyzed after 1 month. One case of asthma-like reaction with a positive re-challenge was reported. The average AEFI onset duration was 1.74±1.16 days post-vaccination, ranged from 1 to 9 days. Re-challenge was positive for 173 persons (22.6%). The most affected systems were gastro-intestinal system (33.5%), central and peripheral nervous system (29.3%), and body as a whole (21.8%). In this series, 4.2% of persons reported musculoskeletal disorders and 3.2% skin and appendages disorders, including urticaria, rash, and pruritus.

Table 1

AEFI following OPV in our study population

AEFI Number of cases Frequency (%)
Headache 228 22. 4
Abdominal pain 175 17.2
Fever 119 11.7
Diarrhoea 101 9.9
Asthenia and/or malaise 79 7.7
Dizziness 65 6.4
Nausea and or vomiting 47 4. 6
Musculoskeletal pain 23 2.3
Coughing 21 2.1
Rhinitis 21 2.1
Conjuctivitis 18 1.8
Pharyngitis 17 1.7
Rash 17 1.7
Arthralgia 15 1. 5
Back pain 9 0.9
Pruritus 7 0.7
Urticaria 7 0.7
Muscle weakness 5 0.5
Dyspnoea 2 0.2
Paralysis 2 0.2
Other 42 4. 1
Total 1020 100

Discussion

To our knowledge, the present study is the first attempt to describe AEFI in our population. It is the first to assess clinical events after an OPV immunization campaign in the region of Central Africa. This study is the result of an active AEFI surveillance during a mass immunization campaign including different ages of the population and indicated for an outbreak of poliomyelitis occurring even in adults. However, this studied sample was a subset of the population of Kinshasa

Headache, abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, and asthenia were the common symptoms at presentation with a frequency of 22.4%, 17.2%, 11.7%, 9.9%, and 7.5%, respectively. There were five cases of muscle weakness and two suspected vaccine-associated poliomyelitis. Two cases of paralysis were reported after immunization. One case of asthma-like reaction with a positive re-challenge was reported.

We recorded headache as the most frequent symptom (22.4%). Similar observations have been described with other vaccines.710 The other signs and symptoms reported in this study were found to be similar to those described elsewhere with other vaccines.810

No case of AEFI associated with OPV in adult population and in the pediatric population could be found with the use of available computer-assisted medical literature search programs. However, according to a WHO document entitled ‘supplementary information on vaccine safety, background rates of adverse events following immunization’,11 common minor vaccine reaction associated with OPV are fever, irritability, malaise, and non-specific symptoms, such as diarrhea, headache, and/or muscle pain. This result is similar to ours. According to this document, these common reactions occur within one or two days of immunization. This is close to our study where the average AEFI onset duration was 1.74±1.16 days. The same document reports vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis as the main rare and serious vaccine reaction associated with OPV with an estimated risk of 1 per 1.4–3.4 million for the first dose. The two cases of paralysis we reported occurred after administration of the first dose and close to 10 million of persons received this dose; unfortunately, no further investigation was performed to confirm whether or not it was a vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis.

Conclusion

OPV-related AEFIs are not uncommon among Congolese adults, although it is under-reported. Active surveillance after a mass immunization campaign allowed detecting some rare OPV-related AEFI, such as a possible vaccine-associated poliomyelitis.

Bearing in mind the significance of immunization for personal and collective immunity, good collaboration of all stakeholders involved in each single case of adverse event is required. Further investigation will be important to identify the risk of AEFI associated with OPV in adults and is warranted to elucidate the cause of this association in the Congolese environment. This is the first step in individualized management of this clinical entity.

Limits of the Study

We declared the patients of our study healthy before immunization, based on their declaration of lack of drug therapy history. No further investigation was performed to confirm whether or not they were really healthy before immunization. In this cross-sectional study, no control groups (e.g. adults who do not receive OPV) were included because of the massive nature of the vaccination campaign among all the general population in Kinshasa during the study period; therefore, it is difficult to interpret this information. Better data to estimate the frequency of AEFI due to OPV and to compare with a control group are needed in a prospective study. The future prospective studies should answer the following questions:

  1. Whether the AEFI seen in adults with OPV was different than in children?

  2. Any difference between AEFI following mOPV and biOPV?

  3. Can OPV be dubbed as a safe vaccine among adult also based on the findings of current and future prospective studies?

References

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Update on vaccine-derived polioviruses — worldwide, April 2011–June 2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61:741–6. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Update on vaccine-derived polioviruses — worldwide, July 2009–March 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 20116025846–50. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]3. Schumacher Z, Bourquin C, Heininger U. Surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in Switzerland — 1991–2001. Vaccine. 2010;28:4059–64. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]4. Ouandaogo CR, Yaméogo TM, Diomandé FV, Sawadogo C, Ouédraogo B, Ouédraogo-Traoré R, et al. Adverse events following immunization during mass vaccination campaigns at first introduction of a meningococcal A conjugate vaccine in Burkina Faso, 2010. Vaccine. 2012;30:B46–51. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]5. Lund N, Andersen A, Monteiro I, Aaby P, Benn CS. No effect of oral polio vaccine administered at birth on mortality and immune response to BCG. A natural experiment. Vaccine. 2012;30:6694–9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]6. Le Menach A, Llosa AE, Mouniaman-Nara I, Kouassi F, Ngala J, Boxall N, et al. Poliomyelitis outbreak, Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo, September 2010–February 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1506–9. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]7. Waldman EA, Luhm KR, Monteiro SA, de Freitas FR. Surveillance of adverse effects following vaccination and safety of immunization programs. Rev Saude Publica. 2011;45:173–84. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]8. Ankrah DN, Mantel-Teeuwisse AK, De Bruin ML, Amoo PK, Ofei-Palm CN, Agyepong I, et al. Incidence of adverse events among healthcare workers following h2N1 Mass immunization in Ghana: a prospective study. Drug Saf. 2013;36:259–66. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]9. Ouandaogo CR, Yaméogo TM, Diomandé FV, Sawadogo C, Ouédraogo B, Ouédraogo-Traoré R, et al. Adverse events following immunization during mass vaccination campaigns at first introduction of a meningococcal A conjugate vaccine in Burkina Faso, 2010. Vaccine. 2012;30:B46–51. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]10. Mahajan D, Roomiani I, Gold MS, Lawrence GL, McIntyre PB, Menzies RI. Annual report: surveillance of adverse events following immunization in Australia, 2009. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2010;34:259–76. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]11. World Health Organization, Department of Vaccines and Biological. Supplementary information on vaccine safety; Part 2: Background rates of adverse events following immunization [document on the Internet]. WHO/V&B/00.36. Geneva: ISO; December 2000 [cited 2013 Jun 24]. Available from: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2000/WHO_V&B_00.36.pdf. [Google Scholar]

Vaccine Side Effects and Adverse Events

A vaccine is a medical product. Vaccines, though they are designed to protect from disease, can cause side effects, just as any medication can.

Most side effects from vaccination are mild, such as soreness, swelling, or redness at the injection site. Some vaccines are associated with fever, rash, and achiness. Serious side effects are rare, but may include seizure or life-threatening allergic reaction.

A possible side effect resulting from a vaccination is known as an adverse event.

Each year, American babies (1 year old and younger) receive more than 10 million vaccinations. During the first year of life, a significant number of babies suffer serious, life-threatening illnesses and medical events, such as Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Additionally, it is during the first year that congenital conditions may become evident. Therefore, due to chance alone, many babies will experience a medical event in close proximity to a vaccination. This does not mean, though, that the event is in fact related to the immunization. The challenge is to determine when a medical event is directly related to a vaccination.

The Food and Drug and Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have set up systems to monitor and analyze reported adverse events and to determine whether they are likely related to vaccination.

Types of Side Effects

To understand the range of possible vaccination side effects events, it is useful to compare a vaccine with relatively few associated side effects, such as the vaccine for Haemophilus influenza type B, with a vaccine known to have many potential side effects, such as the infrequently used smallpox vaccine (given to military personnel and others who might be first responders in the event of a bioterror attack).

Haemophilus influenza type B is a bacterium that can cause serious infections, including meningitis, pneumonia, epiglottitis, and sepsis. The CDC recommends that children receive a series of Hib vaccinations starting when they are two months old.

Smallpox is a serious infection, fatal In 30% to 40% of cases, and caused by the Variola major or Variola minor virus. No wild smallpox cases have been reported since the 1970s. The World Health Organization has declared it eradicated.

The information below about side effects of Hib and smallpox vaccination is from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Hib Vaccine Side Effects

  • Redness, warmth, or swelling where the shot was given (up to 1 out of 4 children)
  • Fever over 101°F (up to 1 out of 20 children)

No serious side effects have been related to the Hib vaccine.

Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine Side Effects

Mild to Moderate Problems

 

  • Mild rash, lasting 2-4 days.
  • Swelling and tenderness of lymph nodes, lasting 2-4 weeks after the blister has healed.
  • Fever of over 100°F (about 70% of children, 17% of adults) or over 102°F (about 15%-20% of children, under 2% of adults).
  • Secondary blister elsewhere on the body (about 1 per 1,900).
Moderate to Severe Problems

 

  • Serious eye infection, or loss of vision, due to spread of vaccine virus to the eye.
  • Rash on entire body (as many as 1 per 4,000).
  • Severe rash on people with eczema (as many as 1 per 26,000).
  • Encephalitis (severe brain reaction), which can lead to permanent brain damage (as many as 1 per 83,000).
  • Severe infection beginning at the vaccination site (as many as 1 per 667,000, mostly in people with weakened immune systems).
  • Death (1-2 per million, mostly in people with weakened immune systems).

For every million people vaccinated for smallpox, between 14 and 52 could have a life-threatening reaction to smallpox vaccine.

How Do I Find Out the Side Effects for Different Vaccines?

When you or a child gets a vaccine, the health care provider gives you a handout known as the Vaccine Information Statement (VIS). The VIS describes common and rare side effects, if any are known, of the vaccine. Your health care provider will probably discuss possible side effects with you. VIS downloads are also available through the CDC’s website.

Package inserts produced by the vaccine manufacturer also provide information about adverse events. Additionally, these inserts usually show rates of adverse events in experimental and control groups during pre-market testing of the vaccine.

How Are Adverse Events Monitored?

VAERS

The CDC and FDA established The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System in 1990. The goal of VAERS, according to the CDC, is “to detect possible signals of adverse events associated with vaccines.” (A signal in this case is evidence of a possible adverse event that emerges in the data collected.) About 30,000 events are reported each year to VAERS. Between 10% and 15% of these reports describe serious medical events that result in hospitalization, life-threatening illness, disability, or death.

VAERS is a voluntary reporting system. Anyone, such as a parent, a health care provider, or friend of the patient, who suspects an association between a vaccination and an adverse event may report that event and information about it to VAERS. The CDC then investigates the event and tries to find out whether the adverse event was in fact caused by the vaccination.

The CDC states that they monitor VAERS data to

  • Detect new, unusual, or rare vaccine adverse events
  • Monitor increases in known adverse events
  • Identify potential patient risk factors for particular types of adverse events
  • Identify vaccine lots with increased numbers or types of reported adverse events
  • Assess the safety of newly licensed vaccines

Not all adverse events reported to VAERS are in fact caused by a vaccination. The two occurrences may be related in time only. And, it is probable that not all adverse events resulting from vaccination are reported to VAERS. The CDC states that many adverse events such as swelling at the injection site are underreported. Serious adverse events, according to the CDC, “are probably more likely to be reported than minor ones, especially when they occur soon after vaccination, even if they may be coincidental and related to other causes.”

VAERS has successfully identified several rare adverse events related to vaccination. Among them are

  • An intestinal problem after the first vaccine for rotavirus was introduced (the vaccine was withdrawn in 1999)
  • Neurologic and gastrointestinal diseases related to yellow fever vaccine

Additionally, according to Plotkin et al., VAERS identified a need for further investigation of MMR association with a blood clotting disorder, encephalopathy after MMR, and syncope after immunization (Plotkin SA et al. Vaccines, 5th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2008).

Vaccine Safety Datalink

The CDC established this system in 1990. The VSD is a collection of linked databases containing information from large medical groups. The linked databases allow officials to gather data about vaccination among the populations served by the medical groups. Researchers can access the data by proposing studies to the CDC and having them approved.

The VSD has some drawbacks. For example, few completely unvaccinated children are listed in the database. The medical groups providing information to VSD may have patient populations that are not representative of large populations in general. Additionally, the data come not from randomized, controlled, blinded trials but from actual medical practice. Therefore, it may be difficult to control and evaluate the data.

Rapid Cycle Analysis is a program of the VSD, launched in 2005. It monitors real-time data to compare rates of adverse events in recently vaccinated people with rates among unvaccinated people. The system is used mainly to monitor new vaccines. Among the new vaccines being monitored in Rapid Cycle Analysis are the conjugated meningococcal vaccine, rotavirus vaccine, MMRV vaccine, Tdap vaccine, and the HPV vaccine. Possible associations between adverse events and vaccination are then studied further.

Vaccine Injury Compensation

For information on systems for compensating individuals who have been harmed by vaccines, see our article on Vaccine Injury Compensation Programs.

 

Last update 17 January 2018

3-in-1 teenage booster side effects

Side effects of the 3-in-1 teenage booster vaccine are usually mild, shortlived and happen within 2 or 3 days of receiving the jab. Not everyone will get side effects.

Very common reactions to the teenage 3-in-1 booster

More than 1 child in 10 will have:

  • pain, tenderness or redness at the injection site
  • swelling or a small painless lump at the injection site

Common reactions to the teenage 3-in-1 booster

Between 1 child in 10 and 1 child in 100 will:

  • feel dizzy
  • feel or be sick (nausea and vomiting)
  • have a high temperature
  • get a headache

Uncommon reactions to the teenage 3-in-1 booster

Between 1 child in 100 and 1 child in 1,000 will:

Rare or very rare reactions to the teenage 3-in-1 booster

Fewer than 1 child in 1,000 will have:

Other side effects

Other side effects that have been reported include:

Allergic reactions

Very rarely a child may have a more severe allergic reaction, known as anaphylaxis.

The healthcare professional giving the vaccine will be fully trained in how to deal with severe allergic reactions and children recover completely with treatment.

Treating 3-in-1 booster side effects

If you feel unwell after the immunisation, take paracetamol or ibuprofen. If your temperature is still high after the second dose of painkillers, speak to a GP or call the free NHS 111 helpline.

If you are under 16, do not take medicines that contain aspirin.

Monitoring vaccine safety

In the UK the Yellow Card Scheme allows doctors, other healthcare professionals, and you to report suspected side effects from any medicine you are taking, including vaccines.

It is run by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). The MHRA regularly reviews the yellow card reports. If it feels there is a potential problem, it will carry out an investigation and, if necessary, take appropriate action.

Most reactions reported through the Yellow Card Scheme have been minor reactions such as rashes, fever, vomiting, and redness and swelling where the injection was given.

There is also a legal requirement for pharmaceutical companies to report serious and suspected adverse events to the MHRA.

Find out how to report a vaccine side effect

90,000 POLYMELIX- against poliomyelitis

Polio vaccine – all the details

Poliomyelitis is frightening for its consequences – it is paralysis of the lower extremities, disability. Vaccinations for children against polio are mandatory, but some parents deliberately avoid getting vaccinated. Find out how safe and necessary this vaccine is.

What does the polio vaccine look like?

There are two types of this vaccine:

· IPV – with a “killed” virus;

· OPV – with a weakened but live virus.

IPV is administered as intramuscular or subcutaneous injections, OPV – as drops orally.

Which vaccine should I use?

Children are given multiple polio vaccinations at different ages, according to the Ministry of Health’s vaccination schedule.

The first three or at least two vaccinations in a child’s life should be given with IPV vaccine, all subsequent vaccinations with OPV vaccine. It is this vaccination system that is most effective and safest.A total of 6 vaccinations should form lifelong immunity.

Side effects.

IPV: swelling and redness of the injection site, increased excitability of the child, fever.

OPV: single vomiting, mild gastrointestinal disorders, mild signs of allergy.

Don’t worry about these symptoms. But you need to seek help from a doctor if:

· Body temperature has risen to 39 degrees and above;

• convulsions appeared;

• the child is breathing heavily;

Severe itching, profuse rash appeared;

Severe swelling of the face or limbs.

To avoid negative consequences, you need to properly prepare for vaccination. You cannot vaccinate a child with IPV if he has had negative reactions before, or if he is allergic to certain substances – the doctor will say more specifically. Sometimes, instead of OPV, IPV is given, for example, if the child lives with a pregnant woman. Live polio virus can be harmful to the fetus.


Poliomyelitis: symptoms, causes, vaccination

Symptoms:

  • The infection is caused by polio viruses, in most cases the disease is asymptomatic or resembles a mild course of a respiratory viral infection;

  • However, in about 1% of cases, acute paralysis of the muscles of the limbs or respiratory muscles (diaphragm) develops with irreversible consequences and, sometimes, death.

There is no specific antiviral treatment for poliomyelitis; only symptomatic treatment and treatment of complications are carried out.

Epidemiology and Vaccination

  • The source of infection is a person with an acute form of infection or a temporary carrier of the virus in the intestine. The virus is transmitted from person to person, mainly through the fecal-oral route, through water and contaminated food. The possibility of transmission by airborne droplets is also taken into account, since the disease can proceed as acute respiratory infections.

  • In nature, polio viruses persist well in water bodies.

  • Due to successful mass vaccination programs for people, in 2015 there were only three countries in the world where there are local (non-imported) foci of the wild virus (Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan). In 1988, there were 125 such countries.

  • The World Health Organization, with the support of all countries, is working to eradicate poliomyelitis through vaccination.

  • Two types of vaccines are used to vaccinate against polio: inactivated polio vaccine (IPV, given by injection) and live oral polio vaccine (OPV, given by mouth).

  • After the elimination of smallpox by vaccination of the entire population of the world, the next disease that can be eradicated by vaccination is polio.

Vaccination reactions and complications

The inactivated polio vaccine is well tolerated, with common expected reactions, according to the instructions for use, include redness at the injection site or a rise in body temperature.

The oral vaccine is also well tolerated. But sometimes, very rarely, if the oral live vaccine is given to an unvaccinated child against polio, it can cause vaccine-associated polio, so it is usually not recommended to give it to unvaccinated children against polio. Children are advised to administer inactivated (killed) polio vaccine with the first doses.

Contraindications

A permanent contraindication to IPV is an established strong allergic reaction to vaccine components.

Contraindications to the use of OPV are immunodeficiencies (including HIV infection) and a strong reaction to the previous dose. In these cases, it is replaced with IPV.

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Sources

90,000 10 false vaccine myths. Protect your children!

It is very important that children are vaccinated , as this will help them to get rid of diseases that can be very serious, such as disability or death.

To deal with the avalanche of misinformation that is increasingly leading parents to refuse vaccines, we present ten FALSE MYTHS with scientific arguments that refute them.

FALSE myths … and real facts

FALSE MYTH 1: “In better hygienic conditions, diseases will disappear, so vaccinations are not needed.”

The point is that the diseases that are being vaccinated against will reappear if the vaccination programs are interrupted. While good hygiene, hand washing and drinking water can help protect people from infectious diseases, many of them can still spread.If people were not vaccinated, some diseases that have become rare, such as polio or measles, would spread quickly .

FALSE MYTH 2: “Vaccinations have some harmful and long-term side effects that have not yet been studied.”

The point is that vaccinations are safe . Reactions that occur when they are injected are usually mild and temporary, such as pain in the arm or fever.

Serious health problems are extremely rare .The consequences of a vaccine preventable disease can be much more serious. For example, in the case of polio, the disease can cause paralysis, measles can cause encephalitis and blindness, and some infections that can be prevented by vaccination can be fatal.

FALSE MYTH 3: The combination diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio vaccine can cause sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

In fact, there is no causal relationship between vaccine administration and sudden infant death , although these vaccines are administered at a time in which the child may be suffering from SIDS.

In other words, death from SIDS coincides with vaccination and can occur even if vaccinations have not been given . It is important to remember that these four diseases can be fatal and that an unvaccinated newborn is at serious risk of death or disability.

FALSE MYTH 4: “Diseases that can be prevented by vaccination are practically eradicated in our country, so there is no reason for vaccination.”

In fact, although vaccine preventable diseases are rare in many countries, the infectious agents that cause them continue to spread in some parts of the world.Everything on the planet is interconnected, so these agents can cross geographic boundaries and infect any unprotected person. For example, as of 2005, measles outbreaks were reported in Western Europe in unvaccinated populations in Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, France, Italy, the United Kingdom and Switzerland. Another example is that in countries where the number of pertussis vaccinations has decreased (countries such as Japan or Sweden), there has been an alarming increase in the number of cases of pertussis and, worse, the number of deaths and neurological complications caused by this disease.

FALSE MYTH 5: Vaccination-preventable childhood illnesses are inevitable in life.

The point is that vaccine preventable diseases do not have to be “something inevitable in life.” Diseases such as measles, mumps and rubella are serious and can cause serious complications in both children and adults, such as pneumonia, encephalitis, blindness, diarrhea, ear infections, congenital rubella syndrome (if a woman gets rubella at the beginning pregnancy) and death. All these diseases and suffering can be prevented by vaccinations.

FALSE MYTH 6: “Taking multiple shots at the same time can increase the risk of side effects in children and overload their immune systems.”

In fact, according to scientific research, the simultaneous administration of several vaccines does not have any side effects on the child’s immune system .

In addition, the simultaneous administration of vaccinations has the advantages that fewer outpatient visits are required, which saves time and money and increases the likelihood that children will complete the recommended vaccination schedule.In addition, the possibility of receiving a combination vaccination, for example against measles, mumps and rubella, implies fewer injections.

FALSE MYTH 7: “Flu is just a minor nuisance and vaccination against it is not very effective.”

The fact is, the flu is more than just a nuisance. It is a serious disease that causes 300,000 to 500,000 deaths worldwide every year . Pregnant women and young children, in particular, are at high risk of serious infection and death.Vaccination of pregnant women has the added benefit of protecting newborns (there is currently no vaccine for children under six months of age).

The vaccine is effective against the three most common strains in the season. This is the best way to reduce your chances of getting a serious flu and infecting others.

FALSE MYTH 8: “The acquisition of immunity as a result of illness is better than after vaccination.”

The point is that vaccines interact with the immune system and produce a response similar to that which would cause a natural infection, but not cause illness or expose the immunized person to the risks of possible complications.

FALSE MYTH 9: “Vaccines contain mercury, which is hazardous to health.”

Thiomersal (an organic salt containing ethyl mercury) was previously used in the manufacture or preservation of some vaccines due to its antimicrobial properties. However, already for several years, the amount of thiomersal used was reduced or completely eliminated by , since it was replaced by other compounds.

Currently, virtually none of the vaccines used in the Spanish Autonomous Communities vaccine schedules contain significant amounts of this substance.In addition, no one has been able to prove that thiomersal has any health effects.

FALSE MYTH 10: “Some vaccines can cause autism and other rare diseases.”

Some members of the No Vaccine Groups movement believe that vaccines are responsible for various disorders such as childhood autism, increased cancer incidence, leukemia, multiple sclerosis, infertility, Alzheimer’s disease, and a very long list of serious diseases.The only thing that is true is that to date it has not been proven that there is a connection between vaccination and these diseases . Research proves that measles vaccine never causes autism.

In summary, it should be noted that the risks of vaccinations are low and the benefits are very important for the health of your children . Remember also that vaccinations not only serve to protect your family, but also those around you . The effectiveness of vaccination programs depends on all of us.

Vaccination is an act of solidarity with the health of the whole society!

Source: 10 mitos FALSOS sobre la vacunación …

90 000 False ideas about vaccination – Official website of the St. Petersburg Administration

Based on WHO materials

Successful vaccination programs, like successful societies, rely on the cooperation of everyone to ensure the common good. Our knowledge is of great importance in this, so we invite you to get acquainted with the main common false statements and draw your own conclusions.

False Idea 1: With increased hygiene and sanitation, diseases will disappear – vaccines are not needed. THIS IS NOT TRUE!

Diseases against which vaccination can be given will reappear if vaccination programs are discontinued. While improved hygiene, hand washing, and clean water help protect people from infectious diseases, many infections can spread regardless of how clean we are. If the population is not vaccinated, diseases that have become rare, such as polio and measles, will quickly reappear.

False Idea 2: Vaccines cause a number of harmful and long-term side effects that are not yet known. Vaccinations can even be fatal. THIS IS NOT TRUE!

Vaccines are safe. In most cases, the vaccine will cause a mild and temporary reaction, such as a slight rise in temperature. Serious side effects are extremely rare and are closely monitored and investigated. You are much more likely to have serious consequences from a vaccine preventable disease than from the vaccine itself.For example, in the case of polio, the disease can cause paralysis, measles can lead to blindness, and some vaccine-preventable diseases can even be fatal. Therefore, while any serious harm or death from vaccines is unacceptable, the benefits of vaccination far outweigh the risks, and without vaccines there will be more cases of illness, disability and death.

False Idea 3: Vaccines cause Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). THIS IS NOT TRUE!

There is no causal link between vaccine administration and sudden infant death, but a number of vaccines, namely the associated diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccine and polio vaccine, are administered for up to a year – that is, at a time when children may be exposed to SIDS.In other words, death from SIDS coincides with vaccination and would have occurred in the absence of vaccination. It is important to remember that these four diseases are life threatening and that infants who are not vaccinated against them are at serious risk of death or serious disability.

False Idea 4: Vaccine-preventable diseases are almost eradicated in my country, so there is no reason to be vaccinated. THIS IS NOT TRUE!

Although vaccine-preventable diseases are rare in many countries, their infectious agents continue to circulate in parts of the world.In a highly interconnected world, these pathogens can cross borders and infect any unprotected person. For example, in Western Europe since 2005, measles outbreaks have been reported among unvaccinated populations in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

False Idea 5: Vaccine-preventable childhood illnesses are an annoying reality and are best dealt with in childhood. THIS IS NOT TRUE!

Vaccine-preventable diseases don’t have to be “realities”.Illnesses such as measles, mumps and rubella are serious and can cause serious complications in children and adults, including pneumonia, encephalitis, blindness, diarrhea, ear infections, congenital rubella syndrome (if a woman contracts rubella early in pregnancy) and death … All these diseases and suffering can be prevented with the help of vaccines. Without vaccinations against these diseases, children are more vulnerable.

False Idea 6: Giving a child more than one vaccine at a time can increase the risk of harmful side effects that can overload the child’s immune system.THIS IS NOT TRUE!

According to scientific evidence, the simultaneous administration of several vaccines does not have an adverse effect on the child’s immune system. Children are exposed to several hundred foreign substances every day that trigger an immune response. As a result of the simple act of eating, antigens enter the body, and numerous bacteria live in the mouth and nose. A child is exposed to significantly more antigens from a cold or sore throat than from vaccines.The main benefits of administering multiple vaccines are fewer clinic visits, which saves time and money, and increases the likelihood that children will receive the recommended vaccinations on schedule. In addition, being able to provide associated vaccinations against measles, mumps and rubella, for example, means fewer injections.

False Idea 7: Influenza is just an unpleasant disease and the vaccine is not very effective. THIS IS NOT TRUE!

Influenza is much more than an unpleasant disease.This is a serious disease that annually claims 300-500 thousand human lives around the world. Pregnant women, young children, the elderly in poor health, and anyone with a medical condition such as asthma or heart disease are at greater risk of severe infection and death. An additional positive effect of vaccination of pregnant women is the protection of the newborn (there is currently no vaccine for infants under 6 months of age). Most influenza vaccines provide immunity against the three most common strains circulating in any given season.This is the best way to reduce your chances of getting severe flu or spreading it to others.

False Idea 8: It is better to get immunity from illness than vaccination. THIS IS NOT TRUE!

Vaccines interact with the immune system to produce an immune response similar to that of a natural infection, but they do not cause illness or put the vaccinated person at risk of potential complications. In contrast, gaining immunity from natural infection may have to pay with mental retardation due to hemophilic influenza type b (Hib), birth defects from rubella, liver cancer from hepatitis B virus, or death from measles.

False Idea 9: Vaccines contain hazardous mercury. THIS IS NOT TRUE!

Thiomersal is an organic substance containing mercury that is added to some vaccines as a preservative. It is the most common preservative used in multi-dose vaccines. There is no evidence to indicate a health risk for the amount of thiomersal used in vaccines.

False Idea 10: Vaccines Cause Autism.THIS IS NOT TRUE!

A 1998 study that raised concerns about a possible link between measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism was subsequently found to be seriously flawed and withdrawn by the journal that published it. Unfortunately, its appearance sparked panic, which led to a decline in immunization rates and subsequent outbreaks of these diseases. There is no evidence to support an association between CSK vaccine and autism or autistic disorders.

The Health Department of the Admiralteisky District invites all residents to support the long-term experience of the Immunization Week: to take care of their health and the health of their children.

Vaccination rooms of polyclinic departments are waiting for you for preventive vaccinations. Call the registry of your clinic and find out how to protect yourself and your loved ones from infectious diseases!

90,000 Polio vaccine – why should I do it, how to prepare, possible complications

Polio vaccination – is it worth it and at what age

Polio vaccination is the only way to protect a child from a viral disease, the consequences of which can lead to disability.The most severe manifestation of poliomyelitis is paralysis – the disease in this case will begin immediately with a sharp increase in body temperature, the child has a cough and runny nose, and there may be problems in the digestive system. Literally three days after the onset of the disease, the patient will complain of pain in the limbs and back. And only the polio vaccine can prevent infection, thanks to it there are no epidemiological outbreaks.

Types of vaccines against poliomyelitis

In modern medicine, two types of vaccines are used against this disease.The main difference lies in the way in which the vaccine is administered to the child’s body:

  • live oral vaccine containing attenuated live viruses – put in the mouth
  • inactivated vaccine containing killed wild disease viruses – given by injection.

It is believed that the oral vaccine is more effective, it is after it that stronger immunity to the disease is developed. But some doctors refute this opinion – children often spit up after oral administration of the vaccine, which makes it impossible to correctly calculate the dosage, and the requirements for its storage are very high.There are cases when complications arise after vaccination against polio – for example, a child may develop polio itself, or arthritis. At best, these diseases are treatable, and at worst, the problem remains for life.

Following the conclusions of research programs, it is believed that the first vaccination should be done by injection, and revaccination – by the oral route, because by this time the baby already has a strong immunity to the disease.

Preparation for vaccination

DTP and poliomyelitis vaccination is carried out in a complex way at the age of 3 months.The main requirement is that the child must be absolutely healthy! If the parents have any doubts about the health of their child, then it is better to postpone the day of vaccination to a later date. If the baby has an allergic reaction, then it is necessary to inform the attending physician about this and also to postpone the vaccination period.

Before vaccination, it is imperative to undergo a medical examination and obtain permission from a specialist.

Polio vaccination schedule

Parents need to know at what age to vaccinate their child.Polio vaccination schedule:

  • 1 vaccination – 3 months
  • 2 vaccinations – 4.5 months
  • 3 vaccinations – 6 months
  • revaccination 1 – 18 months
  • revaccination 2 – 20 months
  • revaccination 3-14 years.

Children are not vaccinated against polio per year, but if the child is vaccinated outside the schedule (for example, the reason for the postponement of vaccinations may be the baby’s illness), then the doctor will draw up an individual vaccination schedule.

For more information on how many polio vaccinations you need to get and what age range the vaccination should fit into, visit our website: https://www.dobrobut.com/.

Possible consequences after vaccination

Most often, the child does not have any reaction to the polio vaccine – he behaves as usual, does not be capricious. If a child is vaccinated by injection, then swelling and redness may form at the injection site, which will not exceed 8 cm in diameter.

The temperature from polio vaccination can rise, but this does not happen immediately after the introduction of the vaccine, but after 5-14 days. It is extremely rare for parents to note an increase in stool frequency, which is not intense.

To avoid unpleasant consequences, immediately after vaccination, you must adhere to some rules:

  • do not introduce a new product into the child’s diet for a week
  • do not overheat or overcool the baby
  • avoid contact of the child with sick people (even colds are dangerous during this period)

Poliomyelitis is a dangerous infectious disease, there are no preventive measures against it, only timely vaccination will help.Should you be vaccinated against polio? It is up to parents to decide – modern legislation can only recommend certain vaccinations for them. It must be remembered that vaccination does not pose any danger, and the polio virus can bring many problems. The polio vaccine (vaccine) will be safer and more effective if a drug with non-living viruses in the composition is used.

Related services:
Pediatrician consultation
Vaccination

Poliomyelitis in adults.Prevention

An acute infectious disease caused by the virus of the same name, characterized by damage to the central nervous system, primarily the cells of the anterior horns of the spinal cord, which are responsible for motor activity, the membranes of the brain and spinal cord. It is observed more often in children and leads to the development of paralysis.

Content

  • Poliomyelitis
    • What is polio
    • Poliomyelitis virus – causative agent of the disease
    • Ways of infection with poliomyelitis
    • Classification of poliomyelitis
    • Prevention of poliomyelitis
    • Activities in the focus of infection
  • Poliomyelitis in children
    • Diagnosis of poliomyelitis in children
    • Treatment of poliomyelitis in children
    • Complications of poliomyelitis in children
  • Poliomyelitis in adults
    • Features of poliomyelitis in adults
    • Consequences of poliomyelitis in adults
  • Polio vaccination
    • At what age is polio vaccination given to children?
    • When is the polio revaccination carried out?
    • What are the polio vaccines?
      • Live polio vaccine (drops)
      • Inactivated polio vaccine
    • Can polio vaccine be given with other vaccinations?
    • Can a child who is not vaccinated against polio be taken to kindergarten?
    • Response to polio vaccine
      • Temperature after polio vaccination
      • Other possible normal vaccine reactions
      • Complications of polio vaccination

Poliomyelitis

One of the childhood infections, which is very dangerous and leaves behind serious complications, is poliomyelitis.Mostly preschoolers suffer from it, but older children, as well as adults, can get sick. You can protect yourself and your children from poliomyelitis by being vaccinated against the disease, which begins as early as the first year of life. How does polio work in children? Is polio vaccine really necessary? Is there any other polio prevention? What are the consequences and complications of poliomyelitis?

What is polio

Poliomyelitis is an infection of a viral nature, in which the tissue of the nervous system is involved in the inflammatory process.The nervous system is affected by the flaccid paralysis type. In addition to neurological signs, symptoms of intoxication are noted. In the vast majority of cases, poliomyelitis is recorded in children.

Poliomyelitis virus – causative agent of the disease

The polio virus is the culprit behind this serious illness. It is called “poliovirus”. There are three types of pathogen (poliovirus). The poliomyelitis virus belongs to a subgroup of enteroviruses. It contains ribonucleic acid (RNA).The polio virus is unstable if heated or treated with disinfectants. In addition, antibiotics do not work on it.

Ways of infection with poliomyelitis

It is possible to become infected with the polio virus from a sick person or a virus carrier. The pathogen enters the environment with the patient’s feces, this process continues for several weeks. In the mucus from the nasopharynx, the virus is determined for no more than two weeks. The first five days, the patient is considered especially contagious to others.The virus is transmitted in two ways: fecal-oral and airborne, with the first way being the leading one.

The primary multiplication of the virus occurs in the digestive tract, namely on its mucous membrane. In addition, the virus multiplies in the nasopharyngeal mucosa. Further, with the blood flow, the pathogen spreads throughout the body. If he overcomes the barrier with the central nervous system, then there will be a paralytic or meningeal form of the disease.

Classification of poliomyelitis

Like most infectious diseases, poliomyelitis has its own classification.The infectious process can be of varying severity (from mild to severe), occur in typical and atypical forms. The severity of the disease is based on the severity of the symptoms of intoxication, as well as the nature of movement disorders.

Sometimes the disease proceeds smoothly, but in some cases complications join, other infections are layered.

Prevention of poliomyelitis

Polio vaccination is the best way to prevent disease.Yes, it happens that a vaccinated child gets sick with polio, but in this case, the disease proceeds easily, with minor symptoms of intoxication.

Among their neurological symptoms, muscle spasm predominates. Light paralysis of the muscles of the legs in vaccinated patients with poliomyelitis also occurs, they are manifested by limping, muscle weakness. However, these symptoms quickly disappear, and muscle hypotension persists for a longer time. Persistent complications of poliomyelitis are not typical for vaccinated children.

Non-specific methods of prevention include personal hygiene, washing hands after going to the toilet and before eating, limiting contact with a sick person.

Activities in the focus of infection

As soon as a doctor or paramedic detects a patient with polio, he must send an emergency notification to the Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology. The patient himself is isolated for a period of 3 weeks to 40 days. After the patient is hospitalized, disinfection is carried out in the outbreak.

Emergency immunization is given to all children under 7 years of age who come into contact. Is it possible to be vaccinated against the disease “poliomyelitis” urgently for those children who have been previously vaccinated against this infection? It must be done without fail, once. This does not depend on how the child was previously vaccinated. However, at least 6 weeks must have elapsed since the last vaccination.

If the emergency vaccination is the first against poliomyelitis, then subsequent vaccinations are carried out at the necessary intervals.

Poliomyelitis in children

Poliomyelitis in children takes various forms. It is not always possible to make a diagnosis, since the signs may be nonspecific. Parents may not know that their child has had polio. However, there are very severe forms of the disease, with classic neurological symptoms, according to which an experienced doctor will certainly suspect infection with the polio virus.

The latent (incubation) period of infection lasts from 5 days to 5 weeks.On average, it lasts about two weeks. In the case of the disease “poliomyelitis”, the symptoms depend on the form of infection, of which there are several.

  • Inapparent form of infection

In other words, this form of infection can be called a healthy virus carrier. Such a diagnosis can only be made in the laboratory. This form of the disease is rather of scientific interest, since the carrier of the virus himself does not complain about anything and he is not dangerous to others. The virus remains in the intestine and does not go beyond it.

  • Abortive form of the disease

It is very difficult to suspect poliomyelitis in this form, since there are no typical symptoms of the disease, the entire infection is hidden under the guise of an acute respiratory disease (ARI). The child develops a slight fever, weakness, loss of appetite, cough, runny nose, discomfort in the throat, and bowel disorders. There are no neurological symptoms of poliomyelitis. The child gradually recovers on his own, he only needs simple symptomatic treatment.

  • Nonparalytic poliomyelitis (meningeal form)

The disease occurs in the form of serous meningitis. An acute onset of the disease is characteristic, in which the child becomes ill very quickly. He is worried about headaches, high fever, frequent vomiting. During the examination, the doctor or paramedic fixes positive meningeal symptoms in the patient, which is one of the criteria that the child’s lining of the brain has become inflamed.

In this form of the disease “poliomyelitis” the symptoms are bright, there are signs of involvement of the nervous system in the process.Soreness along the nerve trunks worries. It is hard for a sick child, he refuses to eat, he lies almost all the time, sleeps, often cries. Muscle twitching may occur. This is typical for the first days of illness. There may be some eye symptoms. Paralysis in this form of poliomyelitis does not occur in children. The child recovers completely.

  • Paralytic poliomyelitis

Symptoms of poliomyelitis in this form of the disease are even more striking, they change in different periods of the disease.In total, it is customary to distinguish four periods of paralytic poliomyelitis.

The preparalytic period of the disease lasts from one to six days. The disease begins with pronounced symptoms of intoxication and high fever. Sometimes there are signs of a disorder of the digestive tract in the form of constipation or diarrhea. A number of sick babies have catarrhal symptoms (sore throat, runny nose, cough).

After a couple of days, the child develops neurological symptoms: pains in the back, arms, legs, increases sensitivity to various stimuli, symptoms of irritation of the meninges become positive.Because of such unpleasant sensations, the sick person tries to lie still.

The paralytic period lasts from a couple of hours to two weeks. Its signs vary from the specific location of the lesion of the nervous system.

When the neurons located in the anterior horns of the spinal cord, which are responsible for movement, are damaged, an infection develops in the spinal form. Within a week from the onset of the disease, the child develops paralysis. They appear suddenly and develop very quickly. By its nature, paralysis is flaccid, muscle atrophy is present.The sensitivity does not change. It is characteristic that the proximal parts of the limbs (shoulder, thigh) are more affected.

Polio affects not only the limbs in children. Often, the intercostal muscles and the diaphragm are involved in the process. In this case, signs of respiratory failure are added.

There is another form of the disease – bulbar. The child has a very pronounced intoxication syndrome, worries about headache, vomiting. Neurological disorders appear very quickly: the child cannot swallow normally, chokes, thin food gets into the nose, the tone of voice changes (hoarse, hoarse).Since the baby cannot normally swallow food and saliva, he has bubbling breathing. In some cases, the disease goes so far that the vasomotor and respiratory centers are damaged, the diaphragm is paralyzed, which can lead to the death of the baby.

The third form of the course of the infection is called pontine. In this case, the bridge in the brain and the nuclei of the cranial nerves, which are located exactly there, are damaged. In case of damage to the facial nerve, paralysis of facial muscles is noted, which is manifested by facial asymmetry, different sizes of eye slits and other signs.

The recovery period for poliomyelitis in children lasts a long time, from one to three years. The disease makes itself felt for a long time, namely: muscle tone remains reduced for a long time, reflexes from the limbs are not triggered, the muscles remain atrophied. Muscle functions are restored gradually and unevenly. Because of this, the consequences of poliomyelitis are various deformities of the limbs, stiffness (contractures), growth retardation of the affected limb, lameness.

In the period of residual effects of the disease “poliomyelitis”, you can see the consequences that remain with a person for life.Such consequences are persistent flaccid paralysis, limb deformities, shortening of the arms or legs, and atrophy of the limb muscles.

Diagnosis of poliomyelitis in children

Diagnosis of poliomyelitis in children is based on anamnesis data, examination of the patient and the study of his complaints, as well as on the results of additional studies.

Non-specific diagnostic methods for poliomyelitis are as follows:

  • Complete blood count

In this analysis, there may be no pathological changes or a moderate increase in leukocytes due to neutrophils is noted.

  • Lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid study

One of the additional diagnostic methods is the study of cerebrospinal fluid obtained by lumbar puncture. Pathological changes in the cerebrospinal fluid occur with nonparalytic and paralytic poliomyelitis.

Cerebrospinal fluid flows out under higher pressure, the cytosis (number of cells) increases moderately due to lymphocytes, glucose does not increase. Protein in the cerebrospinal fluid can increase with paralytic poliomyelitis.

  • Electromyography

This instrumental method of research allows you to identify a lesion localized in the anterior horns of the spinal cord in the first day after the onset of the first symptoms.

  • Spinal cord nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

This study is informative after the acute period of the disease, when the patient begins to recover. It can reveal atrophy of the spinal cord, which depends on the level of the lesion.

Specific methods for diagnosing poliomyelitis are aimed at identifying the pathogen itself or antibodies to it. These include the following methods:

  • Virological research

For this study, feces and cerebrospinal fluid are taken from the patient. Moreover, a double study of feces from a patient admitted to the hospital is required. Material for analysis is taken two days in a row.

  • Express diagnostics

For a quick diagnosis of infection, an immuno-fluorescence assay (ELISA) is used, with which you can determine the virus itself in the patient’s feces or his cerebrospinal fluid.

  • Serological test

This polio test detects antibodies to the polio virus. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid are taken for analysis. The study is carried out repeatedly, since it is necessary to determine the dynamics of the growth of antibodies and to determine the type-specific antibodies.

Treatment of poliomyelitis in children

  • In the event that a child is suspected of having polio, he is admitted to the infectious diseases ward.It must be placed in a separate box.
  • Strict bed rest is very important. The child needs peace.
  • In the acute period, thermal procedures for the affected limbs are effective. These include hot wrapping, paraffin and ozokerite applications.
  • To relieve severe pain and relieve symptoms of intoxication, the use of analgesics and antipyretic drugs is justified.
  • Recombinant interferons (usually in tablets or in suppositories) are prescribed as therapy aimed at the causative agent of the disease.
  • Diuretics are sometimes prescribed to relieve intracranial pressure.
  • From the third week of illness, drugs are used that improve neuromuscular conductivity (proserin, galantamine).
  • In the recovery period, it is very important to carry out therapeutic exercises and massage. Also, a good effect is noted after spa treatment.

Complications of poliomyelitis in children

The alarming reaction to the diagnosis of poliomyelitis is quite justified, because parents, as a rule, have heard about the severe consequences of the disease.Abortive and meningeal forms of the disease proceed without consequences.

In the case of poliomyelitis, the consequences and complications remain after the spinal form of infection. Some violations resolve over time. Others stay for a long time or for life. The most serious complications arise from deep injuries. The child may be lame or have persistent paresis or paralysis of the facial nerve and other cranial nerves.

A fatal outcome can occur in a sick person when the vital centers of the brain are involved in the process.Aspiration pneumonia often develops against the background of severe respiratory disorders. Also, such complications as destructive processes in the lungs, atelectasis were noted.

Adult poliomyelitis

Poliomyelitis in adults is very rare, as most people do get vaccinated against this severe infection during infancy. Poliomyelitis prevention is so effective in some countries that no case has been reported for many years.

For those people who are contraindicated in the administration of live vaccines, polio prophylaxis is carried out with inactivated vaccines. However, in some cases, this infection still occurs in adults.

Features of poliomyelitis in adults

Poliovirus infection usually occurs in adults with severe immunodeficiency conditions, such as HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). A weakened adult is usually infected from a sick child or from a toddler who has recently been vaccinated with a live polio vaccine.

The disease proceeds with the same symptoms as in children. Sometimes the infection is not recognized, as it proceeds under the guise of acute respiratory infections. In other cases, damage to the nervous system occurs, paralysis and paresis of the limbs, cranial nerves, and diaphragm develop. Diagnosis and treatment of the disease in adults are similar to those in children.

Consequences of poliomyelitis in adults

In most cases, adult poliomyelitis proceeds without serious consequences, the impaired functions are gradually restored.Persistent neurological damage is rare. Fatal outcomes in adults also occur, but nevertheless, with timely diagnosis and treatment, this is a rarity.

Polio vaccination

According to the vaccination calendar, according to the rules, vaccination against poliomyelitis begins in the first half of the baby’s life. Vaccinations against polio for children are the best way to prevent this terrible disease.

At what age is polio vaccination given to children?

Polio vaccination for children is carried out according to the calendar in the first year of life.Following the calendar, the polio vaccine is given first at 3 months, then two more times with an interval of 6 weeks. Sometimes the immunization schedule is disrupted. But in any case, it is important to observe the time interval between vaccine injections, it should be at least 6 weeks (between the first three).

Many parents are afraid of disrupting the vaccination schedule and ask the question: “Is it possible to be vaccinated against the disease” poliomyelitis “if the child has minor catarrhal symptoms (mild cough, runny nose)?” No, the child can be vaccinated no earlier than 2-4 weeks after recovery.This rule is especially strict in the case of a live vaccine being administered to a child. The fact that vaccination is carried out not with the help of injections, but with drops, does not reduce the possibility of adverse reactions and complications. Although some parents mistakenly consider drops to be an “easy” method of vaccination.

When is the polio revaccination carried out?

Revaccination against polio is done three times. Revaccination against poliomyelitis is done twice for babies in the second year of life (at one and a half years and at 20 months), and the final time is at 14 years old.Revaccination against poliomyelitis is carried out with live vaccines, if the child has no contraindications to this.

What are the polio vaccines?

Vaccines against poliomyelitis are live and inactivated (killed). Different countries have different polio vaccination schemes in terms of the choice of live or inactivated vaccine. For a short time, only the live polio vaccine was used. Currently, our country has adopted a combined scheme for vaccination of babies against poliomyelitis.That is, children are vaccinated against poliomyelitis with both inactivated and live vaccines.

Live polio vaccine (drops)

If a child is vaccinated against polio infection, which live vaccines can be given?

OPV is a vaccine, the name of which stands for “oral poliomyelitis vaccine”. Oral – means it is given to the child through the mouth. By the way, this is the only vaccination that is given to children in this way.This vaccine is produced in our country.

The imported live polio vaccine, which is also used in our country, is called Polio Sabin Vero. It is used in the same way as “OPV”.

What are polio drops? Polio drops are the colloquial name for live polio vaccine.

When vaccinating against poliomyelitis, drops are given to the child as follows: one hour before a meal, the nurse instills drops into the mouth (four drops when using “OPV” and 2 drops when using “Polio Sabin Vero”).This can be done with a pipette, special dropper or syringe. You cannot drink any liquid after the introduction of drops. For an hour after vaccination, the baby does not feed.

If, during the polio vaccination with drops, the baby regurgitated or vomited, then you must immediately give him a second dose of the polio vaccine. With repeated regurgitation, a new dose is given only at the next vaccination visit.

Live polio vaccine is given once in the first year of life (third vaccination).Then all revaccinations against poliomyelitis are carried out with a live vaccine. Parents often choose imported combination vaccines against several diseases at once, in which the protection against poliovirus is presented in an inactivated form. In this case, the child is given all three first vaccinations with the inactivated vaccine, and the live one is administered only during revaccination. This is not a violation of the rules for vaccinating children.

Studies have shown that even a single vaccination with a live vaccine forms immunity from poliovirus infection in more than 90% of those vaccinated.But re-vaccination is justified, since poliomyelitis is caused by three different viruses, and a single vaccination does not always save three viruses at once.

Inactivated polio vaccine

In our country, it is now customary to do the first two vaccinations against poliomyelitis with inactivated vaccines, then a live vaccine is used. Until recently, there was a scheme when inactivated vaccines were given to all three vaccinations in the first year of life. It is worth noting that many parents still adhere to this old vaccination schedule for their children.

Some children have contraindications for vaccination with live vaccines. These children are vaccinated against such a disease as “poliomyelitis” only with killed vaccines.

Primary immunization with inactivated vaccine provides good protection against poliovirus infection in more than 96% of vaccinated individuals. In a number of countries, where no cases of poliomyelitis have been reported for many years, vaccinations are given only with inactivated vaccines.

There are monovaccines for the prevention of poliomyelitis, that is, they only protect against this disease.And there are also combined drugs. An example of a monovaccine is Imovax Polio.

Can the polio vaccine be given with other vaccinations?

Modern parents are often afraid to combine the administration of several vaccines on the same day. Can children be vaccinated against polio on the same day as other vaccinations?

If a child is vaccinated according to the calendar and does not have an individual vaccination schedule, then one day he is vaccinated against the following diseases: whooping cough, tetanus, diphtheria and poliomyelitis.

In some cases, a child is given either 2-3 vaccinations at once, or a combination vaccine is simply given. For example, there are vaccines called “Tetracoc”, “Infanrix IPV” containing components against protection against the following infections: whooping cough, tetanus, diphtheria, poliomyelitis.

Hemophilus influenza vaccine has recently appeared on the schedule, it is also being given on the same day. Vaccines have been developed that contain protection against all of these diseases: whooping cough, tetanus, diphtheria, polio and hemophilus influenza.An example of such a vaccine is the drug “Pentaxim”.

In the first year of life, the baby is vaccinated three times against hepatitis B. If you follow the calendar, the third vaccination against hepatitis B (at 6 months) coincides with the last vaccination against diseases such as tetanus, whooping cough, diphtheria and poliomyelitis.

If the immunization schedule is violated, the hepatitis B vaccine may coincide with other vaccines against the above diseases, that is, not only at the age of six months.

It is possible to use a single vaccine against hepatitis B, while giving an additional injection to the child.Another, more gentle method of vaccination is possible. For this, vaccines are used that protect against several diseases, as well as against hepatitis B.

Infanrix Penta vaccine protects the child from the following infections: whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis B and poliomyelitis. The Infanrix Hexa vaccine provides protection against six diseases: whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, haemophilus influenzae, hepatitis B and poliomyelitis.

The Hexavac vaccine contains immune components against the following diseases: whooping cough, tetanus, diphtheria, hemophilic infection, hepatitis B and poliomyelitis.

Sometimes hepatitis B vaccinations start or continue in the second year of life for various reasons. Some immunizations may coincide with polio vaccinations. Therefore, the following combination of vaccines against hepatitis B and poliomyelitis is quite real: monovaccine against hepatitis + OPV, as well as other combinations.

Can the live polio vaccine be given in combination with other vaccines not listed above? Yes, live polio vaccine works well with other vaccines besides BCG.

Can a child who is not vaccinated against polio be taken to kindergarten?

Not all parents vaccinate their children. Someone does not get vaccinated due to the presence of contraindications to them. Some unreasonably refuse vaccinations, considering them harmful and dangerous. Unvaccinated children often have difficulty attending childcare facilities. It is impossible not to take them to kindergarten, after all, vaccinations are voluntary.

However, a child who has not been vaccinated against poliomyelitis will be temporarily suspended from visiting a child care institution if a child who has recently been vaccinated against this disease with a live vaccine is in his team.

Response to polio vaccine

Any vaccination in humans can have side effects and complications. In the case when the baby is vaccinated against the disease “poliomyelitis”, the vaccination can give complications and cause normal post-vaccination reactions. It is important to distinguish between them.

In order for the reaction to the vaccination against the disease “poliomyelitis” to not be very pronounced, it is important to competently approach the issue of vaccination and carefully interview and examine the patient.It is important to find out if he is allergic to those substances that are included in the vaccines, and also to see if he is currently suffering from acute diseases.

Temperature after polio vaccination

Can the temperature rise after polio vaccination? Fever after vaccination against polio with live vaccine is not typical.

Post-vaccination fever is relatively common with inactivated polio vaccine.This is noted, as a rule, in the first two days after the administration of the drug.

The most common fever is observed with the introduction of combination vaccines, but they contain components against other infections. In particular, the pertussis component is one of the most reactogenic, therefore, the severity of reactions may be associated with it.

Sometimes the temperature rises after the polio vaccination, but it is not associated with vaccination, but is only a signal that the child has contracted some other concomitant infection, in other words, has become ill.

Other possible normal vaccine reactions

In addition to fever, what are the normal reactions to the polio vaccine? There is practically no reaction to the introduction of a live polio vaccine in toddlers and older children.

When a child is given a combination vaccine or an inactivated monovaccine against poliomyelitis, the reaction of the body is different. A normal reaction may be mild intoxication (headache, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance), a slight induration at the injection site and redness (no more than 8 cm in diameter), as well as slight soreness.

Complications of polio vaccination

In the event that a child is vaccinated against polio, can the vaccine cause complications?

What are the complications of the polio vaccine?

The development of local complications for vaccination is possible: a purulent inflammatory process at the injection site, purulent inflammation of the lymph nodes, induration and redness more than 8 cm in diameter.

Allergic reactions to the polio vaccine are complications of it.They are manifested by various edema, rashes. A severe reaction is the development of anaphylactic shock to the administration of the drug. Allergic complications occur on the first day after immunization. Usually, an allergy is to the auxiliary substances of the vaccine, which can be chicken protein, streptomycin, neomycin and others.

A very serious complication of vaccination against poliomyelitis is the development of vaccine-associated poliomyelitis. This complication occurs in one of the 1.5-2 million vaccinated children.Children who have not been vaccinated against polio can also get sick if they have been in contact with a child who has been vaccinated with a live vaccine against the disease. These children are referred to as contact children with the live polio vaccine.

Vaccine-associated poliomyelitis is a neurological complication, which is manifested by the development of acute flaccid paralysis in a baby. At the same time, he retains sensitivity. After the illness, the child retains lifelong immunity.

The development of this complication begins from 4 to 30 days after the vaccination in the child who was vaccinated, and up to 60 days after the vaccination, a child who has not been vaccinated against polio (that is, a contact) may get sick.Therefore, children who have not been vaccinated against polio should not come into contact with those children who have been vaccinated against this infection for 8-9 weeks.

Hunting for “KoviVak”. Why is there an exuberant demand for this vaccine in Russia?

  • Olga Dyakonova, Elizaveta Foht
  • BBC Russian Service

Photo author, Kirill Kukhmar / TASS

In Russia, in recent weeks, a real hunt for the Covid vaccine has begun 19 “KoviVac”.Those who want to be vaccinated are calling the vaccination stations and standing in long queues for her. How does this vaccine differ from competitors and how is the rush demand for it explained?

“KoviVac” is one of the most mysterious Russian vaccines. It was developed at the M.P. Chumakov. It has never been in the public domain and there is no scientific research on it.

The demand for “CoviVac” is such that the vaccine is constantly running out at vaccination points, not having time to appear.Last Friday, the Moscow health department reported that it had received 12,000 doses of KoviVac, but officials said there were more people wishing to be vaccinated, and there were queues.

Why do people choose KoviVac?

According to the Muscovite Nikolai M., the doctor advised him and his family to do KoviVak. “The attending physician told me to pay attention to the vaccination of the Chumakov center. I did not ask, go into details. If the doctor speaks, he probably knows it better than me,” he explained to the BBC.

Nikolay assures that he roughly represents the difference between the existing vaccines, but he cannot professionally assess the difference between them. Therefore, I relied on the opinion of the family doctor.

“Any Russian person in the subcortex has a desire to find something special, to go deeper and find something that is inaccessible to everyone. Judging by the queues for KoviVak, it is in great demand,” says Nikolai about the popularity of KoviVak. – In the subconscious I personally have a feeling that KoviVak is more advanced than Sputnik.Well, the desire to stand in line a little to get the best, and not that everyone has – this is also our badge of mentality. ” “. But then I saw a friend’s post on Twitter about the presence of the desired vaccine at one of the points. There the Muscovite got vaccinated.

Mikhail B. from Cheboksary explained to the BBC his choice in favor of” KoviVak “by reading about the technologies for the production of available vaccines.

“This vaccine has a” standard “manufacture, so to speak, unlike the others, – explained the BBC’s interlocutor. -” Sputnik “, so to speak, refers to wartime vaccines, as epidemiologists say, and in itself does not contain a full-fledged virus, so because of this I still had a choice in favor of “KoviVac”

Photo author, Mikhail Dzhaparidze / TASS

Photo caption,

After the introduction of compulsory vaccination for some categories of workers in vaccination Points all over Russia lined up lines

Having learned from a friend that the drug appeared in Cheboksary, Mikhail immediately signed up for vaccination.Soon “KoviVak” disappeared from the city.

For similar reasons, “KoviVak” was chosen by Maria, a resident of Yekaterinburg (name has been changed). “This vaccine, unlike Sputnik, was created in a proven way, that is, by killing the virus and injecting it,” she explained to the BBC. According to Maria, because of this, the effectiveness of the vaccine of the Chumakov Center is higher than that of the development of the Gamaleya Center.

The girl’s mother, a cardiologist, also spoke in favor of “KoviVak”. It was possible to find the necessary drug by acquaintance: “I made a special agreement with my aunt-doctor so that they would leave CooviVac for me at the hospital where she works.Before me, my parents were also vaccinated with KoviVac, and it was also difficult for them to find it. ” how she has chronic diseases, including Gilbert’s syndrome, bronchial asthma and allergies, and she drinks hormones. All diseases are in remission. “She [the doctor] said there would be fewer side effects, he would be easier to bear,” Valeria.

Another doctor allowed her to do Sputnik, but after the words about the recommendation of a gastroenterologist for her, they found KoviVak at the vaccination station, although others were denied this vaccine with her, says Valeria.

“At our work, some have installed” KoviVac “because their clinic has run out of” Sputnik. ” ), an employee of the Europlan car leasing company. “It was necessary to supply at least something in order to bring the certificates, so as not to be suspended from work.” She has not been vaccinated yet, as she has recently been ill.

What is known about KoviVac?

The KoviVac vaccine was developed by the Chumakov Center, a well-known scientific center with a good reputation.It appeared in 1957 on the basis of the MP Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitis of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences to develop a technology for a vaccine against poliomyelitis.

The enterprise is the only Russian manufacturer of “live” polio vaccines and the only Russian supplier to the World Health Organization and UNICEF (an international organization operating under the auspices of the United Nations).

Virologist Mikhail Chumakov, after whom the center is named, with his wife Marina Voroshilova and Academician Anatoly Smorodintsev, in collaboration with the United States in 1956, organized the world’s first production and clinical trials of a “live” polio vaccine.The vaccine produced at the Chumakov Institute has been exported to more than 60 countries around the world and has helped cope with outbreaks in many of them.

The Institute has developed a vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, and the most popular rabies vaccine in Russia (now the center provides about 70% of its needs in the country).

“KoviVac” is an inactivated (“killed”) virus. This technology has been in use for over 70 years. And according to this principle, for example, vaccines against poliomyelitis at the Chumakov Center, as well as typhoid, cholera, plague and influenza from other manufacturers are made.

Photo author, TASS

Photo caption,

The name of virologist Mikhail Chumakov ensures the reputation of the center named after him

“The technology of using inactivated, that is,” killed “virus is well studied, – says the physician at the Atlas Medical Center “Kirill Belan. – True, the technology itself is not a guarantee of the effectiveness and safety of the vaccine. It is necessary to analyze this in practice, in the natural environment.”

KoviVac was registered on February 20, 2021 – this is the third coronavirus vaccine approved for use in Russia.”KoviVac” is a two-dose vaccine, its doses are identical and are administered with a difference of 14 days. For Sputnik and EpiVacCorona, the re-vaccination interval is 21 days.

“KoviVake” uses the “AYDAR-1” virus strain (named after the head of the Chumakov Center Aidar Ishmukhametov). As Ishmukhametov himself explained, the original virus for the vaccine was obtained “from a specific patient.”

“Our staff worked at [the hospital] in Kommunarka, looked at about 400 different samples of the virus isolated from different patients.And now one of the varieties turned out to be extremely tenacious and at the same time “tame” – this strain multiplied well in a certain convenient environment, and now the “heirs” of this virus are cultivated in our country, used to produce vaccines, “said the head of the Chumakov Center

The results of the sequencing of the virus variants were published by the vaccine developers together with the head physician of the Kommunarka hospital Denis Protsenko in the journal of the International Society for Infectious Diseases.

Photo author, Vyacheslav Prokofyev / TASS

Photo caption,

Denis Protsenko was one of the authors of the study on sequencing coronavirus

An immune response enhancer (adjuvant) – aluminum hydroxide has been added to the vaccine.The virus in the vaccine is chemically inactivated: within 48 hours, it interacts with a chemical active, and as a result is unable to infect a person, the developers say.

The Chumakov Center uses a special procedure to assess the inactivated virus for the absence of residual infectivity. Only after a multi-stage check, the developers assure, the viral antigen enters the next stage of production.

All stages of production, including the release quality control, “KoviVak” takes place on the territory of the Chumakov center in the Moskovsky settlement in New Moscow.

According to the developers, 200 people took part in the first phase of the KoviVac safety tests. No side and undesirable effects were noted in anyone. None of the subjects allegedly even had a fever.

Has CoviVac been proven to be effective?

No scientific publications on KoviVak have been published yet – neither in terms of safety, nor in terms of effectiveness. It is the most mysterious vaccine of the four registered. We can draw conclusions about it based only on the statements of the developers.

Ishmukhametov, in an interview with Novaya Gazeta, assured that several articles on the vaccine are already “in Western scientific journals.” According to him, articles on preclinical vaccine trials were accepted for publication in several editions. But so far none of them have been published.

According to Ishmukhametov, permission for the third stage of clinical trials of “KoviVac” was received only in the middle of June this year, when the vaccine was already in circulation and people were inoculated with it.

Photo author, Mikhail Japaridze / TASS

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Muscovites were lining up to be vaccinated with KoviVac

“We will be able to answer the question about protection – or, if you prefer, efficiency – only after the third phase is over.And by and large – and at all after the end of the epidemic, “- he honestly says.

The head of the center said that 32 thousand people will participate in clinical trials, but there will be no placebo group there, and the effectiveness of the vaccine will be tested in comparison with the population.

The efficacy of another inactivated vaccine, China’s Sinovac, is estimated by WHO at 51% in terms of protection against symptomatic infection, 100% against severe COVID-19 and 100% against hospitalization, based on the original Wuhan strain of the virus.

The efficacy of another Chinese vaccine, Sinopharm, made according to the same principle as CooviVac, was preliminary estimated at 79% against clinically expressed infection and hospitalization. Both vaccines are less effective against the South African strain.

After vaccination with KoviVac, antibodies, as planned by the developers, should be produced for all parts of the virus. After Sputnik vaccination, antibodies are produced only to the S-protein of the virus.

Photo author, Rossiya Segodnya

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So far, we can only draw conclusions about the vaccine from the words of the developers and experts.Here, the Chumakov Center showed how many people vaccinated with KoviVac develop neutralizing antibodies. These data have not yet been confirmed by independent experts.

Judging by the results of analyzes published in the group of “people’s reports”, many after “KoviVac” do not have antibodies to the S-protein. Some members of the group still have antibodies to the S-protein, but their titers are much lower than the average after vaccination with Sputnik.

According to experts, it is the high titer of neutralizing antibodies to the S-protein that is important to prevent symptomatic coronavirus disease – at least for the currently known strains.”This is a key point, since the presence of neutralizing antibodies to the S-protein and RBD prevents cell penetration and infection,” says doctor Kirill Belan.

Those vaccinated with KoviVacom, judging by the data of the group, most often find in themselves antibodies, which are determined after the disease. But there is no data on their protective properties.

The presence of one specific type of antibodies is not an indicator that you are protected from the disease, reminds doctor Timur Pesterev. Scientists do not yet have sufficient data on how many antibodies are needed to protect against the virus and which ones, even more so, to protect against new strains.Estimates by some experts on protective antibody titers are approximate and have not yet been confirmed by research.

“It is possible that when vaccinated with KoviVac, the titer to the S-protein is simply less than that of Sputnik V, since other antibodies are also produced. However, this requires clarification,” says Belan.

The Chumakov Center announced in May this year that the volunteers who participated in the 1st and 2nd phases of clinical trials retain a protective antibody titer. Aydar Ishmukhametov in an interview with “Interfax” said that the analysis for antibodies was meaningless.“Let’s still learn to trust scientific data and stop this massive unhealthy rush and antibody championship. First, protective immunity is not only antibodies and not all antibodies,” he said.

He said that the center is working with several manufacturers of test systems in order to develop, within the framework of the third phase of clinical trials, which began in June, “the most accurate and objective method for assessing the body’s defense as a whole, and not just the level of any of the antibodies “.

Are there any side effects after KoviVac?

People who want to be vaccinated with KoviVac believe that there are usually fewer side effects from it.

“The advantage of CoviVac is its minimal reactogenicity, that is, less pronounced inflammatory side effects, which may be relevant if a person has not fully recovered from a previous illness, or if he still has risk markers for thrombosis and autoimmune reactions,” says BBC Alexey Moskalev, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Chief Researcher at the Russian Gerontological Research and Clinical Center, expert on the Scientific Council of the Atlas Clinic.

But “Fontanka” wrote that some of those vaccinated with “KoviVac” “had severe pain in their arms, muscles, the injection site, someone had a head,” the coronavirus itself – changes in the sense of smell.

In the group of “folk reports” after vaccination with “KoviVac”, many note among the side effects weakness, drowsiness, a metallic taste in the mouth, pulling sensations in the calf muscles, pain at the injection site. At the same time, many write about the complete absence of side effects.

The vaccine instructions state that the most common side effects were pain (less than 15% of the number of vaccinations) and induration at the injection site (up to 1%), as well as general reactions: headache (up to 2% of vaccinated) and short-term hyperthermia (up to 1%). Mild reactions were more common. There were no severe local and systemic reactions to vaccination, according to the instructions.

Photo author, Kirill Kukhmar / TASS

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Many doctors and patients believe that KoviVac has fewer side effects

allergies, for example, if a person has had anaphylactic shock or Quincke’s edema before.You can not be vaccinated during pregnancy and breastfeeding, people under 18 years of age and after 60 years.

Contraindications for Sputnik no longer include pregnancy, as well as the age after 60 years – it can be done at any age from 18 years.

To temporary contraindications “KoviVac”, as with other vaccines, include acute febrile conditions, infectious and non-infectious diseases in the acute phase, as well as chronic infectious diseases in the acute phase.

“KoviVak” is popular among Orthodox Russians as well.The Russian Orthodox Church said that it was better for the Orthodox to choose another vaccine, and not Sputnik. The fact is that for the manufacture of Sputnik components, a line obtained from the kidneys of a human embryo aborted 50 years ago was used. According to the “Fundamentals of the Social Concept”, referred to by the Russian Orthodox Church, “any use of abortive tissues, including for the production of vaccinations, cannot be justified from a moral point of view.”

“Given the possibility of choosing between such a vaccine and a vaccine developed without the use of embryonic human cell cultures, the roundtable participants are in favor of using the latest vaccines as ethically more acceptable,” the ROC said.

The arguments of the religious community were analyzed in detail by the publication Indicator. The author of the article explains that the same line is used for testing food additives and other products. “For example, Senomyx has patented over 100 products where the embryonic cell line was used during the testing phase. And now corporations such as Nestle, Heinz, Pepsi put these additives in instant soups, kinders and other chocolates, ketchups, cream, chips, bouillon cubes. and so on, “the article says.

The Sputnik developers have assured that no human cells remain in the preparation itself.

Why is KoviVaca produced so little?

The simplicity of the CoviVaca technology is at the same time a limitation for the vaccine manufacturer, as a corresponding license is required to work with a live virus.

So far, the center, whose capacity is about a million doses per month, has agreed on the production of KoviVac only with the Nanolek plant in the Kirov region.They promised to start producing the vaccine no earlier than August and release 5 million doses by the end of this year. The Russian service of the BBC has sent a request to the press service of the Chumakov Center regarding other partnerships.

Restrictions in production create a shortage of vaccine, due to which some may get the mistaken impression that this vaccine is more in demand, which means that it is better than Sputnik, which is available in sufficient quantities at vaccination points.

“A certain excitement around CoviVac is caused by the supply of the vaccine in limited quantities, which creates its relative demand.As far as I know, equipment modernization is required to increase KoviVac supplies. And now this issue is being resolved, “says Kirill Belan.

Photo author, Kirill Kukhmar / TASS

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Some patients still complained about side effects after CoviVac

” Apparently, the mentality is such that they trust what something more scarce.