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Vatham meaning: Siddha Concept of Vatham, Pitham & Kapham

Siddha Concept of Vatham, Pitham & Kapham


Dr AmritjudeJune 15, 2010

The three humours – Vatham, Pitham, and Kapham are responsible for the occurrence of a disease. Basically, in a human body these three humours Vatham, Pitham and Kapham are in a normal ratio that is 1: ½ : ¼ respectively. This state of normalcy is called Thannilai. During the onset of a disease of a disease, a single humour gets vitiated from its normal state. This state is called the Thannilai valarchi . Then slowly it affects or associates any of the other two humours along with it and results into a more aggravated state with signs and symptoms. This state is called Vetrinilai valarchi. Therefore, it is important for a Siddha physician to take into account and analyse which humour gets vitiated or deranged initially so as to prescribe the medication because each and every humour derangement needs a specific line of treatment.

Pinikalin Muthar Karanam (Primary cause of a disease)

The great Siddhar Theraiyar lays emphasis on the primary causes of disease in human body. He stresses on the three humours which are the basic reason in one or other way for the causation of Pini or (noi) disease.

“Vathamalathu menikedathu valarpitha

Theethalathu sarthiyadathu sethumathin

Kothamalathu vikkaladathu kudarthannil

Seethamalathu surmum varathu theeramame”

The first line of the verse explains that the normal complexion or the shine of the skin is altered due to derangement in Vatham humour or Vali humour. The Siddhar Theraiyar in his second line of the verse says that derangement of the Pitham or Azhal humour causes vanthi or vomiting. In the third line, the involvement of Kapham or Iyam humour with the Vatham or Vali lead to vikkal noi or hiccup. In the fourth line Kapham or Iyam humour replaces Pitham in the Annamayakosam or the Intestine leading to Indigestion and hence causing the Suram or fever to occur.

“Manthamalathu vayuvarathu analpitha

Thothamalathu moolam varathu thodarvatha

Panthamalathu gunmam varathu pakarpitha

Vinthai lathu megham varathu theeramame”

In the first line of this versus, Vatham humour or Vali is the basic humour responsible for Indigestion. Next line says the combination of Vali and Azhal humour leads to moola rogam or Hemorrhoids. Gunmam or the diseases pertaining to the abdomen are caused due to the derangement of Vatha humour as per the third line. In the fourth line derrangement of Pitham is the main cause of Megha diseases.

“Ajeeranamendri suram varathu thirithoda

Karanamendri sanni varathu kaphamana

Neerathuvumendri sobai varathu neduvatha

Sarvathavumendri soolai varathu thavarathe”

According to the first line of the above versus, Ajeeranam or Indigestion leads to the onset of fever. Second line stresses on the derangement of Mukkutram or derangement of all the three humours ie Vali, Azhal and Iyam in Sanni noi or delirium condition. And the third line says that Iyam humour derangement leads to the fluid accumulation in the body causing Sobai noi or Oothal noi or dropsy condition. In the fourth line Siddhar Theraiyar explains the involvement of Vatham or Vali in occurance of Soolai noi (compared to a condition in which pricking or stabbing pain is present all over the body). Hence, one or other humour initially deranges from its normal value as to cause a disease.Both Amla or Indian gooseberry and turmeric are very ancient herbs used in various health problems. Both of them are used separately and also in combinations with other herbs in various choornams, tablets and other formulations. Both of these herbs are individually enriched with numerous health benefits.


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Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, and More

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune condition that can cause pain, swelling, and stiffness in the joints. Though there is no cure, early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent permanent joint damage.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that can cause joint pain, inflammation, and damage throughout your body.

The joint damage that RA causes usually happens on both sides of the body.

So, if a joint is affected in one of your arms or legs, the same joint in the other arm or leg will probably be affected, too. This is one way that doctors distinguish RA from other forms of arthritis, such as osteoarthritis (OA).

Treatments work best when RA is diagnosed early, so it’s important to learn the signs. Read on to learn everything you want to know about RA, from types and symptoms to home remedies, diets, and other treatments.

RA is a chronic disease marked by symptoms of inflammation and pain in the joints. These symptoms and signs increase during periods known as flares or exacerbations. Other times are known as periods of remission — this is when symptoms can disappear completely.

RA symptoms commonly affect joints in the hands, wrists, and knees, but can also affect tissues and organs throughout the body including the lungs, heart, and eyes.

Symptoms can include:

  • pain or aching in more than one joint
  • stiffness in more than one joint
  • tenderness and swelling in more than one joint
  • the same joint symptoms on both sides of the body
  • loss of joint function and deformities
  • fatigue
  • low-grade fever
  • loss of appetite
  • weakness

Symptoms can vary from mild to severe. It’s important not to ignore your symptoms, even if they come and go. Knowing the early signs of RA will help you and your healthcare provider better treat and manage it.

There are a number of genetic and environmental factors that may increase your risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis.


RA is an autoimmune disorder and is the result of your body’s immune system attacking healthy body tissues. However, the specific causes or triggers of RA are not yet known.

If you have RA, your immune system sends antibodies to the lining of your joints as part of the disease process. These antibodies attack the tissues lining your joints, causing the lining cells (synovial cells) to divide and contribute to inflammation. During this process, chemicals are released that can damage nearby bones, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments.

If RA is not treated, the joint will become damaged and lose its shape and alignment, eventually becoming destroyed.

Risk factors

  • Age. The onset of RA is highest among adults in their 50s. Risk continues to increase with age for people assigned male at birth. RA often occurs in people assigned female at birth during their child-bearing years.
  • Sex. People assigned female at birth are two to three times more likely to develop RA than people assigned male at birth.
  • Genetics. People born with certain genes, called HLA class II genotypes, are more likely to develop RA. The risk of RA may be highest when people with these genes have obesity or are exposed to environmental factors like smoking.
  • History of live births. People with ovaries who have never given birth may be at a greater risk of developing RA than those who have given birth.
  • Early life exposure. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, children whose mothers smoked have double the risk of developing RA as adults.
  • Smoking. Studies show that people who smoke cigarettes are at an increased risk of developing RA.
  • Obesity. Having obesity can increase the risk of developing RA.
  • Diet. High consumption of sodium, sugar (especially fructose), red meat, and iron is associated with an increased risk of developing RA.

Diagnosing RA can take time and may require multiple lab tests to confirm clinical examination findings. Your healthcare provider will use several tools to diagnose RA.

First, they’ll ask about your symptoms and medical history. They’ll also perform a physical exam of your joints. This will include:

  • looking for swelling and redness
  • examining joint function and range of motion
  • touching the affected joints to check for warmth and tenderness
  • examining for skin nodules
  • testing your reflexes and muscle strength

If they suspect RA, they’ll most likely refer you to a specialist called a rheumatologist.

Since no single test can confirm a diagnosis of RA, your healthcare provider or rheumatologist may use several different types of tests.

They may test your blood for certain substances like antibodies, or check the level of certain substances like acute phase reactants that are elevated during inflammatory conditions. These can be a sign of RA and help support the diagnosis.

They may also request certain imaging tests, such as an ultrasound, X-ray, or MRI.

Tests not only show if joint damage has occurred but also how severe the damage is.

A complete evaluation and monitoring of other organ systems might be recommended for some people with RA, too.

Learn more about the process of diagnosing RA.

There are several types of blood tests that help your healthcare provider or rheumatologist determine whether you have RA. These tests include:

  • Rheumatoid factor test. The RF blood test checks for a protein called rheumatoid factor. High levels of rheumatoid factor are associated with autoimmune diseases, especially RA.
  • Anticitrullinated peptide antibody test (anti-CCP). This test looks for an antibody that’s associated with RA. People who have this antibody usually have the disease. However, not everyone with RA tests positive for this antibody. The anti-CCP test is more specific for RA than the RF blood test, and often is positive before the RF test.
  • Antinuclear antibody test. The antinuclear antibody panel (ANA) tests your immune system to see if it’s producing antibodies to the nucleus of cells. Your body often makes ANA antibodies as a response to many different types of autoimmune conditions, including RA.
  • Erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The ESR test helps determine the degree of inflammation in your body. The result tells your doctor whether inflammation is present. However, it doesn’t indicate the cause or site of the inflammation.
  • C-reactive protein test. A severe infection or significant inflammation anywhere in your body can trigger your liver to make C-reactive protein. High levels of this inflammatory marker are associated with RA.

Find out more about the different RA blood tests.

There’s no cure for RA, but there are effective treatments that can help you manage it and prevent damage.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can require both patients and doctors to adjust as they figure out the best ways to treat the symptoms and slow the progression of the condition.

Recently, advances in treatment strategies have resulted in ever-improving outcomes and quality of life for those with rheumatoid arthritis. Treat to Target is a treatment philosophy that rheumatologists use to effectively manage this disease.

The treat-to-target approach has resulted in fewer symptoms and higher remission rates for those with RA. The treatment strategy involves:

  • setting a specific testing goal that signals either remission or low disease state
  • testing acute phase reactants and performing monthly monitoring to assess progress of treatment and management plan
  • switching medication regimen promptly if progress isn’t made

Treatments for RA help to manage the pain and control the inflammatory response. In many cases, this can result in remission. Decreasing the inflammation can also help to prevent further joint and organ damage.

Treatments may include:

  • medications
  • alternative or home remedies
  • dietary changes
  • specific types of exercise

Your healthcare provider will work with you to determine the best treatment plan for your medical needs.

For many people, these treatments help them live an active life and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

Learn more about specific RA treatments and how to treat flares.

There are many types of medication for RA. Some of these medications help to reduce the pain and inflammation of RA. Others help to reduce flares and limit the damage that RA does to your joints.

The following over-the-counter medications help reduce the pain and inflammation during RA flares:

  • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  • corticosteroids
  • acetaminophen (reduces pain but not inflammation)

The following drugs work to slow the damage that RA can cause to your body:

  • Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). DMARDs work by blocking your body’s immune system response. This helps to slow down the progression of RA.
  • Biologics. These new generation biologic DMARDs provide a targeted response to inflammation rather than blocking your body’s entire immune system response. They are an effective treatment for people who don’t respond well enough to more traditional DMARDs.
  • Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors. These are a newer subcategory of DMARDs that block certain immune responses. JAK inhibitors are drugs that your healthcare provider may use to help prevent inflammation and stop damage to your joints when DMARDs and biologic DMARDs don’t work for you.

Certain home remedies and lifestyle adjustments may help to improve your quality of life when living with RA. This includes exercise, rest, and assistive devices.


Low-impact exercises can help to improve the range of motion in your joints and increase your mobility. Exercise can also strengthen muscles, which can help to relieve some of the pressure from your joints.

You may also want to try gentle yoga, which can help you regain strength and flexibility.

Get enough rest

You may need more rest during flare-ups and less during remission. Getting enough sleep will help to reduce inflammation and pain as well as fatigue.

Apply heat or cold

Ice packs or cold compresses can help to reduce inflammation and pain. They may also be effective against muscle spasms.

You can alternate cold with hot treatments such as warm showers and hot compresses. This may help to reduce stiffness.

Try assistive devices

Certain devices such as splints and braces can hold your joints in a resting position. This may help to reduce inflammation, but it’s important to take breaks from using them to prevent “frozen joints” (contractors).

Canes and crutches can help you maintain mobility, even during flares. You can also install household devices, such as grab bars and handrails in bathrooms and along staircases.

Learn more about these and other remedies to help you manage life with RA.

Your healthcare provider or dietitian may recommend an anti-inflammatory diet to help with your symptoms. This type of diet includes foods that have lots of omega-3 fatty acids.

Foods high in omega-3 fatty acids include:

  • fatty fish like salmon, tuna, herring, and mackerel
  • chia seeds
  • flax seeds
  • walnuts

Antioxidants, such as vitamins A, C, and E, and selenium, may also help reduce inflammation. Foods high in antioxidants include:

  • berries, such as blueberries, cranberries, goji berries, and strawberries
  • dark chocolate
  • spinach
  • kidney beans
  • pecans
  • artichokes

Eating lots of fiber is also important. Choose whole grain foods, fresh vegetables, and fresh fruit. Strawberries may be particularly beneficial.

Foods containing flavonoids can also help to counter inflammation in the body. They include:

  • soy products, such as tofu and miso
  • berries
  • green tea
  • broccoli
  • grapes

What you don’t eat is just as important as what you do eat. Make sure to avoid trigger foods. These include processed carbohydrates and saturated or trans fats.

Avoiding trigger foods and choosing the right foods when following an anti-inflammatory diet may help you manage your RA.

There are several different types of RA. Knowing which type you have may help your healthcare provider choose the best type of treatment for you.

Types of RA include:

  • Seropositive RA. If you have seropositive RA, you have a positive rheumatoid factor or anti-CCP blood test result. This means you have the antibodies that cause your immune system to attack joints.
  • Seronegative RA. If you have a negative RF blood test result and a negative anti-CCP result, but you still have RA symptoms, you may have seronegative RA. You may eventually develop antibodies, changing your diagnosis to seropositive RA.
  • Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Juvenile idiopathic arthritis refers to RA in children ages 17 years old and younger. The condition was previously known as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). The symptoms are the same as those of other types of RA, but they may also include eye inflammation and issues with physical development.

Get more details on the types of RA and their differences.

Seropositive RA is the most common type of RA. This type of arthritis may run in families. Seropositive RA may come with more severe symptoms than seronegative RA.

Symptoms of seropositive RA can include:

  • morning stiffness lasting 30 minutes or longer
  • swelling and pain in multiple joints
  • swelling and pain in symmetrical joints
  • rheumatoid nodules
  • fever
  • fatigue
  • weight loss

RA isn’t always confined to the joints. Some people with seropositive RA can experience inflammation in the eyes, salivary glands, nerves, kidneys, lungs, heart, skin, and blood vessels.

Arthritis in the hands may start as a low-level burning sensation that you feel at the end of the day. Eventually, you may experience pain that isn’t necessarily from using your hands. This pain can get quite severe without treatment.

You may also feel:

  • swelling
  • redness
  • warmth
  • stiffness

If the cartilage in your joints wears away, you may notice some deformities in your hands. You may also have a grinding feeling in the joints of your hands, fingers, and large joints, if the cartilage deteriorates completely.

As the disease progresses, fluid-filled sacs or synovial cysts typically develop in the wrists, knees, elbows, ankles and around the small joints of the hands. These cysts aren’t without complications and tendon rupture can occur in some cases.

You may also develop knobby growths, called bone spurs, in the affected joints. Over time, bone spurs can make it harder for you to use your hands.

If you have RA in your hands, your healthcare provider will work with you on exercises that can help you retain movement and function.

Exercises, along with other types of treatment, can help reduce inflammation and delay progression of the disease.

See exactly what the effects of RA look like on your hands.

RA may be most visible in your hands and feet, particularly as the disease progresses and especially if you don’t currently have a treatment plan.

Swelling of fingers, wrists, knees, ankles, and toes are common. Damage to ligaments and swelling in the feet can cause a person with RA to have trouble walking.

If you don’t get treatment for RA, you may develop severe deformities in your hands and feet. Deformities of the hands and fingers may cause a curved, claw-like appearance.

Your toes can also take on a claw-like look, sometimes bending upward and sometimes curling under the ball of the foot.

You may also notice ulcers, nodules, bunions, and calluses on your feet.

Lumps, called rheumatoid nodules, can appear anywhere on your body where joints are inflamed. These can range in size from very small to the size of a walnut or larger, and they can occur in clusters.

This is what rheumatoid nodules and other visible signs of RA look like.

Like RA, people with osteoarthritis (OA) can experience painful and stiff joints that make moving around difficult.

People with OA may have joint swelling after extended activity, but OA doesn’t cause significant enough inflammatory reaction to result in redness of the affected joints.

Unlike RA, OA isn’t an autoimmune disease. It’s related to the natural wear and tear of the joints as you age, or it can develop as a result of trauma.

OA is most often seen in older adults. However, it can sometimes be seen in younger adults who overuse a particular joint — such as tennis players and other athletes — or those who’ve experienced a severe injury.

RA is an autoimmune disease. The joint damage from RA isn’t caused by normal wear and tear. It’s caused by your body attacking itself.

Learn more about these two types of arthritis.

Rheumatoid arthritis isn’t considered a hereditary disease, but it does run in some families. This may be due to environmental causes, genetic causes, or a combination of both.

If you have family members who have or have had RA, talk to your healthcare provider, especially if you have any symptoms of persistent joint pain, swelling, and stiffness unrelated to overuse or trauma.

Having a family history of RA increases your risk of getting the disease, and early diagnosis can make a big difference in how effective treatment will be.

So, can you inherit RA? Maybe — learn more here.

Having RA can put you at an increased risk of developing other health complications. Some people may also develop complications from medications used to treat RA.

  • Premature heart disease. People who have RA are almost twice as likely to develop heart disease as those without the condition. Those who have obesity and RA are at the highest risk. Coronary artery disease is the number one cause of death for people who have RA.
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome. Carpal tunnel syndrome is common in people who have RA. It causes aching, numbness, or tingling in the hands and fingers. It’s caused by compression of a nerve in the hand called the median nerve.
  • Interstitial lung disease. Interstitial lung disease is the primary pulmonary manifestation of RA and can develop when your lungs become inflamed.
  • Pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis is a condition that causes lung scarring and stiffness and makes it difficult to breathe. Pleurisy is another painful lung condition that is a complication of RA due to inflammation of the lung lining (pleura).
  • Chest pain. Inflammation of tissues around your heart can lead to pericarditis, a condition that causes chest pain.
  • Eyes conditions. Inflammation in the eyes from RA can lead to uveitis and scleritis, which causes eye redness and pain. It can also lead to Sjögren’s syndrome, which causes dry eyes.
  • Vasculitis. Inflammation of the blood vessels, known as vasculitis, can cause vessels to thicken, weaken, narrow, and scar. In serious cases, it can affect blood flow to your body’s organs and be life threatening.
  • Joint damage. Permanent joint damage can happen if RA is not managed or treated early. Joints can become severely deformed, and nearby tendons, bones, and cartilage can become damaged. Surgery is sometimes needed to prevent loss of joint function.
  • Cervical myelopathy. Having RA puts you at an increased risk of developing cervical myelopathy. This condition results from compression of the spinal cord in the neck. It leads to dislocation of joints at the top of the spinal cord and can seriously affect mobility, and lead to permanent spinal cord damage.
  • Pneumonia. Pneumonia is the most frequently encountered infection in people with RA.
  • Renal failure. Renal failure is the third most common cause of death in people with RA. People with RA are at an increased risk of both chronic kidney disease (CKD) and glomerulonephritis.
  • Gastrointestinal hemorrhage. GI hemorrhage is a condition where heavy bleeding occurs in the upper parts of the digestive tract. It’s the most common GI complication for people with RA and is associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
  • Pancytopenia. Pancytopenia is a condition that occurs when a person has too few red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It causes three blood diseases: anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia. The severity of anemia is correlated with the severity of RA.
  • Lymphoma. People with RA are at an increased risk of developing both Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL).
  • Subcutaneous nodules. These are lesions located deep in the dermis and subcutis layers of the skin. They are found in 30 to 40 percent of patients with RA and are associated with more severe diseases.

RA is a chronic disease that doesn’t currently have a cure. That said, most people with RA don’t have constant symptoms. Instead, they have flare-ups followed by relatively symptom-free periods called remissions.

The course of the disease varies from person to person, and symptoms can range from mild to severe.

Though symptoms may stop for extended periods, joint problems caused by RA will usually get worse over time. That’s why early treatment is so important to help delay serious joint damage.

If you’re experiencing any symptoms or have concerns about RA, talk to your healthcare provider.

Read this article in Spanish.

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The tale of the robber of a young man named Vatha was very interested in miracles. One day he saw an old man lying on a board studded with nails.


One night on a fishing trip

I was dozing lying on my back —

Green-eyed mermaids

90 002 They hit the moon with their tails.

The maidens sang songs to me,

Then they went through the branches into the darkness,0002 as the paths of the mermaid,

They led to the central trunk.

Grasses hung like nets,

Branches whipped, but I was going

There, where in the flattened dawn

A black trunk broke the road.

I went down it

into the darkness,

And in the crown of the head I continued

the path:

There for the dead –

time to wake up,

And for all the living –

it’s time to sleep!

And I accidentally opened my eyes –

I saw a hundred witches then:

They crushed their feet in a vat,

My years are like grapes.

I yelled, “Damn seed,

I caught you in witchcraft!”

And then drunk time

Hit me on the head.

A fairy appeared from the ground


She waved her hand,

and then

She cast a spell:

“Erus — Ferus!

From now on you will be –

a cat!

You will be fairy tales

sing by the oak.

You will become a man again,

Kohl will kiss you on the lips

Princess of wondrous beauty!”

Low cosmos swayed,

I flew from afar

There, where it cuts against sedges

River sides and clouds…

Now I am a cat.

Scolding fate,

I am dragging a golden chain.

I will go to the left –

I compose a song,

To the right –

I mumble a fairy tale.

Listen to parables, 9THE TALE OF THE ROBBER
One young man named Vatha was very interested in miracles. One day he saw an old man lying on a board studded with nails. Vatha asked the recumbent to teach him to sleep on nails. “Of course, of course,” the old man replied, “but first you have to go beg and bring it to me. If you give me all the money you earn within a year, I will teach you.” For a long time Vatha worked for the old man and learned to sleep on a board studded with sharp nails. But from this he did not become smarter and more spiritual.

One day in the marketplace he met another old man who called himself a yogi. When they started talking, this yogi called the person from whom Vatha studied, a nonentity and a conjurer. “I’ll teach you how to do something better. Here look! With these words, the old man pierced his arm with a steel needle. “Look, there’s not a drop of blood. I will teach you how to do it. You can earn money by showing this to people in the marketplace. But for your studies, you will have to give me half of what you earn.” Vatha learned how to pierce his own flesh with a needle, working all day for the second old man.

After some time, Vatha heard about the miracle worker, who had many admirers. He sought out this old man and asked him, “What exceptional knowledge do you possess? What is your wisdom? Are you a greater yogi than me?” To which the miracle worker replied to Vatha: “Pay me one hundred rupees and I will deliver you instantly any dish from any hotel in the world.” Vatha paid the money and wished to see before him the food from the Savoy Hotel in London. Immediately, the ordered food appeared in front of him from the void. Then the old man offered Watha to deliver a watch from any country in the world. The young man paid the magician money, and a Swiss watch gleamed on his hand. “Teach me how to do it?” Vatha turned to the old man. The miracle worker thought and agreed to take Vatha as a student for a large fee.

Years have passed. Vatha learned the wonderworking of things long ago and left the house of the third old man. He called himself a great yogi and rendered all sorts of services to the laity. Crowds of people came to him and asked him to deliver medicines from Germany, coffee from Brazil, coconuts from Africa, food from North America. And Vatha happily delivered everything to those who asked. But one day a fourth old man came to him. It was not a miracle worker, but an ordinary priest from a nearby monastery. He saw how Vatha materializes objects and gives them to ordinary people. “What are you doing, you scoundrel!” the priest shouted and began to beat Vatha with his heavy cane. He was taken aback and screamed in pain: “Why are you hitting me? I give good to people!” To which the old man, waving a stick around Vatha, replied: “You have committed a great many thefts. You ask for sweets – and they come to you from an English store. They disappear in England and the shop owner doesn’t know where they’ve gone. Things that appear here disappear in other stores. For this, people who are not involved in theft are accused of theft and put in jail. You are the biggest robber!” “Forgive me, old man, I didn’t know! Vatha repented tearfully. “I won’t do this anymore and I won’t pass on the secret of miracle-working to anyone!” 9THE TALE OF THE ANTHILL
One day, yellow bees brought a mustachioed stargazer firefly to the hive. The astrologer fell at the feet of the queen bee and stretched out his furry paws to the sky: “Oh, my lady, woe to us! The stars say that soon a red comet will fall to earth and poison all the water. Whoever drinks this water will lose his wings, sight and mind . .. ”The queen thanked the astrologer for the warning and ordered her close associates to hide a thousand large barrels of water underground.

A year has passed. A red comet streaked the blue sky and fell to earth. All water became poisoned. The forest bees drank the new water and lost their wings, eyesight and intelligence. Only the queen and her friends drank the old water. Therefore, the mistress said things to the bees that they were not able to understand. Gradually, the good bees were crushed and turned into evil ants that looked like black seeds. Having changed themselves, they considered that it was their ruler who had gone mad. After all, only a madman can claim, they believed, that strawberries are scarlet, stars are blue, and ants can fly higher than trees! The queen’s fate was sealed. She was overthrown from the throne, and all the friends of the queen were exterminated. A few sighted, in order to survive, were forced to lie and repeat after the majority that ants cannot fly. 9THE TALE OF THE FLYING BIRCH
Birds have flown to the nesting grounds.

Flapping their wings on the water,

White snowstorms swirled,

Pairs of swans swirled.

And then they led their chicks along the rocky path

Adults to the water.

The shore resounded

with a ringing squeak

Yellow-mouthed balls


Only one goose –

like wax –

All sat and waited for the chick.

For some reason, a thin birch

Came out of the last egg.

The youth grew up easily and boldly,

Tried the sky on its wings,

Only the birch could not

Neither fly nor swim, as luck would have it.

Swans and stars flew away,

The edge of the sky was covered with ice.

The birch stretched its neck up,

Beat its wings over the nest,

Sobbed like a girl,

Waving its wings again –

Suddenly, screaming, took off like a swan,

Once a man was walking along the road to Mecca. It was very hot, sand dunes stretched all around. The pilgrim was very tired, so he quietly rejoiced when he saw a large green tree with spreading branches near the road. It was a magical tree. It was worth thinking about something in his shadow, as the plan was immediately fulfilled. The Stranger lay down to rest in its shade and thought: “I am lucky that I found this cool place. It would be nice to have a glass of cold water.” As soon as he imagined how he was drinking cool water from a mug, a half-liter aluminum mug filled with water immediately appeared in front of him. After drinking water, the traveler wiped his lips with his sleeve and sighed: “I quenched my thirst, good. And how happy I would be if there were a soft bed from the vizier’s house here! Literally a minute later, a luxurious double bed descended from the crown of a tree to the ground. For joy, the pilgrim clapped his hands and thought: “What a beautiful pillow, and the blanket is just lovely. If my wife saw such a bed, she would be happy!” And at the same moment his young wife appeared under the magic tree. The Stranger saw his wife and was terribly frightened out of surprise: “Oh, who is this? Is this my beloved wife or a demon? Won’t this evil genie devour me?” As soon as he thought about it, the wife turned into a demon, attacked the wanderer and ate it.

Our world is like a magical tree. It is worth dreaming about something well – and after three years the wish comes true.

Torments of Tantalus
Tantalus is a famous hero from the myths of Ancient Greece, the son of Zeus, the king of the city of Sipyla, who owned innumerable riches, became proud and began to consider himself equal to Zeus himself. Being a frequent visitor to Olympus, when he returned, he took with him the food of the gods (nectar and ambrosia) and distributed it to his mortal friends. Feasting with them in his luxurious palace, Tantalus informed them of the secret decisions made by the gods, insulted the dignity of the gods with deceitful and dishonorable deeds. This overflowed the cup of patience of the Thunderer Zeus. And he cast him into the gloomy kingdom of Hades. There Tantalus stood, tormented by thirst and hunger, in clear water that came up to his chin; branches of fertile trees with ripe apples, pomegranates and bunches of amber grapes leaned over his head. Exhausted by thirst and hunger, Tantalus bowed his head to quench his unbearable thirst, but the water disappeared, and dry black earth remained under his feet; stretched out his hands for beautiful fruits, but a gust of stormy wind immediately carried away the branches on which they hung.

But not only thirst and hunger tormented Tantalus. Eternal fear squeezed his heart, as a huge rock hung over his head, threatening to fall every minute and crush him with its weight. Sisyphus was tormented next to Tantalus. He rolled up a huge stone. As soon as Sisyphus reached the top of the mountain, the stone rolled down with a crash. And the sinner started the work anew.

From here the expressions “torments of tantalum” and “Sisyphean labor” came into the Russian language. The first is used as a designation of unbearable torment caused by a sense of the proximity of the desired goal and the consciousness of the impossibility of achieving it ever. The second is for the figurative characterization of hard but useless work. 9THE TALE OF BURNINGS
A pillow hung down

Pig ears

Above your crown,

My little light.

And in your kitchen

The teapot waves its hat,

Jumps and dances,

Sings a fairy tale:

How they grow in frosts

On the branches of a birch

9 0002 Red like roses


How I shook the branch

And poured it into the net

These rare birds

For you…

— Don’t lie!..

Come on, daughter,

Let’s play hide and seek,

Otherwise, in the duty room

I won’t fall asleep.

Do not forget at night

For you, my daughter,

De-energize the stars,

Turn off the moon.

After God created the mortal world, man showed extraordinary agility and immediately stepped over the limits of the Law. This worried the Creator. He called the archangels to a scientific council and said: “Perhaps I made a mistake by creating Adam and Eve. Now from the people I will not have peace. They will constantly overstep the bounds, and then come to Me and, kissing my hands, endlessly complain about their unfair life. Where can I hide from them?

Archangels wrinkled their foreheads for a long time. One of them, the lowest, offered God to hide on the top of Everest. But the Creator only sighed: “You don’t know yet, but very soon people will get there.” Another archangel, puffing up his forehead, waved his brilliant wing towards the sea: “Hide yourself the other day at the bottom of the ocean.” God chuckled in response: “The days are not far off when the laity will conquer even the depths of the ocean.” The third, biting his lip, jabbed a swan feather at the moon. The creator just waved his hand: “Soon people will walk on the moon.” There were many more different proposals, but the Creator rejected them all. Finally, one of the lankiest archangels slapped his head with his wing and jumped up: “I figured it out! Hide in the heart of man. There, none of the sinners will bother you! Only a person with a pure soul can find You in his heart. But there are very few of them, for all people are black and selfish. The Lord liked this proposal so much that He smiled for a long time and, in joy, presented the long one with His ruling scepter. And God hid in the hearts of men…

Ovid’s transformations
The expression originates from the name of the Russian translation of the book of the Roman poet Ovid “Metamorphoses” (transformations), which sets out Greek and Roman myths about the miraculous transformations of people and gods into animals, plants, stones and other phenomena of the animal and plant world. Allegorically – this is an unexpected change or change in someone or something to such an extent that it becomes impossible to recognize him. So, for example, one of the dramatic short stories tells about the transformation of a beautiful, but proud and narcissistic young man Narcissus into a flower. Another (“Philemon and Baucis”) speaks of a husband and wife who lived for a long time in love and harmony and never wanted to outlive each other. Their wishes came true. Having lived to a ripe old age, they turned into trees covered with greenery. 9THE TALE ABOUT THE Dawn
– Sing to me, mother, about free will,

Why don’t the winds howl in the field?

– Warm winds have become foliage,

And cold winds have become weeds.

— Mom, the leaves have stopped making noise,

Where are the leaves: have they fallen, tired?

– Good leaves became birds,

Evil leaves – rose up like grass.

— Mommy, mommy, beyond the blue

Can’t you see birds in the wild too?

– The best birds became the dawn,

And the bad ones became unkind grass. 9STOPPED COWS
In ancient times in India, every year a great meeting of sages was held, at which they talked about God and the meaning of life.

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