Venereal warts in men: Male genital warts – Mayo Clinic
Genital Warts | STD Symptoms, Treatment and Removal
What are Genital Warts?
Genital warts are common and are caused by certain types of HPV. Genital warts can be annoying, but they’re treatable and aren’t dangerous.
Genital warts are caused by HPV
Genital warts show up on the skin around your genitals and anus. They’re caused by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV). You might’ve heard that some types of HPV can cause cancer, but they’re NOT the same kinds that give you genital warts.
HPV can be a tricky STD to understand. It’s the most common STD, but most of the time it goes away on its own. Sometimes certain types of “high-risk” HPV can develop into cancer if left untreated. Other “low-risk” types of HPV can cause warts on your vulva, vagina, cervix, rectum, anus, penis or scrotum. Genital warts are common — about 360,000 people get them each year.
How do you get genital warts?
You get genital warts from having skin-to-skin contact with someone who’s infected, often during vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Genital warts can be spread even if no one cums, and a penis doesn’t have to go inside a vagina or anus to get them. You can spread them even when you don’t have any visible warts or other symptoms, though that’s less common. You can also pass genital warts to a baby during vaginal childbirth, but that’s pretty rare.
Genital warts are different from warts you might get elsewhere on your body. So you can’t get genital warts by touching yourself (or a partner) with a wart that’s on your hand or foot.
You’re more likely to pass genital warts when you’re having symptoms. So if you notice a wart, it’s best to get tested and treated to help lower the risk of passing genital warts on to a partner.
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Genital warts on Black men: Causes and treatments
Genital warts are small bumps or unusual growths that appear on and around the genitals. Close genital contact during sexual activity can spread human papillomavirus (HPV), which causes genital warts.
Genital warts are the result of HPV, which is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HPV is the most common STI in the United States.
Once a person has acquired the infection, they may transmit it to others through sexual contact. However, not everyone with HPV will have genital warts and they may not experience symptoms.
While there is currently no cure, there are various ways of removing genital warts. Most methods will usually require a person to see a healthcare provider.
In this article, we look at symptoms, prevalence, treatment options, and prevention of genital warts in males with black skin.
Genital warts are small growths, or bumps, on the genitals. They can appear as a singular wart or a cluster of warts. In males, they can appear on the penis, scrotum, groin, and thigh. After oral or anal sex, they can also appear on the throat or anus.
There are many types of HPV, but only a few can cause genital warts. Genital warts are usually painless, and they do not cause any long-term health issues.
HPV is a common virus that can pass from one person to another through unprotected anal, vaginal, and oral sex.
The virus can also spread to another person through sexual activity with close skin-to-skin contact of the genitals or through sharing sex toys.
HPV can pass from a person with the virus to a sexual partner, even if they have no visible symptoms.
There are more than 100 different types of HPV. Some types of HPV can cause changes in the body that may result in cancer. The types of HPV that cause genital warts do not cause cancer.
Evidence suggests that nearly all sexually active people who do not get the HPV vaccine will likely acquire an HPV infection at some point in their life. However, people cannot get genital warts from kissing, sharing cutlery, or swimming pools.
Prior to HPV vaccines, roughly 340,000–360,000 people had genital warts due to HPV every year. Roughly, 1 in 100 sexually active adults in the U.S. has genital warts at any given time.
However, due to the nature of genital warts, it is difficult to measure the prevalence. Most figures only account for the number of people receiving treatment for genital warts, meaning most data may underestimate the actual number.
Many studies instead focus on the number of people with HPV infections that may result in genital warts.
A 2013 study looked at the prevalence of HPV infections in 3,973 males aged 18–70 who were living in the U.S., Brazil, or Mexico. None of the participants had any symptoms of genital warts or STIs.
Participants self-reported their race as either:
- Asian/Pacific Islander
- multiple and mixed race
HPV infection rates across 12 months were highest in Black race participants, compared with other race participants. The rates among Black males were:
- 25.4% cancer-causing HPV type
- 43.2% noncancer-causing HPV type
- 45.7% for any HPV type
Noncancer-causing types of HPV included HPV types 6 and 11, which are the HPV types that cause genital warts.
The study concluded that differences in HPV infection rates between races could be due to the behavioral, social, economic, and geographic factors affecting distribution of HPV strains, and differences in genetics.
This is consistent with a 2018 study, which suggests that the highest prevalence of HPV in the U.S. is among non-Hispanic Black males in their late 20s.
Risk factors for genital HPV infections can include:
- age, with the highest rate of genital HPV infections affecting 20–24-year-olds
- suppressed immune system
- multiple HPV infections
- unprotected sex
- multiple sexual partners
Symptoms can appear long after people encounter the HPV that causes genital warts. People may experience symptoms weeks, months, or even years later.
Symptoms of genital warts in males may include:
- raised, flat, smooth, or rough growths on or around the genitals
- bumps that can appear the same color as surrounding skin, or slightly darker, or gray colored
- scattered or clustered bumps with a cauliflower-like texture
- warts that can appear on the penis, anus, scrotum, groin, or upper thighs
- warts that can appear in the mouth or throat after contracting the virus through oral sex
- warts that can sometimes feel painful, itchy, burning, or may bleed
The HPV type that causes genital warts does not cause cancer or any serious health complications.
However, other types of HPV can cause cancer if left untreated. According to the CDC, there are differences in rates of HPV-related cancers across different races and ethnicities:
- Anal and rectal cancers are higher in Black males compared with white males.
- Throat cancers are lower in Black and Hispanic males than in white and non-Hispanic males.
- Penile cancer is higher in Hispanic males compared with non-Hispanic males.
There is currently no HPV test for males.
For those with an increased risk of anal cancer, such as males who receive anal sex or are living with HIV, a healthcare provider may be able to offer an anal Pap test. If a person has any symptoms or concerns relating to cancer, they should see a doctor.
If people think they have genital warts, they can see their doctor for a diagnosis. A doctor may assess symptoms and examine the warts.
In some cases, a doctor may take a skin sample of the warts for laboratory testing to check they are genital warts rather than any other growth.
Some genital warts may clear without any treatment, but will likely reappear. People should not use over-the-counter wart treatment, as they are likely for other types of warts.
People can see their doctor for genital wart treatment. Treatment can vary depending on the amount and location of warts, and the health of the individual. Treatment may help to ease pain, itching, and irritation. It can also lower the risk of HPV spreading to other people.
A doctor may prescribe topical medication to apply to the warts, which can stop them growing or help the immune system fight the virus.
In other cases, a doctor may remove the warts with any of the following procedures:
- Cryosurgery: This freezes the warts off using liquid nitrogen.
- Excision: To cut out the warts.
- Electrocautery: This method uses an electric current to remove the warts.
- Laser treatment: This method uses an intense laser light to remove the warts.
If other treatments fail, a doctor may consider injecting antiviral medicine into the warts.
People can discuss possible side effects of treatments with their practitioner. For example, cryotherapy may cause an increased risk of hyperpigmentation in black skin.
Treatment can clear genital warts, but the virus may stay in the body. This means that genital warts may return after treatment. In some people, the immune system may get rid of the virus over time.
To help prevent genital warts, people can:
- use condoms and dental dams every time they have anal, vaginal, or oral sex, although the virus can still pass on through skin-to-skin contact
- use a condom to cover any shared sex toys, and wash after using
- limit the amount of sexual partners
- avoid sexual activity when genital warts are present, although the virus can still pass on with no visible symptoms
People can get a vaccine to protect against HPV infections. To be most effective, people will need the vaccine before they become sexually active.
The CDC recommend the vaccine for everyone when they are 11–12 years. People can also have the vaccine from 9 years. If people do not receive the vaccine at this age, they can receive it up until the age of 26 years for men.
If people are older than this, they may still be able to receive a vaccine. People can talk to their healthcare provider about the potential benefits of receiving the HPV vaccine past the age of 26.
Having a new sex partner at any age is a risk factor for getting a new HPV infection. People already in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship are not likely to get a new HPV infection.
Certain types of HPV can cause genital warts. They are usually harmless bumps that appear on or around the genitals. People can see their doctor for treatment of genital warts, which may include topical medication or medical procedures to remove the warts.
Research suggests that genital warts may be more common among young Black adult males. People can reduce their risk of genital warts by using condoms during sexual activity, limiting sexual partners, and getting the HPV vaccine.
Genital Warts and HPV in Men
Genital warts, also known as condylomata acuminata, are small, fleshy growths that can result from an infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV). It is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. There are many strains of HPV that can infect the genitalia, mouth, and throats of men and women.
Causes of Genital Warts
Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus. There are more than 100 types of HPV that can affect the genital areas, mouth, or throat. One-third of these are spread through sexual contact.
HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. According to the Department of Health and Human Services, there are an estimated 5.5 million new cases of HPV in the US each year. At least 24 million Americans are infected.
What They Look Like
Genital warts are small, pinkish-white, cauliflower-shaped growths. Men infected with HPV do not get warts as often as women do. When they do, warts usually appear on the tip of the penis but may also appear on the shaft. Warts can also appear on the scrotum or around the anus (warts may spread to the area around the anus even without anal sex as a cause). Sometimes genital warts can be seen around and inside the mouth and in the throat of those who have had oral sex with an infected person.
Can You Have HPV But Not Genital Warts?
Yes. Studies have indicated that it is not uncommon for women to have HPV and show no symptoms. Just because you do not have obvious symptoms does not mean you cannot infect others. Once you become infected, it can take up to three months for genital warts to appear.
According to the CDC, HPV is so common that nearly all sexually active males and females will come in contact with the virus at some point in their lives. However, even though nearly 14 million people are infected with HPV annually, the the majority of those infected often don’t suffer any consequences.
DermNet / CC BY-NC-ND
Not all warts are obvious to the naked eye. A doctor or health worker may apply a weak vinegar-like solution that causes any warts to turn white. An internal examination of the anus may be carried out to check for hidden warts.
If you believe you have been in contact with HPV, even if you do not have any warts, see a doctor who will be able to advise you on treatment.
Unfortunately, like most viruses, there is no treatment that will get rid of the HPV virus itself. But in most cases, HPV goes away on its own and does not cause any health problems.
Genital warts can be treated, but they may reappear at a later stage. Treatment for genital warts depends on size and location. Treatment options include:
- Imiquimod, an immune response cream applied to the infected area
- 20% podophyllin anti-mitotic solution applied to the infected area and washed off later
- 0.5% podofilox solution applied to the infected area
- 5% 5-fluorouracil cream
- Trichloroacetic acid (TCA)
The treatments should not be painful, but if they are, consult your doctor or health advisor. If your partner is pregnant, the podophyllin or 5-fluorouracil treatments should not be used.
Small warts can be surgically treated by laser, cryosurgery (freezing them off) or electrocautery (burning them off).
The anti-viral drug alpha-interferon can also be used either systemically or locally (injected directly into the warts). However, the drug is very expensive and research studies investigating effectiveness have yielded mixed results. You may require more than one type of treatment to make the warts go away permanently.
There are HPV vaccines that are approved for males and females ages 9 to 26 that can help prevent infection. By age 26 and after, most people have already come into contact with the HPV virus, and so the vaccine is not useful.
Avoiding all direct contact with the virus can prevent infection.
As previously mentioned, there is no treatment currently available for the HPV virus itself, but the virus often resolves on its own. Genital warts, a symptom of the disease, do respond to treatment, but they can reoccur. Treatment for genital warts should be sought and completed before having sexual contact.
Can Condoms Prevent Genital Wart Infection?
A condom can provide some protection as long as it covers the area affected by warts. It has also been suggested that condoms covering the affected area will help reduce the risks of cervical cancer linked to HPV.
Good hygiene is important. Keep your genitals clean and dry and do not use scented soaps and bath oils, as these may irritate warts. If your partner uses vaginal deodorants she should know that this too can be an irritant.
It is estimated that 99% of cervical cancers are caused by HPV. Some types of HPV can also cause anal and penile cancer, as well as vulvar cancer.
If your partner has abnormal cervical cells detected in a PAP test, it is important that she have regular pelvic examinations and further PAP tests so that any cancer can be treated as quickly as possible. Early detection of cancer increases cure rates.
HPV In Men: Genital Warts Aren’t the Only Issue
It’s easy to get the care you need.
See a Premier Physician Network provider near you.
You’ve likely heard about HPV (human papillomavirus) and how it can cause
cervical cancer in women. But guess what? Men are also susceptible to HPV infection and the ill effects it can unleash.
As the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States, nearly all sexually active people will get HPV at some point in their lives if they don’t get the
HPV vaccine, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
HPV is transmitted through vaginal intercourse, anal and oral sex, and other close skin-to-skin contact. Condoms can reduce the risk of infection, but you can still get HPV from contact with a partner’s skin during sexual activity.
More than 100 types of HPV lurk around every corner, 40 of which can infect genital areas, the rectum/anus, and lining of the mouth and throat.
Although most HPV infections go away on their own without causing problems — thanks to the body’s immune system — certain HPV strains can linger silently for years and lead to
genital warts or cancer in both men and women.
“Most of time, you don’t know you’ve had the infection, and you don’t know you’re giving it to your sexual partner,” explains Melinda Ruff, MD, Centerville Family Medicine.
Higher-risk HPV strains that cause cancer do not produce symptoms, but if cancer develops, the cancer may trigger symptoms. Also, precancerous lesions may cause symptoms like skin ulcers.
HPV Cancers In Men
HPV itself isn’t cancer, but when a high-risk HPV strain causes an infection that persists for many years, it can lead to cell changes that, if untreated, may get worse over time and become cancer.
Besides causing cervical, vaginal, and vulvar cancers in women, HPV infection can lead to penile cancer in men, and anal and oral cancers in both men and women. The Gardasil®9 HPV vaccine prevents infection from the HPV types that cause
over 90 percent of these HPV cancers, as well as genital warts, when given at the recommended ages.
HPV is thought to be responsible for more than 60 percent of penile cancers, according to the CDC. Recent studies show that about 70 percent of oropharyngeal cancers (a type of oral cancer) may also be linked to HPV.
Preteen HPV Vaccine Provides Lifetime Protection
The best time to get the HPV vaccine is before becoming sexually active to ensure protection against harmful HPV strains. The vaccine is not effective against existing HPV infection.
The CDC recommends HPV vaccination for males and females 11 or 12 years old (and as early as age 9) to ensure they’re protected before virus exposure. It’s also recommended up to age 26 for people who didn’t get the vaccine when they were
“We all have to realize that at some point the gross majority of all people will be sexually active with someone,” notes Dr. Ruff. “Preparing for that possible exposure before it happens makes the most sense.”
The HPV vaccine is long lasting and has no known serious side effects. At this time, there is no evidence that protection decreases over time. This
HPV vaccine decision tool may be helpful if you’re evaluating the vaccine for your son.
Adults Can Still Get HPV Vaccine
The HPV vaccine recently was approved for adults 27 to 45. If you’re in this age range, you may want to discuss the vaccine and your unique sexual history with your health care provider. This
HPV vaccine decision tool, targeted to adults, may also be helpful.
“It’s the number of partners that increases your risk rather than age,” Dr. Ruff says, noting that there’s no way to know the HPV types a person has been exposed to. The vaccine can add an extra layer of protection if you’ve
not yet been exposed to the higher-risk HPV strains.
Another reason to get vaccinated? Relationships. The virus can remain dormant for years. This means it can cause relationship problems if a partner is diagnosed with an HPV infection from a long-ago relationship, Dr. Ruff points out.
Ultimately, the best reason to get vaccinated is to limit the spread of HPV.
“If you can’t get HPV, you can’t pass it on,” Dr. Ruff notes.
Talk to your health care provider if you have questions about anything new or unusual. For men, this would include warts or unusual growths, lumps, or sores on your penis, scrotum, anus, mouth, or throat.
It’s easy to get the care you need.
See a Premier Physician Network provider near you.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Cancer Institute; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Division of Cancer Prevention and Control; National Center for Health Statistics, HPV and Men Fact Sheet; Melinda Ruff, DO, Centerville Family Practice, Premier Health
Genital warts – Better Health Channel
About genital warts
Genital warts are one of the most common sexually transmissible infections (STIs). They are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). There are more than 100 strains of HPV, but only certain types affect the genitals and not all cause visible warts. Genital warts can appear around the genitals and anus or, sometimes, inside the vagina, rectum or urethra.
Appearance of genital warts
Genital warts appear as painless growths and may be:
- flat or raised
- single or multiple
- clustered together with a cauliflower-like appearance.
Genital warts can be invisible
In many cases, HPV is a ‘subclinical’ infection. This means that you may be carrying HPV on your skin, even though you do not have any visible warts. Subclinical HPV infection is common in both women and men, but is detected more often in women through a cervical screening test.
Risk factors for genital warts
HPV is spread by direct skin-to-skin contact during vaginal or anal sex. It is also possible, but rare, to transmit HPV to the mouth by oral sex. Infection may occur after direct contact with a visible wart or contact with genital skin where the virus is present.
Warts may appear within a few weeks after sex with a person who has HPV, or they may take months to appear, or they may never appear. This can make it hard to know when or from whom you got the virus.
Treatment for genital warts
It is important to remember that treatment does not get rid of the virus. It only treats the visible warts. For most people, the body’s natural immunity will get rid of the virus over time.
Treatment aims to remove visible warts so that the area looks more cosmetically acceptable. Always consult your doctor about any treatments. Over-the-counter wart treatments are not suitable for genital warts.
Treatment options include:
- cryotherapy – the warts are frozen off with liquid nitrogen. Several treatments may be required
- podophyllotoxin – this lotion can be applied at home. It is most effective on multiple warts that are easily accessible. Pregnant women should not use podophyllotoxin. You need to be careful to protect the unaffected skin
- imiquimod cream – this is applied once a day, three times a week for up to three months. This treatment is not recommended for use in pregnancy
- laser or diathermy treatment – this is used for larger numbers of warts or when other treatment options have not been effective. Laser or diathermy treatment is administered in hospital under general anaesthetic. Remember, this procedure does not get rid of the virus, it helps to get rid of the visible warts.
Genital warts can reappear after treatment
After treatment for warts:
- The virus may persist on the skin, even though the visible wart has gone. This means that warts may reappear.
- If the wart reappears, it does not necessarily mean that you have caught the infection again.
- In most cases, the wart will eventually disappear for good. This is due to the body’s natural immune response clearing the virus from the body.
HPV and cervical cancer
Certain types of HPV can infect the cervix and cause cell changes that may, over many years, increase your risk of cervical cancer if the body is not successful in clearing the virus naturally. The types of HPV that cause visible genital warts do not progress to cervical cancer.
The National Cervical Screening Program recommends that all women aged between 25 and 70 years who have ever been sexually active should have a cervical screening test every five years, even if they’ve had the HPV vaccine.
The cervical screening test is a screening tool used to detect HPV on the cervix that may lead to cervical cancer.
Most HPV found on the cervix will clear naturally without treatment. However, some high-risk types require closer monitoring and may need treatment to remove them. Your doctor will advise you about this if necessary.
Genital warts and HPV vaccines
There are two HPV vaccine brands available in Australia to help prevent cervical cancer: Cervarix® and Gardasil®9. Both vaccines work by preventing infection with two types of HPV — types 16 and 18. These two types have been shown to cause 70% of cervical cancers.
Gardasil®9 provides protection against nine types of HPV. In addition to types 16 and 18, it also protects against HPV types 6 and 11, which cause almost all genital warts, and types 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58, which cause an additional 15% of all cervical cancers. Gardasil®9 replaces the Gardasil® vaccine (which protected against the four types of HPV — types 6, 11, 16 and 18).
Immunisation with Gardasil®9 vaccine involves a course of two injections a minimum of six months apart for children aged 12 to 13 years to under 15 years of age as part of the Year 7 secondary school vaccine program, or three injections over a six month period for people from 15 years of age.
Immunocompromised individuals require three doses of the HPV vaccine to attain adequate protection regardless of their age. The doses should be given with a minimum interval of two months between doses one and two and a minimum of four months between doses two and three.
In Victoria, the HPV vaccine is available free of charge under the National Immunisation Program for all adolescents in Year 7 of secondary school (aged 12 to13 years). The two-dose course of the vaccine is given at school, or can also be given by a local doctor or at a council immunisation session.
The vaccine provides best protection if it’s completed before a person becomes sexually active.
The benefit of the vaccine may be reduced for older men and women who have already had sex, as they may have been already exposed to the HPV types providing protection in the vaccine. Talk to your doctor about whether or not the vaccine may be beneficial for you and whether you are age eligible for the free vaccine or require a prescription to purchase the vaccine for administration.
Preventing the spread of genital warts
You can help reduce the risk of spreading genital warts by using condoms during sex. However, because condoms don’t cover all the genital skin that is exposed during sexual contact, you may still acquire HPV through skin to skin contact.
Remember that transmission of genital warts can occur when a wart is present, but may also occur even if there are no genital symptoms.
Genital warts and sexual relationships
The benefits of condoms are less clear if you are in a regular sexual relationship, especially if you and your partner already have warts. Discuss this issue with your doctor or with a nurse at an STI clinic.
Where to get help
Genital warts in gay and bisexual men
What are genital warts?
- Genital warts are the most common sexually transmitted infection affecting men and women.
- Warts are caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV).
- There are more than 40 types of HPV that can infect the genital area but genital warts are caused by just 2 types – HPV 6 and 11.
- Warts typically appear on the foreskin, penis and anal areas but can also occur on the lip and in the mouth.
- Most of the time the body’s immune system will clear HPV naturally within 2 years.
- If you have genital warts we recommend that you should have a full STI screen including a HIV test.
How common are warts?
- Genital warts are very common.
- They mainly occur in young men aged 20 to 25 years.
- A large number of people carry genital HPV infection without ever developing warts.
How do you catch genital warts?
- HPV is passed on through genital contact during:
- anal sex
- sometimes oral sex or just close genital contact without penetration
- sharing sex toys with someone who has HPV
- HPV infection may lead to the appearance of genital warts after a time interval of 2 – 3 months, but this can sometimes be much longer.
- Common warts that occur on hands and fingers are caused by a different type of HPV and are very unlikely to be passed to the genital area.
What would I notice if I had genital warts?
- Genital warts vary in appearance:
- Single or groups of bumps
- Smooth flat papules or raised and cauliflower like
- Soft or gritty hard lumps
- In men warts are commonly found:
- on the penis – usually on the head or foreskin, sometimes along the side of the penis
- around the anus
- occasionally on the lip or inside the mouth
- Warts sometimes cause itching or discomfort.
How do I get tested for genital warts?
- Genital warts are diagnosed visually during a genital examination.
- There is no specific test for HPV in the genital area.
How are warts treated?
- Warts will often clear up without any treatment.
- Treatments are provided mainly for cosmetic reasons to remove the wart – there is no treatment for the virus itself.
- Treatment will depend on the appearance, location and number of warts you have and may include one or more of the following:
- Clinic treatment
- Cryotherapy (freezing)
- Podophyllotoxin liquid
- Home treatment with a self-applied cream
- Podophyllotoxin (Warticon)
- Imiquimod (Aldara)
- Clinic treatment
- Treatments are usually applied several times a week. It takes on average 4 weeks for the warts to go.
- All treatments from the Wolverton are free and are given to you directly in the clinic.
What about my partner?
- Warts are infectious and you can easily pass the HPV infection onto your partner.
- About two thirds of partners are found to have warts.
- We recommend that your partner attends the clinic for a check up and STI screen.
What problems can untreated warts lead to?
- Warts themselves are relatively harmless. If left untreated they may go away, remain unchanged or increase in size or number.
- Warts will not turn into cancer.
Will warts come back again after treatment?
- Warts may recur in up to one quarter of individuals within the first month but this becomes less likely as time passes.
- Warts are more likely to recur or persist if you:
- your immune system (defence system) is lowered:
- by immunosuppressive drugs
- used after organ transplantation
- to treat cancers
- to treat severe arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease
- certain medical conditions
- by immunosuppressive drugs
- It is unlikely that you will be re-infected again as your body will have developed immunity from your first infection.
Unfortunately, the NHS (including the Wolverton Centre) does NOT offer either HPV vaccine at this time, to men or women. However, these vaccinations are available via private healthcare providers http://www.privatehealth.co.uk/
In the UK two vaccines against HPV are licensed. These vaccines can protect against catching HPV and are most effective if administered before a person becomes sexually active. Neither vaccine is available under a NHS prescription to men.
- In the UK this vaccine is given as part of an immunisation programme to teenage girls to protect them against cervical cancer.
- It works by stimulating immunity against certain types of HPV that are linked to cervical cancer (HPV 16 and 18).
- It will not provide protection against genital warts – as they are caused by a different type of HPV (HPV 6 and 11).
- This vaccine provides protection against cervical cancer and genital warts (HPV 6,11,16 and 18).
- It is not routinely used in the UK and can only be prescribed privately.
- There is no benefit from it if you have already had genital warts.
Genital Wart – an overview
Genital warts are a result of infection with HPV. More than 30 types of HPV can infect the genital tract. Most HPV infections are asymptomatic, unrecognized, or subclinical. The sexual transmission of HPV is well documented, with the highest prevalence in young, sexually active adolescents and adults. HPV types 6 and 11 are the most prevalent types associated with condylomata acuminata and are not considered to have the malignant potential of types 16, 18, 31, 33, and 35. The types with malignant potential are found occasionally in visible genital warts and have been associated with external genital squamous intraepithelial neoplasia. Patients who have visible genital warts can be infected simultaneously with multiple HPV types. In addition, HPV frequently coexists with other sexually transmitted diseases. HPV lesions are difficult to eradicate, with a very high recurrence rate, and there is still no definitive therapy. No evidence indicates that either the presence of genital warts or their treatment is associated with the development of cervical cancer.
Despite current infection with genital warts, patients may still be candidates for the new HPV vaccine. They should be encouraged to seek a specialist’s advice.
Imiquimod is a topically active immune enhancer that stimulates production of interferon and other cytokines. Local inflammatory reactions are common with the use of imiquimod; these reactions are usually mild to moderate.
Podofilox, 0.5% solution or gel, an antimitotic drug that destroys warts, is relatively inexpensive, easy to use, safe, and self-applied by patients.
Most patients experience mild to moderate pain or local irritation after treatment.
Podophyllin resin, which contains several compounds including antimitotic podophyllin lignans, must be allowed to air dry before the treated area comes into contact with clothing, or local irritation caused by spread of the compound to adjacent areas can result.
Both TCA and BCA are caustic agents that destroy warts by chemical coagulation of the proteins. TCA solutions have low viscosity comparable with that of water and can spread rapidly if applied excessively; thus, they also can damage adjacent tissues if not applied sparingly and allowed to dry before the patient sits or stands.
Surgical therapy is a treatment option that has the advantage of usually eliminating warts at a single visit. However, such therapy requires substantial clinical training, additional equipment, and a longer office visit.
The goal of treatment is clearance of visible warts; some evidence exists that treatment reduces infectivity, but there is no evidence that treatment reduces the incidence of genital cancer. Patient-applied therapy such as imiquimod cream or podofilox is increasingly recommended. These treatments, along with surgical excision and cryotherapy, are the most convenient and effective options.
Biopsy, viral typing, acetowhite staining, and other diagnostic measures are not routinely required.
In patients who fail to respond to therapy or who have extremely large lesions, consider evaluating them for an immunosuppressed state, including HIV.
Anogenital (venereal) warts (genital warts)
Anogenital (viral) warts are a viral disease caused by the human papillomavirus and is characterized by the appearance of growths on the skin and mucous membranes of the external genital organs, urethra, vagina, cervix, perianal region.
The causative agent of the disease, the human papillomavirus (HPV), belongs to the papillomavirus genus, which, in turn, belongs to the papavavirus family.Currently, there are more than 190 types of HPV, of which certain types are associated with diseases of the urogenital region, of which varieties of low – HPV 6 and 11, medium – HPV 31, 33, 35 and high oncogenic risk – HPV 16 and 18 are distinguished. , leading a promiscuous sex life, often there is a carriage of several types of viruses at once. A characteristic feature of this pathology is the defeat of patients at a young age. HPV is considered as a possible etiologic factor for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, vulvar and vaginal cancer.
The disease is primarily sexually transmitted.
Factors contributing to the appearance or recurrence of HPV are: decreased immunological reactivity, hypothermia, intercurrent diseases (mainly of viral etiology), hormonal disorders. There is the appearance or recurrence of anogenital warts during pregnancy (due to its characteristic immunosuppression) and spontaneous regression after childbirth.
The pathological process in men is localized on the inner and outer sheets of the foreskin, the head of the penis, at the external opening of the urethra, the skin of the inguinal folds, scrotum, perianal region.In women, anogenital warts often affect the labia majora and minora, the clitoris, the skin of the external opening of the urethra, the inguinal folds, and the perianal region.
At first, single nodules the size of a pinhead, pink or grayish-red in color, appear, but their number increases over time. They grow in the form of papillae, often merge with each other, forming tumor-like growths that resemble cauliflower or raspberries. Anogenital warts are soft in texture.The skin surrounding anogenital warts is usually intact. However, with constant mechanical irritation, the skin becomes bright red, itching and burning sensations appear.
Clinical diagnosis of anogenital warts is usually straightforward. Problems arise when diagnosed in the early stages of the disease, when the anogenital warts are very small and similar to the surface roughness. In this case, the main diagnostic method is the cytological examination of biopsy specimens. The method of polymerase chain reaction can be used for asymptomatic or asymptomatic forms of the disease, as well as for determining the type of virus. In connection with the use of destructive methods in the therapy of anogenital warts, an additional serological test is carried out for syphilis, HIV, hepatitis B and C.
Consultations of other specialists are recommended according to indications in the following cases: – obstetrician-gynecologist in order to diagnose background and dysplastic processes of the cervix, vulva and vagina; – urologist for intraurethral localization of anogenital warts; – a proctologist in the presence of a process in the anal area; – an immunologist in the presence of immunodeficiency states and recurrence of the disease.
The incubation period ranges from 3 weeks to 8 months, more often 2-3 months. The virus can remain in a latent state throughout a person’s life. Even with proper treatment and normal immunity, anogenital warts often recur. This is due to the persistence of the virus in the seemingly healthy skin around the rash. Relapse is not associated with re-infection from a sexual partner, but with reactivation of the virus. In the absence of therapy, anogenital warts may resolve on their own, remain unchanged, or progress.
The indication for the treatment of anogenital warts is the presence of clinical manifestations of the disease. Since a complete cure for HPV infections cannot be achieved, the goal of therapy is to remove anogenital warts, and not to eliminate the pathogen. Treatment methods for anogenital warts are divided into the following main groups:
- Cytotoxic method
- Chemical method
- Immunomodulators for local use.
- Physical Methods – Electrocoagulation
- Surgical excision
Using condoms reduces the risk of infection in sexual partners.
90,000 Genital HPV Infection – Center for Disease Control and Prevention Fact Sheet
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. The vaccine can prevent some of the health effects of HPV.
What is HPV?
HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI).HPV is a different virus than HIV (https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics) and HSV (https://www.cdc.gov/std/herpes/stdfact-herpes.htm) (herpes). 79 million Americans, most in their teens and late 20s, are infected with HPV. There are many different types of HPV. Certain types can cause health problems, including genital warts and cancer. Vaccines are available to prevent these health problems.
How is HPV transmitted?
You can get HPV through sexual contact (vaginal, anal or oral) with someone who is infected with the virus.It is usually contracted during vaginal or anal sex. HPV can also be transmitted when the infected person does not experience any signs or symptoms.
Anyone who is sexually active can get HPV, even if you’ve only had sex with one person. Symptoms can develop many years after you have had sex with an infected person, making it difficult to know exactly when you became infected.
Does HPV cause health problems?
In most cases, HPV clears up on its own and does not cause any health problems.But when HPV doesn’t go away, it can cause health problems like genital warts and cancer.
Genital warts usually appear as a small tubercle or group of tubercles in the genital area. They can be small or large, raised or flat, or shaped like a cauliflower. A healthcare professional can usually diagnose warts by examining the genital area.
Does HPV cause cancer?
HPV can cause cervical and other cancers, including cancers of the vulva, vagina, penis, or anus.It can also cause cancer of the back of the throat, including cancer of the base of the tongue and tonsils (called oropharyngeal cancer). (Https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/hpv/statistics/headneck.htm)
It often takes years, even decades, before a person develops cancer after infection with HPV. The types of HPV that can cause genital warts are not the types of HPV that can cause cancer.
It is not possible to know which people who become infected with HPV will have cancer or other health problems.People with weak immune systems (including those with HIV / AIDS) are less able to fight HPV. They may also be more likely to develop health problems from HPV.
How can I avoid HPV and the health problems it can cause?
There are several things you can do to reduce your chances of contracting HPV:
Get vaccinated. HPV vaccines are safe and effective. When used in the recommended age groups, they may protect against diseases (including cancer) caused by HPV.(See “Who Should Get the Shots?” Below.) The CDC recommends that children 11 to 12 years of age take two doses of HPV vaccine to protect against HPV cancer. For more information on guidelines see https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/hpv/public/index.html
Get screened for cervical cancer. Routine screening for women aged 21 to 65 can prevent cervical cancer.
If you are sexually active :
- correct (https: // www.cdc.gov/condomeffectiveness/male-condom-use.html) use latex condoms every time you have sex. This can reduce the chances of contracting HPV. But HPV can infect areas that are not protected by a condom – thus, condoms cannot fully protect against HPV infection;
- Maintain a mutually monogamous relationship – or have sex only with someone who has sex only with you.
Who Should Get Vaccinated?
All boys and girls aged 11–12 years must be vaccinated.
If vaccinations were not given at a younger age, you can get them later. Vaccines are recommended for adolescents and men under the age of 21, and for girls and women under the age of 26.
Vaccination is also recommended for gay and bisexual men (or anyone who has sex with a man) under 26 years of age. In addition, vaccination is recommended for men and women with weakened immune systems (including people with HIV / AIDS) up to 26 years of age, if they have not been fully vaccinated before.
How do I know if I have HPV?
There is no such test that can be used to find out the “HPV status” in a person. In addition, there is no approved test to detect HPV in the mouth or throat.
HPV tests are available that can be used to screen for cervical cancer. These tests are recommended for screening only in women aged 30 and over. HPV tests are not recommended for screening men, adolescents, and women under the age of 30.
Most people with HPV are unaware that they are infected and they never develop any symptoms or health problems as a result of the infection. Some people find they have HPV when they develop genital warts. Women can find out that they are infected with HPV when they receive an abnormal PAP test result (during a cervical cancer screening). Other people may find it only when they develop more serious problems as a result of HPV infection, such as cancer.
How common are HPV and HPV-related health problems?
HPV (virus). About 79 million Americans are currently infected with HPV. About 14 million people are infected every year. HPV is so common that almost every sexually active person will contract HPV at some point in their life if they do not receive the appropriate vaccine.
HPV-related health problems include genital warts and cervical cancer.
Genital warts. Prior to the advent of the HPV vaccine, approximately 340,000 to 360,000 women and men suffered from genital warts caused by HPV each year. * In addition, approximately one in 100 sexually active adults in the United States had / has genital warts at some point time.
Cervical cancer. Every year, nearly 12,000 women in the United States are diagnosed with cervical cancer, and more than 4,000 women die of cervical cancer – even with screening and treatment.
There are other diseases and cancers (https://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/stdfact-hpv.htm) caused by HPV that affect people living in the United States. Each year, approximately 19,400 women and 12,100 men suffer from HPV-related cancers.
* These figures include only those people who have seen a doctor for treatment of genital warts. The actual number of people suffering from genital warts can be much higher.
I’m pregnant. Will HPV Affect My Pregnancy?
If you are pregnant and have HPV, you may develop genital warts or abnormal cell changes in your cervix.Abnormal cell changes can be detected during routine cervical cancer screening. You should get routine screening for cervical cancer, even if you are pregnant.
Can I Cure HPV and Get Rid of Health Problems Caused by HPV?
There is no cure for the virus itself. However, there are treatments for health problems that can be caused by HPV:
- Genital warts can be treated with your healthcare provider or with prescription drugs.If left untreated, genital warts may disappear, remain the same, or grow in size or number.
- Precancerous conditions of the cervix can be cured. Women who regularly have a PAP smear and follow-up as needed may identify problems 90,075 before cancer 90,076 occurs. Prevention is always better than cure. For more information visit www.cancer.orgExternal.
- Other cancers associated with HPV also respond better when diagnosed and treated early.For more information visit www.cancer.orgExternal.
Anogenital (venereal) warts – a viral pathology of the skin and mucous membranes, triggered by an HPV infection (human papillomavirus).
It is noted in the form of growths of the external genital organs, urethra, vagina, cervix, and the area around the anus that rise above the surface and spread deep into the skin and mucous membranes.
Human papillomaviruses invade the cells of the epithelium of the skin and mucous membranes. More than 200 HPV genotypes are known. Genotypes are distributed as far as possible to trigger the oncological process: high, medium and low risks. High-risk HPV: 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 genotypes that cause the risk of developing an oncological process and precancerous changes in multiple locations: cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, neck, larynx, oral cavity.
Anogenital warts – the most common sign of the existence of the human papillomavirus in the body. More than 85% of clinical cases caused by HPV infection in individuals of any sex are associated with 6 and 11 genotypes.
The time interval between HPV infection and the appearance of anogenital warts is about a year in men and about six months in women. HPV infection is most common in young people who constantly change an impressive number of sexual contacts. 65% of the population is infected with HPV, but only 7% of those infected have signs of the disease.
Registration of cases of infection strongly depends on various ethnic-geographical regions and is reflected by behavioral, socio-economic, medical, hygienic factors. Geographic variability is characteristic not only for the frequency of HPV registration, but also for the peculiarities of the gradation of infection genotypes.
Treatment of anogenital warts is prescribed by a dermatovenerologist.
Make an appointment with a dermatovenerologist
Dermatovenereologist – Zhanna Gennadievna Khrapovitskaya
You can make an appointment by phone (391) 218-35-13 or through your personal account
Genital warts or genital warts.
Genital warts or genital wart is a manifestation of the presence of human papillomavirus infection (HPV) in the body in the form of growths on the genitals of a man or woman.
Genital warts can appear in both men and women.
Healing genital warts is a very long and difficult process.
Center for Contemporary Medicine Only Clinic has the resources to identify and treat genital warts.
Why do genital warts appear on men?
The reason for the formation of genital warts on the male genitals is the ingestion of the human papillomavirus (HPV) or papilovirus infection into the male body.
The main mode of infection with HPV is the sexual route. Moreover, HPV can be transmitted during normal, oral or anal intercourse.
A man can independently detect genital warts, because, as a rule, warts are immediately visible.
Usually condylomas in men appear directly on the head or foreskin. Condylomas are usually several millimeters in size. Condylomas located nearby can merge and form an accumulation of genital warts.Condylomas are constantly growing.
Complications of genital warts.
Treatment of genital warts in men is very important. The treatment of genital warts in men should be dealt with as soon as it is formed.
When genital warts appear on the male genital organs, they are small in size and may not bother a man in any way.
But condyloma is always slow, but growing. Condyloma increases in size and causes concern not only for a man, but also for a partner – a woman.
Condyloma, the provoking factor of the formation of which is the HPV virus, has an oncogenic character and can lead to the formation of malignant tumors, both in men and women.
How to treat warts.
In Online Clinic, genital warts are treated using modern methods:
- laser coagulation;
- electrocoagulation, – removal of genital warts by electric current;
- radio wave treatment;
- drug therapy using creams and solutions;
- Immunostimulating therapy.
Which method of removing genital warts in a man will be applied in each specific case depends on the collected history, analyzes and individual characteristics of the man’s health status.
Removal of genital warts at One Clinics in Nizhny Novgorod is safe, professional and effective.
It is imperative to remove genital warts.
Where to go? Of course, at Only Clinics!
Call! The phones of the Online Clinics work around the clock! 90 256 277 66 88 or 8800 250 68 63
MAUZ “City Clinical Polyclinic No. 8”
STIs are sexually transmitted infections, including sexually transmitted diseases, named after the goddess of love Venus, known to people since ancient times.Syphilis and gonorrhea are among the venereal diseases common in our territory. Everything else is sexually transmitted infections. Most often they are registered in persons of a sexually active age, that is, young people. The largest number of cases is between the ages of 18 and 29.
Human papillomavirus or cytomegalovirus infections are related to viral diseases, including sexually transmitted diseases. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a widespread virus that causes a variety of diseases in both men and women.About 100 different types of human papillomavirus are now known. About 30 types cause damage to the female genital organs. The most dangerous are the types of papillomavirus with a high oncological risk, that is, those with the greatest ability to cause genital cancer, in particular cervical cancer. The most serious manifestations of human papillomavirus infection in women are genital warts, dysplasia (precancer), and cervical cancer. They are all caused by different types of HPV.
According to WHO, in the world from 50 to 80 percent of the population are infected with the human papillomavirus, but only 1 – 2 percent have clinical manifestations.In Russia, the incidence rate of HPV was, for example, in 2011, 29.4 cases per 100 thousand population. In the age category of persons from 18 to 29 years old in the structure of sexually transmitted infections, the highest rates of HPV are recorded – 55 – 65 percent.
Venereal warts are manifested by multiple or single formations in the form of nodules or papillary outgrowths resembling a cockscomb, flesh or red-pink in color on the skin and mucous membranes of the external genital organs, around the anus.In men, it may be around the external opening of the urethra. There are lesions in the form of spots of grayish-white or pinkish-red color. At the same time, itching and discomfort in the genital area, soreness during sexual intercourse, burning sensation and difficulty urinating appear. The main route of infection in this case is sexual, including oral-genital contacts and anal sex.
Although the manifestations of the disease are visible “by eye”, laboratory diagnosis is very important.PCR – the method allows not only to identify HPV, but also to establish its type.
Treatment is reduced to the destruction of warty growths. Removing them not only improves the patient’s quality of life, but also reduces the likelihood of infection of the sexual partner and reduces the risk of developing cervical cancer in women. But the virus still remains in the body, and during the period of weakening of the immune system, clinical manifestations may appear again.
Another type of human papillomavirus found elsewhere (armpits, skin of the hands, etc.)are transmitted through the household through contact with the skin and mucous membranes of an infected person. Skin growths in the form of papillae usually appear in places where the skin rub against clothing: in the armpits, under the mammary glands in women, in the groin, and so on. Plantar warts, common flat warts, are also caused by the papilloma virus, only by other types.
It is recommended to remove them, as injury and infection are possible.
As for cytomegalovirus infection (CMVI), this virus can be transmitted both sexually and through saliva, urine, through breast milk, that is, through any biological material.It can also be obtained through a kiss, a common dish, or even a common washcloth and towel. According to statistics, by the first year of life, every fifth person is infected with it, by the age of 35, 40 percent of the population are infected, and by the end of life, almost 100 percent of people have this virus. Once in human cells, cytomegalovirus remains in them forever. In most cases, he does not manifest himself in any way, but with a decrease in immunity, it causes a disease. It can manifest itself in any part of the body, therefore, there is no clear symptomatology of cytomegalovirus infection.Most of the infected are simply virus carriers, the danger is the active form of the virus. For the virus to activate, sometimes hypovitaminosis is enough, but more often something extraordinary must happen to the immune system. The clinic of cytomegalovirus infection is similar to the clinic of respiratory diseases, the same cold, but only protracted. However, the danger is that the virus can affect the internal organs of a person. Since one of the ways of transmission of cytomegalovirus is the transplacental route, there is a danger of transmitting it to the child, especially during the acute period of the disease in a pregnant woman, that is, if she became infected during pregnancy.Infection of the fetus in such a situation occurs in 50 percent of cases. This threatens the child with developmental abnormalities, congenital cytomegaly. Such newborns are characterized by jaundice, enlarged liver, spleen, decreased hemoglobin – anemia, and other changes in the blood test. Severe lesions of the central nervous system are sometimes noted. Therefore, women need to register for pregnancy as early as possible, so that if an infection is suddenly detected, there is time for treatment.
Laboratory confirmation is required to detect cytomegalovirus.
Treatment is primarily aimed at helping the body to strengthen its defenses. This is also prevention, because it is in people with a weakened immune response that CMV “wakes up” and begins its destructive effect. That is, the presence or absence of protective forces affects the relationship of a person with viruses and the general state of his health. In the treatment, drugs are used that allow you to control the amount of viruses in the body. But I want to warn patients against self-diagnosis and self-treatment.You can get into a very unpleasant situation: all diseases have a different incubation (latent) period, and by starting to take certain medications on their own, you can “close” the true clinical picture of the disease without curing it. This primarily applies to sexually transmitted diseases. Therefore, entrust your health to professionals – specialists, not advisers on the Internet.
If a person is “ashamed” to seek medical help from government agencies, then in each clinic of the dispensary there is an office for anonymous reception of patients.
chief dermatovenerologist of the city.
90,000 Is it dangerous not to treat papillomas?
A skin growth on the pedicle of a cylindrical shape, sometimes almost imperceptible, is called papilloma. It often appears out of nowhere, does not appear for a long time. But with any “jump” of immunity or in the heat, he unexpectedly appears to your gaze first as a loner: one papilloma – “mother” can “jump out” under the armpit or on the eyelid (her favorite places, for example, on the bends of the elbows and in the popliteal fossa), and then “let in” and “children”, i.e.That is, literally “sprinkle” all sorts of places on our body. For some, this phenomenon will become only a temporary disorder – well, they say, it interferes, clings to clothes, and if it “wobbles” on the face, it’s ugly, a cosmetic defect, but you may not even notice! But is this small outgrowth so harmless, especially when it forms a whole colony around itself? Should I delete it, or leave it and forget it?
Human papillomavirus (HPV) – a sexually transmitted disease?
in more detail stands for “a virus that causes a benign tumor of epithelial origin in the form of a papilla” – papilloma (papilloma: lat.papilla – nipple and Greek. -oma – tumor). It belongs to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The concept today has become, unfortunately, much broader, and if earlier we heard about several “terrible”, as it seemed to us, classical diseases of Venus, which are actually treated simply and quickly detected (syphilis, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, chancre), then the list of “new” STDs – insidious, difficult to diagnose, and, at times, difficult to treat and completely incurable (HIV) – is constantly growing.
So, we refer to the “new” STDs: chlamydia, mycoplasmosis, ureaplasmosis, gardnerellosis, genital herpes, candidiasis, as well as human papillomavirus. If the growths from the papillomavirus formed in the genital or perianal organs, then they are called “pointed candidiasis”, but in fact they are one and the same virus, only its different strains (types).
Are papillomas and warts the same thing?
Genital warts in the perineal region are sometimes single, and sometimes look like growths that resemble cauliflower.Sometimes these formations cause itching, irritation when touched, and sometimes bleed. Patients often come to the doctors of “CM-Clinic”, who, having seen enough advertisements, have been treated for years with “one pill” for alleged “exacerbations” of candidiasis (thrush). During the examination, it turns out that the smear in such patients is in order, and the often repeated itching is actually given by warts.
Papillomatosis in the throat
There is also papillomatosis of the respiratory tract, when the tissue lining the nasopharynx begins to grow from the nose to the lungs, also often affecting the larynx.This is also one of the types of disease caused by the papilloma virus, the formations in this case are considered benign. Doctors of the “CM-Clinic” well diagnose this type of HPV and successfully treat it, while the disease is not always recognized by local or ENT doctors, who, at best, throw up their hands and prescribe rinsing.
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Who is at risk of getting the papilloma virus?
Papillomas and condylomas can appear, disappear and reappear, because they are manifestations of a viral infection, and their presence depends on the state of the body’s defenses at the moment, that is, immunity. The infection is most likely among adherents of smoking and alcohol, among those who are not picky about sex.
Women who use oral contraceptives for a long time
also in the factor of viral contagion.The carrier of the virus can be both old and young. It is enough for your body to experience internal stress of various origins: you have had flu or ARVI, your gastrointestinal problems have worsened, your body has not coped with long-term medication – and here you have a weakened immune system, and with it the papillomavirus.
It is enough to be in close contact or live next to a person carrying the virus, swim in a “dirty” pool or shower in a public bath, and just walk along the beach – like a virus, if your immunity fails, it will invade your life.The papillomavirus “loves” heat and high humidity when your skin is not protected by clothing. He immediately finds refuge on your hot skin.
Pregnancy with papillomavirus
Infection from mother to fetus during childbirth occurs in almost 98% of cases. A child who passes through the birth canal, literally strewn with warts, the virus enters the mouth and eyes, so all women planning a pregnancy should be checked in advance and, if necessary, treated for HPV and all types of STDs.Only at the end of treatment can conception be planned.
If the disease was in a latent form and was first discovered during pregnancy, and this happens often (immunity weakens during pregnancy), then an urgent need to consult a doctor: treatment of papilloma during pregnancy is possible.
We treat papilloma
Scientists have discovered more than 100 varieties of the HPV virus, but some types of genital candidiasis can lead to cervical cancer, especially HPV subtypes (HPV) 16, 18, 31.And the reason for this is that often, due to an asymptomatic course, a person does not go anywhere for a long time! Dispensary examinations have disappeared from our lives, and therefore the diagnosis is quite late.
To avoid this, it is necessary to visit an obstetrician-gynecologist twice a year, once a year take a smear for cytology (it is also called a Papanicolaou test or “smear for atypia”) to detect precancerous changes in the cervix. It is also necessary to undergo a blood test to determine the DNA of the virus by PCR.Own laboratories “CM-Clinic” uses high-quality reagents for more accurate determination of test results. After going through them, it will become clear what types of HPV are present or absent in your body, whether it is worth treating.
- Non-oncogenic papillomaviruses – HPV 1, 2, 3, 5.
- Oncogenic papillomaviruses of low oncogenic risk – HPV 6, 11, 42, 43, 44, 54, 61, 70, 72, 81.
- Oncogenic papillomaviruses of medium oncogenic risk – HPV 26, 53, 66.
- Oncogenic papillomaviruses of high oncogenic risk – HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 68.
Do not forget that the appearance of papillomas indicates a problem in your body: these small unpleasant skin protrusions, which are easy to get rid of, signal that you have not seen a doctor for a long time, and may have started gynecological diseases, kidney diseases, gastritis or colitis.
In no case should you tear off, tie with threads, comb papillomas – this provokes the virus to aggressively “capture” new territories – it will simply move to an unaffected organ.
Removal without traces and complications is carried out in the “CM-Clinic” by painless methods that do not leave marks and scars. Also, in parallel, an immunity-boosting treatment is carried out.
HPV tests price – get tested for human papillomavirus in St. Petersburg
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and skin-to-skin contact.There is no exact statistics on how many people in the world are infected with HPV, because in most of the infected, the virus does not manifest itself in any way. Biologists believe that about 80% of the world’s population is HPV carriers.
The danger of the virus is that some of its types can lead to cancer. 98% of cervical cancers (according to US scientists – 100%) are associated with HPV. The virus provokes cancer of the vagina, vulva, anal canal, male genital organs, throat, mouth. Moreover, a deadly disease can develop years, decades after infection, if conditions are favorable for this.
In total, the HPV group includes more than 170 viruses and strains, of which about 40 are sexually transmitted, and 13 are capable of causing cancer.
Infection with certain types of HPV – in the presence of high immunity – passes imperceptibly, without a trace for the body. Other strains cause skin cells to rapidly divide, resulting in warts, papillomas, condylomas (“venereal warts”). The third types, integrating into human DNA, act as oncogenes and promote malignant cell transformation and tumor growth.
This is important! HPV is not a sufficient factor for the development of cancer. But he is one of the most important oncoferts, a “provocateur” of cell malignancy.
In order for the degeneration of healthy tissue into cancerous tissue to begin, a combination of several conditions is necessary, including malfunctioning of the immune system. It is immunity that is the main protector, including from an increase in the HPV viral load.
It is very important to periodically get tested for HPV to prevent the danger caused by the virus.So, you can cure a precancerous condition of the cervix. Other HPV-related cancers respond better to treatment if it starts early in the disease and is monitored by periodic viral load lower / higher viral load tests.
HPV: modes of infection, symptoms, oncogenic types of virus
The main methods of infection:
vaginal, oral, anal sex with a person infected with HPV;
in case of skin-to-skin contact with a person infected with papillomavirus, or contact with surfaces that an infected person touched – household infection is possible if there are cuts, abrasions, or other injuries on the skin;
during childbirth – from mother to child.
Recent studies by American and European scientists have shown that there is a high probability of contracting HPV in medical institutions – through blood transfusions, using medical equipment, inhaling viral particles, for example, during laser ablation or electrocoagulation of genital warts.
The difficulty of dealing with asexual infections is that the virus is extremely resistant to most disinfectants. HPV is the first virus that turned out to be insensitive to inactivation (processing) with glutaraldehyde (a means for sterilizing surgical instruments that require absolute cleanliness).Doctors and technologists were faced with the problem of disinfecting devices that cannot be autoclaved and exposed to aggressive chemical compounds.
Symptoms and types of human papillomavirus
The symptoms of infection differ depending on the type of HPV. Some types, for example – HPV5, persist in the human body without clinical symptoms and can only be detected by special studies. HPV strains 1, 2, 4, 7, 22, 63 cause the formation of warts on the hands, feet, and soles.
Types 6, 11, 42, 44 can cause the development of genital warts, laryngeal papillomatosis; 6, 16, 18, 31 and others – anal dysplasia; 60 – viral cysts.
Strains 26, 53, 66 can lead to cancer of the genital organs. Strains with high cancer risk – 33, 35, 39, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59. Types 16, 18, 31, 45 have the highest risk of cell transformation into malignant ones. .
Tests for HPV in women and men
Every adult needs to undergo tests for HPV independently, without an appointment, i.e.Because the probability that you are infected is 8 out of 10.
A referral for analysis is usually issued by a dermatologist, urologist, gynecologist in the presence of characteristic external signs or diseases that can be caused by a virus.
HPV tests are taken when planning pregnancy, when identifying the causes and treatment of infertility, pathologies of pregnancy and gestation. In this case, both partners are tested.
Risk factors and the reason for passing the test in women are also:
early sexual activity;
relationships with different, sometimes several sexual partners at once;
general chronic, gynecological diseases, pathologies;
Risk factors and reason for passing the test in men are also:
multiple sex contacts;
having sex with women infected with HPV;
narrowing of the foreskin;
HPV diagnostic methods
Colposcopy – examination with a colposcope of the vaginal part of the cervix, the entrance and the walls of the vagina. It is a simple, inexpensive, but highly informative method for diagnosing cervical diseases.
An extended colposcopy with the use of several tests – with 3% acetic acid, Lugol’s iodine solution is of clinical importance.Tests reveal various types of epithelium, allow to assess the size and quality of pathological formations (if any), vascular pattern, quality of the cervical glands.
During colposcopy, targeted biopsy is performed from the most atypically altered areas.
The task of cytological examination of cervical smears (Papanicolaou test, pap test) is to identify cells specific for HPV infection – coilocytes and dyskeratocytes.
Confirmation of papillomavirus infection is the detection of coylocytes, transepithelial lymphocytic infiltration, basal cell hyperplasia in a biopsy specimen (biomaterial taken for research).
Pap test is required for:
women after 30 years;
women who have been previously diagnosed with HPV;
women who, during colposcopy, found zones with altered epithelium.
According to the results of the pap test, the class of danger to a woman’s health is determined: 1–2 class – without suspicion of cancer, 3 class – suspicion of oncology, 4–5 class – the presence of cancer cells in small or large numbers.
The disadvantages of cytological research include the complexity of execution, high qualification requirements for a cytologist. Therefore, it is necessary to undergo research in diagnostic centers and laboratories, whose staff constantly confirms their professionalism.
The histological method for detecting HPV could be considered the gold standard for diagnosing the virus, however, its high cost, the impossibility of frequent testing and not always accurate targeted biopsy sampling from the cervix interfere with it. To carry out histological diagnostics, specialists of very high qualifications are also required.
Therefore, the histological examination of the biopsy is often complementary to the pap analysis.It allows you to assess the state of cells, the degree of damage, to determine what the neoplasm is – a tumor or warts.
PCR diagnostics of papillomavirus
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) refers to high-resolution technologies for the detection of nucleic acids. Modern PCR test systems are highly sensitive, they are used not only to detect HPV, but also the viral load on the body (a quantitative indicator of infection) of the main clinically significant genotypes (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59), which are responsible for almost 94% of cases of severe cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer.PCR test systems are also used to detect HPV 6 and 11 strains.
Such capabilities of the test system allow predicting the course of HPV infection, assessing the effectiveness of therapy. It was found that human papillomavirus infection has a dose-dependent effect: the higher the concentration of the virus DNA in the test material, the higher the risk of developing neoplasia and cancer.
The test results indicate the concentration of HPV:
Lg <3 - the papillomavirus was detected in a clinically insignificant amount;
Lg 3-5 – papillomavirus detected in clinically significant quantities;
Lg> 5 – papillomavirus was detected in high concentration, the viral load on the body is high.
Types of test material, sampling rules:
for dad test – cervical smear;
for a cytological study – a biopsy taken aimingly from atypically altered areas of the mucous membrane.
for PCR test – scraping of cells of the mucous membranes of the genital tract.
A smear in women is taken from the cervical canal, in men – from the urethra.For a smear, use a soft brush or cotton swab. They are carefully inserted into the canal, then carefully removed by rotating. On the surface of the brush / tampon, epithelial cells remain on the surface, which are needed for research
How to prepare for an HPV test
Biomaterial sampling is not carried out during menstruation, 5 days before its start and within 5 days after the end. You cannot undergo a study if there are inflammatory processes.
2 days before the sampling of the biomaterial, women and men need to refrain from sexual intercourse.Women should not use vaginal creams, medications, suppositories, douching, tampons within 48 hours; instead of a bath, you need to take a shower. A smear is taken before any gynecological manipulations or 2 days after them.
If the biomaterial is taken from the urethra, then at least 90 minutes should pass from the last urination to the sampling of the biomaterial.
When taking a biopsy for histological examination, the same rules are followed as when preparing for a smear collection.After a biopsy for 2-3 weeks, you must not:
experience significant physical activity,
overheat (bath, sauna, hot weather),
swim in an open pond or pool,
take medications that thin the blood;
use vaginal products.
If bleeding occurs, use only pads (not tampons!)
The accuracy of the result can be influenced by antibiotics, probiotics, local antiseptics that you took / used even 2 months ago. Before collecting the material, you need to tell the doctor about all the medicines you have used or are using.
Cost of research for the presence of human papillomavirus infection in AO “ SZDTSM”
The cost of a study for HPV infection depends on the type of study, coverage of virus strains, type determination / without determination, calculation of viral load.
Prices for the types of research in the medical departments of SZDTSM JSC represent various combinations in terms of coverage, details, and predictive value.
The doctor – gynecologist, dermatologist, venereologist will tell you which method of research to choose. If you take tests on your own initiative, choose a study for the presence of oncogenic HPV strains.
Where to get tested for HPV
You can take HPV tests in the medical departments of SZDTSM JSC located in St. Petersburg, Leningrad Region, Veliky Novgorod, Staraya Russa and other cities.
To find the nearest point to you, use the interactive map or the list of medical institutions of SZDTSM JSC.