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Vomit sign: Healthy Eating Tips To Avoid Constipation


Healthy Eating Tips To Avoid Constipation

No one likes to think — let alone talk — about constipation, but most everyone has it at one time or another. More than 40 million people in the U.S. have it pretty often. So if you’re dealing with tummy troubles, you’re not alone. Most of the time it doesn’t last long, and simple changes can help your digestive system run smoothly again.

Common Causes of Constipation

To understand how to prevent constipation, it helps to know what causes it. As food passes through your colon, your body absorbs the water from it, and what’s left forms into stool. Your muscles move it through the colon to the rectum, where you pass it. When this movement slows down, your colon draws too much water. Stools get dry and hard to pass, causing constipation.

The problem often happens because of a low-fiber or high-fat diet, lack of exercise, and not drinking enough fluids. Certain medications, not going when you feel the urge, laxative abuse, and pregnancy can also lead to constipation.

Fiber Helps Relieve Constipation

If your bowel habits get sluggish, you don’t have to rush out to buy a laxative. Most people don’t need them for mild constipation. Instead, look at your diet. Are you getting enough fiber?

Fiber is the part of plant foods that the body can’t break down. When you eat foods that have a lot of it, the extra bulk helps keep stools soft and speeds digestion.

All plant foods, including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and beans, have fiber. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics recommends 25 grams per day for women and up to 38 grams for men. After age 50, we need less fiber — about 21 grams for women and 30 grams for men. Unfortunately, most of us only get about 15 grams per day, which may help explain why so many people get constipated.

Examples of high-fiber foods include:

  • 1/2 cup navy beans: 9.5 grams
  • 1 small pear: 4.4 grams
  • 1/4 cup dates: 3.6 grams
  • 1 medium apple: 3.3 grams
  • 1 medium sweet potato: 4. 8 grams

Diet Tips for Digestive Health

Simple changes can improve your diet and help relieve constipation:

  • Add veggies. You don’t have to count grams of fiber to get the amount you need. Instead, aim to eat 2 cups of fruit and 2 1/2 cups of vegetables every day. Make sandwiches with roasted veggies, add a salad instead of fries to your meal, buy pre-cut vegetables to snack on with low-fat dip, keep the fruit bowl full for a handy and healthy snack, and add chopped, dried fruit to oatmeal and cereal.
  • Go for grains. Replace white bread, white rice, and regular pasta with whole-grain bread, whole wheat pasta, and brown rice. Eat more whole oats, multigrain cereals, and whole wheat crackers — but be sure to choose low-fat and low-sugar options. Snack on air-popped popcorn instead of chips. When you buy cereal, choose brands that have at least 5 grams of fiber per serving.
  • Bulk up on beans. Replace meat with a bean or legume dish at least once or twice a week. Add cooked beans to salads, and try bean soups and stews as main courses.
  • Add fiber gradually. Make changes slowly over the course of a week or so — if you up fiber too quickly, you could end up feeling bloated and gassy. Be patient — it may take time for your body to adjust.
  • Consider a fiber supplement. If you have trouble getting enough fiber in your diet, a supplement might help. Also called bulk-forming laxatives, they’re generally safe. Just be sure to talk with your doctor before you use them as they can make some medications not work as well.
  • Stay hydrated. If you add more fiber to your diet either with food or supplements, be sure to drink more fluids, too. Choose low or no-calorie beverages — sugary soda and fruit drinks will add extra calories you don’t need.

Ease Constipation With Exercise

Exercise not only keeps you fit, it may help you stay regular. It can help food move more quickly through your colon. It’s not always easy to find time to be active, but try these tips:

  • Start exercising about 20 minutes, 3 days a week, and build up to at least 30 minutes on five or more days of the week. Always check with your doctor before you start any type of fitness plan.
  • Short on time? Break up activity throughout the day — three 10-minute walks count as much as one 30-minute workout.

Constipation: When to Call Your Doctor

Most of the time, healthy changes to your diet and exercise habits will smooth out any digestive woes. But if you’ve tried these tips for 3 weeks and haven’t noticed a change, talk with your doctor. They may suggest that you take a laxative for a few days to help retrain your system. You should also call your doctor right away if you notice blood in your stool, have belly pain, or lose weight without trying.

Stomach (Peptic) Ulcers: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

You have a peptic ulcer if you get open sores in the lining of your stomach or the upper part of the small intestine. That happens when your stomach acids etch away your digestive tract’s protective layer of mucus. You may have no symptoms, or you may feel discomfort or burning pain. Peptic ulcers can lead to internal bleeding, which sometimes can mean you’ll need blood transfusions in the hospital.

You can have two types of peptic ulcer disease:

Gastric ulcer. You get this on your stomach lining.

Duodenal ulcer. This appears at the top end of the small intestine, an organ that digests and absorbs much of the food you eat.

You can have ulcers at any age, but your chances go up as you get older.


Ulcers form when digestive juices damage the walls of the stomach or small intestine. If the mucus layer gets too thin or your stomach makes too much acid, your gut will feel it. The two major causes are:

Bacteria. It’s called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), and as many as half of us carry it. Most people infected with H. pylori do not get ulcers. But in others, it can raise the amount of acid, break down the protective mucus layer, and irritate the digestive tract. Experts aren’t sure how H. pylori infection spreads. They think it may pass from person to person through close contact, like kissing. You may also get it from unclean food and water.

Certain pain relievers. If you’ve been taking aspirin often and for a long time, you’re more likely to get a peptic ulcer. The same is true for other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). They include ibuprofen and naproxen. NSAIDs block your body from making a chemical that helps protect the inner walls of your stomach and small intestine from stomach acid. Other types of pain meds, such as acetaminophen, won’t lead to peptic ulcers.

Smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol also can make you more likely to get ulcers.  Stress and eating a lot of spicy food don’t cause ulcers, as experts once thought. But they can make ulcers worse and harder to treat.


You’ll most likely feel a burning pain or discomfort between your belly button and breastbone. You might especially notice it on an empty stomach — such as between meals or at night. The pain may stop for a little while if you eat or take an antacid, but then return. The pain can last for a few minutes or a few hours, and may come and go for many days or weeks.

Other symptoms may include:

Small ulcers may not cause any symptoms. But if you notice any of these signs, talk to your doctor.


Your doctor will ask about your symptoms, whether you take NSAIDs and other drugs, and medical history. They’ll also check you for bloating in the belly and pain. That may be enough to make a diagnosis.

The only way your doctor can tell for sure if you have an ulcer is to look. They may use a series of X-rays or a test called an endoscopy. This test allows them to pass a thin, bendy tube down your throat and into your stomach and small intestine. The tube has a camera at the end so they can check the lining for ulcers. They may also take a small piece of the lining to test for H. pylori. Blood, breath, and stool sample tests also can screen for the bacteria.


Some peptic ulcers heal on their own. But if you don’t treat them, the ulcers tend to come back.

They can erode the blood vessel wall in your stomach or small intestine. The ulcers also can eat a hole through the lining and get infected. Or they can cause swelling, which may block food from moving from your stomach into your small intestine.

If H. pylori is the culprit, your doctor may prescribe a mix of antibiotics to kill it. If aspirin and other NSAIDs are behind the ulcer, you may need to cut down on them, stop taking them altogether, or switch to another pain reliever.

Your doctor may also give you antacids to fight stomach acid, or prescribe medicine to lessen the acid your body makes. Prescription drugs called cytoprotective agents can help protect the lining of the stomach or small intestine so the ulcer can heal.

Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatments, & Recovery

What Is a Concussion?

The most common and least serious type of traumatic brain injury is called a concussion. The word comes from the Latin concutere, which means “to shake violently.” A concussion is most often caused by a sudden direct blow or bump to the head.

According to the CDC, between 2001 and 2009, an estimated 173,285 people under age 19 were treated in hospital emergency rooms for concussions related to sports and recreation activities. Other causes include car and bicycle accidents, work-related injuries, falls, and fighting.

Concussion Causes and Risk Factors

The brain is made of soft tissue. It’s cushioned by spinal fluid and encased in the protective shell of the skull. When you have a blow or bump to your head, the impact can jolt your brain. Sometimes, it literally causes it to move around in your head. Traumatic brain injuries can cause bruising, damage to the blood vessels, and injury to the nerves.

The result is your brain doesn’t function as it should. If you’ve had a concussion, vision may be disturbed, you may lose equilibrium, or you may fall unconscious. In short, the brain is confused.

Some things increase your risk for a concussion, including:

  • Falls, particularly in children and older adults
  • Playing a contact sport
  • Lack of proper safety gear or supervision for contact sports 
  • Car, motorcycle, bicycle, and other accidents that cause a blow to the head
  • Being hit, struck with an object, or other physical abuse
  • Military service
  • An earlier concussion

Concussion Symptoms

Concussions can be tricky to diagnose. Though you may have a visible cut or bruise on your head, you can’t see a concussion. Signs may not appear for days or weeks after the injury. Some symptoms last for just seconds; others may linger.

Concussions are fairly common. Some estimates say a mild brain trauma is sustained every 21 seconds in the U.S. But it’s important to recognize the signs of a concussion so you can take the proper steps to treat the injury.

There are some common physical, mental, and emotional symptoms a person may display following a concussion. Signs of traumatic brain injury include:

  • Confusion or feeling dazed
  • Clumsiness
  • Slurred speech
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Headache
  • Balance problems or dizziness
  • Blurred vision
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Sensitivity to noise
  • Sluggishness
  • Ringing in ears
  • Irritability or other behavior or personality changes
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Loss of memory
  • Fatigue or sleepiness
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Forgetfulness such as repeating yourself   
  • Slowed response to questions
  • Problems with sleep
  • Depression
  • Problems with taste or smell

Concussions in Children

Because their heads are disproportionately large compared to the rest of their body, concussions often occur in young children. As kids enter adolescence, they experience rapid height and weight gain. Both are factors that make them more prone to accidents than adults.

If a child has a concussion, an adult should monitor them for the first 24 hours. Don’t give medications, including aspirin, which may cause bleeding, to a child without talking to a doctor first.

It’s important to watch for behavioral changes. Young children, especially, may not be able to fully communicate what they’re feeling, so it is critical to watch them closely. Symptoms of concussions in children include: 

  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Problems with balance
  • Upset stomach or vomiting
  • Fatigue
  • Sensitivity to light or noise
  • Mental fogginess or slowed thinking
  • Problems with memory, concentration, or focus
  • Feeling more irritable, sad, nervous, or emotional than usual
  • Problems with sleep

Types of Concussions

Doctors rank, or grade, the severity of concussions based on things like loss of consciousness, amnesia, and loss of equilibrium. There are three grades:

  • Grade 1: Mild, with symptoms that last less than 15 minutes and involve no loss of consciousness
  • Grade 2: Moderate, with symptoms that last longer than 15 minutes and involve no loss of consciousness
  • Grade 3: Severe, in which the person loses consciousness, sometimes for just a few seconds

Concussion Diagnosis

Most people with concussions fully recover with appropriate treatment. But because a concussion can be serious, safeguarding yourself is important. Here are a few steps to take:

Seek medical attention. A health care professional can decide how serious the concussion is and whether you require treatment.

If you have a grade 1 or grade 2 concussion, wait until symptoms are gone before returning to normal activities. That could take several minutes, hours, days, or even a week.

If a person has lost consciousness, that’s a grade 3 concussion that needs a doctor’s immediate evaluation and care. They’ll ask how the head injury happened and discuss the symptoms. The doctor may also ask you simple questions such as “Where do you live?,” “What is your name?,” or “Who is the president?” The doctor asks these questions to evaluate memory and concentration skills.

The doctor may test coordination and reflexes, which are both functions of the central nervous system. The doctor may also order a CT scan or an MRI to rule out bleeding or other serious brain injury.

Concussion Treatment and Home Remedies

If you don’t need hospitalization, the doctor will give you instructions to follow.  Experts recommend follow-up medical attention within 24 to 72 hours if symptoms worsen. To recover at home, you should:

  • Take a break. If your concussion was sustained during athletic activity, stop play and sit it out. Your brain needs time to properly heal, so rest is key. Definitely do not resume play the same day. Athletes and children should be closely monitored by coaches upon resuming play. If you resume play too soon, you risk a greater chance of having a second concussion, which can compound the damage. The American Academy of Neurology has issued guidelines about resuming activities after a concussion.
  • Guard against repeat concussions. Repeat concussions cause cumulative effects on the brain. Successive concussions can have devastating consequences, including brain swelling, permanent brain damage, long-term disabilities, or even death. Don’t return to normal activities if you still have symptoms. Get a doctor’s clearance so you can return to work or play with confidence.
  • Treat pain with aspirin-free medications. Your doctor will prescribe a medication to relieve pain or recommend an over-the-counter option.

Concussion Prevention

A concussion is unexpected, so it is tough to prevent. But there are several commonsense precautions you can take to lessen the possibility of traumatic brain injury.

  • Wear protective equipment. Participation in high-contact, high-risk sports such as football, hockey, boxing, and rugby can increase the likelihood of a concussion. Skateboarding, snowboarding, horseback riding, and rollerblading are also a threat to your brain’s health. Wearing headgear, padding, and mouth and eye guards can help safeguard against traumatic head injuries. Wearing a bike helmet can lower the risk of traumatic head injury by 85%. There is also a new C-shaped collar-like device called Q-Collar which can be worn by athletes. It applies compressive force to the neck and increases blood volume to help reduce movement of the brain, which may occur because of hits to the head. Make sure that any equipment fits you correctly and is well-maintained.
  • Drive and ride smart. Always wear a seatbelt, obey posted speed limits, and don’t use drugs or alcohol, because they can impair reaction time.
  • Don’t fight. Concussions are often sustained during an assault, and more men than women report traumatic head injuries.
  • Reduce trip and fall hazards in your home. Clear clutter from floors and hallways and make sure your home is well-lighted.
  • Exercise regularly. It can give you stronger leg muscles and better balance, which can help stave off falls.
  • Use home safety measures to protect your children. Install window guards and block stairways.

Throwing up bile: Causes, treatment, and prevention

Throwing up bile, a yellow or greenish liquid, can happen for many reasons. Some of the causes of a person throwing up bile may be serious and require urgent medical attention.

Someone who throws up bile should be aware of when to seek medical care and when vomiting bile can be relieved with home remedies.

Throwing up bile may be a sign of a serious problem.

Bile is the greenish-yellow liquid made by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It aids food digestion by mainly breaking down fats and turning them into fatty acids.

Bile is made of the following:

Vomiting bile can occur whenever a person throws up, and their stomach is empty. This can happen when someone has stomach flu or food poisoning and has already thrown up all the food in their stomach. It can also happen if a person has not eaten for many hours.

There is a range of other reasons why a person may throw up bile, including:

While many cases of vomiting bile have a clear cause, vomiting due to an intestinal blockage or other condition may be more difficult to determine.

Sometimes, determining the cause of throwing up bile is simple. For example, if a person has been drinking heavily and threw up bile afterward, the cause is likely to be excessive alcohol consumption.

However, looking at other symptoms can help determine the cause of throwing up bile in cases where the reason is less obvious.

Bile reflux

A doctor should be consulted to diagnose the cause of vomiting bile.

Bile reflux is not the same as acid reflux, though their symptoms are similar. Bile reflux occurs when bile backs up into a person’s stomach and esophagus.

Bile reflux often occurs after surgery, such as a gastric bypass or gallbladder removal, or because of peptic ulcers.

If a person vomits bile due to bile reflux, several other symptoms will likely occur, including:

  • severe pain in the upper abdomen
  • sour taste in the mouth
  • frequent heartburn
  • cough or hoarseness in the throat
  • nausea
  • weight loss

A person with symptoms of bile reflux should talk to a doctor. A doctor may be able to diagnose reflux based on a description of the symptoms alone. But they can also order further testing to determine whether it is bile reflux or acid reflux.

Proper diagnosis is crucial for treating bile reflux, as acid reflux treatments do not work for this condition.

Intestinal blockages

Intestinal blockages are a common cause of someone throwing up bile, but it may not be obvious to them that an intestinal blockage is to blame.

An intestinal blockage is serious and requires urgent medical attention to prevent complications, including sepsis, tissue death, and malnutrition.

A person who is throwing up bile should visit a doctor if they experience any of the following symptoms:

  • waves of abdominal pain and cramps
  • constipation
  • loss of appetite
  • swelling of the abdomen
  • inability to pass gas

Symptoms of intestinal blockages may vary, depending on the underlying cause.

Intestinal blockages may be caused by any of the following:

  • colorectal cancer
  • other cancerous tumors
  • a hernia
  • diverticulitis or infection in the digestive tract
  • gallstones
  • impacted stool
  • adhesions and scar tissue from surgery
  • volvulus, otherwise known as twisted intestines
  • inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
  • ileus, a condition that causes bowel problems

For adults, the two most common causes of bowel obstructions are colon cancer and adhesions or scar tissues that form in the intestines after abdominal or pelvic surgery.

A doctor can diagnose an intestinal blockage or obstruction by a physical exam and additional tests. Tests used to diagnose the cause of vomiting bile include:

For children under 3 years of age, the most common cause of intestinal blockage is a serious condition known as intussusception.

Intussusception happens when one part of the intestine slides into an adjacent section, similarly to the retraction of a telescope.

The condition causes pain that comes and goes at first before turning constant. The child may look very pale, tired, and limp, and may be vomiting.

Throwing up bile may not require medical attention if it has a clear cause and resolves with conservative methods, such as rest and rehydration. However, anyone who is persistently throwing up bile should see a doctor.

Anyone who is throwing up bile and has indications of bile reflux should see their doctor.

Similarly, people who are throwing up bile and have signs of dehydration should seek emergency medical care.

People should also see a doctor if they experience any of the following symptoms in addition to throwing up bile:

  • chest pain
  • unexplained weight loss
  • severe abdominal pain
  • inability to stop throwing up
  • difficulty breathing
  • vomit that looks like coffee grounds

Carers of a child under 3 years of age should seek immediate medical attention if the child has any of the following symptoms and is throwing up bile:

  • complaining or crying in pain in waves
  • blood or mucus in their stool
  • lethargy
  • diarrhea
  • protrusion or lump in the abdomen
  • fever

In a child under 3 years old, these symptoms may be a sign of intussusception.

Infants can become dehydrated very quickly and may need medical intervention to rehydrate much sooner than adults.

Surgery may be recommended if medication is not effective enough.

The treatment for vomiting bile will vary, depending on the cause. In cases of binge drinking or food poisoning, intravenous fluids in the hospital may be sufficient to treat the symptoms and prevent further complications.

In minor cases, resting and rehydrating with water and fluids containing electrolytes may be sufficient to relieve symptoms.

In cases of bile reflux, a doctor may prescribe medication to control the reflux. Two common types include:

  • bile acid sequestrants
  • ursodeoxycholic acid

If medications are not enough, a doctor may recommend surgical options, such as gastric bypass surgery. In this procedure, a new opening is created to the small intestine that prevents a buildup of bile in the stomach.

Similarly, other surgical options may help treat blockages or adhesions.

A surgeon may remove a portion of the intestine or the source of the blockage. They may also need to insert a stent to open a blockage and prevent further blockages.

In cases of cancer, a doctor will need to assess how far the disease has spread to decide the treatment. Typical treatments for cancer include:

It is not always possible to prevent a person vomiting bile. However, lifestyle changes can avoid some of the most common causes, such as drinking alcohol to excess or poor diet choices.

To help prevent vomiting bile, a person can:

  • limit their alcohol intake and avoid binge drinking
  • not lift heavy objects to avoid the risk of a hernia
  • get regular colonoscopies if recommended by a doctor
  • avoid smoking tobacco
  • eat a variety of fruits and vegetables
  • eat foods high in fiber to help prevent diverticulitis
  • avoid uncooked or potentially contaminated foods

A person’s overall outlook depends largely on the reason why they are throwing up bile. In acute cases, such as after a night of drinking or a bout of food poisoning, a person will likely make a full recovery with minor treatments.

People with underlying medical conditions may also experience a full recovery, but treatment will vary based on the condition.

Anyone experiencing unexplained or persistent vomiting should see a doctor for a proper diagnosis and to avoid complications.

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Is Nausea a Sign of Cancer?

Medically reviewed by Kimmie Ng, MD, MPH 

Nausea and cancer are often related in that nausea can be a side effect of treatment, but can nausea be a symptom of cancer itself?

If there is a tumor that lives in the colon, esophagus, stomach, or somewhere else in the bowel, it can cause a bowel obstruction. A bowel obstruction means that something — in this case, a tumor — is blocking the intestines and preventing solids and liquids from passing through to the colon. This can result in nausea or vomiting, according to Kimmie Ng, MD, MPH, director of clinical research in the Gastrointestinal Cancer Treatment Center at Dana-Farber.

Can nausea be a symptom of cancer?

Nausea and vomiting can also occur if there are tumors on the lining of the abdominal cavity, called the peritoneum, which can impair motility of the intestines and prevent food from being properly digested. This can be a common scenario in patients who also certain types of cancers, such as:

  • Lung cancer
  • Stomach cancer
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Colon cancer
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Appendix cancer

A tumor in the brain can also increase pressure in the brain, which can induce nausea and vomiting.

There are two types of brain tumors: Primary brain tumors, which form inside the brain, and secondary (metastatic) brain tumors, which originate somewhere else in the body. When cancer spreads from its original site to the brain, it’s known as brain metastasis. Lung, breast, melanoma, and kidney tumors are examples of cancer types that are more likely to spread to the brain, according to Ng.

It’s important to note that nausea can be caused by many different health problems, such as:

  • Gallbladder disease
  • Food poisoning
  • Heart attacks
  • Ulcers

Nausea can also be caused by different kinds of cancer treatment, like chemotherapy and radiation — but due to improvements in drugs that treat nausea, many patients won’t experience these symptoms, or will only have mild discomfort.

“The anti-nausea drugs that we have these days are very good at managing treatment-related nausea,” Ng says. “The extreme sickness from cancer treatment that has often been portrayed in movies and TV shows is no longer the reality.”

Physiology of Vomiting

Physiology of Vomiting

“At least after death you’re not nauseous.” Woody Allen in Sleeper

Vomiting is the forceful expulsion of contents of the stomach and often, the proximal small intestine. It is a manifestation of a large number of conditions, many of which are not primary disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Regardless of cause, vomiting can have serious consequences, including acid-base derangments, volume and electrolyte depletion, malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia.

The Act of Vomiting

Vomiting is usually experienced as the finale in a series of three events, which everyone reading this has experienced:

  • Nausea is an unpleasant and difficult to describe psychic experience in humans and probably animals. Physiologically, nausea is typically associated with decreased gastric motility and increased tone in the small intestine. Additionally, there is often reverse peristalsis in the proximal small intestine.
  • Retching (“dry heaves”) refers to spasmodic respiratory movements conducted with a closed glottis. While this is occurring, the antrum of the stomach contracts and the fundus and cardia relax. Studies with cats have shown that during retching there is repeated herniation of the abdominal esophagus and cardia into the thoracic cavity due to the negative pressure engendered by inspiratory efforts with a closed glottis.
  • Emesis or vomition is when gastric and often small intestinal contents are propelled up to and out of the mouth. It results from a highly coordinated series of events that could be described as the following series of steps (don’t practice these in public):
    • A deep breath is taken, the glottis is closed and the larynx is raised to open the upper esophageal sphincter. Also, the soft palate is elevated to close off the posterior nares.
    • The diaphragm is contracted sharply downward to create negative pressure in the thorax, which facilitates opening of the esophagus and distal esophageal sphincter.
    • Simultaneously with downward movement of the diaphragm, the muscles of the abdominal walls are vigorously contracted, squeezing the stomach and thus elevating intragastric pressure. With the pylorus closed and the esophagus relatively open, the route of exit is clear.

The series of events described seems to be typical for humans and many animals, but is not inevitable. Vomition occasionally occurs abruptly and in the absense of premonitory signs – this situation is often referred to as projectile vomiting. A common cause of projectile vomiting is gastric outlet obstruction, often a result of the ingestion of foreign bodies.

An activity related to but clearly distinct from vomiting is regurgitation, which is the passive expulsion of ingested material out of the mouth – this often occurs even before the ingesta has reached the stomach and is usually a result of esophageal disease. Regurgitation also is a normal component of digestion in ruminants.

There is also considerable variability among species in the propensity for vomition. Rats reportedly do not vomit. Cattle and horses vomit rarely – this is usually an ominous sign and most frequently a result of acute gastric distension. Carnivores such as dogs and cats vomit frequently, often in response to such trivial stimuli as finding themselves on a clean carpet. Humans fall between these extremes, and interestingly, rare individuals have been identified that seem to be incapable of vomiting due to congenital abnormalities in the vomition centers of the brainstem.

Control of Vomition

The complex, almost sterotypical set of activities that culminate in vomiting suggest that control is central, which indeed has been shown to be true. Within the brainstem are two anatomically and functionally distinct units that control vomiting:

Bilateral vomition centers in the reticular formation of the medulla integrate signals from a large number of outlying sources and their excitement is ultimately what triggers vomition. Electric stimulation of these centers induces vomiting, while destruction of the vomition centers renders animals very resistant to emetic drugs. The vomition centers receive afferent signals from at least four major sources:

  • The chemoreceptor trigger zone (see below)
  • Visceral afferents from the gastrointestinal tract (vagus or sympathetic nerves) – these signals inform the brain of such conditions as gastrointestinal distention (a very potent stimulus for vomition) and mucosal irritation.
  • Visceral afferents from outside the gastrointestinal tract – this includes signals from bile ducts, peritoneum, heart and a variety of other organs. These inputs to the vomition center help explain how, for example, a stone in the common bile duct can result in vomiting.
  • Afferents from extramedullary centers in the brain – it is clear that certain psychic stimuli (odors, fear), vestibular disturbances (motion sickness) and cerebral trauma can result in vomition.

The chemoreceptor trigger zone is a bilateral set of centers in the brainstem lying under the floor of the fourth ventricle. Electrical stimulation of these centers does not induce vomiting, but application of emetic drugs does – if and only if the vomition centers are intact. The chemoreceptor trigger zones function as emetic chemoreceptors for the vomition centers – chemical abnormalities in the body (e.g. emetic drugs, uremia, hypoxia and diabetic ketoacidosis) are sensed by these centers, which then send excitatory signs to the vomition centers. Many of the antiemetic drugs act at the level of the chemoreceptor trigger zone.

To summarize, two basic sets of pathways – one neural and one humoral – lead to activation of centers in the brain that initiate and control vomition. Think of the vomition centers as commander in chief of vomition, who makes the ultimate decision. This decision is based on input from a battery of advisors, among whom the chemoreceptor trigger zone has considerable influence. This straighforward picture is almost certainly oversimplified and flawed in some details, but helps to explain much of the physiology and pharmacology of vomition.

Causes and Consequences of Vomiting

The myriad causes of vomiting are left as an exercise – come up with a list based on personal experience and your understanding of the control of vomition. An important point, however, is that many cases of vomiting are due to diseases outside of the gastrointestinal tract.

Simple vomiting rarely causes problems, but on occasion, can lead to such serious consequences as aspiration pneumonia. Additionally, severe or repetitive vomition results in disturbances in acid-base balance, dehydration and electrolyte depletion. In such cases, the goal is to rapidly establish a definitive diagnosis of the underlying disease so that specific therapy can be instituted. This is often not easy and in many cases, it is advantageous to administer antiemetic drugs in order to suppress vomition and reduce its sequelae.

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Nausea and Vomiting | Prevention, Causes & Red Flags

Nausea and vomiting may be due to many different causes. Common causes include food poisoning, a tummy bug (viral infection), drinking a lot of alcohol, and being pregnant. You should get medical advice if you vomit repeatedly for more than 48 hours or feel unwell or weak. If you vomit blood or have unexplained problems like weight loss or difficulty swallowing, you should see your GP urgently. The most common causes are mentioned below.

Your doctor will want to know

The doctor will want to know how long your feeling sick and being sick (nausea and vomiting) have lasted and whether you have any other symptoms. The doctor will particularly ask about symptoms which may suggest an underlying serious condition. These are known as ‘red flags’. The sort of information your doctor will want to know includes the following:

  • Did it start suddenly or develop over time? Did anything trigger it? How long has it lasted?
  • When do you vomit? Is it worse when you move your head?
  • Do you feel feverish?
  • Are you coughing up blood or bile?
  • Do you feel ill? Do you have a high temperature (fever), weight loss or tummy (abdominal) pains? Do you have headaches?
  • How much alcohol do you drink?
  • When was your last period? Could you be pregnant?
  • Have you started any new medication recently?

This information will help the doctor to work out the cause of your nausea and/or vomiting. Your doctor will examine you. He or she will check your temperature, chest and abdomen. You may be asked to produce a urine sample and have a blood test. You may be asked to do a pregnancy test. Further tests of your stomach and abdomen may be advised. Referral to a specialist is possible.

What can you do if you develop nausea and vomiting?

  • Call 111 if being sick (vomiting) is severe and you are weak or have severe tummy (abdominal) pain. If you are so ill that you feel it is a life-threatening emergency, call 999.
  • See your doctor urgently (within a few days) if you develop ‘red flag’ symptoms.
  • See your doctor if your vomiting lasts for more than 48 hours and is not improving.
  • Avoid a lack of fluid in your body (dehydration): drink little and often to replace any fluid you have lost. Consider using rehydration drinks, such as Dioralyte®.
  • If you have motion (travel) sickness and you do not have access to medicines:
    • Try breaking the journey to have some fresh air, drink some cold water and, if possible, take a short walk.
    • Try to change your seating (for example, move to the front of a car, or to the middle of the deck of a boat.
    • Breathe fresh air and avoid strong smells (for example, petrol and diesel fumes).
    • Close your eyes (and keep them closed for the whole journey). This reduces ‘positional’ signals from your eyes to your brain and reduces the confusion.
    • Don’t try to read.
    • Try listening to an audio book with your eyes closed.
    • Try to sleep.
    • Do not read or watch a film.
    • Don’t watch moving objects such as waves or other cars. Instead, look ahead, a little above the horizon, at a fixed place.
    • If you are the driver, offer to drive, as you are less likely to feel sick if you concentrate on the road ahead.

‘Red flag’ symptoms that may suggest serious underlying disease

The following features may indicate serious underlying disease:

What causes nausea and vomiting?

There are many causes of feeling sick and being sick (nausea and vomiting). The following is a list of some of the most common or important causes. See the links for more information about each condition.

      • Metabolic conditions – for example:
        • Diabetes, particularly if poorly controlled. Diabetic ketoacidosis (when breakdown products called ketones circulate in the blood) occurs most commonly on patients who are on insulin, and is usually caused by being unwell and not using enough insulin. It can cause persisting, increasing vomiting.
        • Addison’s disease. This rare condition develops over several months and also causes severe fatigue, weight loss, low blood pressure and other symptoms.
        • Hypercalcaemia. A high calcium level is most commonly due to parathyroid gland overactivity, but it can also be caused by certain cancers.

Other causes

Appendicitis, inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), kidney stones, stomach ulcers and gallstones can all cause severe tummy (abdominal) pain and nausea and vomiting. If severe, ring 111 for urgent advice or 999 to call for an ambulance if you feel it’s a life-threatening emergency.

Blockage (obstruction) of the gut – repeated and severe vomiting may be due to a blockage anywhere along the gut (intestine). This could be a twisted loop of bowel, cancerous growth or non-cancerous narrowing. This will usually be associated with severe tummy pain. Because there is a blockage, usually you would be unable to open your bowels. This is an emergency and you need to call an ambulance.

Raised pressure in the brain – meningitis, brain tumours and head injuries can increase pressure in the brain, which can cause nausea and vomiting. Ring 999 to call for an ambulance if you suspect your child has meningitis.

Liver disease – for example, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, liver cirrhosis. There will be other symptoms, including yellowing of the skin and of the whites of the eyes (jaundice) and, usually, pain over the liver.

Kidney problems – for example, chronic kidney disease, which typically causes nausea when severe, and kidney stones (which may also cause pain).

What is the difference between acute and persistent nausea and vomiting?

Acute nausea and/or vomiting usually mean lasting less than 24-48 hours. They are most commonly due to gastric infection or food poisoning and are self-limiting (ie each stops by itself). This sort of nausea and vomiting does not usually need any intervention unless it is very severe, the vomit is unusual (for example, bloody) or the person affected is a baby or young child and not managing fluids, or if lack of fluid in the body (dehydration) is a problem.

Persistent nausea and vomiting is that which lasts for 48 hours or more. It can have the same causes as acute nausea and vomiting, but simple infections and food poisoning start to look less likely as time goes on, and other possible causes come to the fore. Some are more serious than others, and many cause other symptoms too.

Problems caused by persistent nausea

Persistent nausea, which is that experienced in pregnancy, on a long sea voyage, when taking chemotherapy, or due to a chronic medical condition, can be very distressing. Severe nausea can be exhausting and depressing, and some people think it is worse than vomiting (which can feel like a relief to people with persistent nausea).

Problems caused by persistent vomiting

    • Repeated vomiting can cause dehydration, particularly in babies and small children.
    • Persistent vomiting leads to loss of water and salts from the body, including sodium, potassium and chloride. Altering the balance of the body’s salts can lead to complications, including irregularities of the heart rhythm. It can be very difficult to replace lost fluids and salts whilst vomiting continues.
    • Tooth enamel damage is common in people with bulimia nervosa who induce vomiting on a regular basis as part of their illness. The acid from the stomach erodes and damages teeth, and digestive enzymes damage gums, leading to dental complications.
    • Tears of the oesophageal lining (Mallory-Weiss tears) can cause bleeding, and you may see blood in the vomit. Recurrent vomiting can also lead the stomach and gullet to become inflamed (gastritis and oesophagitis).
    • Vomiting whilst unconscious (for instance, after excess alcohol) can be very dangerous, as it can lead to stomach contents getting into your windpipe, and therefore into your lungs, where it can obstruct breathing or lead to severe lung inflammation.

Many of the ways your dog speaks to you leaves you in the dark.

Our dogs’ behavior does not always make sense to us, but our behavior is not always clear to them. But unlike you and me, dogs depend on people in everything.

In addition, there is a “language barrier” between humans and dogs. While we communicate with each other in words, dogs communicate in various other ways. This is why it is incredibly helpful for dog owners to understand what their dog is telling them.

The better you understand how your animal understands its world, the less likely you are to be disappointed or angry. And the less unfairly you will treat him. And ultimately, the better and stronger the bond between the two of you will be.

And this is true for all pet owners: and for those who have their first dog in life; and for those who have always lived with a pet. Our younger brothers are extremely attentive to our emotions, mood, body language, intonation.And the least we can do in return is to show the same interest in their communication.

The following table is from Dr. Dodman’s First Steps to a Puppy: An Approach to Raising a Happy, Healthy, Well-Mannered Puppy.

Some of these behaviors are found in many dogs, but some are learned or encouraged through training (accidentally or intentionally).The best way to ensure that your dog develops or maintains positive social and behavioral skills is to address training problems as they arise.

What the dog does What does this mean
Leaves when you stroke her head He may not like this. It is also a signal of dominance for the dog. Most dogs enjoy scratching their chin, front of the chest, or the edge of the muzzle.
Goes in circles before lying down Her ancestors did this to crumple the grass before lying down and make a cozy nest. Your dog acts on the basis of his instincts.
Grunts / Grunts Dogs grumble when they feel content and happy
Skulite Dogs, especially puppies, whine when cold, hungry or lonely. Calm her down by covering her with a warm blanket, feeding her, or giving her attention.
Squinting Your dog may be considering whether to follow your command.
Yawns Dogs yawn when they get tired. But more often it happens when they are under stress. Yawning displaces stress or internal conflict.
Licked Licking lips is a sign of nervousness, anxiety, or submission.
Licks you Your dog is looking for attention and / or positive reactions.In some cases, dogs lick you to establish dominance.
Insists on lying on the couch Even if you told her not to do this, your dog may still try to reach a higher position in dominance. Or maybe she just prefers pillows to the floor!
Digs the ground after defecating or urinating It marks its territory by leaving a visual sign (digging soil) and smell (from sweat glands on its feet)
Eats excrement This is called coprophagia and is a common behavior in puppies.In older dogs, this behavior may indicate medical or behavioral problems, and may also be a sign of stress.
Lying in stinking things When a dog rolls in smelly things on the ground (garbage, rotten food, excrement), then it shows where it was, marks the territory. It can also be an echo of the behavior of wild ancestors who rode in strong-smelling things to hide their scent.
Eats grass The dog may be trying to induce vomiting to relieve abdominal discomfort.Or her body needs greens for nutritional balance.
Sniffs (and sniffs and sniffs) before urinating Your dog studies other people’s smells in the area before deciding where to leave his own. She can also look for a place where another dog has not urinated.
Sniffs from behind other dogs Pheromones secreted by the dog’s paraanal glands allow other dogs to recognize its smell and later recognize it
Puffs Your dog may puff to regulate body temperature.She may also puff when she feels anxious.
Expresses endless happiness around dogs of the same breed If your dog has fond memories of playing with siblings and other dogs of the same breed, he can expect to see new “friends” in other dogs that look just like her.
Jumps in front of you, tilting the muzzle to the ground, “bowing” If your dog “bows” his head and paws close to the ground, he feels happy and playful
Chasing its tail Usually dogs with a high predatory instinct chase their tail.In some dogs, these cravings can become overwhelming, leading to anxiety and medical problems.
Sucking on soft objects Puppies weaned too early may continue to suck on soft items such as blankets or stuffed toys
Pokes his head out of the car window She does it because it’s fun and the air is full of interesting smells. However, do not let her do this, as she may be damaged by objects flying by.
Barks at other dogs with head held high This is a sign of dominance. Especially when paired with direct eye contact, tense body posture and a straight tail.
Barks at other dogs with ears pressed to head This is a sign of fear or submission, especially when paired with a set tail and eyes that dart from side to side
Digs dirt, own bedding or bedding quickly and violently This may be a predatory instinct (remember how terriers dig the ground to bury their prey)
Take food from their bowl and eat it elsewhere Weak dogs in a pack may do this to protect their food from more dominant individuals (real or imagined)
Hides treats instead of eating them immediately She follows her instinct to stash food for later in order to have supplies for the “hungry day”
“Runs” in a dream He dreams that he is catching someone
Tail wagging fast or slow Your dog’s tail wagging speed is similar to an energy indicator.If she is very aroused, her tail wags quickly.
Pulls tail between legs This is a sign of submission, insecurity, anxiety and / or fear
Keeps tail upright This is a sign of interest, dominance and confidence
Chews socks or slippers She may lack suitable chewy toys (made from the materials she prefers). If you chase her around the house to get your belongings back, she will probably think this is a really great game!
Sniffs people in the groin area The nose knows everything! A dog can tell a lot about a person by the full smell of pheromones emanating from this part of the body.
Violently shakes toys in mouth Your dog is doing what it would do in the wild. She shakes her prey, holding her neck with her teeth to kill her.
Hair stand on end (piloerection) This happens when your dog has a fight-or-flight response and adrenaline is released, causing the muscles to contract and lift the hair.

Watermelon poisoning: what to do? | Expert advice Roskachestvo

The appearance of watermelons in shops and markets is almost always accompanied by stories of poisoning with this berry.

Are many people admitted to hospitals with nitrate poisoning during the watermelon season? What are the symptoms of poisoning? What are the health consequences of such poisoning? With these questions, we turned to Dmitry Dolginov, head of the toxicology department of the Children’s City Clinical Hospital No. 13 named after V.I.NF Filatova, Assistant of the Department of Pediatric Surgery of the Pediatric Faculty of the Russian National Research Medical University named after N.I. Pirogova:

– Children with such a diagnosis have not been admitted to our department for several years. Although 3-4 years ago there were such patients. Now we practically never meet children with such poisoning.

However, it should be said that there are no exact statistics on this nosology. This is due to the fact that the clinic of nitrate poisoning is very similar to an intestinal infection, and most often such patients are admitted to infectious diseases hospitals.

Read the results of research on Roskachestvo watermelons HERE

Symptoms of nitrate poisoning

In case of poisoning with nitrates and nitrites, first of all, an upset of the gastrointestinal tract develops in the form of general weakness, malaise, nausea, vomiting, loose stools, abdominal pain of different localization. If the manifestation is too pronounced, dehydration of the body develops.

If the dose of nitrates is too high, the formation of methemoglobin is observed.This is already a serious poisoning. It manifests itself as weakness, headaches, dizziness, fainting, discoloration of the skin from pale to purple.

Poisoning can also be caused by pesticides and herbicides used in agriculture. But we have not met these types of poisoning associated with the use of melons or other vegetable products.

Important! Nitrate poisoning can lead to the development of reactive pancreatitis and exacerbation of chronic diseases.

First aid

At the first suspicion of poisoning, you should immediately call an ambulance or go to the nearest medical facility.

Important! Symptoms of poisoning may not appear immediately.

Before the arrival of an ambulance, it is necessary to give the patient sorbents and give him plenty of water. Do not self-medicate under any circumstances!

At the beginning of September, a special project of Roskachestvo will supplement the results of checking already seasonal watermelons.Do not miss! Subscribe to our newsletter HERE.

The first signs of early pregnancy – how to determine if conception has occurred?

Table of contents:

Not every woman realizes that the long-awaited pregnancy has already come. Indeed, the first signs of the birth of a new life can easily be mistaken for the harbingers of menstruation. How to determine early pregnancy and prepare for the thought that you will have a baby? In this article, we will answer this question.

General information

Some women quickly guess that they are about to become a mother, others do not notice any changes in their condition for a long time. But if you listen to yourself, it will not be difficult for you to recognize the first signs of pregnancy even before the test shows the cherished two strips. This will allow you to see a doctor as early as possible in order to undergo the necessary examination and ensure peace of mind for the next nine months.

In how many days can you find out about your pregnancy?

In the very first days after conception, the body will not give you any specific signals.Signs of pregnancy in the early stages can be observed no earlier than the 8-10th day from the moment of fertilization of the egg, when the embryo attaches to the wall of the uterus and the pregnancy hormone, chorionic gonadotropin, begins to enter the mother’s body. How noticeably they appear depends on the body’s sensitivity to hormonal changes. On the 20th day of embryo development (coincides with the first days of missed periods), most women usually guess about their condition.

Important! Standard rapid tests determine the content of chorionic gonadotropin in the urine at 3-4 weeks of pregnancy, i.e.That is, 1-2 weeks after fertilization 1 .

During this period, it is extremely important that the body receives all the necessary vitamins and minerals for the development of the baby. Therefore, as soon as you begin to suspect that you are expecting a baby, start taking special vitamin and mineral complexes. This is important because the formation of all organs and systems of the embryo occurs from the very first weeks.

First signs of pregnancy

After the fertilization of the egg and its transition from the fallopian tube to the uterine cavity, a woman’s body undergoes a series of hormonal changes, which quickly make themselves felt in the form of the first signs of early pregnancy1.

Breast enlargement and tenderness

A few days after the expected date of menstruation:

  • the breast swells,
  • the nipple halo expands and darkens,
  • pimples on the halo, the so-called Montgomery tubercles, increase in size.

If your swollen breasts are causing discomfort and soreness during sleep, try wearing a padded, underwire bra at night.

Important! The mammary glands are designed in such a way that there is no muscle in them that could prevent the skin from stretching, therefore, during pregnancy and lactation, it is necessary to wear a supportive bra and change it according to the growth of the breast to avoid squeezing.


This probable sign of pregnancy cannot be called absolutely reliable, since nausea can also be caused by digestive problems. But when combined with other symptoms, nausea often signals that you are having a baby. In the first trimester, this is a completely normal, albeit unpleasant manifestation of your new state.

Nausea is more often mild and is observed only in the morning, but if it continues throughout the day and is accompanied by vomiting, then you should consult a doctor.

A few simple tips can help you cope with the attacks that often cloud the first weeks of pregnancy.

  • If you feel sick in the morning, drink plenty of fluids. Before getting out of bed, you can eat some low-fat yogurt to make it easier. Avoid long breaks between meals, as even increased salivation when you are hungry can cause nausea. Salted crackers and biscuits are good snacks.
  • Eliminate coffee with milk, sweets and roasts from your diet.
  • Eat more often, but in small portions.

Vitamins of group B and vitamin D can help to reduce the manifestations of toxicosis. Add more whole grains, whole grain bread, beef liver, cheese, dairy products and nuts, cabbage, apples to your diet. In addition, vitamin and mineral complexes specially designed for taking in the 1st trimester can replenish the stocks of these components.

Frequent urge to urinate

In the very first weeks of pregnancy, many women experience frequent urination.This is due to the increased production of the hCG hormone. Especially often the urge to use the toilet is disturbing at night.

Carefully monitor your condition, drink more fluid to replenish its loss. During this period, mineral water without gas, green tea, fruit drinks, compotes, juices, half diluted with water are useful. They will not only replenish the fluid volume, but will also help reduce the severity of nausea.

Oversensitive to odors

If you feel nauseous from the aroma of morning coffee, perfume or any other strong odor, it is possible that you are expecting a baby.Some women note an increased sensitivity to odors and a sharp change in taste preferences as one of the first signs of pregnancy, even before the delay in menstruation in the early stages. Do not rush to get rid of perfumes, the aroma of which has become intolerable: after the birth of the baby, the old aromas and tastes will again become pleasant to you.

To reduce the nausea caused by smells, be outdoors more often and walk more. When at home, ventilate the area for 5-10 minutes every two hours.Getting fresh air will help reduce discomfort.

Drowsiness and fatigue

A decrease in blood pressure at the beginning of pregnancy and more intensive metabolic processes in the body often provoke severe fatigue. A balanced diet and walking in the fresh air will help improve your general condition.

Important! If dizziness haunts you in the early stages, we can talk about anemia, that is, a lack of iron, or about changes in blood pressure.It is necessary to consult a doctor.

To reduce the risk of anemia, it is necessary to eat foods containing iron: red meat, offal (beef liver, heart). For iron to be better absorbed from food, it is worth adding foods rich in vitamin C to the diet: fresh vegetables, citrus fruits, garden herbs. Meat dishes complemented by vegetable salad are a great option. Special vitamin and mineral complexes for pregnant women with the inclusion of iron will help to replenish stocks.They contain the required daily dose of this mineral.

Delay of menstruation

One of the most reliable signs of pregnancy. After menstruation stops, because the endometrium creates optimal conditions for the development of the child. However, cycle disorders can also be associated with stress, diseases of the reproductive organs and hormonal disruptions.

Important! About a week after conception, small spotting is possible, which accompanies the attachment of a fertilized egg in the uterus.Doctors call this phenomenon implantation bleeding. It is also considered one of the early signs of pregnancy.

Important! From the very first days, as you learn about pregnancy, it is necessary to start taking folic acid. The active form of this substance is metafoline. When it enters the body, metafoline is absorbed by 100% and helps the correct development of the baby’s heart and brain.

Food Allergy in Dogs: Symptoms and Treatment (Photo)

Any negative reactions, one way or another associated with food, are divided into two groups: unwanted food reactions (when the immune system is not directly involved in the development of the disease, for example, lactose or gluten intolerance in humans), and true food allergies.Adverse food reactions in dogs can be found quite often, they include, for example, the appearance of acute vomiting and diarrhea in response to the consumption of chocolate (by the way, the darker the chocolate, the more likely the development of adverse reactions), gluten intolerance (described in Irish setters as a genetic abnormality).

What is food allergy?

True food allergy is a negative reaction of the body caused by excessive activity of the immune system and manifested by a certain set of nonspecific symptoms.It is important to understand that food allergies associated with the action of the immune system develop over time – from several months to several years. That is why it is incorrect to believe that if a dog eats the same food for a while, then it cannot have food allergies – on the contrary, it can. On the forums, we can find many causes of food allergies in dogs, including antibiotics from chicken, food preservatives and even fats. Is this true? This is what the latest studies of leading foreign veterinary immunologists tell us about the true causes of this disease.

The main culprits of food allergies

The main cause of true food allergy in dogs and cats is proteins, and their mass should be more than 10 kDa, the heavier the protein – the more chances for it to “dislike” the immune system. That is why the most common culprits in the development of allergies in dogs are proteins from beef, dairy products, chicken and wheat gluten, and in cats: milk, beef, fish and chicken. This does not mean that your dog cannot develop a food allergy to, say, turkey, but the chances are much less.There is a lot of good research in humane medicine on what factors predispose people to develop food allergies. For example, the role of dysbiosis and concomitant inflammatory bowel diseases has been proven. In dogs, there are practically no such studies, but it is clear that dogs who have had parvovirus gastroenteritis are more susceptible to the development of food allergies in the future. So what are the most common food allergies in dogs? (research data 2019):

  • Beef
  • Dairy (even fermented milk) products
  • Chicken
  • Wheat (less commonly other cereals) gluten

Most common symptoms

Let’s discuss the most common clinical signs (symptoms) of food allergy in dogs.

As a rule, these are young dogs (up to one year old) or middle and older dogs (6 years old and older). Even predisposed breeds have been identified: German Shepherds, West Highland White Terriers, Boxers, Rhodesian Ridgebacks, Pugs. How does food allergy manifest in dogs? The disease can have both skin lesions and disorders in the work of the gastrointestinal tract (chronic vomiting and diarrhea). The main and most noticeable acute skin symptoms of food allergy in dogs are shown in the photo.

At the beginning, they include itching and self-injury (scratching), then bacteria settle on the inflamed and injured skin, which can cause more serious problems, for example, purulent inflammation of varying severity (from superficial “pimples” to deep boils), and of course ear inflammation (otitis media). By the way, otitis media, including those that have been ongoing for a long time, can be a symptom of food allergies, even if the rest of the dog is doing well.

Fig.1 and 2. Acute and Chronic Food Allergies in Dogs

If the disease develops for a long time, thickening of the skin can be observed, especially in the armpits, groin and under the tail, inflammation of the skin between the fingers, pronounced purulent inflammation of the skin and ears, weight loss. What the symptoms of chronic food allergy look like can be seen in the photo.

Rice 3,4,5. Manifestations of food allergies in dogs: malassezia dermatitis, microbial otitis media, bacterial folliculitis.

What if you suspect your dog has a food allergy?

Of course, first of all, you need to contact your veterinarian dermatologist.But, if for some reason it is impossible to do this right now, then we will discuss the main aspects of the treatment and diagnosis of food allergies in dogs. The primary task is to relieve the dog of itching, which can individually manifest itself in quite different degrees. Often the owner is faced with such a strong food allergy in the dog that he cannot sleep at night and constantly itches. In this case, an affordable and fast-acting itching drug is needed, and it is also very important that it is well tolerated by the dog’s body.All these requirements are met by Apoquel® – an original drug that targets the mechanisms of itching development. Apoquel quickly (within a few hours) eliminates the discomfort associated with itching, redness, scratching and swelling. The drug is recommended for long-term use, in the first 2 weeks it is important to give it to the dog 2 times a day, then switch to taking it once a day. A handy table for calculating dosage per dog’s weight is included in the instructions. The therapeutic effect of the drug in the fight against itching has been confirmed by many years of experience of use by domestic and foreign veterinarians; several hundred articles have been written about its use in the treatment of allergic dermatitis in dogs .The drug does not cause addiction and “withdrawal syndrome”, and is also approved for use with other systemic drugs, for example, tablets for worms, fleas and ticks (does not cause a decrease in their effectiveness). It is important, however, to remember that you should not use Apoquel on your own for dogs under one year old, weighing less than 3 kg, lactating, pregnant females, dogs during the mating period and with tumor diseases. Consultation with your veterinarian is recommended before using any drug.In addition, in the presence of symptoms in addition to itching: pododermatitis, bacterial skin diseases, otitis media, additional diagnostics and therapy are recommended. In this case, medications for treating food allergies would include antibacterial shampoos, ear drops, fatty acids, and possibly systemic antibiotics. It is worth recalling that self-administration of antibiotics in any form (drops in the ears, ointments, pills, injections) is strongly discouraged and may worsen or distort the situation, as well as cause undesirable effects (vomiting, diarrhea, drug reactions, bacterial resistance).

In addition to relieving itching and inflammation in the case of food allergies, it is important to understand which product is causing it. In order to find out this, it is necessary to resort to the “gold standard of diagnosis”, namely the elimination diet. Unfortunately, testing of blood for food allergens in animals has not found practical use and is not recommended by leading veterinary allergists as a diagnostic technique. For a correct diet, feed with a new source of protein should be used, so simply changing the diet to the “for sensitive skin” line is not enough.The ideal option would be to prescribe a diet by a veterinarian based on the history of feeding, because it is very important not to prescribe protein sources that the dog ate less than 4 months ago, and it is also important to take into account one very interesting feature – the cross-reaction of proteins. This phenomenon was described relatively recently and concerns the meat of closely related animal species. For example, if your dog exhibits symptoms of a suspected beef food allergy, then assigning lamb, buffalo, goat, deer, or elk meat as an elimination diet would be incorrect because these animals are genetically similar and the immune system is most likely to react to their meat.Choose meat of completely different types of animals for your diet, for example, if your dog has been eating chicken for a long time, then it is better to choose pork or fish as a diet. Also, the source of carbohydrates plays an important role – it is better not to choose foods that contain gluten, and focus on vegetables as a side dish. You can use commercially available mono-protein foods with selected ingredients, or you can balance your dog’s natural diet with the help of a veterinarian with knowledge of dietetics. A good plan is to use hydrolyzed diets.Their meaning is that the protein molecules in their composition are broken up into small pieces, the molecular weight of which simply will not allow the allergy process to develop, also, usually, proteins that are unusual for our dogs (soybeans, feathers) are used in such diets, but this should not scare you, because the formulation of industrial feed is always balanced in vitamins, macro- and microelements.

So, for the diagnosis, and therefore for the treatment of food allergies in dogs, three diet options can be used:

  • Mono-protein industrial ration (preferably cereal-free)
  • Mono-protein home-cooked diet (vegetables as a side dish) after consultation with a dietitian
  • Hydrolyzed industrial ration

Nutritionists advise to switch to new feeds gradually, within 5 days, in order to avoid negative symptoms from the intestines.Although, even if they do occur, they disappear without treatment within a few days. The question of the duration of the elimination diet was quite acute some time ago, now we recommend to adhere to the new diet for an average of 8 weeks in order to evaluate its effectiveness. When switching to a diet, Apoquel can be prescribed for the treatment of food allergy symptoms for a period of 14 to 21 days; taking the drug will not affect the duration of the diet and will not reduce its diagnostic value. You can also add fatty acids to the diet in the form of salmon oil, which is sold at pet stores, it will improve skin condition and additionally help reduce inflammation.

In order for the diagnosis of food allergy to be as effective as possible, it is important for the dog owner to consider several aspects, namely:

  • Understand the importance of diagnosis (after all, this is the only way a veterinarian can make a diagnosis), really adhere to a strict diet
  • Exclude all “unexpected” protein intake in the dog’s diet (vitamins, “snacks”, treats, including from the table, preparations with meat flavors)
  • Keeping in touch with your veterinarian is very important if something goes wrong in the diagnosis

The diagnosis of “true food allergy” is considered established if there was a marked improvement in health status during feeding with an elimination diet, and after provocation with a previous meal, the situation worsened again.It is very important to provoke, since the symptoms of food allergies are exactly the same as, for example, seasonal. In the absence of deterioration within an average of 14 days after returning to the usual food, the diagnosis of “true food allergy” is considered excluded. Of course, a partial improvement is possible with the use of the diet, that is, the symptoms of food allergies have disappeared, but not completely. In this case, it is likely that your dog also has a concomitant allergy, such as atopic dermatitis or a hypersensitivity to flea saliva.In this case, as in the case of the impossibility of carrying out an elimination diet (sometimes dogs refuse to eat new food, the owner’s personal circumstances may not allow diagnostics), the question of how to treat food allergies in such a dog for a long time without harm to the body can be discussed. There are many drugs for long-term control of itching in the form of tablets, capsules, and sprays. What kind of drug to prescribe for your dog, the doctor will decide, based on its individual characteristics.In most cases, the drug of choice will be Apoquel, as it controls allergy symptoms well, is approved for long-term use and is well tolerated by the dog’s body.


In conclusion, I would like to note that true food allergy is not a rare diagnosis in animals for a long time (it is diagnosed in a quarter of dogs with itchy skin). This diagnosis often scares owners, although it can be controlled simply by adhering to the recommended diet.Diagnosing and treating food allergies in dogs is somewhat more complicated than a simple change of food, it is always recommended to consult a veterinarian for advice.

Author: Kupriyanova Lidia, Ph.D. member of ESVD, head of the department of therapy of SVK “Astin”, veterinarian, dermatologist, endocrinologist.

“Myocardial infarction is dangerous because of its many faces and suddenness”

Diseases of the heart and blood vessels remain the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is responsible for nearly 17 million deaths a year.In Russia, over the past ten years, mortality and disability rates have surpassed the corresponding indicators of economically developed countries by 4-5 times or more and account for 56 percent of the total number of all deaths. In Komi, in recent years, the prevalence of CVD among the adult population has increased by 17 percent. Tatiana Raush, head of the emergency cardiology department of the cardiological dispensary, told Respublika how to influence this gloomy statistics and what doctors themselves think about this.

– What is myocardial infarction?

– Myocardial infarction (MI) is a lesion of the heart muscle caused by an acute disturbance of its blood supply due to blockage (thrombosis) of one of the arteries of the heart with an atherosclerotic plaque. In this case, the affected part of the muscle dies off, that is, its necrosis develops. Cell death begins within 20-40 minutes after the cessation of blood flow in the vessel.

What happens to the heart?

– The heart is a muscular organ, the main function of which is to “pump” blood through the body.The heart muscle (myocardium) is constantly exposed to a very serious load (on average, at rest, the heart “pumps” five liters of blood per minute, with an intense load – 15 liters or more). In order to do this work effectively, the myocardium must be very well supplied with nutrients and oxygen.
In the walls of the vessels that supply the heart with blood (coronary arteries), over time, thickenings containing cholesterol, called atherosclerotic plaques, appear from the inside.The plaques gradually grow and cause a narrowing of the artery lumen (stenosis), due to which blood flow to the heart is naturally reduced. This process is called atherosclerosis. Currently, there are two main reasons for the development of atherosclerosis: impaired cholesterol metabolism and damage to the inner lining of the vessel, where this cholesterol is deposited.
More often this is a gradual process: the heart muscle adapts to it for a long time, a person can feel normal for a long time, unaware of what is happening in his blood vessels.But as the process progresses, the person shows signs of the disease – paroxysmal pains, which are more often localized in the chest, are burning, squeezing, can be accompanied by a feeling of lack of air, as a rule, occur during physical and emotional stress. This is a signal that the heart muscle (myocardium) in the area of ​​vasoconstriction is experiencing a lack of blood supply (ischemia). In this case, it is customary to talk about coronary heart disease. Ischemic heart disease can suddenly manifest itself as a heart attack, which is based on the formation of a blood clot – a thrombus.A thrombus forms at the site of damage to an atherosclerotic plaque, to which platelets from the blood flowing through the vessel begin to “stick”. A blood clot causes a blockage in the vessel. In this case, the blood flow to the corresponding part of the heart suddenly and abruptly stops. In the case of a sufficiently long cessation of blood supply to a site of the heart muscle, its death develops – a heart attack.

– When should you start sounding the alarm?

– One of the main symptoms of myocardial infarction is chest pain.Intense (sometimes unbearably severe) pressing, constricting or burning pains behind the breastbone are typical. Pain may also be felt to the left of the sternum, rarely to the right. The pain can be given to the jaw, throat, back under the left shoulder blade or between the shoulder blades, in the upper abdomen. The pains are usually not pinpoint, but widespread. They can flow in waves, sometimes growing, then weakening, stopping and renewing again. The duration of the pain can be from 20 minutes to several hours.
There may be such accompanying symptoms as severe weakness, cold clammy sweat, trembling, feeling short of breath, shortness of breath, coughing, dizziness, fainting.A person can experience emotional excitement, behavior disorders can be observed, up to the development of psychosis. Also, a heart attack or preexisting condition may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and bloating.
All of the listed symptoms can occur in various combinations with each other, it is not at all necessary to present all the described symptoms. There may also be no chest pain (absence of pain syndrome occurs in 20-30 percent of cases of myocardial infarction).Symptoms may be few and far between. Often, myocardial infarction is asymptomatic in people with diabetes mellitus and in elderly patients.
Quite often, symptoms of myocardial infarction are atypical, for example, stabbing pain in the chest. The condition can simulate an exacerbation of osteochondrosis, gastric ulcer, etc. I repeat, if you have sensations that were not familiar to you before and it seems to you, for example, that this is sciatica, which was not there before, call an ambulance.In some patients, acute coronary syndrome occurs against the background of already existing stable angina pectoris, when the patient is well aware of the nature of sensations in the chest that occurs during exercise. Symptoms in acute coronary syndrome may resemble pain common to humans, but are much more intense, prolonged, and do not stop after taking nitroglycerin.
Thus, in the presence of any sensations in the chest (from weak to strong) or any new symptoms in the state of health, it is necessary to consult a doctor and follow the medical recommendations.

– What forms of heart attack exist?

– Sometimes myocardial infarction is disguised as other diseases. The gastrological option is similar to the picture of an “acute abdomen”: abdominal pain, bloating, and with them – weakness, drop in blood pressure, tachycardia. Only an electrocardiogram can clarify. The asthmatic variant proceeds without severe pain in the heart, the patient begins to suffocate, he is given drugs that facilitate breathing, which does not get better.
The cerebral variant resembles a stroke, there is confusion of consciousness, speech.
“Silent” heart attack proceeds completely without pain, most often in patients with diabetes mellitus. Severe fatigue and shortness of breath after physical exertion, which were previously given without difficulty, may be his only signs.
Angina pectoris is another heart attack mask, under which it “hides” in about ten percent of patients. Their pain is manifested only when walking. Often, such patients come to the clinic on their own, where they have a heart attack on the ECG.

– What are the risk factors for the development of myocardial infarction?

– There are some risk factors for myocardial infarction that we cannot influence. For example, a person’s gender, age. More often men are susceptible to heart attacks, women up to a certain age are protected by their sex hormones. Age – over 65, heredity. Although, it must be admitted, in recent decades, a heart attack has “rejuvenated”, people much younger than 65 years of age are increasingly becoming its victims.
The second group of risk factors is those that completely depend on our lifestyle and can be reduced.These are smoking, hypertension, high cholesterol and glucose levels, physical inactivity, overweight.
Knowing your cholesterol level is as important as your blood pressure. If the numbers exceed the norm, it is necessary to do a detailed blood test for a lipid profile to determine what percentage of the total cholesterol is low and high density lipoproteins. This will help the doctor find modern medicines.
Let me emphasize: lowering blood cholesterol levels by just ten percent reduces heart attack deaths by 15 percent.It must be remembered that high blood sugar levels contribute to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
With regard to weight. To find out if your weight is normal, it is enough to determine the waist circumference. In women, it should normally be less than 80 cm, in men – less than 94 cm.

– A heart attack, as you know, is very dangerous in a recurrent form. What brings the threat of a second heart attack closer?

– The threat of a second heart attack is intensified by four main factors: atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, increased blood clotting and disorders of carbohydrate metabolism.These risk factors can only be contained with the right drug therapy.
To slow down the further development of atherosclerosis, it is important to prevent the formation of fatty plaques in the vessels. For this, modern drugs are prescribed. You cannot change the dosage of drugs at your own discretion. If there are any problems, the doctor will correct the course of treatment.

– What help can those who are nearby provide to the patient before the ambulance arrives?

– If you have the slightest suspicion that a person has symptoms of a heart attack, you must immediately call an ambulance.Before the arrival of the team, the patient should be provided with rest.

If you have chest pain, take nitroglycerin under the tongue in the form of a tablet or spray (if there is no tendency to low pressure) and an aspirin tablet, if there are no contraindications. If there is no effect, taking nitroglycerin can be repeated, but immediately call an ambulance.
An ambulance should be called if this is the first attack of angina pectoris in life, as well as if the pain behind the sternum or its equivalents intensifies or lasts more than five minutes, especially if all this is accompanied by worsening breathing, weakness, vomiting, if the pain behind the sternum has not stopped or intensified in within five minutes after resorption of the nitroglycerin tablet.
The first hours of the disease are critical, not to mention the fact that sudden cardiac death can occur in the first minutes. Thus, the prognosis depends primarily on the speed of the medical care provided: the earlier it is provided, the more chances are to save the heart muscle, as well as on the success of the measures applied and, accordingly, on how much the heart muscle has suffered, as well as the presence and degree of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a particular person.

– How to behave at home after myocardial infarction?

– To recover from a heart attack, the correct diet is important: a minimum of fat, nothing fried and spicy, more fiber, dairy products, fruits, vegetables, fish.
We’ll have to give up sausages and sausages, ready-made semi-finished products (dumplings, cutlets, etc.) – they have a lot of hidden fats that increase cholesterol levels. For the same reason, pate, liver dishes, offal, caviar are prohibited. Milk fat is also dangerous: you will have to sharply limit butter, fat cottage cheese, cheese, milk, kefir, sour cream, cream. When cooking chicken or turkey, remove all fat and skin from the carcass.
And, of course, a minimum of salt. Vodka, cognac and other strong drinks are canceled.But sometimes you can allow a glass of natural dry red wine. There are some habits that will have to be changed. If you smoked before, cigarettes are now completely taboo. An indisputable fact: almost 80 percent of people who have had a heart attack can return to normal life.

– What can you recommend for patients who have had a heart attack?

– To restore the work of the heart muscle, it is important to engage in physiotherapy exercises. Walking is an excellent remedy. After one and a half to two months of training, you can walk at a pace of up to 80 steps per minute without shortness of breath, the appearance of weakness.And over time, switch to very fast walking – up to 120 steps per minute. Climbing stairs, cycling, swimming are also helpful. Dancing two or three times a week for 30-40 minutes, which will also give the person additional positive emotions.
However, make sure that the heart rate during exercise does not exceed more than 70 percent of the threshold.

– How to calculate it?

– From 220, you need to subtract your own age – this is the maximum heart rate.Then we calculate the percentages. For example, for a 60-year-old person, the threshold load is calculated as follows: 220-60 = 160 heartbeats per minute, and 70 percent will be 112. This figure should be a guideline. But if unpleasant sensations appear at such a frequency, the load must be reduced.
And most importantly: after a heart attack, heavy lifting is categorically contraindicated.

– What remedies are used to treat myocardial infarction today?

– People who have had myocardial infarction have a very high risk of having another heart attack, stroke and death from cardiovascular disease.It is especially important for them to follow all the recommendations that will help reduce this risk. Long-term post-discharge patient care has two main goals. The first is to prevent the development of repeated myocardial infarction and death from it (the so-called “secondary prevention”). The second is the correction of complications of myocardial infarction.
Secondary prevention includes the maximum possible impact primarily on the risk factors for myocardial infarction, which we have already discussed.As well as drug therapy.
In the absence of contraindications to patients after myocardial infarction, the following groups of drugs are prescribed. These are drugs that thin the blood by preventing the adhesion (aggregation) of platelets (blood cells) between themselves and with the walls of blood vessels. Taking these drugs reduces the likelihood of a blood clot (blood clot in the lumen of a blood vessel or in the heart cavity) forming in the arteries, thereby blocking the main mechanism of myocardial infarction.
When treating with these drugs, there is a risk of bleeding, most often it is gastrointestinal bleeding. Therefore, watch out for black stools, blood in the stool, or other signs of bleeding. If you experience alarming symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor. Drugs that lower blood cholesterol levels have a direct beneficial effect on the walls of the arteries, “stabilizing” atherosclerotic plaques and preventing them from rupture.Since atherosclerotic plaque rupture is the mechanism that triggers blood clotting and blockage of the arteries, taking these drugs reduces the risk of a second heart attack. The doctor selects the dose in such a way as to achieve the target level of cholesterol, and especially low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), the target figures are less than 2.6 mmol / L (preferably less than 1.8 mmol / L). The drugs are prescribed indefinitely. Only a doctor prescribes drugs.
In addition, there is a set of mandatory medications after myocardial infarction, which are indicated in the patient’s discharge after treatment in the hospital, and the duration of their use.

– What are the complications of myocardial infarction?

– Arrhythmia is considered the most serious. It is the most common complication of myocardial infarction. The greatest danger is ventricular tachycardia (a type of arrhythmia in which the ventricles of the heart take on the role of pacemaker) and ventricular fibrillation (chaotic contraction of the walls of the ventricles). In addition to arrhythmia, heart failure (decreased contractility of the heart). It happens with myocardial infarction quite often.The decrease in contractile function occurs in proportion to the size of the infarction. As well as mechanical complications (aneurysm of the heart, rupture of the interventricular septum). They develop more often in the first week of myocardial infarction and are clinically manifested by a sudden deterioration in hemodynamics. The mortality rate in such patients is very high, and only an urgent operation can save their lives.
Recurrent (constantly recurring) pain syndrome occurs in about one third of patients with myocardial infarction, the dissolution of a thrombus does not affect its prevalence.
Postinfarction symptom complex. It is manifested by inflammation of the heart bag, bag of the lungs or inflammatory changes in the lungs themselves. The onset of this syndrome is associated with the formation of antibodies.

– Can a person who has had a heart attack use biologically active food additives? Or, on the contrary, should they be used for prevention purposes?

– Biologically active food additives (BAA) are not drugs, although they may have an external resemblance to drugs, for example, contain some active substances (vitamins, minerals, etc.)), which are part of drugs, and produced in the same dosage forms (tablets, capsules, syrups, etc.), but in much smaller doses. In all approved documents, dietary supplements are defined as food products, so they cannot be used for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease.
Remember that not a single dietary supplement has been seriously studied in terms of prevention, let alone treatment of patients with myocardial infarction and heart failure. The safety of dietary supplements as food products is regulated by sanitary rules and regulations.Their side effects are often not studied, although they are possible, therefore, the instructions for their use may lack the sections “Side effects”, “Contraindications”, “Precautions”. This allows dietary supplement manufacturers to advertise them as completely safe products that can be used without consulting a doctor. Unfortunately, the practice of using dietary supplements around the world does not confirm this.
It must be remembered: self-medication is life-threatening, you should consult a doctor for advice on the use of any medications.

– What are the current treatments for acute myocardial infarction?

– Treatment of myocardial infarction sets itself the task of ensuring the vitality of the heart muscle in the first place. This is possible if coronary blood flow is restored in the first hours after an attack. This is the only life-saving treatment for myocardial infarction.
Blood flow through the coronary arteries can be restored only in two ways, which are included in the standard of treatment of myocardial infarction.These are thrombolytic therapy (dissolution of a blood clot with the help of drugs) and surgical treatment: percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, most often with stenting of the coronary vessel, sometimes emergency coronary artery bypass grafting. Thrombolytic therapy with modern drugs should ideally be carried out by an ambulance team. Angioplasty and stenting of the coronary arteries are performed in a cardiological dispensary on an emergency basis for those patients who promptly sought medical help; For the same patients who asked for help late, these procedures are carried out on a delayed basis or in a planned manner and do not always help to save the lost part of the heart muscle.

– What is a stent?

– A stent is a thin metal tube made of wire cells, inflated with a special balloon. It is introduced into the affected vessel and, expanding, is pressed into the walls of the vessel, increasing its lumen. This improves the blood supply to the heart, rapidly relieves pain, limits the size of myocardial infarction, improves contractility in the area of ​​myocardial infarction, decreases the severity of heart failure, decreases the likelihood of complications and, as a result, decreases mortality.
It should be borne in mind that the earlier the treatment of myocardial infarction is started, the higher the effectiveness of treatment and the lower the likelihood of adverse outcomes.
It must be remembered that only after a regular high-quality medical examination can one consider oneself healthy or having a disease in a state of stable remission. As well as the fact that early detection of the disease in the initial stages will make it possible to timely and efficiently carry out the necessary treatment, to maintain working capacity and quality of life,
Remember also that only a doctor can diagnose and treat, and the patient must faithfully follow his prescriptions and have a firm conviction in the need to lead a healthy lifestyle.

Caution: meningitis! | Medical center “Serdolik”

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This very serious illness begins like a common cold. Find out how not to overlook danger and how to protect your baby from it.

A warm hat will not save a baby from this disease

Surely, many of you remember how your mother told you in childhood: “Put on a hat, otherwise you will remain a fool!” So she wanted to protect her child from meningitis – a very dangerous disease.But in reality meningitis is caused by bacteria and viruses, not cold, so a hat, unfortunately, will not help here. But the mental faculties and hearing with meningitis can really suffer, and in this your mom is absolutely right.

Sources of infection

Meningitis is an infectious disease in which the lining of the brain and spinal cord becomes inflamed. One of the most common forms of bacterial meningitis is meningococcal meningitis. The bacteria that cause it live in a person’s throat and respiratory tract.At the same time, many people carry these bacteria in themselves for years and do not get sick. But at the same time, they can be contagious to others.

Meningitis is transmitted by airborne droplets when sneezing and coughing, therefore it most often appears in groups where close contact is inevitable: in kindergartens, circles, sections, etc. By the way, children get meningitis four times more often than adults, and 83% of cases are babies in the first five years of life. This is explained by the fact that in young children, immunity is not yet fully formed.Meningococcal meningitis is a rare but insidious disease. In Russia, out of a hundred thousand children under the age of 3-4 years, only three fall ill annually, but even with correct diagnosis and treatment, 16% of cases end in death on the first day after the onset of symptoms. Meningitis is also dangerous due to its complications.

Anxiety symptoms

The insidiousness of meningitis also lies in the fact that it begins as the usual flu or ARVI. The child’s temperature rises sharply (up to 38-40 ° C), he may complain of chills, pain in the whole body, as well as a severe headache …And it is the headache that should alert you, because in ordinary life it is rare in children. Light and touching the skin are also unpleasant for the child. He becomes lethargic and sleeps a lot, or, conversely, begins to cry and be capricious.

The baby may also develop vomiting, seizures and a rash in the form of pink spots. Usually the rash appears on the legs, then goes into the armpits and arms. Over time, it acquires a dark red (up to black) hue and becomes like stars of irregular shape.

How to keep your baby safe

Of course, it would be very good if a warm hat protected the child from meningitis. But, unfortunately, she is powerless in this case. And to reduce the risk of illness, you can give your baby a vaccine. Vaccination against meningitis is not included in the National Vaccination Schedule of our country, however, such vaccines exist and are suitable for children aged 2 years and older. Until recently, only polysaccharide vaccines against meningococcal meningitis were presented in Russia.They are usually used during outbreaks and give children short-term (up to 2–3 years of age) immunity against meningococcal infection. But last year, the world’s first tetravalent conjugated meningococcal vaccine was registered in our country, which forms high and long-term immunity in children against four varieties of meningococci. According to Russian experts on infectious diseases in children, the new meningococcal vaccine has an important advantage over other vaccines currently used in our country, as it is able to provide long-term immune memory (and thus long-term protection) against major meningococci in young children. , that is, the most vulnerable age group.

Correct treatment

Remember that there are no traditional treatments for meningitis! Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial meningitis. An accurate diagnosis and treatment of meningitis is possible only in a hospital. Therefore, if your baby has a sharp fever, photophobia, vomiting or convulsions, in no case do not self-medicate and urgently call an ambulance! Usually, the child spends about two to three weeks in the hospital, and then another two years is under the supervision of a neurologist.

Why dream of vomit and vomiting: interpretation of sleep, which portends

Miller’s dream book

When asked why vomiting is dreamed in a dream, Miller’s dream interpreter is able to answer. If the dreamer himself has vomited, then in the near future you should be extremely careful. You may be involved in high-profile litigation or have serious health problems.

From this source, we can find out why someone else’s vomiting is dreaming.Such a dream is extremely negative in nature and warns of disappointment in a loved one. Most likely, you will catch cheating on someone from your friends, whom you have infinitely trusted until this day. If in a dream you vomited, and the vomit was bloody, then in the near future you will have to throw all your strength into restoring your shaky health.

If a woman had a dream in which she vomits, but instead of vomiting, chicks fly out of her mouth – a lingering black streak will come in your life.You will not be able to complete the work you have begun, disappointment will lie in wait for you everywhere.

Various interpretations

Why dream of profuse vomiting in a person? The answer to this question is given by Aesop’s dream book. The dream suggests that close people whom you completely trust are insincere, and you can be very disappointed in them.

A modern dream book interprets nausea and vomiting as a harbinger of great surprise in real life. In some cases, the dreamer is awaiting in reality unexpectedly dumped wealth or a sharp financial growth.

The traditional dream book deciphers a similar plot as a promise of liberation from something unnecessary in real life. Having found vomit in a dream, it is imperative to find real factors that annoy and interfere with life. This is the only way to receive spiritual healing and gain inner peace, which will allow you to successfully fight for your success in life.

A dream in which vomiting is present can be seen by everyone, but this does not mean that you need to give up and wait for trouble.It is better to prudently go through life, protecting yourself from illness and beingware of a dirty trick from relatives and friends.

Dream Interpretation of Hope and Dmitry Winter

Why dream of vomiting, after which the dreamer feels relief? Such a dream, according to astrologers Dmitry and Nadezhda Zima, indicates positive life changes. If you have any difficulties, they will be resolved in the near future, and in the most unexpected way. You will be able to bypass all the traps set by ill-wishers, pay off your debts.

Less joyful interpretation awaits people looking for an answer to the question of why vomit with blood or bile is dreaming of. In the near future, you will have colossal troubles, disagreements with loved ones, loss of material stability. If in a dream another person is vomiting, then such a dream should be taken as a warning. You take other people’s problems too close to your heart. Try to look at life from a different angle, be a little easier.

Why dream about vomiting interpretation of a dream

If a person does not have obvious health and well-being problems, in order to find out what vomiting is about in a dream, you should turn to popular interpreters.So, it is believed that such a dream portends problems with the digestive or nervous system in the future. In this case, the best option would be to contact the appropriate specialists, so it is not recommended to delay the visit to the doctor. This is especially true of those cases when there were already suspicions of one or another ailment.

Also, the dream book says that if nausea vomiting dreamed, this may indicate the onset of pregnancy, this is especially true in a situation when the vision came late at night.

Attention! There is also a positive meaning of the dream. In particular, if a person dreams of his own nausea, this portends an early unexpected enrichment.

Combined dream book

Why dream of vomiting? You should very carefully monitor your speech and actions. Perhaps they will try to drag you into a grand scandal. It is possible that your health will deteriorate, and you will lose your ability to work.

If in a dream you dream of vomiting of another person, you will discover the plans of insidious people who want to ruin your life.Bloody vomit is a warning dream that indicates a health problem. You may experience extreme stress not finding support in the people around you.

Terrible content, or Be careful

Having decided to find out why the dream in which you are sick, pay attention to what exactly vomited you.

Dream Interpretation of Nostradamus, for example, warns: beware of scandals with household members if you dreamed that you were vomiting blood.And another dream book – Gypsy – believes that vomiting blood is a warning about intestinal diseases.

To dream that you are vomiting with worms is a terrible sight. Dream Interpretation of Veles is sure that if in a dream someone vomits with flies, cockroaches or worms, it means that he is haunted by some thoughts that are long overdue to leave.

Autumn Dream Book

Why dream of vomit? The autumn dream book has a completely unexpected interpretation of such a dream. According to the dream interpreter, such a dream portends a strengthening of the financial situation.A rapid cash flow will fall on the dreamer like an avalanche.

If in a dream you just felt a gagging urge and did not vomit, then there is a high probability that you will be diagnosed with an intestinal disease.

Brief Interpretations

You can talk about the gag reflex for hours. It is possible, but not necessary! Let’s take a quick look at what dreams are about, how someone is sick.

  • If you dreamed about what nagged you, you will gossip.
  • Sick someone you know – don’t trust this person.
  • Your beloved is sick – he does not have a feeling of love for you.
  • You vomited something terrible – to a quarrel and unpleasant incidents.
  • Strange vomit – to new hobbies, but not always successful.
  • Nauseous, but no vomiting – to successfully get rid of troubles.

Women’s dream book

If the dreamer had a dream in which she vomited, then this can be regarded as a warning. Most likely, big troubles will happen in your personal life or you will have to fight a dangerous illness.Vomit dreams, as a rule, on the eve of quarrels, divorce proceedings, any losses.

If in a dream you had to watch how a stranger was vomiting, then in the near future you will open your eyes to many things. You may find out that you have been deceived by people you have always trusted.

Medea’s predictions

What is the opinion of the sorceress Medea? Why dream of vomiting, if you rely on its interpretation? Such a plot warns that a person is in a situation that he does not accept.He should get out of it as soon as possible. If the sleeper cannot do it on his own, he should seek help from relatives and friends.

Nausea dreams of false accusations. Someone will reproach the sleeping person for what he did not do. Such injustice will seriously upset a person. Unfortunately, he will hardly be able to justify himself.

Vomiting in a child

If you calmed or felt sorry for a child who vomited in your sleep, this is a dream that indicates the dreamer’s desire for spiritual comfort.Your goal is harmony with yourself. However, circumstances play against you.

To dream of a child suffering from stomach cramps is an extremely negative dream that predicts a colossal number of difficulties that you have to overcome.

Dream interpretation vomiting why dream vomiting in a dream

Everyone dreams. Almost everything seen in a dream has a certain interpretation. If vomiting is dreamed, this suggests that the dreamer may get into an unpleasant situation or become seriously ill.But the dream book assures that not everything is so bad. There are other explanations for why this is a dream. For example, if in night dreams there is a feeling of relief after nausea, this portends a decline in nervous tension in life and an unexpected solution to problems that were oppressive and disturbing.

Blood, bile

Why do I dream of vomiting with blood? Such a plot warns the sleeper that he should avoid conflict situations in the near future. Someone can provoke the dreamer to words and deeds that he will regret for a long time.Better in the coming days not to communicate with people who do not like.

Vomiting with blood, bile can be dreamed of for other reasons. Such a plot can warn a person about the need to take care of their health. It is possible that he has problems with the gastrointestinal tract.

Why dream about Vomiting according to Miller’s dream book

Why dream about Vomiting in a dream?

Vomiting – Seeing in a dream that you are vomiting means that you will be hurt by some kind of bad health or you will suddenly be involved in a big scandal.Seeing others in this state in a dream means that in real life you will discover the insincerity of people you trusted.

For a woman, a dream in which she vomits with a chicken means that she will not receive the long-awaited pleasure due to the illness of some relative. This dream also predicts a bad turn of events.

If you have bloody vomit, you will suddenly get sick. Feelings will make you feel discouraged, and children and the home environment will make you uncomfortable.

Why dream vomited

Why dreamed that you vomited

vomited – If you see in a dream that you vomited – this dream is contradictory.On the one hand, it predicts liberation from something unnecessary and burdensome for you – for example, dependence on someone. Or – from illness: vomited – this is to relief and recovery. But on the other hand, if you see how you vomited, this warns that you have to face unexpected problems, hardships, be drawn into a quarrel or a protracted conflict.

If you vomit and see vomiting, the dream says that you are a very fickle and contradictory person.Often you yourself cannot determine what you really want, and therefore you cannot stop at one option, endlessly change your decisions, tactics of action and even your opinion about something.

Dream interpretation interpretation of dreams Vomiting.

If you start vomiting in a dream: this portends the onset of an illness or unexpected involvement in a big scandal.

If you see others in this state: you will have to be convinced of the insincerity of the people you trusted before.

If a woman dreams that she is vomiting rapidly flying chicks: this means that joy and peace will not return to her for a long time.Also, such a dream can portend an unsuccessful course of business.

A dream in which you will vomit inside out and you will feel relief: speaks of a decrease in negative nervous tension. If something has bothered and depressed you these days, you can expect that the given problem will receive an unexpected solution.

At the same time, if in a dream you see that you are vomiting with blood or bile: this is a sign of very big troubles and the most difficult conflicts. Most likely, too much negativity has accumulated in your life, and it will be difficult to get rid of it.

Seeing someone vomit: This is a hint that encourages you to free yourself from the burden of difficult experiences and relate to life more easily.

Eastern dream book Vomiting »›

A woman has a dream in which she experiences a gag reflex: portends illness of loved ones, and those in which her constant presence will be necessary.

Interpretation of Dmitry and Nadezhda Winter

What does vomiting mean according to Dmitry and Nadezhda Winter’s dream book?

  • Someone else is facing this trouble, and the sleeping person is watching from the side? Such a plot must be taken as a hint.A person’s life will change for the better if he gets rid of the burden of difficult experiences. The dreamer needs to forgive himself for mistakes made in the past.
  • In the night dreams of a person vomited, after which he felt relief? Such dreams promise a decrease in nervous tension. The problem that has long oppressed the sleeper will soon be successfully resolved. The dreamer will be able to finally breathe a sigh of relief, return to normal life.
  • What does vomiting of bile or blood represent? Such a plot promises serious trouble for the sleeper.The man hid his head in the sand for a long time, he had a lot of problems. It is necessary to address them as soon as possible. Getting rid of negativity won’t be easy, but it’s worth it.

Vomiting // David Crisp’s dream book

Why dream about Vomiting

For many people, especially children, vomiting is a difficult and humiliating experience. In a dream, this can happen in almost any kind of dream. Since in real life, vomiting is often associated with illness, it appears in dreams when our life is mostly out of control.It is most likely that the presence of this phenomenon in a dream has to do with vomiting and nausea or other unpleasant sensations in the digestive tract in reality.


What else can you tell about why vomiting is dreaming? In a dream, to see vomit – what does this mean? If the sleeper steps into them, then he should seriously think about it. It is not uncommon for a person to allow other people to use him / herself. Again and again he deals with problems that have nothing to do with him.

Wipe up vomit – why is this dreaming? Night dreams predict a reward for the sleeper’s work. The investments that the person made earlier will finally bring him dividends.

Nauseous but vomiting was not

Dream interpretation Nauseous but vomiting was not dreamed of why in a dream Nauseated but vomiting was not? To select the interpretation of a dream, enter a keyword from your dream into the search form or click on the initial letter of the image characterizing a dream (if you want to get an online interpretation of dreams by letter for free alphabetically).