Vomiting body aches fever: What Is Norovirus Infection? Symptoms, Contagious Period & Treatment
Vomiting, Diarrhea, and Body Aches, OH MY!
There is nothing worse than waking up in the middle of the night with vomiting, body aches, diarrhea, and fever. Is it the flu? Food poisoning? Norovirus? The only way to know for sure is to see a physician. However, this article can help you better understand your symptoms and offer more information about some common illnesses that are characterized by body aches, vomiting, fever, and diarrhea.
Illnesses That Cause Vomiting, Fever, and Diarrhea
Vomiting, fever, diarrhea, and body aches are often caused by gastroenteritis.
Gastroenteritis is an intestinal infection marked by nausea or vomiting, abdominal cramps, watery diarrhea, and sometimes fever. According to the Mayo Clinic, “The most common way to develop viral gastroenteritis — often called stomach flu — is through contact with an infected person or by ingesting contaminated food or water. ”
There are several conditions that can lead to gastroenteritis, including food poisoning, norovirus, and rotavirus.
Some common bacterial food poisonings include:
Botulism. Symptoms begin within 18-36 hours of eating contaminated food and can consist of drooping eyelids, double vision, difficulty swallowing, labored breathing, vomiting, and diarrhea.
E. coli. Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, headache and aching muscles. In children, E. coli could cause kidney failure.
Listeriosis. Symptoms include diarrhea, fever, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, cramping, and back pain. If left untreated, listeriosis can lead to meningitis.
Salmonellosis. Symptoms can include cramping, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, headache, chills, and bloody stool. Salmonellosis can be fatal in individuals with weakened immune systems and in infants.
Norovirus is one of the most common causes of viral gastroenteritis. Common symptoms include:
Rotavirus is most common in young children and infants. Symptoms usually appear within 2 days of exposure to rotavirus and include:
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Stomach pain and chills: 12 causes
Here, we list some of the common causes of stomach pain and chills:
The common cold
Most adults can expect to have two or three colds every year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Children usually have more.
The common cold causes symptoms including:
Symptoms typically improve after 7–10 days, though a cough can persist for 2 weeks or more.
Treatment involves home remedies such as resting, staying hydrated, and taking over-the-counter (OTC) medications.
Gastroenteritis occurs when the stomach and intestines are inflamed due to a bacterial or viral infection.
Viral gastroenteritis, which some doctors call stomach flu, is the most common form. Other causes include reactions to food or medications.
In the United States, around 179 million cases of acute gastroenteritis each year, according to a study in the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases. This makes it one of the most common illnesses.
Signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis include:
- low-grade fever or chills
- muscle aches
- stomach cramps
Symptoms can persist for up to a week. Some treatment options include resting, staying hydrated, eating soft foods, and taking OTC medications.
Infection with Salmonella bacteria is a common occurrence in the U.S. It causes 1.2 million illnesses annually, according to the CDC. People typically get the infection as a result of consuming contaminated food or water.
Symptoms usually begin within 12–72 hours of infection and may include:
- fever or chills
- stomach cramps
Treatment is typically unnecessary, and most people recover within a few days. During this time, self-care measures can reduce discomfort. People with severe symptoms may require medication or even hospitalization.
4. Urinary tract infection
A urinary tract infection (UTI) occurs when bacteria or other microbes infect the urinary tract. Females have a higher risk of developing UTIs than males do, with 40–60 percent of females experiencing one in their lifetime.
Symptoms may include:
- an increase in urinary frequency
- an increase in urinary urgency
- burning pain when urinating
- cloudy, strong-smelling, or pink urine
- fever or chills
- pain in the pelvis or back, which may radiate to the abdomen
- passing small amounts of urine regularly
Most UTIs will require antibiotic treatment, but some home remedies can reduce discomfort until the infection clears up. Home remedies include drinking plenty of water, avoiding caffeine, and using a heating pad on the abdomen.
5. Kidney stones
Share on PinterestDrinking fluids can help small kidney stones pass through the urinary tract.
When minerals and salts build up in the kidneys, they can form hard deposits called kidney stones.
A 2018 review in the journal Advances in Urology suggests that 1 in 11 people in the U.S. develop kidney stones.
These hard deposits may not cause any symptoms until they change positions in the kidney or urinary tract.
Kidney stones can then result in:
- changes in urinary habits and amount
- cloudy, strong-smelling, or pink urine
- fever and chills, in the case of an infection
- pain in the abdomen, groin, sides, and back
- painful urination
Small kidney stones can pass through the urinary tract on their own. It is helpful to drink fluids and take pain relivers until the stone passes.
At other times, it is necessary to undergo surgery or another type of medical procedure to remove the stone.
Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland, which is just below the bladder in males.
Prostatitis has a prevalence rate of 8.2 percent and is “the most common urological diagnosis” in males aged 50 and under.
Bacterial prostatitis, which results from bacterial infection, causes:
- difficulty urinating
- flu-like symptoms, such as chills
- cloudy or bloody urine
- frequent urination
- pain in the abdomen, lower back, genitals, or groin
- painful urination and ejaculation
Treatment may include taking antibiotics and other medications. Using heating pads, making dietary changes, and making lifestyle changes may provide some symptom relief.
Infectious mononucleosis, or the kissing disease or mono, passes between people through saliva. Along with stomach pain and chills, symptoms include:
- a sore throat
- skin rash
- swollen lymph nodes in the neck and armpits
- swollen tonsils
Symptoms usually do not appear until 4–6 weeks after infection and last for up to 2 months.
Treatment includes resting, staying hydrated, and taking OTC pain relievers. Some people may require medications for secondary infections.
Pneumonia is a lung infection that causes inflammation of the air sacs. In the U.S., it is “a leading cause of hospitalization” in both adults and children.
Pneumonia symptoms, which range in severity, include:
- chest pain
- coughing up phlegm
- difficulty breathing
- stomach pain
Pneumonia can be life-threatening for older adults, children, and those who have a compromised immune system. People who have symptoms should always speak with a doctor.
Treatment includes taking medication, resting, and other home remedies. Some people may require hospitalization.
9. Gallbladder inflammation
Gallbladder inflammation, or cholecystitis, is swelling of the gallbladder, which is a pear-shaped organ in the abdomen.
Gallstones are the most common cause of gallbladder inflammation. According to a 2012 study in the journal Gut and Liver, around 10–15 percent of adults will develop gallstones. Other causes include tumors and infections.
Cholecystitis symptoms, which often get worse after eating large or fatty meals, include:
- abdominal pain and tenderness, usually in the upper right or center
- fever or chills
- pain in the back or right shoulder
If left untreated, gallbladder inflammation can cause severe complications. Some treatment options include hospitalization, fasting, intravenous fluids, and taking pain relievers. Surgery may be necessary to remove the gallstones or the entire gallbladder.
10. Pelvic inflammatory disease
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) occurs when sexually transmitted bacteria, including chlamydia or gonorrhea, spread to the fallopian tubes, uterus, or ovaries.
Research from 2017, which appeared in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, suggests that 4.4 percent of sexually experienced females of reproductive age have PID.
PID does not always cause symptoms. Sometimes, people only realize that they have the condition when they experience difficulty getting pregnant.
If symptoms do occur, they include:
- bleeding between periods
- bleeding during or after sex
- difficult or painful urination
- heavy and foul-smelling vaginal discharge
- pain in the lower abdomen and pelvis
Doctors usually prescribe antibiotics to people with PID. Sexual partners also require treatment.
Without treatment, the infection can cause chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility.
Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix, which is a piece of tissue attached to the large intestine.
Appendicitis affects 1 in 1,000 people in the U.S., usually those aged 10–30 years old.
The condition causes pain on the lower right-hand side of the abdomen. This tends to get worse over time and may occur alongside:
Surgery is usually necessary to remove the appendix.
Diverticulitis occurs when diverticula, which are bulging pouches that form in the gut’s lining, develop an infection or inflammation.
According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, these pouches may form in 35 percent of U.S. adults aged 50 and below, and in 58 percent of all people over the age of 60. However, most cases do not progress to diverticulitis.
- constipation or diarrhea
- fever or chills
- stomach pain, which may be severe and persistent
Mild cases typically clear up by taking antibiotics, resting, and making dietary changes. Severe cases may require surgical intervention.
Stomach pain and chills may have other less common symptoms, including:
- cystic fibrosis, a genetic disorder that causes organ damage
- epididymitis, or inflammation of the epididymis, which is a coiled tube at the back of the testicles
- heart attack, but only in rare cases
- leukemia, a cancer of the blood and bone marrow
- malaria, an infectious disease that mosquitoes carry
- meningitis, or inflammation of membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
- pancreatitis, or inflammation of the pancreas
- peritonitis, or inflammation of the peritoneum tissue in the abdomen
- scarlet fever, a bacterial illness
- shingles, a viral infection similar to chickenpox
- tuberculosis, a bacterial infection of the lungs
- Weil’s disease, a bacterial infection often transmitted by rodents
- yellow fever, an infection that mosquitoes carry
Stomach Flu (Gastroenteritis) : Symptoms, Causes & Diagnosis
What is stomach flu (gastroenteritis)?
Gastroenteritis is inflammation (irritation) of your intestines. People usually call it a “stomach bug” or “stomach flu,” even though it’s not limited to just influenza. Although most people report stomach pain, gastroenteritis can also involve your small intestines and colon.
How common is stomach flu (gastroenteritis)?
Stomach flu is common. More than 20 million people get sick each year in the U.S. with an intestinal upset. Viruses are the most common cause of stomach flu.
Who gets stomach flu (gastroenteritis)?
Anyone can come down with stomach flu. But you’re more likely to get it if you’re in a place where lots of people share living or dining spaces, such as:
- Children in daycare or at camp.
- Nursing homes.
- Students living in dormitories.
- Military personnel.
- Psychiatric wards.
- Cruise-ship passengers.
- Travelers to less-developed countries.
- Anyone with immune compromised state.
Symptoms and Causes
What causes stomach flu (gastroenteritis)?
You can get sick from bacteria, parasites, toxins and viruses. Viruses are the most common cause of so-called stomach flu. Norovirus is often the culprit for adults, while rotavirus is frequently to blame for stomach flu in children. These viruses mostly infect the lining of the small intestine.
What are the symptoms of stomach flu (gastroenteritis)?
The main symptom of gastroenteritis is diarrhea. When the GI tract becomes infected during gastroenteritis, multiple activities from the virus brings on diarrhea. Malabsorption occurs because of the destruction of the gut cells called enterocytes. The virus can also disrupt the reasbsorption of water and induce secretory diarrhea, which is responsible for the loose liquidy stools.
Can stomach flu cause a fever?
You might get a fever when you have stomach flu. A fever can be a sign that your body is fighting an infection. You may feel sweaty, clammy or have the chills. You may also get a headache or ache all over your body.
Is the stomach flu worse in some people?
In general, most people recover quickly from the stomach flu. Symptoms can be worse in babies, young children, older adults or anyone of any age that is immune-compromised. Vomiting and diarrhea can cause dehydration (not enough water in the body) within just a short period of time, depending on the circumstances. Signs of dehydration include:
- Extreme thirst.
- Less urine output than usual (no wet diapers for three hours or more in infants).
- Urine that is darker in color.
- Sunken cheeks or eyes.
- Lightheadedness, dizziness upon standing.
- General weakness.
Why does stomach flu hit at night?
In some people, the stomach flu symptoms may be more pronounced at night due to their circadian rhythm. At night an increase in immune system activity releases infection-fighting chemicals. These can cause inflammation that make you feel worse as you battle your flu.
Is stomach flu (gastroenteritis) contagious?
Viral stomach flu spreads easily to others. You can catch a stomach flu virus any time of the year, but the common norovirus is more widespread from November to April when people tend to be more indoors. Because a variety of viruses can cause stomach flu, you might get different versions of gastroenteritis many times throughout life.
It’s spread from person to person by coming into contact with tiny, invisible particles from a sick person’s stool or vomit if you:
- Touch a surface and come in contact with the germs and you touch food or your mouth.
- Eat or drink food or beverages that have a sick person’s germs.
- Have close contact with someone who has stomach flu (even if they have no symptoms).
Diagnosis and Tests
When should you see a doctor for stomach flu (gastroenteritis)?
You’ll likely be able to fight off stomach flu virus without seeing a healthcare provider. If you have signs of dehydration (dark, infrequent/low urine output, dry mucous membranes, lightheadedness, dizziness, etc.), you should seek medical care right away. Also call your healthcare provider if you have:
- High fever.
- Bloody diarrhea.
- Severe pain.
- Symptoms that fail to improve/resolve over time.
How is stomach flu diagnosed?
Healthcare providers often can diagnose stomach flu from your symptoms. But your provider may want to rule out other illnesses with some tests:
- Stool samples: Tests look for bacteria, viruses or parasites in your stool
- Sigmoidoscopy: A doctor inserts a thin, flexible tube with a tiny camera from the anus into the lower large intestine to look for signs of inflammatory bowel disease. The sigmoidoscopy is a 15-minute procedure that doesn’t usually require sedation.
Management and Treatment
How can I get rid of stomach flu (gastroenteritis)?
The most important things you can do to feel better faster are rest and staying well hydrated. Between diarrhea and vomiting, your body loses a lot of water and electrolytes. If your belly is still upset, you can take small, frequent sips of water, sports drinks, juice or broth, or chew on ice chips. It is important to know that water alone may not be enough to keep you hydrated in severe cases of diarrhea so make sure to take in electrolyte balance hydration (sports drinks, Gatorade®, Pedialyte®, etc). Eat a normal diet when you feel hungry again.
How can stomach flu (gastroenteritis) be prevented?
Since stomach flu can be caused by multiple factors, getting the flu vaccination alone isn’t enough to protect you from gastroenteritis. Children should follow the standard vaccination schedule and get the rotavirus vaccination when indicated. This vaccination can protect your child from getting sick from the rotovirus but not all children can receive this oral vaccination, so please check with your pediatrician before doing so.
You can take other steps to reduce your risk of getting stomach flu:
Practice good handwashing
When you’re sick, the virus spreads from anything that comes in contact with virus-infected feces. Good handwashing is vital in stopping the spread. Viruses left on hands can easily spread to surfaces, food and people you touch. It’s important to wash your hands well after you go to the bathroom, change a diaper, touch any bathroom surfaces and before you handle food.
Be careful with food
You can catch stomach flu from contaminated food or water, or pass it on to someone else. To keep viruses out of your food:
- Clean kitchen surfaces with a disinfectant (cleaner that kills germs), especially when working with raw meat or eggs.
- Keep raw meat, eggs and poultry away from foods that are eaten raw.
- Avoid eating raw or undercooked meat, eggs and shellfish.
- Consume only pasteurized dairy products and apple juice. Pasteurization is a heating process that kills germs.
- Rinse fruits and vegetables before eating.
- Drink bottled water and avoid ice cubes when traveling, especially in developing countries. Unfamiliar germs that live in the water can make you sick.
- · Stop making food for others when you’re sick and for two days after symptoms are gone.
Clean sick areas
Clean anything that you may have touched while you were sick with stomach flu. Wash laundry with hot water and dry with high heat. Be sure to use a disinfectant to clean areas where a sick person vomited or had diarrhea.
Outlook / Prognosis
How long does stomach flu last?
The stomach flu usually lasts less than a week. Be sure to stay home if you have symptoms, and continue to practice good handwashing afterward. The virus can still be in your stool for up to two weeks after you’ve stopped having symptoms, so be extra careful with your bathroom habits. Always wash your hands after having a bowel movement, and wash any soiled fabrics in hot soapy water.
What can I do at home to feel better?
Get plenty of rest and keep drinking lots of liquids until your symptoms pass. Drinks that have both sugar and salt (like sports drinks) help your intestine absorb fluids better and replace the lost electrolytes. Nibbling salty crackers along with ginger ale or a similar sweet drink could also help. Avoid dairy products like cow’s milk for one or two days — milk can make diarrhea worse due to temporary lactose intolerance that often come with gastroenteritis.
To control severe diarrhea, your healthcare provider may recommend an over-the-counter medication such bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol® or Kaopectate®). You shouldn’t use these medicines if you have a high fever or bloody diarrhea, which can be signs of deeper infection from bacteria or a parasite. Antidiarrheal medications aren’t safe for children to use. Instead, see your healthcare provider for treatment.
Nearly everyone gets a bout of stomach flu at some point. It’s not pleasant, but it usually passes in less than a week. Give yourself time to rest and recover before you go back to your daily activities. Fortunately you can take steps to avoid the likelihood of passing it on to others or picking it up again in the future.
Gastroenteritis (Stomach Flu) | Gastrointestinal Society
Often incorrectly referred to as the ‘stomach flu’, gastroenteritis is a condition in which a person experiences temporary inflammation of the stomach and/or intestines. This inflammation leads to diarrhea and/or vomiting, as well as complications from these symptoms, such as abdominal pain, dehydration, and fatigue. Gastroenteritis is common, especially in children, but there are many different causes of this condition.
Gastroenteritis symptoms often begin suddenly and, in most types, last for one to three days in healthy adults, but can last longer in young children, the elderly, and those who have suppressed immune systems.
Most individuals with gastroenteritis will experience both diarrhea and vomiting, but some experience only one of these symptoms. Diarrhea is often very watery (type 7 on the Bristol stool chart), and can be bloody if the source of gastroenteritis is bacterial. Persistent diarrhea and vomiting can lead to abdominal pain, stomach cramps, loss of appetite, and dehydration. In young children, diarrhea and vomiting can cause an electrolyte imbalance, which is very dangerous and can lead to death if untreated.
In viral gastroenteritis, other symptoms such as fever, headache, body aches, chills, and fatigue can occur, leading to much of the confusion between the flu and gastroenteritis. The flu is a respiratory illness caused by infection with the influenza virus, and although many other symptoms are similar between the flu and gastroenteritis, the flu rarely causes vomiting and diarrhea.
While the body typically clears an infection within a few days, sometimes there can be lasting effects. Gastroenteritis can modify the microbiome balance, leading to a decrease in the diversity and quantity of good bacteria in the gut, which can cause health complications in the long-term.1 One study found that approximately one in five of those affected with norovirus experienced significant microbiota alterations, although it is unclear how many of them will develop complications from this imbalance.2
One potential outcome of gastroenteritis is a type of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) known as post-infectious IBS. Studies have found that post-infectious IBS affects between 5-32% of those who experience gastroenteritis.3 However, the prognosis is good for this type of IBS, with symptoms typically gone soon after developing, without need for treatment. In cases of bacterial gastroenteritis, it can take a few years to resolve, but if it’s caused by viral infection, then symptoms are usually gone within a few months.3 Although this type of IBS is uncomfortable, it does not lead to any other adverse affects, and doesn’t increase the risk of other diseases or disorders after symptom resolution.
Some other potential, but rare, complications from gastroenteritis include developing ulcerative colitis, aortic aneurysm, or reactive arthritis in the months after the infection.4
Viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections cause most cases of gastroenteritis. These are communicable infections, which can be spread through contact with another person who is sick, contact with an item recently touched by someone with infectious gastroenteritis, or the consumption of contaminated food or water. Many individuals develop gastroenteritis while travelling, especially in developing countries.
The most common cause of gastroenteritis is norovirus. When someone gets the ‘stomach flu’, it is typically an infection with one of the viruses in the norovirus family. Norovirus is highly contagious, and is often responsible for sickness outbreaks on cruise ships, in nursing homes, and in schools. Symptoms typically last only a day or two.5
Until recently, infection with rotavirus was the most common cause of gastroenteritis in children. Symptoms last for up to a week, and can be very severe. In young children, particularly those under five years-of-age, gastroenteritis from rotavirus can lead to serious complications from dehydration if untreated, and can even be fatal. However, since 2006, there have been effective vaccines for this virus, which have drastically reduced the incidence of children with rotavirus infection and gastroenteritis hospitalized in Canada. For more information on the rotavirus vaccine, see the article Rotavirus Vaccine Success.
Bacteria cause many cases of foodborne gastroenteritis. These include infections with E. coli and various species within the salmonella, campylobacter, shigella, staphylococcus, and yersinia genera. For some of these, the bacteria themselves cause gastroenteritis, but in others, the bacteria produce toxins that damage the digestive tract and cause gastroenteritis. Food products purchased from stores could be tainted with harmful bacteria, and food prepared at home or at a restaurant with inadequate sanitation protocols could become contaminated. These bacteria can also spread from person-to-person.
Protozoa such as Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum can also cause gastroenteritis. Most individuals who become infected with these parasites do so from consuming contaminated water. They also spread from contact with an infected individual. These types of infections are more common when travelling in developing countries.
Antibiotics might increase the risk of gastroenteritis in susceptible populations by disturbing the balance of gut microbiota.
Gastroenteritis affects millions of Canadians each year. While it is difficult to accurately count the number affected, approximately four million Canadians, or about one in eight, get food-borne gastroenteritis each year. Of these, 11,600 are hospitalized and 238 cases result in death from complications.6
Your physician will likely make a diagnosis of gastroenteritis based off symptoms alone. They might request a stool test to check for the presence of certain viruses, bacteria, and protozoa in order to determine the source of the gastroenteritis.
Prevention and Management
Treatment will vary depending on the source of gastroenteritis. However, since some form of highly contagious agent usually causes gastroenteritis, maintaining a healthy hand-washing routine, and staying home when sick, can help avoid the spread of the illness and prevent community outbreaks.
There are no medications available to treat viral gastroenteritis. Instead, treatment focuses on symptom management and preventing complications. In the rare cases of bacterial gastroenteritis, an antibiotic might be useful.
While travelling, drink bottled water and beverages if possible – and make sure they are sealed before you open them – and only consume local water after boiling it for three minutes. Brush your teeth with bottled water and keep your mouth closed while showering. Avoid raw fruits and vegetables unless they have a skin you can peel (bananas, citrus, avocado, etc.). Stick to well cooked foods while eating out, and don’t consume any ice or undercooked meat or fish. Try to avoid street vendors, which are more likely to be contaminated than restaurants. As with gastroenteritis at home, regular hand-washing is important.
The rotavirus vaccine is an effective means of preventing children from developing this dangerous form of gastroenteritis. The National Advisory Committee on Immunization recommends that infants receive their first dose of rotavirus vaccine between 6 weeks and 15 weeks-of-age, and their final dose before 32 weeks-of-age. 7 Depending on the brand, they will need 2-3 doses of vaccine, which need to be at least 4 weeks apart.7
When to See Your Doctor
Signs You Can Likely Use Self-Care
If you are in motion (car, bus, train, boat, plane, etc.) and had no symptoms prior to starting your journey, your nausea and vomiting may be motion sickness. Self-care is appropriate, as are over-the-counter motion sickness medications.
If you had nausea or diarrhea prior to vomiting, these are signs that your vomiting is most likely due to a stomach bug. It could be a virus such as gastroenteritis or bacteria such as E. coli or salmonella. While most cases get better on their own, children and those with weak immune systems can develop complications.
Food poisoning can be suspected if others who dined with you in the past few hours are also having symptoms of nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. You may also have painful abdominal cramps and could have a low-grade fever.
Most cases of food poisoning will resolve with self-care so long as dehydration or more concerning symptoms do not develop, or any cramping or fever do not become progressively worse.
Starting a new medication or treatment (such as chemotherapy) may produce nausea and vomiting. Self-care is usually appropriate if there are no other symptoms, but you should call your doctor to report your symptoms and get advice about whether to change medications.
Signs such as a missed menstrual period and new onset of nausea and vomiting may indicate morning sickness common to pregnancy. If you could possibly be pregnant, take a pregnancy test. If you are pregnant, self-care is appropriate for morning sickness, but you should see a healthcare provider for prenatal care.
It is common to have nausea and vomiting after drinking alcohol, as it can upset the stomach both at the time you are drinking and when experiencing a hangover. Use self-care to feel better.
Typical Appearance of Vomit
Most vomit starts out looking like whatever it was you ate last. An orange color is expected if you are vomiting hours after eating, as food that is being digested will give vomit this hue.
If you have been vomiting repeatedly, your vomit will often become clear as all of the food has been ejected and only digestive juices remain. These characteristics do not point to serious causes, but they do not rule them out either.
If you have a stomach bug or any other more benign cause of vomiting, lay down and do not attempt to participate in any physical activities while you are sick.
If you do not vomit for a period of 15 to 20 minutes, you can try to introduce small sips of clear liquids (water or an electrolyte drink such as Gatorade or Pedialyte). Continue clear liquids for at least six hours.
While actively vomiting, it is best to avoid eating and stick with sips of clear liquids. This will help prevent dehydration and it reduces the risk of choking when vomiting.
Once you are able to keep clear liquids down for six hours or more, you can progress to a bland diet. After the risk of vomiting has subsided, continue to avoid spicy, fatty, and salty foods, as well as those that have a strong odor, until you are tolerating food well.
Is it the flu or norovirus? How to tell the difference
By Deborah Kotz
While it seems nearly everyone in Boston is sick or recovering from some kind of ailment, many are wondering what they’ve come down with and how to best manage their symptoms. Do they have the flu or the stomach flu? Is it possible to have both at once?
Dr. Joshua Kosowsky, vice chair and clinical director of Brigham and Women’s Hospital’s emergency department, told me he’s seeing a lot of patients with influenza — aka the flu — and some with an intestinal bug that’s circulating called norovirus — aka the “cruise ship’’ virus.
How do you tell the difference between the two?
At first blush, it seems fairly simple. The flu is an upper respiratory infection that causes sore throat, chills, body aches, runny nose, and coughing. Norovirus is a gastrointestinal illness that causes diarrhea, vomiting, and nausea. Both can lead to severe dehydration if you don’t drink enough fluids.
“Both infectious diseases are very common and very contagious,’’ said Kosowsky. “It’s not inconceivable to get both this season.’’
Usually the body doesn’t come down with two infections at once, but it can get infected with one bug right after the other if the immune system is weakened.
Many people, though, who have been infected with this season’s Type A flu strain that’s predominant in the Boston area have developed gastrointesintal symptoms — vomiting, stomach cramps, mild diarrhea — on top of their cough and runny nose.
“There is some overlap between flu and norovirus symptoms this year,’’ said Kosowsky, and it’s probably due to the nasty h4N2 strain that’s circulating and causing more severe flu symptoms than normal.
But, he emphasized, the vomiting and diarrhea associated with norovirus tends to be more explosive and intense.
Both conditions should be managed by getting plenty of rest, taking over-the-counter pain relievers to reduce fever and aches, and avoiding close contact with others for the first few days. Drink plenty of fluids, and if you aren’t able to eat much solid food, make sure those fluids contain some salt and sugar — juice, soup, sports drinks, for example — to keep your electrolytes in balance.
Here’s more on how to manage your flu symptoms and here’s how to deal with norovirus.
Cancer Symptoms: Learn the Signs & When They Emerge
The early warning signs of cancer may be difficult to detect because the symptoms may be similar to less serious conditions, such as the flu. Also, some cancers, such as lung or pancreatic cancer, may not show warning signs in early stages. Many cancers share common early warning signs, while some are specific to certain cancers. General early warning signs of cancer include:
- Unexplained weight loss/gain
- Pain that does not go away
- Loss of appetite
- Nausea, vomiting
- Skin changes, such as a rash, redness, tenderness or swelling
- Blood in the stool, urine, semen or sputum
- Persistent cough or hoarseness
- Difficulty emptying the bowel or bladder
Many symptoms share characteristics of other, non-cancerous conditions. If you experience persistent symptoms or other changes in your health, it’s important to see a doctor as soon as possible.
Cancer symptoms in men and women
Although men are more likely to develop cancer than women, many common cancers, such as lung, colorectal, bladder, melanoma, leukemia and lymphoma, and their symptoms may occur in either gender. Certain cancers, however, are gender specific and may cause unique symptoms.
Cancer symptoms in men
Cancers unique to men affect the male reproductive system—the prostate, testicles and penis. Symptoms of these cancers include:
- Difficulty urinating
- Painful urination or ejaculation
- Blood in the urine or semen
- Lumps, growths or physical changes in the penis or testicles
- Pain in the groin, abdomen or lower back
Learn more about men and cancer
Cancer symptoms in women
Breast cancer and cancers specific to women may affect the breasts and the female reproductive system. Symptoms of these cancers include:
- A lump or growth
- Red, itchy or swollen breasts
- Changes in the appearance of the breasts
- Nipple discharge
- Vaginal discharge or bleeding
- Abdominal pain
- Pain during intercourse
- Difficulty urinating
- Bloating or a feeling of fullness
Learn more about women in cancer
Specific cancer symptoms
The following are symptoms typically associated with certain cancer types:
Breast: Common symptoms of breast cancer may include physical changes in one or both breasts—such as swelling, redness, flaky skin, nipple discharge, a lump or growth, pain, swelling or tenderness under the arm.
Colorectal: Common symptoms of colorectal cancer include constipation and/or diarrhea, blood stool or bleeding from the rectum, cramps or abdominal pain, a bloated or full feeling, and thin, ribbon-like stool. other common gastrointestinal cancer symptoms include gas pain, changes in bowel/bladder habits, anemia and/or jaundice.
Prostate: Common symptoms of prostate cancer include difficulty urinating, burning or pain during urination, incontinence, blood in the semen or urine, difficulty getting an erection, and painful ejaculation.
Gynecologic: Common gynecologic cancer symptoms include abnormal vaginal bleeding (after menopause, between periods, following sexual intercourse), pain during intercourse, pelvic/back pain, pain on urination, and/or watery, white or pinkish vaginal discharge.
Head and neck: Common symptoms of head and neck cancers include persistent pain, difficulty swallowing, voice changes, mouth sores, dry mouth, changes in appearance, and/or taste changes.
Hematologic: Common hematologic cancer symptoms include flu-like symptoms, fever, chills, joint/bone pain, anemia, night sweats, lymph node swelling, itching, persistent cough, shortness of breath, abdominal discomfort, headaches, easy bruising or bleeding, and/or frequent infections.
Skin: Common skin cancer symptoms include a change in a mole’s size, shape and color in the form of asymmetry, border or color irregularities or diameter (larger than 1/4 inch), itchiness, pain and/or oozing around the affected area.
Lung: Common symptoms of lung cancer include a persistent cough, pain in the chest area, shortness of breath, hoarseness, wheezing, coughing up blood, blood in phlegm or mucus, neck or facial swelling, and/or headaches.
Metastatic cancer symptoms
If you have been diagnosed with cancer, cancer cells may spread to other parts of the body. This process is called metastasis, and it may occur before your initial diagnosis or during or after treatment.
Many cancers, including melanoma, breast, lung, prostate, colorectal and other common cancers, have a tendency to metastasize in certain cases. The most common locations for metastatic cancer to spread are the liver, lungs, bone and brain. When cancer spreads to a new location, it is still named for the location of the primary tumor. For instance, breast cancer that has spread to the brain is called metastatic breast cancer to the brain.
How do I know if my cancer has spread?
Symptoms of metastatic cancer may depend on where in the body the cancer has spread. For instance:
- If the cancer has spread to the bone, symptoms may include joint pain or fractures.
- If the cancer has spread to the brain, symptoms may include headaches, speech difficulties, blurred vision or dizziness.
- If the cancer has spread to the liver, symptoms may include jaundice, and bloating or swelling in the stomach.
- If the cancer has spread to the lungs, symptoms may include shortness of breath or a persistent cough.
An accurate diagnosis is critical to determining whether your cancer has spread and to developing a personalized treatment plan designed to meet your needs.
Learn more about metastasis
It’s important to consult with a medical professional if you are experiencing symptoms of cancer. A doctor will conduct a medical evaluation, including diagnostic tests to first confirm the presence of disease and then, if relevant, to identify the correct tumor type, location, extent and stage. An accurate cancer diagnosis helps doctors determine an appropriate treatment approach.
Information for the public
Prevention of infectious and parasitic diseases
Prevention of infectious diseases in the summer
Dear residents of Vologda!
Ahead – vacations for children, vacations, trips to nature, hot summer days! To avoid health problems and not spoil the rest for yourself and your children, you need to know what infectious diseases can await us and what measures to take so as not to get infected, for example, acute intestinal infections, not to get food poisoning, not to suffer from tick sucking, etc. etc.
Acute intestinal infections, which are most common among the population of our region, are dysentery, salmonellosis, rotavirus, norovirus infections and some others. Most AEI occur with symptoms of intoxication (fever, weakness, loss of appetite), abdominal pain, vomiting (nausea), loose stools (diarrhea).
A feature of diarrhea at dysentery is frequent loose stools in small portions (like a lump of mucus with a small amount of feces), with an admixture of blood (due to ulcerative lesions of the mucous membrane of the large intestine) and false urge to defecate (tenesmus).A lethal outcome can occur from severe intoxication of the body.
A feature of diarrhea at salmonellosis
is profuse, watery, offensive loose stools with a greenish tinge, in rare cases there may be an admixture of blood and mucus. The onset of the disease is similar to acute respiratory infections with abdominal syndrome, the clinical manifestation of OCI appears on days 2-3, in addition to the characteristic loose stools, abdominal pain, there may be vomiting. In a severe degree, intoxication is very pronounced, up to convulsions.In the absence of the necessary treatment and restoration of water balance, death can occur, especially in children under one year old.
Rotavirus infection occurs with repeated profuse foamy watery liquid stools of yellow-orange color, repeated vomiting, dehydration occurs quickly, which is very dangerous for young children and can also be fatal. Characterized by signs of acute respiratory viral infections (redness in the pharynx).
Norovirus infection begins abruptly, unexpectedly, with nausea and repeated vomiting, mushy stools of normal color, body temperature, as a rule, subfebrile (37 – 37.9 degrees Celsius).The duration of the disease is 1-2 days. You can also get infected by airborne droplets, inhaling particles of vomit during close contact with a sick person.
Viral hepatitis A – an infection that is transmitted as OCI: water, food and contact-household routes (“dirty hands disease”). As a rule, begins with symptoms of acute respiratory infections, especially in children, or is asymptomatic. In the clinical picture of acute viral hepatitis A, the features are jaundice of the skin and sclera ( eyes), light stools (“white stools”) and dark urine (“dark beer” colors).
Prevention of acute intestinal infections
– wash your hands often and with soap yourself and teach children, especially after using the toilet, before eating, after coming from the street, before preparing food, etc.
– keep the house clean, avoid insects (flies, cockroaches)
– drink only boiled or bottled clean water
– do not swallow water when swimming
– buy products at official points of sale, watch the expiration dates of products, observe the “commodity” neighborhood of products in a bag, refrigerator, when preparing food (separately from products that are not subject to heat treatment, store meat, chicken, eggs), have a separate cutting inventory at home (knife, board) for raw meat, chicken and ready-made products (bread, cheese, butter, boiled vegetables, boiled meat).
– Before eating, thoroughly wash vegetables, fruits, herbs under running water, then rinse with boiled water or rinse with boiling water.
Airborne infections, including influenza and ARVI
The main airborne infections in the region are influenza and ARVI, community-acquired pneumonia, as well as chickenpox and scarlet fever.
In the clinical picture Influenza
the leading symptom is intoxication of the body, acute onset, high body temperature (38-40 degrees Celsius) for at least 5 days, aching muscles, joints, pain when moving the eyes.
Acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) in Vologda residents are caused by several viruses, including parainfluenza viruses, adenoviruses, RS viruses, etc.
A feature of the clinical picture parainfluenza
there is a dry, “barking” cough, hoarse voice, sore throat, as the larynx and vocal cords are affected.There may be a slight chill, muscle aches. The maximum temperature is reached for 2-3 days, the rest of the time the temperature is not higher than 38 degrees Celsius. Also, the patient is worried about a severe rhinitis with serous discharge.
Adenovirus infection , its clinical manifestations are diverse: acute febrile pharyngitis (“sore throat”), inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, adenoviral pneumonia (characterized by severe and prolonged course), conjunctivitis, whooping cough syndrome (spastic cough), hemorrhagic syndrome ( increased fragility of blood vessels, etc.). The onset of the disease is usually acute.
RS infection (caused by respiratory syncytial virus), begins acutely with body temperature up to 37. 5–38 ° C, chills, moderate headache, weakness, apathy. Perhaps the appearance of pain in the muscles, sometimes – aches throughout the body. Symptoms can be up to severe toxicosis, accompanied by severe headaches, vomiting, nosebleeds, and small-point hemorrhages in the soft palate. The leading symptom of the disease is a dry, paroxysmal cough, exhausting the patient, which can persist for up to 3 weeks.The disease is often complicated by pneumonia (pneumonia).
Prevention of influenza and ARVI:
– avoid contact with sick flu and SARS
– use disposable masks upon contact
– often wash hands or treat with skin antiseptics, especially after caring for a sick person, after traveling on public transport
– keep your house clean, often ventilate the premises, quartzing in the apartment can be used for preventive purposes.
Chickenpox – acute onset, body temperature can be normal or 38-39 degrees Celsius, by the end of the first, on the second day, a characteristic rash appears on the body and in the scalp (spots that turn into papules after a few hours (protrude above the surface of the skin), and then bubbles (vesicles) Bubbles turn into crusts that cannot be torn off, as scars will remain, the crusts will fall off by themselves . The duration of the disease is at least a week. Weakened children and adults may develop serious complications (pneumonia, encephalitis, myocarditis, hepatitis).
Prevention of chickenpox:
– avoid contact with sick VO
– isolation of the patient (until recovery or until the crusts fall off)
– separation of family contact children under the age of 7 who did not have chickenpox, from the 11th to the 21st day (removed from kindergarten)
– in kindergarten, the group is quarantined from the 11th to the 21st day.
– caused by the bacterium streptococcus, in the clinical picture, an acute onset, chills, an increase in body temperature to 38-39 degrees Celsius on the first day, headache, weakness, bright redness of the soft palate, tonsils, pharynx (“flaming pharynx”), enlargement of the tonsils. From the 3-4th day – “crimson tongue”. Swollen lymph nodes. Against the background of facial redness, a pale nasolabial triangle stands out clearly. From the 2nd day, a punctate rash appears with a thickening in the axillary and groin areas.At the 2nd week – pityriasis peeling on the trunk, after 15 days – lamellar peeling on the palms and feet. When treating a patient with scarlet fever, it is important to adhere to bed rest for 5-6 days, since if the restrictive regimen is violated, otitis media (ear inflammation), sinusitis (sinusitis) and severe complications: myocarditis, endocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle and membranes), glomerulonephritis ( inflammation of the kidneys), vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels).
Prevention of scarlet fever:
– avoid close and prolonged contact with a patient with scarlet fever
– observe the rules of personal hygiene when caring for the patient
– keep the apartment clean, airing, quartzing the premises
– the kindergarten group is quarantined for 7 days
– there is no quarantine at the school, but within 7 days, children in grades 1-3 are under medical supervision.
Tick attack season is in full swing.
Non-specific prophylaxis attacks (suction) of ticks:
– when entering a natural hearth – tight-fitting light-colored clothing, a hat, closed shoes
– self- and mutual inspection at least in 30-40 minutes
– the use of repellents (these are agents that repel ticks and other blood-sucking insects)
– it is forbidden to remove and crush the sucked tick with hands without gloves, including from pets
– you cannot sit and lie on the grass, especially in the forest
– if you find a sucked tick, it must be removed at the nearest medical facility and in the first 4 days receive emergency prophylaxis (for example, anti-tick immunoglobulin).
Please note that when drinking water from rivers, lakes, ponds and other bodies of water, especially in those places where corpses of rodents were found on the shore, you can become infected with severe natural focal infections that are characteristic of the territory of our region, for example, tularemia, leptospirosis, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS).
Dear residents of Vologda! Be healthy!
Take care of yourself and your children
against infectious diseases!
Prevention of infections transmitted by ticks.
Winter is ending, and with the arrival of spring and warm days, ticks will wake up. As long-term observations show, in the middle to the end of March, the spring-summer season of tick activity will begin in our area.
After sucking, ixodid ticks can infect a person with a number of tick-borne infections, including tick-borne encephalitis, ixodic tick-borne borreliosis (Lyme disease), ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, tularemia and other infectious diseases. The incidence of tick-borne infections in the Vologda Oblast exceeds the national average by more than 2 times.
The most dangerous is tick-borne encephalitis. This is a natural focal disease endemic (characteristic) for the entire territory of our region.
Tick-borne encephalitis virus attacks the central nervous system. The disease can end in death or lead to disability due to paralysis of the muscles of the arms, neck (head drooping), the development of periodic seizures (epilepsy), and the possible development of dementia. The main clinical symptoms of tick-borne encephalitis are an increase in body temperature above 37.5 degrees, headache, nausea, irritability appear.The earlier the diagnosis is made and effective treatment is prescribed, the more likely it is to fully recover without the disease becoming chronic, followed by disability and death.
Untreated ixodic tick-borne borreliosis leads to damage to the musculoskeletal system, nervous and cardiovascular systems, to long-term disability, human disability. A characteristic symptom is erythema annulus – a red spot with enlightenment in the center, appearing at the site of tick suction.
The main measures for the prevention of tick-borne infections remain vaccination and seroprophylaxis in tick-borne encephalitis. With tick-borne borreliosis and ehrlichiosis – antibiotic prophylaxis.
Vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis is carried out throughout the year with the proviso that in the spring-summer season, within 2 weeks after vaccination, one should avoid visiting a natural focus (forest, summer cottage, park, cemeteries, trips to nature, etc.). Vaccinated against tick-borne enephalitis twice with an interval of 1-7 months., the third vaccination is carried out one year after the second, later – revaccination with a frequency of 1 time in 3 years.
Going into nature, remember about personal prevention measures against tick attacks. Special clothing is important (closed, light-colored, with long sleeves, cuffs either with elastic bands or with buttons, trousers tucked into socks, high boots). The upper part of the garment should be tucked into the trousers. A hood or other headgear is desirable on the head. A particularly effective result is achieved when protective clothing is combined with chemicals.
It is necessary to carry out self- and mutual examinations every 1.5-2 hours to detect ticks and remove them. Most often, mites stick to where the skin is the thinnest and most delicate: behind the ears, on the neck, under the armpits, in the scalp. It is necessary to remove adhering ticks from clothes, body and pets with rubber gloves, since the tick-borne encephalitis virus from a crushed tick can enter the human blood through microtraumas, microdamages on the skin of the hands. Sometimes people can suffer from ticks brought into the house with wildflowers, branches, on outerwear.
Both insecticidal and acaricidal personal protective equipment against ticks and repellents that do not kill, but scare away ticks are effectively used.
If tick sucking still occurs, it is necessary to seek medical help as soon as possible to remove the tick and carry out sero- and antibiotic prophylaxis.
If it is impossible to seek medical help, the tick should be removed on its own, trying not to tear off the proboscis immersed in the skin, and the wound should be disinfected with an iodine solution.Next, you need to contact the nearest medical organization for the appointment of emergency prevention of tick-borne infections.
REMINDER: Prevention of yellow fever
Yellow fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans through the bite of Aedes and Haemogogus mosquitoes. The disease comes in two forms: jungle fever (transmitted by mosquitoes from infected monkeys) and human settlements fever (transmitted by mosquitoes from person to person).Natural reservoir is monkeys. The incubation period is 6 days.
In the clinical picture, there is a pronounced pain syndrome: severe headache, especially in the occiput; muscle pain extending to the lumbar region, lower extremities. Patients are agitated, in severe cases delirium appears. There is a sharp redness and puffiness of the face, swelling of the eyelids, a bright injection of the vessels of the opaque membranes and conjunctiva, the eyes seem to be bloodshot. Appetite is reduced or absent. The tongue is bright red, there is bleeding of the gums, nosebleeds.There is often profuse vomiting mixed with bile and blood. The patients suffer from thirst. After 3-4 days, the condition of the patients improves somewhat, the temperature drops to 37-38 ° C, headaches, muscle pains disappear, sleep and appetite improve. With a mild course, the disease goes into a recovery period. In severe and moderately severe cases, the phase of venous stasis soon begins with a repeated increase in temperature, increased toxic and hemorrhagic manifestations. There are bloody repeated vomiting, profuse mushy black stools.Multiple hemorrhages appear on the skin and mucous membranes. The redness of the face is replaced by pronounced cyanosis, jaundice of the skin and mucous membranes develops, and collapse may develop. Mortality in yellow fever ranges from 5-10 to 20-25% and even 60% in severe epidemic outbreaks.
According to the Federal Service of Rospotrebnadzor, more than 200 thousand cases of yellow fever are registered annually in the world, 30 thousand cases end in the death of the patient. Currently, 42 countries in Africa, South and Central America have reported cases of yellow fever (list of countries is attached).Thus, in Brazil, as of January 27, 2017, 550 cases of suspected yellow fever were registered.
Vaccination is the only reliable way to prevent yellow fever. Yellow fever vaccines provide protection against infection 10 days after vaccination; a single vaccination gives lifelong immunity. Individuals vaccinated against yellow fever receive an International Certificate of Vaccination.
In the absence of vaccination against yellow fever, persons traveling to the territory of countries where this disease is registered may be quarantined for 6 days or denied entry into the country.
In the Vologda Oblast, immunization against yellow fever is carried out with the subsequent issuance of an International Certificate of Vaccination at the BUZ VO “Cherepovets City Polyclinic No. 1” (Cherepovets, Milyutina St., 6, tel. (8-820-2) -51- 67-50).
countries endemic for yellow fever
LIST OF COUNTRIES require an international certificate of vaccination against YELLOW FEVER FOR ALL TRAVELERS
Antigua and Barbuda
Egypt Zimbadzim 9000 Gonutika
Egypt Zimbahn 9000 Gonuti
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Vmnscent Grenadines
San Tom Principe
Senate Saudi Arabia
Tristan da Cunya
Ethiopia FEVER, WHEN LEAVING IN WHICH EVERYONE Travelers recommends a yellow fever vaccination
Trinidad and Tobago
Central African Republic
Democratic Republic of the Congo5 French Ecophyan
Democratic Republic of the Congo5 French Gabor 5 Gabviana
BUZ VO “Center for the Prevention of Infectious Diseases”
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Enterovirus infection | uzalo48.
Enterovirus infection (EVI) is a disease caused by enteroviruses, which are very resistant to the environment.
Enteroviruses tolerate low temperatures well : in a frozen state, the activity of enteroviruses persists for many years, in a refrigerator they persist for several weeks, in tap water they survive up to 18 days, in river water – about a month, in treated wastewater – up to two months.
The source of disease is a sick person or host.You can get infected through contaminated food, water, objects that surround a person, dirty hands, as well as through the air when sneezing, coughing, talking. Risk factors are also bathing in reservoirs contaminated with viruses, the use of unwashed vegetables and fruits, and drinking water of dubious quality.
Viruses enter the human body through the mouth or upper respiratory tract. The period from the entry of the virus into the human body until the first clinical signs appear in all EVIs is the same – from 2 to 10 days, more often 2-5 days. The disease begins acutely – with an increase in body temperature to 38-39 ° C, which most often lasts 3-5 days, then decreases to normal values. Very often the temperature has an undulating current. When the temperature rises, a person, especially a child, feels weakness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, and vomiting may occur.
Enteroviruses can affect different body systems – the central and peripheral nervous systems, oropharyngeal mucosa, eye mucosa, skin, muscles, heart, intestinal mucosa, liver, therefore, several forms of enterovirus infection are distinguished.
The most severe diseases are with damage to the nervous system , when serous meningitis and encephalitis develop. These diseases are characterized by an acute onset, the sick have severe headache, nausea, vomiting, an increase in body temperature to 39-40 0 C, convulsions, paresis and paralysis, loss of consciousness.
With damage to the mucous membrane of the oropharynx , enteroviral herpangina develops, when there is an increase in body temperature, general intoxication (weakness, headache, drowsiness) and a rash in the form of bubbles filled with fluid on the mucous membrane of the oropharynx and tonsils. The bubbles burst, and ulcers are formed in their place, filled with white bloom. After recovery, no traces remain at the site of the ulcers.
With skin lesions , exanthema may appear – reddening of the skin, most often on the upper half of the body (head, chest, arms) and the appearance of a rash of various types, similar to a rash with rubella, measles, which usually appears on 1-2 days of illness and disappears after 4-6 days.
With the defeat of the intestinal mucosa , loose stools are observed.Symptoms of the disease are similar to those of an intestinal infection. Stool of normal color (yellow or brown), liquid, without various (mucus, blood) impurities. The appearance of loose stools can be either against the background of an increase in temperature, or without it.
With eye damage , conjunctivitis develops, which manifests itself in the form of photophobia, lacrimation, redness and swelling of the eyes. The presence of hemorrhages in the conjunctiva of the eye is possible.
With muscle damage , myositis develops – pain in the muscles.Pain appears against the background of an increase in temperature. Soreness is observed in the chest, arms and legs. With a decrease in body temperature, pain decreases or disappears altogether.
Enterovirus infections can affect various parts of the heart with the development of myocarditis and pericarditis, and with liver damage, acute hepatitis develops.
For the diagnosis of enterovirus infection in patients, depending on the clinical manifestations, the lavage from the nose, throat or feces, cerebrospinal fluid are taken to study.Research is carried out in a virological laboratory.
There is no specific treatment for enterovirus infection. Treatment is carried out symptomatically, depending on the manifestations of the infection – angina, conjunctivitis, myositis, loose stools, heart damage, encephalitis, meningitis, hepatitis, exanthema. If necessary, prophylaxis of bacterial complications is carried out. If symptoms of enterovirus infection appear, you should consult a doctor.
Prevention of enterovirus infection
Personal hygiene rules must be observed.Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water before preparing food, before eating, after coming home from the street and using the toilet.
Keep children’s hands clean, teach them to observe personal hygiene measures from childhood. Wash doorknobs, taps, toilet flush handles. Wash and keep children’s toys regularly.
Do not swim yourself and do not allow children to swim in bodies of water where it is not recommended or prohibited. Swim only in approved places, teach children not to swallow water when bathing.
Do not use water from open reservoirs for drinking and household needs (in exceptional cases, only after boiling for 5-7 minutes), water from a well must be boiled. Drink only boiled or bottled water.
Wash fruits, berries, vegetables thoroughly under running tap water, and for small children it is advisable to wash fruits with boiled water or scald with hot boiled water after washing.
When buying, be sure to read the expiration dates and storage conditions of foodstuffs indicated on the packaging, strictly follow them in everyday life.Watch out for placing food in the refrigerator. Pack each product in a separate, clean package to protect food from contamination. Do not allow contact between uncooked and cooked foods. Set aside kitchen utensils (knives, cutting boards) separately for raw and cooked foods.
If you are going to rest in the near or far abroad, be sure to ask the tour operator about the epidemiological situation in the host country, about measures to prevent infectious diseases.
Remember, disease is easier to prevent than to cure! Be healthy!
90,000 Breaks the body and temperature, what to do?
Why the body aches at a temperature
How to relieve the condition if the temperature and the body aches
What else can cause fever and body aches
Almost every person is familiar with body aches against the background of fever, when all muscles ache, bones and joints “ache”.These discomfort can occur with various diseases, but more often they accompany infections. Why this happens and how to alleviate the condition – let’s try to figure it out.
Why does the body ache at temperature
The cause of pain in muscles, joints and bones with fever often lies in intoxication, that is, poisoning of the body 1 . The “poisons” are bacterial toxins, products of inflammation and tissue decay at the sites of injury, substances that appear in the body due to metabolic disorders against the background of the disease 1 . In this case, the severity of symptoms of intoxication primarily depends on the type of infectious agent and the body’s ability to resist it 1 .
Infectious diseases cause more often:
- viruses, for example, influenza viruses, parainfluenza, adenoviruses, hepatitis viruses, infectious mononucleosis, measles, chickenpox and others;
- bacteria: staphylococci, streptococci, salmonella, tubercle bacillus, etc.;
- Protozoa: amoeba and lamblia;
- mushrooms 2 .
The vast majority of all infections are acute respiratory viral diseases 2.3 . Their causative agents can be:
- influenza viruses – about 15% of cases;
- parainfluenza – up to 50%;
- adenoviruses – up to 5%,
- respiratory syncytial virus – about 4%;
- enteroviruses – 1%;
- viral associations – about 23%;
- other viruses 4 .
All of these viruses are capable of infecting the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract. They penetrate the cells of the epithelium of the nasal cavity and pharynx, cause local inflammation and death of these cells 3.4 . The absorption of inflammation and decay products into the bloodstream leads to the development of intoxication syndrome, accompanied by body aches and fever, weakness, headache and other symptoms 3.4 .
The intoxication is most pronounced with influenza 4.5 . Its appearance precedes the symptoms of respiratory tract damage.
- The body temperature rises to 39-40 ° C 4 , chills occur.
- A headache begins in the forehead and temples.
- Harsh sounds and movements may worsen the headache.
- There is pain and pain in the eyes, aggravated by the movement of the eyeballs and pressure on them.
- Eyes turn red and watery.
- Breaks muscles and joints.
- The whole body is covered with severe weakness and lethargy 5 .
According to statistics, muscle pains accompany the flu in 40% of cases.Muscle weakness occurs in 87% of patients 4 .
Additional manifestations of intoxication can be vomiting, sometimes occurring in children, dizziness and fainting, which are more common in adolescents and elderly patients. Sleep disturbance in the form of insomnia is possible 5 .
The manifestations of ARVI caused by other respiratory viruses (not influenza virus) are similar to each other 4 . In terms of the severity of the intoxication syndrome, these diseases are an order of magnitude inferior to influenza 4 .
So, rhinovirus infection , although it begins acutely, with sneezing and the appearance of profuse watery discharge from the nose, is almost never accompanied by body aches and fever – the temperature rarely rises to 38 ° C, and sometimes even remains normal 4 .
With parainfluenza from the first day, sore throat, dry hacking cough, hoarseness of the voice disturb, and manifestations of intoxication are limited to a rise in temperature to 37. 5 ° C, mild weakness and headache 4 .
Adenovirus infection is characterized by high and prolonged fever, runny nose, conjunctivitis, sore throat associated with damage to the pharyngeal tonsils, swollen lymph nodes. However, despite the impressive set of symptoms and high fever, muscles and joints do not hurt – some weakness and heaviness in the head are possible 4 .
Respiratory syncytial infection also proceeds with moderate intoxication: weakness, lethargy, headache, discomfort in the muscles of the body – but the discomfort arising from this is not comparable to that of the flu.Along with the intoxication syndrome, a cough with shortness of breath, wheezing and viscous sputum appears 4 .
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How to relieve a condition if the temperature and body ache
In the treatment of ARVI, symptomatic drugs are mainly used 1 , the action of which is aimed at alleviating the manifestations of diseases. Among these drugs, a special place is occupied by antipyretics that help fight fever, including paracetamol preparations.
According to the WHO recommendation, paracetamol is included in the list of vital drugs used in the treatment of adults and children, and is considered one of the safest means for lowering fever. Paracetamol blocks the synthesis of prostaglandins (inflammatory mediators) in the central nervous system, thereby providing a good antipyretic effect and has a mild analgesic effect. The maximum daily dose of paracetamol for adults is 4 g, for children – up to 60 mg per kilogram of body weight per day 1 .
On the basis of paracetamol, a variety of combined drugs have been created that allow to simultaneously act on almost the entire complex of symptoms of acute respiratory diseases, which makes it possible to significantly alleviate the patient’s condition in the process of treatment and recovery 1 . In addition to the main active ingredient, these preparations include:
decongestants such as phenylephrine
acts on the α1-adrenergic receptors of the nasal mucosa, causes a narrowing of its blood vessels, a decrease in their permeability and thereby helps to reduce edema and secretion of nasal mucus, eliminate nasal congestion and facilitate nasal breathing.
antihistamines (antiallergic) components such as chlorphenamine
blocks H1-histamine receptors, which helps to “dry” the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity and pharynx, reduce nasal discomfort and sore throat.
enhances the action of paracetamol 6 , stimulates the nervous system and helps to cope with drowsiness and lethargy, constricts blood vessels in the brain and helps relieve headaches 1 .
ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
strengthens the walls of blood vessels and reduces their permeability, increases the body’s resistance to infection 5 .
RINZA® is an example of combined preparations intended for the symptomatic treatment of “colds” – ARVI, including influenza. The drug is available in the form of tablets and powders for preparing drinks.
Phenylephrine, chlorphenamine and caffeine are a part of RINZA® tablets for children over 15 years of age and for adults.
RINZASIP® with vitamin C for adults and children over 15 years old is produced in the form of a powder for preparing hot drinks with lemon, orange and black currant flavors. Due to its inclusion in the composition of ascorbic acid, it can help to strengthen the immune system and increase resistance to infection 7 .
RINZASIP® for children over 6 years old is produced in the form of a powder for preparing a drink with raspberry flavor 9 . In addition to paracetamol in children’s dosage and vitamin C, it contains pheniramine maleate, which acts similarly to phenylephrine in the preparation for adults 7 .
Important! RINZA® does not cure the disease itself, it only helps to alleviate its symptoms. Any illness or condition that is accompanied by fever and body aches requires a doctor’s consultation and examination.
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What else can cause fever and body aches
The feeling of body aches and fever can accompany not only the body’s natural fight against infections, but also non-infectious diseases.
Fever and pain in muscles and joints can be a manifestation of:
- rheumatic diseases involving joints, heart, lungs and kidneys;
- autoimmune pathology: rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic scleroderma and dermatomyositis;
- tuberculosis of various localization;
- allergic reactions, in particular allergies to drugs: penicillin antibiotics, vitamins, antihistamines, etc.
- oncological diseases: malignant diseases of the blood, tumors of the intestines, liver, pancreas, lungs and stomach 10 .
Only a specialist can assess all the symptoms of the disease in aggregate, make the correct diagnosis and, if necessary, prescribe treatment. Therefore, if the temperature rises and the body aches, you should immediately consult a doctor.
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The information in this article is for reference only and does not replace the professional advice of a physician.Consult a qualified professional for diagnosis and treatment.
- Ketova G.G., Menshikova S.V., Popilov M.A. Intoxication. Facets of pathogenesis: old and new. Solution option // Chief physician. – 2017. – No. 2 (54). – S. 44-47.
- Belozerov E. S., Belyaeva T. V., Zmushko E. I., Shuvalova E. P. Infectious diseases. Textbook for medical universities / St. Petersburg: SpetsLit, 2016 .– 1320 p. – ISBN: 978-5-299-00611-7.
- Zharkova N.E. Symptomatic treatment of ARVI: the future belongs to combined drugs // Russian medical journal. – 2007. – No. 22. – S. 1636-1638.
- Yakimova S.S. Symptomatic therapy of ARVI – finding the optimal solution // Medical Council. – No. 1. – 2012. – P.24- 27.
- Zhuravleva M.V., Lazareva N.B., Panteleeva L.R. ARVI: rational pharmacotherapy from the standpoint of clinical pharmacology // Medical Council. – No. 04. – 2016. – S. 68-72.
- Clark D., Renner B. Caffeine accelerates absorption and enhances the analgesic effect of acetaminophen // Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.- 18.04.2007.
- Instructions for the use of RINZA® tablets: https://www.rinza.ru/instrukciya/rinza-tabletki, https://www.rinza.ru/products/tabletki/rinza-tabletki.
- Instructions for the use of RINZASIP® with vitamin C: https://www.rinza.ru/instrukciya/rinzasip-poroshki, https://www.rinza.ru/products/poroshki/rinzasip-s-vitaminom-c.
- Instructions for the use of RINZASIP® for children: https://www.rinza.ru/instrukciya/rinzasip-dlya-detej, https://www.rinza.ru/products/poroshki/rinzasip-dlya-detey.
- Vechersky G.A., Goncharik I.I., Matveykov G.P. Handbook of differential diagnosis of internal diseases / Ed. Belarus – 1990 .– S. 85-132.
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90,000 causes of occurrence, under what diseases occurs, diagnostics and methods of treatment
The information in this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-medication. In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, diagnostic tests should be prescribed only by the attending physician.For a diagnosis and correct treatment prescription, you should contact your doctor.
Chills: causes of occurrence, for what diseases it occurs, diagnosis and methods of treatment.
Chills are a feeling of coldness, accompanied by the appearance of goose bumps, muscle tremors, and pallor of the skin. With chills, frequent muscle contractions, vasoconstriction and a slowdown in skin microcirculation occur, respectively, heat transfer decreases and a feeling of chilliness arises.In most cases, chills are encountered with an increase in body temperature, but this symptom can occur for other reasons, many of which require immediate medical attention.
Varieties of chills
The most important for diagnosis is to determine the relationship of chills with body temperature:
- chills associated with increased body temperature;
- chills occurring at normal body temperature;
- chills caused by hypothermia.
By duration, distinguish:
- constant chills – lasting more than an hour;
- short-term chills – lasting several minutes.
The following are distinguished by frequency:
- Single chill – occurs in infectious diseases with an acute onset, such as pneumonia, tonsillitis, flu; in case of allergic reactions and some other response of the body, for example, with transfusion of blood components.
- Multiple chills – alternation of fever with periods of normal temperature (typical for malaria, relapsing typhus).
Possible causes of chills
The most common cause of chills is infection , which causes fever.
Fever is the body’s autoimmune response to colds, flu, etc. It is known that an increased body temperature makes it difficult for viruses to multiply and allows the immune system to fight disease more effectively.
The brain receives a signal to increase body temperature, after which the process of heat production increases in the body and heat transfer decreases, at this moment chills occur.
A rare but dangerous infectious disease – malaria , transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles . Malaria is accompanied by a high fever and intense chills that come on suddenly and last up to two hours.
Patients who have recently returned from tropical countries and complain of fever with chills should be examined for malaria.
Do not forget that not only infectious diseases, but also oncological process can cause chills. In this case, the patient also has a decrease in body weight, sweating, especially at night, increased fatigue, and decreased appetite.
Chills may result from severe hypothermia . In this condition, the blood vessels narrow, not only blood flow in the body slows down, but also metabolic processes.
Not the most common, but still occurring in medical practice, the cause of chills can be Raynaud’s syndrome , characterized by short-term spasms of the vessels of the terminal phalanges of the hands and feet. This condition is more often recorded in women, and the provoking factor is cold.
As for the appearance of chills at normal body temperature, there are also many reasons here.
Endocrinological disorders and diseases . For example, for patients with insufficient thyroid function, complaints of chills are not uncommon. Patients with diabetes mellitus may feel chilly at the time of a sharp drop in glucose levels. In women, the cause of the chills is sometimes hormonal imbalance during menopause.
Chills can be one of the symptoms of anemia – a disease accompanied by a decrease in the number of red blood cells (erythrocytes) and the hemoglobin they contain.
Often, chills occur in response to a increase in or a decrease in blood pressure . In this case, in addition to the chill, the patient will be disturbed by dizziness, severe weakness, nausea, vomiting.
Chills without fever can be a symptom of chronic infectious process .
People with underweight (body mass index value less than 18.5 kg / m2) often complain of chills. To calculate the body mass index, you need to divide the body weight in kilograms by the height in meters, previously squared.
In some cases stress, psycho-emotional stress and heavy physical activity cause chills against the background of normal body temperature.
Chills can be an adverse reaction to certain medications , therefore all medications you are taking should be reported when contacting your doctor.
Thus, chills occur with the following diseases :
- Acute respiratory diseases (influenza, ARVI, coronavirus).
- Acute infectious diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract (sinusitis, tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, lobar pneumonia).
- Bacterial endocarditis.
- Infectious and inflammatory diseases of the digestive system (bacterial gastroenteritis, rotavirus infection, acute pancreatitis).
- Infectious and inflammatory diseases of the upper and lower urinary tract (cystitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis, urolithiasis).
- Diseases of the endocrine system (hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus).
- Hypertensive crisis.
- Cancer diseases.
- Allergic reaction.
- Stress, anxiety disorder, depressive disorder.
Which doctor should i contact when chills appear
If a chill occurs against a background of high fever, especially in elderly patients or young children, hypertensive crisis, a sharp drop in blood sugar, an allergic reaction, then an emergency call for an ambulance may be required.
Since chills are a symptom of many diseases, it is first of all worth contacting a general practitioner who will conduct an initial examination and decide which narrow specialist to refer the patient to.Consultation of the following specialists may be required: gastroenterologist, hematologist, endocrinologist, infectious disease specialist, oncologist, nephrologist, neurologist.
Diagnostics and examinations with chills
When a patient complains of chills, the doctor collects a detailed history, finds out if the chill is accompanied by an increase in temperature, conducts a thorough physical examination of the patient in order to find an infectious focus, finds out what other symptoms bother the patient, learns whether the patient is taking any medications.
Depending on the alleged cause of the onset of chills, in order to clarify the diagnosis, the doctor may prescribe the following examinations:
- a clinical blood test with an expanded leukocyte formula allows you to identify inflammatory changes in various infectious-inflammatory, allergic diseases, to exclude anemia;
Fever | Symptoms, complications, diagnosis and treatment
Fever is a temporary increase in body temperature, often due to illness.Having a fever is a sign that something unusual is happening in your body. The fever usually disappears within a few days. A number of over-the-counter medications can help reduce fever, but sometimes it’s best not to take them. Fever plays a key role in helping your body fight off a number of infections.
You have a fever when the temperature rises above the normal range. Your normal temperature may be slightly above or below the average normal temperature of 37 C. Depending on what is causing the fever, additional signs and symptoms of fever may include:
- Muscle pain
- Loss of appetite
- General weakness
To check your temperature or your baby’s temperature, you can choose from several types of thermometers, including oral, rectal, and ear (drum) thermometers.While this is not the most accurate way to measure temperature, you can use an underarm (axillary) oral thermometer:
- Place the thermometer in the armpit and cross the baby’s arms or arms over the chest.
- Wait four to five minutes. Axillary temperature is slightly lower than the temperature in the mouth.
- If you call your doctor, give the actual number on the thermometer and where on the body you took the temperature.
Call your doctor if your temperature is 39.4 C or higher. Get immediate medical attention if any of these symptoms accompany a fever:
- Severe headache
- Unusual skin rash, especially if rash worsens rapidly
- Unusual sensitivity to bright light
- Pain when tilting the head
- Mental confusion
- Constant vomiting
- Difficulty breathing or chest pain
- Abdominal pain or pain when urinating
Overheating and sunstroke
Summer is a wonderful time of the year: time for vacations, out-of-town walks, opportunities for outdoor recreation.Going to the cottage or the beach, many people spend their days under the scorching rays of the sun, forgetting that it can not only warm, but also severely punish those who abuse its generous rays.
What are the dangers of prolonged exposure to the sun?
Excessive exposure to the sun is unsafe and can lead to a sharp deterioration in health associated with overheating of the body. At risk, first of all, there are children and the elderly, as well as persons suffering from diseases of the circulatory system and metabolic disorders (thyroid diseases, diabetes mellitus, obesity, etc.)).
The cause of health problems is a violation of thermoregulation. Body temperature depends on the ratio of the processes of heat generation in the body and the transfer of heat to the external environment. When the ambient temperature rises to 25-300C, high air humidity, prolonged exposure to the sun, the release of heat becomes difficult, which leads to overheating of the body. This is also facilitated by inappropriate clothing (synthetic, dark colors, excessively warm), physical activity, violation of the drinking regime, and the absence of a headdress makes it possible to develop sunstroke.
What are overheating and sunstroke?
Overheating is a state of the body in which, under the influence of external thermal factors (including solar radiation), an increase in body temperature occurs, accompanied by pathological changes in various functions of the body.
The first symptoms of overheating are: increasing weakness, lethargy, a feeling of fatigue, drowsiness, headache, thirst, redness and moisture of the skin, increased heart rate and breathing against the background of normal body temperature.
As the victim’s condition progresses, the temperature rises (up to 39-400C), headache increases, dizziness, tinnitus, nausea and vomiting appear, sweating increases. The pressure decreases, weakness of cardiac activity develops, breathing becomes short and becomes irregular. Short-term loss of consciousness (fainting) and seizures are possible.
A characteristic sign of a serious condition is the cessation of perspiration. The skin becomes dry, breathing is rapid and shallow, the pulse is quickened, and blood pressure drops.If you do not give a person first aid, a fatal coma can occur.
Sunstroke is damage to the central nervous system (brain) as a result of direct sunlight on the head. It is important to know that sunstroke can occur not only during exposure to the sun, but also after 6-8 hours.
Signs of sunstroke: general malaise, feeling weak, fever, facial redness, headache and dizziness, tinnitus, “flashing midges” before the eyes.There may be nausea and vomiting, increased heart rate and breathing, increased sweating, nosebleeds.
With a more severe lesion, a severe headache appears, the temperature rises to 40-410C, blood pressure drops, loss of consciousness, respiratory distress and convulsions may occur.
In hot weather outside, in a stuffy room or transport, fainting may occur without prior overheating or being uncovered in the sun. The onset of fainting is usually preceded by a light-headed state: weakness, dizziness, darkening of the eyes, numbness of the arms and legs.Often everything is limited to this, but it happens that a person turns pale, becomes covered with cold sweat, the limbs get cold and he loses consciousness.
The ability to provide first aid in case of fainting, overheating and sunstroke can save the victim’s life. The main thing is not to get lost and do everything quickly and correctly.
Emergency care for overheating and sunstroke
- Transfer the victim to a cool, shady place and lay on his back, placing a roller made of available materials (for example, rolled clothes) under his feet to improve blood flow to the head.
- Unbutton your clothes, loosen the trouser belt and tie knot.
- Provide complete rest and access to fresh air (an additional fan can be used in the room).
- If the victim is conscious – give cold water to drink (if possible, salted at the rate of 0.5 teaspoon of salt per 0.5 liters of water) or strong iced tea.
- Place a cold compress (wet towel) on your head or dampen your head with cold water.If possible, wrap the victim with a damp sheet or gently pour cool water over him; apply ice or bottles of cold water to the head, axillary, groin and popliteal areas.
In more severe cases, when the victim is unconscious and there are breathing problems, it is necessary to check the patency of his airways. Having found that the tongue is fused, and there are vomit in the mouth, it is necessary to turn the victim’s head to one side and clean the mouth with a bandage or handkerchief wrapped around your finger.
If breathing is weakened or absent, call an ambulance, and before its arrival, perform artificial respiration (in the absence of a pulse, and indirect heart massage).
In the presence of ammonia, you can let the victim inhale its vapor, which will help activate the respiratory center.
To provide qualified medical care, the victim must be delivered to the nearest medical facility as soon as possible. Depending on the severity of the condition, hospitalization can be carried out in the therapeutic or intensive care unit of hospitals.
Preventive measures for overheating and sunstroke
To prevent overheating of the body, it is enough to observe the following recommendations:
- Avoid prolonged exposure to the sun: try to plan your day so that you go outside in the early morning or evening hours, if this is not possible, stick to the shady side of the street.
- Before going outside, use special cosmetics (creams, gels, lotions) containing sun protection factors.Remember: the higher the protection indicated on the sunscreen bottle, the longer it protects the skin.
- Try to wear light, loose clothing in light colors, mostly made from natural fabrics.
- Be sure to wear a hat.
- Observe the drinking regime, take a bottle of water with you. The best option is to use still drinking water, cold unsweetened tea, natural fruit drink. The use of packaged juices and sugary carbonated drinks not only does not reduce, but also increases thirst.
- In hot weather, it may be helpful to have a water bottle and a spray bottle with you to spray your face and hands.
- When going to sunbathe, do not apply decorative cosmetics, creams and alcohol-containing lotions to the skin, which can cause photosensitivity of the skin (increase its sensitivity to sunburn, lead to the formation of persistent age spots).
REMEMBER! Neglecting the rules of exposure to the sun is dangerous for your health!
Authors: Simonenko T.I. – Head of the Department of Prevention, Healthcare Institution “4th City Polyclinic”,
Editor: Yu.M. Arskiy
Computer layout and design: Lagun A.V.
Responsible for the issue: I. I. Tarashkevich
Rotavirus in a child. Symptoms treatment in Novosibirsk
Rotavirus in children: symptoms, treatment, prevention.
Rotavirus infection is an acute infectious disease with the fecal-oral route of transmission, characterized by lesions of the gastrointestinal tract like gastroenteritis with the development of dehydration syndrome (dehydration).
Rotavirus is the leading cause of gastroenteritis in children under 5 years of age. In Russia, it is most often recorded in the winter-spring period.
Causes of infection:
The causative agent is rotavirus, belongs to the family
RNA viruses. 1 – 4, 8 and 9 types of the virus are considered infectious for humans.
The source of infection is a person (sick or virus-releasing agent).The number of asymptomatic carriers of the virus among children can reach 5-7%. The virus is able to maintain viability in the external environment for several months, is stable at low temperatures, and quickly dies when heated.
In general, in the Russian Federation, the proportion of sick children under 1 year of age is 20.6%, at the age of 1–2 years – 44.7%. By the age of 2, almost every child has a rotavirus infection at least 1 time and more than 2/3 get sick again. Given the high contagiousness (infectiousness), it is a common cause of outbreaks in organized groups (kindergarten, school) and hospitals.
Mechanism of transmission of rotavirus – fecal-oral: it is realized through food, water and contact-household routes. Given the extremely high contagiousness of the rotavirus and the resistance of the pathogen to household chemicals, even very strict hygiene measures (including washing hands after each contact with a patient) can often be ineffective. The incubation period is only a few days – an average of 1 to 3 days.
The main symptoms of rotavirus gastroenteritis are general intoxication (fever, lethargy, vomiting, headache) and changes in the gastrointestinal tract: abdominal pain, frequent loose watery stools. Rotavirus gastroenteritis is characterized by two variants of the onset of the disease: acute (about 90% of patients), when all the main symptoms appear on the 1st day of the disease, and subacute, when 1-2 symptoms (more often abdominal pain and intoxication) occur on days 2-3 diseases are joined by diarrhea, vomiting, fever.
General infectious syndrome.
Most cases of rotavirus infection begin acutely with an increase in temperature to febrile numbers (38.0 degrees) or even hyperthermia, but the duration of fever, despite its severity, rarely exceeds 2-4 days. Fever is accompanied by symptoms of intoxication: weakness, lethargy, decreased appetite up to the development of anorexia and adynamia in severe forms of the disease. In older children with mild forms, the disease can occur against a background of subfebrile temperature with moderately severe symptoms of intoxication or their absence.
Syndrome of local changes (gastritis, gastroenteritis and / or enteritis). One of the first and often the leading manifestations of rotavirus infection is vomiting. It can occur simultaneously with diarrhea or precede it, be repeated or repeated over the course of 1-2 days. The defeat of the gastrointestinal tract proceeds as gastroenteritis or (less often) enteritis. Diarrheal syndrome in rotavirus infection is one of the most important and persistent manifestations, in some cases determining the clinical picture of the disease.The stool is profuse, watery, frothy, yellow, without visible pathological impurities, or with a small amount of transparent mucus, sometimes there is a characteristic sour smell of stool. Stool frequency on average does not exceed 4–5 times a day, but in young children it can reach 15–20 times. The duration of diarrhea on average ranges from 3 to 7 days, but it can persist for a longer time (up to 10-14 days, more often in young children). Rotavirus infection is characterized by a combination of diarrhea with symptoms of flatulence, which are most pronounced in children of the first year of life.Abdominal pain syndrome with rotavirus infection appears at the onset of the disease. Abdominal pains of varying severity may be diffuse or localized in the upper abdomen, and episodes of cramping pains may also occur.
Dehydration Syndrome. The severity of the course of rotavirus gastroenteritis is determined by the volume of pathological fluid loss with vomiting and diarrhea and the development of exicosis (dehydration) I – II, less often II – III degrees.The degree of exicosis in patients depends not only on the severity of pathological fluid and electrolyte losses, but also on the adequacy of the rehydration therapy (adequate fluid replacement). The following signs signal the development of dehydration: constant thirst, retraction of the eyes and large fontanel, dry skin, sclera and mucous membranes. The skin acquires an earthy-gray hue, the lips become bright and dry, reduces skin turgor, and decreases the amount of urine. The most dangerous condition is the stage of dehydration, in which thirst is replaced by a complete refusal to drink and there is a pronounced decrease in urination up to its complete absence.
Syndrome of catarrhal changes. In 60–70% of patients with rotavirus infection, catarrhal symptoms from the upper respiratory tract occur, which may precede intestinal dysfunction. It is characterized by moderate hyperemia and granularity of the posterior pharyngeal wall, soft palate and palatine arches, nasal congestion, and coughing. However, the presence of catarrhal phenomena in some cases may be due to concomitant respiratory viral infection, especially during the period of seasonal rise in incidence.
– secondary infection
– the development of seizures is possible
– improper water regime RVGE can cause cerebral edema, disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal failure and other life-threatening conditions
The most disturbing signs! (It is necessary to call SMP )
– severe weakness and lethargy, almost constant sleep or, on the contrary, incessant anxiety
– incessant vomiting
– the inability to get the child drunk
– no urination or very rare concentrated urine
– in children under one year old – retraction of the fontanel
– admixture of blood in the stool
The prognosis of the disease with adequate hydration is usually favorable, the duration of the disease rarely exceeds 5-7 days.After suffering rotavirus gastroenteritis, a child may become infected again due to a seasonal change in circulating serotypes of rotavirus, but a natural infection transferred may reduce the severity of subsequent infections.
Feces ELISA and OKI test (also includes PCR testing for other types of viruses that cause acute intestinal infections, salmonellosis and dysentery)
– Abundant fractional drink.For this, it is preferable to use specialized salt solutions – Regidron, Regidron – Bio. In the first hours, in order not to provoke vomiting, you can give 1 tsp. or tbsp. every 5 to 10 minutes.
IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER! For a day, depending on age, the child must drink at least 1 – 1.5 liters of water. Therefore, especially in the first knocks of the child, you SHOULD continue to drink in a dream, controlling that the child does not choke.
– Put a small child on its side so that in case of an attack of vomiting, he does not choke on vomit.
Antipyretic drugs – only if the temperature is above 38.5.
– Do not feed for the first 3 hours after vomiting, then in small portions.
Be sure to continue breastfeeding!
– In the acute period, for the accelerated normalization of the stool and the removal of the virus from the body, astringent and adsorbing substances are used (carbolene, polyphepan, smecta, enterosgel, etc.)
In the treatment of intestinal infections that provoke the development of fermentopathy, special attention is paid to diet.Since during the development of the pathological process, the activity of a number of digestive enzymes, in particular lactase, is disrupted, in the acute period of the disease, whole milk and dairy products should be excluded from the child’s diet and the intake of food rich in carbohydrates (sweet fruits, fruit juices, baked goods, legumes) should be limited. culture). Also, in the acute period of the disease, it is not allowed to feed children with meat, broths, meat products, fatty and fried foods. Food is often given to a sick child, in small portions.The list of permitted foods includes slimy cereals, vegetable purees and soups, white crackers and baked apples.
Breastfeeding in the presence of an intestinal infection does not stop, since breast milk contains antibodies that neutralize rotavirus and immunoglobulins, which facilitate the course of the disease.
– Giving an antibiotic.In this case, the culprit is the virus and any antibiotic is completely powerless against it. It will not do any good, but only increase the likelihood of complications.
– with profuse diarrhea, the use of any antidiarrheal drugs like loperamide (without consulting a doctor). Taking them can increase intoxication, lengthen the recovery period.
There is a specific prophylaxis against rotavirus – vaccination
Vaccination (Rotatek).The course consists of three doses at intervals of 4 to 10 weeks. The first vaccine is given at the age of 6 to 12 weeks. Last introduction before 32 weeks of age. (Compatible with any vaccines from the national calendar except BCG)
Isolation of patients at home with mild forms of rotavirus infection is carried out for 7 days, after which the patient can be admitted to an organized team (including children) on the basis of a doctor’s certificate of recovery without additional virological examination.
• Use only boiled water for drinking;
• Thorough hand washing before eating;
• Pre-washing fruits and vegetables with a brush;
• Sufficient heat treatment of food.