Vomiting curdled milk: Why Is My Baby Spitting Up Curdled Milk?
What Does It Mean When My Baby Throws Up Curdled Milk?
Getting spit up on your shirt is practically a right of passage for becoming a parent, but if your baby throws up curdled milk, you may wonder what is going on. As it turns out, throwing up curdled milk could be completely normal — it all has to do with how much time has passed since your baby nursed or took a bottle. We reached out to two pediatricians to learn more about why spit up might resemble milk left in the fridge past the expiration date and when to worry about it.
What Does It Mean When My Baby Throws Up Curdled Milk?
“Curdled milk is the result of milk mixing with stomach acid,” said Ohio-based ob-gyn Kim Langdon, MD. When the milk in your refrigerator gets old, its pH drops making it more acidic. In your baby’s stomach, digestive acids have the same effect. Dr. Langdon explained that the longer the milk remains in the stomach before the baby spits it up, the more curdled it looks.
Should I Be Worried About Curdled Spit Up?
“[Spitting up] is not a sign of illness,” said Pierrette Mimi Poinsett, MD. “All babies have a degree of reflux resulting in throwing up milk.”
“Spitting up is common and usually occurs with burping the baby,” Dr. Langdon told POPSUGAR, noting that while this is completely normal, vomiting is not. Vomiting can be hard to differentiate from spit up, but it generally comes up more forcefully and in larger amounts. Repeated vomiting could be a sign that your baby has a virus and can lead to dehydration. If you think your baby is vomiting or you are concerned about the frequency of spit up, Dr. Langdon advised reaching out to your pediatrician.
How Can I Reduce My Baby’s Spit Up?
Although spitting up is completely normal in infants, you may want to take steps to reduce it if it’s making your baby uncomfortable or preventing them from taking in enough milk. “To reduce the amount of vomited milk, you can feed the baby more slowly, taking more breaks in the feeding,” Dr. Poinsett told POPSUGAR. She also suggested using a slow-flow nipple for bottle-fed babies and burping your baby halfway through the feeding, as well as at the end of the feeding.
Why Does My Baby Spit Up Curdled Milk? Reasons & Solutions
If a baby throws up a few hours after eating, the milk will be curdled. It is discomforting for babies, so this is what parents can do to help.
Spitting up is different from vomiting. When your baby spits up, it is more natural and fluid; they might not even notice that they did it. Vomiting, on the other hand, is forceful and might hurt the baby. A lot of baby issues are due to their undeveloped systems. Should you be worried about your baby spitting up? Keep reading to find out why your baby spits up curdled milk and what you can do about it.
Why Does My Baby Spit Up?
Infants are bound to spit up once in a while, and it is normal. It happens because their digestive system is not fully developed. There is a valve between the esophagus (food pipe) and stomach that prevents food from travelling back up the esophagus once swallowed. It is called the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). If this valve fails to close properly, food escapes the stomach into the esophagus, and that’s how your baby spits up.
What Does My Baby Spit Up Curdled Milk?
If the baby spits up immediately after feeding, it will likely be regular milk or formula. If they spit up a few hours after feeding, it will be curdled milk (chunky and separated). It is due to the action of stomach acid (hydrochloric acid) and enzymes (rennin) on the milk. They curdle the milk as part of digestion.
What Causes My Baby To Spit Up Curdled Milk?
Again, the fact that their digestive system is not fully developed is a major reason why infants spit up curdled milk. Their stomach is smaller, and the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) is underdeveloped. The only solution to this is time. Expect your baby to keep spitting up until after six months when the lower esophageal sphincter matures. Most babies outgrow spitting up by their first birthday.
Some babies also spit up because they are sensitive to milk protein, cow’s milk, or the formula. Allergic reactions usually accompany other symptoms like diarrhea or rashes. A pediatrician will help you figure the allergen. The only solution to intolerance is to switch formula or avoid drinking cow’s milk.
RELATED: 15 Essential Burping Baby Tips All Parents Need To Know
The baby’s small stomach cannot hold excess food. When the stomach is too full, the milk escapes into the esophagus and comes out as spit-up. You should stop feeding the baby as soon as they are full.
Swallowing Air When Feeding
Bottle-fed babies are very likely to swallow air as they feed. Breastfed babies also swallow air, especially if the milk is coming out fast and hard. If the baby’s tummy becomes swollen and hard after feeding, they have a gas problem. Burping helps to relieve gas. Hold your baby upright, then gently rub or pat their back as you move upwards. This should push any trapped air out.
Newborns commonly suffer acid reflux because of the undeveloped LES. Food that is mixed with stomach acid comes up the esophagus. It might hurt the baby. If the baby cries when spitting up, it could be acid reflux. As the LES develops, acid reflux reduces and ends by the time the child is 12 months old. If it continues after 12 months, your child needs to see a doctor who will test for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
To relieve acid reflux, avoid overfeeding the baby, feed them while they are upright, and avoid eating spicy or fatty foods. Your pediatrician may prescribe medication like Ranitidine to relieve acid reflux.
This is a rare and serious condition that affects 3 in 1,000 American babies below five weeks old. The muscles in the stomach’s outlet enlarge, narrowing the outlet, such that food does not pass to the intestines. A baby with pyloric stenosis constipates, loses weight, vomits severely, and requires immediate medical attention.
How To Reduce Spitting Up
Here are a few tips to help prevent your baby from spitting up their milk:
- Always feed your baby while they are upright, and keep them upright for at least 20 minutes after feeding.
- Avoid overfeeding the baby, and give them enough time to digest before feeding them again.
- Feed your baby in a calm and quiet environment.
- Burp your baby after every feeding.
- To manage forceful letdown, express before feeding to reduce milk.
- Switch up breastfeeding positions to find the most comfortable position for the baby.
- Use inserts on the baby’s feeding bottle.
- Consult your pediatrician about adding rice cereal to your baby’s formula. It thickens the formula.
When Should I Be Concerned About Baby Spit Up?
If you notice the following in your baby, consult your pediatrician.
- They spit up too much.
- Losing weight.
- Dehydration: less peeing, sunken fontanelle, no tears.
- Extreme irritability and fussiness.
- Difficulty in breathing.
NEXT: What Baby’s Spit-Up Means: 15 Things All New Moms Need To Know
Sources: healthline, verywellfamily, hellomotherhood
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About The Author
(751 Articles Published)
Karen is a momma that loves to write. She has been on writing on pregnancy, parenting, motherhood, and the realities of raising babies for the past four years. She’s worked with Woman Junction, BabyGaga, The Talko, The Things, as well as other sites. For inquiries, please email [email protected]
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Home Remedies For Babies Spitting-Up Curdled Milk
If your baby is consistently throwing up curdled milk, try one of these nine at-home remedies to soothe their stomach.
It’s normal for babies to spit-up in the first few months. Spitting-up is a result of acid reflux, undeveloped digestive system, and overstimulation of the infant after feeding. Parents become overly concerned when their babies spit up, and you probably are. Luckily, this reflex does not cause discomfort to your child. However, there are home remedies that can help you reduce the number of times your baby spits-up. This article features nine useful tips.
Avoid Slouched & Curled Positions During Feeding
Did you know that a feeding position can increase or decrease the number of your baby’s spit-ups? Feeding your baby in a curled position puts your newborn at a higher risk of spitting-up. An upright position is the best and recommended way to feed your child.
Express Breastmilk Before Feeds
When your baby consumes breastmilk in short spurts, they are likely to spit up. Any time you feel your breasts are full or have powerful letdowns, try expressing milk before breastfeeding. This will manage the amount of milk your little one consumes. What if you bottle-feed your little one? First Cry Parenting advises parents to ensure the nipple hole delivers milk flow that is comfortable for the baby.
As much as you want your baby fed, avoid overfeeding. When your infant’s stomach is too full, they are more likely to spurt out curdled milk. To reduce the number of spit-ups, have smaller feeds at regular intervals.
Burp Your Baby
Babies gulp air down when feeding, which can lead to a spit-up during an escape. Burping, however, frees this trapped air. Patting your baby on their back helps them belch to release gas. The best time to burp is during or after a feeding session.
Avoid Distractions When Feeding Your Baby
Babies ingest lots of air when feeding in loud environments resulting in spitting up. For this reason, ensure you feed your baby in a calm and quiet space.
Limit Play After Feedings
Your baby’s stomach will be full after a feed. Therefore, avoid overstimulating your baby through play, particularly the tummy. Healthy Children explains that pressing their belly will only force out milk from their undeveloped digestive system. Therefore, avoid spit-ups by postponing play and tummy time after breast or bottle-feeding.
Substitute Rice Cereal With Oatmeal
Babies with acid reflux or dysphagia need to consume thicker food to reduce spit-ups. Most parents feed their babies rice cereal. However, the American Academy of Pediatricians recommends the use of oatmeal. Its high-fibre content reduces constipation and acid reflux.
Watch What You Eat
Breastfeeding moms need to observe what they eat as it can affect their baby. Spicy foods, tomatoes, citrus fruits, and carbonated drinks can interfere with breastmilk to cause reflux. Moms should avoid foods that cause acid reflux as it increases the number of times their baby will spit-up.
Keep Baby’s Stomach Free Of Extra Pressure
Would you like it if someone applied pressure on your belly? Well, your baby’s stomach does not enjoy it either. Extra pressure from tight diapers and clothes can result in spit-ups. Therefore, always check that the diapers and baby clothes are well-fitting.
When To Consult A Doctor
Babies do not seem bothered when they spit-up. However, if you notice any of the following signs, you need to call or visit your pediatrician.
Baby Looks Dehydrated
Babies spit up a small fraction of their milk consumption. However, if your baby hurls more curdled milk, they can become hydrated. A sunken fontanelle, tearless crying, less than six wet diapers a day, and irritability are signs that your newborn is dehydrated. If your infant exhibits the above symptoms, you need to consult a doctor.
RELATED: Thomas Rhett Says ‘Everything’s Fine’ After His 6-Week-Old Daughter Spits Up On Him
Change In Your Infant’s Skin Color
Your baby’s skin color should not change after a normal spit-up. But if you notice that your baby’s skin turned blue during this reflex, visit your doctor. Emedicine notes that the color change happens when the baby stops breathing. You should consult your pediatrician when your child develops breathing difficulties.
Green Or Brown Spit-up
Spit-up milk should look like regular milk or have a curdled texture. What if your baby retches out a green or brown looking content? Visit the doctor. This is a sign that your baby’s intestines have a blockage. Seek medical attention if the spit-up is bloody too.
Regular Spit-ups After 6 Months
Babies have a more developed digestive system at six months. This means that the number of spit-ups reduces at this stage. If your child experiences regular spit-ups after six months, you need to talk to your pediatrician.
Spit-ups should not interfere with a baby’s weight. Nevertheless, if you feel your baby is losing weight or not gaining any from spitting-up, you should call the doctor.
NEXT: Why Does My Baby Spit Up Curdled Milk? Reasons & Solutions
Sources: First Cry Parenting, Healthy Children, Emedicine,
Signs Your Partner Is Doing The Best They Can To Keep You Comfortable During Pregnancy
About The Author
(751 Articles Published)
Karen is a momma that loves to write. She has been on writing on pregnancy, parenting, motherhood, and the realities of raising babies for the past four years. She’s worked with Woman Junction, BabyGaga, The Talko, The Things, as well as other sites. For inquiries, please email [email protected]
More From Karen Samuels
Baby Spit Up Curdled Milk: Is It Normal?
No matter how often we have already familiarized ourselves with our babies spitting up, the concern over a minor vomit will never go away. The thing is, we all know that infants spit up. In fact, it is so common that we would often expect our infants to spit up once in a while.
If you notice, spitting up often happens right after feeding or when you are trying to burp your little one. And usually, it is nothing to worry about since spit-ups are just small amounts of milk throw-up. Babies feel fine and well and aren’t too eager to feed again after they spit up.
However, there are instances where baby spit-ups are beyond normal. There are conditions where our babies need medical attention due to excessive spit-ups or that they are spitting up due to other reasons. There are many ways to tell if your baby just had a typical spit-up or it’s already a real vomit.
Babies need constant care and attention and just because spit-ups are common, it doesn’t mean that you should totally rule it out as ordinary.
Read More : Baby Spitting Up Clear Liquid.
1. What Makes up a Baby Spit-up?
Baby spit-up is actually a mild vomit or a regurgitation of food. Spit-up contains milk – formula or breastmilk, food, and saliva. Technically, it contains very little acid from the stomach to actually hurt your baby’s throat as they spit back up the milk they’ve just ingested.
In cases where you notice that your baby’s spit up is a bit different like it looking like curdled milk, well, it’s also not a major sign of concern either. You see, when milk mixes up with acid – in this case, acids found in the stomach – it curdles. Technically, curdled milk spit ups is a norm. Your baby is bound to spit some up every now and then.
2. Why do Babies Spit-up?
Alright, let’s put this into an adult’s perspective. Whenever we eat, we feel like burping, right? That is because of the mixing of the food and acid inside the stomach. It causes different chemical reactions causing gas as a by-product that needs to be passed out.
When we burp, sometimes we feel the food is backed up in our throat but it goes back down eventually. You see, we have a valve – medically known as epiglottis – that prevents you from actually vomiting what you just ate. For babies, though, this valve is under-developed.
An underdeveloped epiglottis is mainly the reason why babies spit-up. It’s because some undigested food has more access to going back up the throat and pass through the mouth. There is nothing stopping undigested food from going back up the throat. We also have to consider two things as to why your baby spits up:
- Small stomach. Because your baby’s stomach is very small, there are bigger chances of your child overfeeding and the best remedy to relieve a full stomach is by getting rid of the dead weight. And since the nearest exit is back up the throat, it eventually ends up being spit up.
- Swallowing of air. When our baby is crying too much during or in between feedings, your little one may have a big chance of spitting up afterward. Babies have a hard time stopping themselves from crying and end up swallowing a lot of air. So in cases where this happens, air mixes with the food inside the stomach. This is why we should calm our baby first before we feed them to lessen the chances of them spitting up and becoming gassy as well.
3. Is spit-up Different From Vomiting?
A spit-up is technically a mild form of vomit. However, in comparison with actual vomit, spit-up is far from it. You know how badly you feel after vomiting, right? There is a burning acidic sensation on your throat that is extremely difficult to get over with. That’s because your vomit contains a huge amount of digested food along with stomach fluids like hydrochloric acid.
Real vomiting is a forceful way of throw up from your stomach. Your baby, on the other hand, doesn’t feel this when spitting up. Spitting up is just getting rid of excess milk or air in the tummy – where a few digested milk backs up as well.
4. Do Spit ups Hurt our Newborn?
No, they don’t. Since most spit-ups happen after feeding or during burping sessions, the food intake of your little one has barely had enough time to be digested by the stomach. They are technically still in their whole milk and saliva phase mixed together. So, spit-ups are fairly common and not painful for your child at all.
5. Is Curdled Spit-up Normal?
Yes. Curdled milk is absolutely normal to a certain degree. As we’ve already discussed, when milk mixes with acid, it curdles. And as your baby feeds, the milk goes straight to the stomach for digestion. So, by the time you burp your baby or when they spit up, some of the already digested curdled milk comes up too.
6. How To Prevent or Lessen Baby Spit-up?
- Proper Burping. After feeding, sit your baby up for a minute and then let them burp. If you immediately burp your baby fresh off your breast or the bottle, chances are, they will spit up. By letting your newborn sit up for a while, this allows the gases in the tummy to rise up making a dryer burp.
- Prevent overfeeding. Although breastfeeding may vary from 20-45 minutes, switching breasts can be a good thing. In between feeding, burp your baby and switch breasts. But when your baby is already relaxed, sleepy, beginning to loosen up her latch, and your little one’s hands are no longer fisted, you can stop. If you continue breastfeeding, your baby may be consuming more than she needs and you’ll have a major clean up to do afterward.
- Upright feeding. Feed your baby in an upright position, this always allows gases to rise up. This way your baby burps more naturally too.
- Mommy diet. In breastfeeding, you should also limit yourself from eating carbonated drinks, spicy and fatty food. They cause you to burp and be gassy and will definitely do the same to your little one.
7. When Should You Seek Medical Attention for Spitting up?
Spit ups don’t actually interfere with your baby’s nutrition since spit up happens only because of an immature digestive system. As long as your baby is still gaining weight and still happy and well, you don’t have to worry about your baby spitting up about 10 times a day. However, if you have the following symptoms, you should have your baby checked.
- Your newborn is dehydrated – this is pretty hard to tell though – but a sign can be lesser to no tears at all and/or they barely pee or poop as much as they used to.
- Your little one is extremely irritable and fussy.
- Spitting up makes them cry because it hurts.
- Your baby is losing weight.
- Your baby shows other signs like fever, diarrhea, and difficulty in breathing among others.
- Your baby’s spit up contains a lot of mucus or it is accompanied by blood.
8. What Medical Conditions Cause Abnormal Spit-ups?
There are some common reasons why babies vomit instead of the usual spit up, some medical concerns are:
- Lactose Intolerance. Your baby is having a hard time digesting formula milk because they cannot handle lactose or milk protein. This can easily be dealt with by shifting your formula milk to low lactose formula milk or a hydrolysate formula. You can also start purchasing breastmilk for your baby as well since all these are highly tolerated by babies in general. If you are breastfeeding, you should also steer clear of dairy products for the meantime.
- Acid Reflux. This is very common for anyone really. When your newborn happens to have a lot of acid in their stomach and ends up regurgitating it, it becomes really painful for them. Some doctors may tell you to switch or add formula to their diet since formula milk is thicker than your breastmilk.
- Pyrolic Stenosis. This is a more serious condition where your baby is actually projectile vomiting. This is because the passageway is known as the pylorus from the stomach to the small intestines is very narrow that digested food has difficulty passing through. This requires immediate medical attention since it leads to malnutrition and dehydration.
Spitting up is a very common thing for all babies. It is nothing much to worry about whether it is a curdled milk or not. Spitting up is just a phase your baby goes through that may require a little more extra work in laundry time but is otherwise not harmful to your baby.
Why is my baby spitting up so much breast milk?
My baby is frequently spitting up – it seems like it’s all of my breast milk! I never thought breastfed babies spit up this much. This can’t be normal, can it? Is there something wrong with my baby?
Don’t worry – we get these questions often. Caring for a baby who spits up can be stressful for parents, creating worries about the baby’s health and proper growth. Spitting up is a very common occurrence in healthy babies, and usually won’t cause any issues in regards to the baby’s growth or development. This often happens because the baby’s digestive system is so immature, making it easier for their stomach contents to flow back up into the esophagus.
Several different factors can contribute to babies spitting up, including:
- Babies regularly spit up when they drink too much milk, too quickly. This can happen when the baby feeds very fast, or when mom’s breasts are overfull. The amount of spit up can appear to be much more than it really is.
- Food sensitivities can cause excessive spitting up in babies. Products with cow milk in the mom or baby’s diet can be a common food sensitivity.
- Some babies can become distracted when feeding at the breast, pulling off to look around. This can cause babies to swallow air and spit up more often.
- Breastmilk oversupply or forceful let-down (milk ejection reflex) can cause reflux-like symptoms in babies.
If your baby seems comfortable, is eating well, gaining weight and developing normally, there’s typically little cause for concern. “Happy spitters” will grow and thrive, despite spitting up frequently. As babies grow and get older, they usually spit up less. Most will stop spitting up by 12 months of age.
Consider these tips:
- Keep your baby upright. Try feeding your baby this way and keep them upright for about 30 minutes after feedings.
- Avoid engaging in immediate active play for at least 30 minutes after feedings. Active play includes use of a bouncy seat, vibrating seat, infant swing or bouncing the baby while walking/holding.
- Frequent burps during and after each feeding can keep air from building up in your baby’s stomach.
- Avoid overfeeding. Feeding your baby smaller amounts more frequently might help decrease spitting up.
- Put your baby to sleep on his or her back. Placing a baby to sleep on its tummy to prevent spitting up is not recommended.
- Monitor your diet closely if you’re breastfeeding. If you feel there are certain foods that might be upsetting your baby’s stomach, try avoiding them for a while.
- If you notice weight loss, forceful spit up, fussiness or other symptoms, talk to your child’s pediatrician about your concerns.
Lactation Support Services at Texas Children’s Hospital offers a variety of services to mothers with questions and concerns regarding breastfeeding, pumping, medications and more. Click here to learn more.
Why do babies vomit curdled milk? – AnswersToAll
Why do babies vomit curdled milk?
This means your baby’s milk feed will not pass through the valve at the bottom of his stomach into his intestines. … At first, he’ll start to bring up small amounts of milk after a feed. This will get worse and he will begin to projectile vomit. The milk he brings up may be curdled and yellow.
How do you know if your baby has reflux?
While they may vary, the 10 most common signs of acid reflux or GERD in infants include: spitting up and vomiting. refusal to eat and difficulty eating or swallowing. irritability during feeding.
Can you feed baby after spitting up?
Many infants will spit up a little after some — or even all — feedings or during burping because their digestive tracts are immature. That’s perfectly normal. As long as your baby is growing and gaining weight and doesn’t seem uncomfortable with the spitting up, it’s OK.
Is it normal for baby to spit up after every feeding?
It’s normal for babies to spit up both breast milk and formula. Infants spit up after feedings (sometimes every feeding) and often bring up some milk when they burp. … Despite this just being one of those things babies do, there are things you can do to help prevent it and keep your baby comfortable.
Can newborns choke on spit up?
Myth: Babies who sleep on their backs will choke if they spit up or vomit during sleep. Fact: Babies automatically cough up or swallow fluid that they spit up or vomit—it’s a reflex to keep the airway clear. … In fact, babies who sleep on their backs might clear these fluids better because of the way the body is built.
Should I feed baby after he vomits?
Do not give your child ANYTHING to eat or drink for 30-60 minutes after vomiting. Your child will not become dehydrated by waiting, in fact giving their bellies time to rest and then offering small amounts of clear liquids is the best way to ensure adequate hydration.
Why do babies smile in their sleep?
Since it’s impossible to really know whether babies dream, it’s believed that when babies laugh in their sleep, it’s often a reflex rather than a response to a dream they’re having. … They can occur as the baby is falling asleep, or while they’re asleep it might wake them up.
What does yellow spit up mean?
These symptoms may mean that your baby has other problems digesting food: The spit-up is bright yellow or green. There is a large amount of spit-up.
How do you burp a reflux baby?
The most common cause of vomiting in children and babies is gastroenteritis. This is an infection of the gut usually caused by a virus or bacteria, which also causes diarrhoea.
Why do newborns vomit?
The most common cause of a baby vomiting in the early weeks is by some of the milk being brought up with a pocket of air, when your baby burps. … If the milk comes up a while after the feed, it will usually be partially digested, and often have lumps of curdled milk.
What is Similac spit up?
Similac for Spit-Up Infant Formula is specially formulated with rice starch and is clinically shown to reduce spit-up in healthy infants by 54%*. Our baby formula includes OptiGRO, our exclusive blend of DHA, Lutein and Vitamin E to help support your baby’s overall growth, brain, eye and immune system development.
What causes pyloric stenosis?
What is pyloric stenosis? Pyloric stenosis is an abnormal thickening and/or narrowing of the pylorus muscle. Normally, food and other stomach contents pass into the small intestine through the pylorus, which is the exit of the stomach. The thickened pyloric muscle causes a narrowing of the pyloric channel.
Spitting Up | Ask Dr Sears
1. Why babies spit up.
Babies spit up because they are just being babies. They gulp milk and air, and the air settles beneath the milk in the stomach. When baby’s stomach contracts, like an air gun, the stomach shoots some milk back up the esophagus, and you have sour, curdled milk on your shoulder. Some ravenous eaters gulp too much milk too fast, and the overloaded tummy sends some back. Jostling babies after eating may also trigger regurgitation. Spitting up can sometimes become more than a laundry problem and reflects a medical problem, such as a formula allergy , pyloric stenosis, or gastroesophageal reflux.
SPIT UP TIP
Try what we call the fist test: Tiny babies have tiny tummies, about the size of their fists. Place a full bottle next to baby’s fist, notice the size mismatch, and you’ll see why the overloaded tummy rebels.
2. When not to worry
The spots of dried milk on your clothing are telltale signs that you are the parent of a spitter. Most babies regurgitate, or spit up, their milk or formula several times a day during the early months. This is more of a laundry problem than a medical problem and seldom bothers baby. Dress for the occasion. If you are blessed with a baby who shares a bit of each meal with your clothing, wear prints and avoid dark-colored clothing. Keep a cloth diaper handy as a burp cloth. Don’t worry if:
- Baby is gaining weight optimally
- Baby is not in colicky abdominal pain
- The spit-up doesn’t always shoot out (projectile) a couple feet
- The spitting up is getting less frequent and less volume
- Baby is thriving and acting well
3. Not much lost
When baby spits up, you may feel she has lost all the milk your body worked so hard to produce, or wasted the expensive formula you bought. But you are likely to vastly overestimate the volume of regurgitated milk. Pour a tablespoon of milk or formula on the countertop and watch the huge puddle it makes. Now, does that amount match the spot on your dress? Most spit- up measures only a teaspoonful.
4. When to worry
Spitting up becomes a problem and needs medical attention if any of the following occur:
- Baby is losing weight or not gaining weight sufficiently.
- The vomiting increases in frequency and volume and becomes projectile (the spit-up flies across your lap and onto the floor).
- The vomitus is consistently green (bile stained).
- Painful colicky behaviors accompany the vomiting
- Baby gags and coughs during every feeding.
BLOOD IN SPIT-UP
Don’t panic at baby’s first bleed. If you breastfeed, most often this is your blood, not baby’s. It usually comes from cracked nipples during breastfeeding and subsides when your nipples heal. Occasionally, baby may retch or spit up forcefully and tear a tiny blood vessel at the end of the esophagus. This also heals quickly. If neither of these causes seems likely and the bleeding continues, notify your doctor.
5. Five Ways to settle the spitter
- Slow the feedings. Respect that tiny babies have tiny tummies. If formula feeding, give your baby smaller-volume, more frequent feedings.
- Burp baby during and after the feedings. Formula-fed spitters should be burped every three ounces (ninety milliliters) of milk, and breastfed spitters should be burped when switching sides or during a pause in baby’s sucking if baby lingers on one side.
- Feed upright and keep baby upright twenty to thirty minutes after a feeding. If you do not have time simply to sit and hold your baby upright, wear your baby in the upright position in a baby sling as you go about your work. Gravity is the spitter’s best friend.
- Avoid jostling or bouncing baby for at least a half hour after a feed.
- If bottlefeeding, be sure the nipple hole is neither too large nor too small.
When to expect the last spat. Most spitting up subsides around six to seven months when baby sits upright and gravity holds down the milk.
Dr. Bill Sears90,000 Vomiting in dogs. What to do? Causes and treatment of vomiting in dogs
Vomiting in dogs can be for various reasons, not all of them require urgent veterinary intervention. Sometimes this act of reflex gastric emptying is physiological in nature. For example, this is how puppies regurgitate after overeating milk. Physiological vomiting goes away on its own. Pathological vomiting is a less pleasant phenomenon, indicating a pet’s health problem, requiring diagnosis and treatment.
In our article we have collected all the information about this unpleasant pathology that dog owners need to know.
Causes of vomiting in dogs
The first thing to determine is how vomiting differs from regurgitation (regurgitation).
Regurgitation is a passive process of undigested food moving back from the esophagus. It occurs only once and should not frighten the owners of the dogs. Thus, the animal gets rid of excess food. The mass that the dog spits up is odorless and covered with mucus.
Vomiting is the process of emptying the stomach and upper intestines.The purpose of such emptying is to get rid of toxic substances, foreign objects, and poisons. Vomit has an unpleasant, pungent odor and can have a different structure.
The reasons for this phenomenon are varied. They can be divided into two large groups. The first includes those that do not require urgent veterinary intervention. The second is serious problems that require immediate diagnosis and treatment.
Causes of physiological vomiting
If the pet has vomited once and after that he behaves as usual: vigorously, actively, without loss of appetite, there is no need to worry.This is the physiological emptying of the stomach.
What can cause vomiting of a physiological nature:
- Eating green grass to stimulate gastric emptying.
- Motion sickness while traveling in transport.
- Overheating in a hot stuffy room.
- Reaction to vaccination.
- Condition after anesthesia.
- Stressful state.
- Physiological gastric emptying in lactating bitches.
- Toxicosis in pregnant dogs.
- Abrupt change in diet.
- Long breaks between feedings – hungry vomiting in the morning.
Causes of pathological vomiting
This group of causes causes nausea and vomiting of a pathological plan, which indicates serious health problems of the pet.
What causes pathological vomiting:
- Diseases of infectious origin: tuberculosis, plague of carnivores, parvovirus enteritis, leptospirosis, etc.
- Chronic diseases: gastritis, diabetes, stomach ulcer, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, hepatitis, etc.
- Food allergy.
- Cancer diseases.
- Gastrointestinal trauma.
- Helminthic invasion.
- Chronic renal failure.
- Ingestion of caustic, irritating substances: carbon monoxide, smoke, poisonous insects.
- Poisoning with pesticides, rat poisons, household chemicals, mercury, fluorine and lead compounds.
- Ingestion of foreign objects in the digestive tract of the dog.
- Damage to the central nervous system.
- Severe food poisoning with subsequent intoxication.
- Constipation and paralytic intestinal obstruction.
- Diseases of a cardiological nature: heart failure, cardiomyopathy.
- Respiratory diseases: laryngitis, tracheitis, pharyngitis, etc.
- Intestinal blockage by foreign objects.
If a dog experiences anxiety before and after the process of vomiting, it grows in the stomach, diarrhea, coughing, and vomit with foreign impurities – an urgent veterinary examination for the dog.
Types of vomiting
By the nature of the course of the disease, pathology is divided into:
Acute – a sudden, fast-passing, single attack. Most often caused by physiological reasons.
Chronic – characterized by a longer period, can be repeated with a certain frequency. Its causes are pathological.
According to the composition and appearance of vomit, there are:
- vomit with white foam;
- with bile;
- with blood;
- green vomit.
Dog vomiting white foam
A one-time attack, not accompanied by an increase in body temperature, changes in behavior and loose stools is a physiological process. It does not indicate the presence of pathology in the animal.
Vomiting with white foam occurs in two cases:
- on an empty stomach;
- immediately after eating.
If the dog vomited some time after eating, then at this time the food moves from the stomach to the gastrointestinal tract.The stomach empties and becomes covered with protective mucus, which contains proteins and polysaccharides. During an attack of vomiting, they combine with the air and whip into a white foam.
White foam can also form if the dog vomits on an empty stomach. This phenomenon indicates minor violations of the function of bile secretion. Bile gets into an empty stomach – this provokes an attack. In case of frequent repetition of such a situation, it is necessary to show the pet to the veterinarian.
Vomiting with bile
Yellow vomiting indicates that bile is present in the vomit.This situation develops against the background of dysfunction of the gallbladder or duodenum. Bile enters the stomach, irritating its walls, this causes an attack of vomiting.
Causes of yellow vomiting:
- Hepatitis of an infectious or viral type. The dog’s health worsens, body temperature rises, appetite and activity decrease, and stool disorders appear.
- Chronic gastritis. It is accompanied by weight loss, apathy, and the development of anorexia.
- Helminthic invasion. Develops against the background of severe intoxication. Death is possible.
- Pyroplasmosis. The disease develops after the bites of ixodid ticks, leading to the death of pets.
- Stomach ulcer – exacerbation stage.
- Benign and malignant tumors of the stomach.
Bile in vomit is a dangerous symptom. Your dog needs urgent help from a veterinarian.
Vomiting blood in a dog
The color of vomit with blood varies from pink and red to brown.Sometimes this vomiting can be black in color.
Blood can come from damaged walls of the stomach or esophagus – trauma by a foreign body (bone). From a bleeding ulcer of the stomach or intestines. As a result of impaired liver and kidney function or neoplasms in the gastrointestinal tract. A similar symptom indicates the development of some infectious diseases. In this case, gagging is accompanied by hyperthermia and general weakness of the animal.
Bloody vomiting is always a dangerous symptom.Regardless of the reason why blood got into the vomit, the dog must be shown to the veterinarian.
Green vomit in a dog
Green color of vomit indicates that intestinal contents have entered the dog’s stomach. This happens if the dog has intestinal obstruction, severe helminthic infestation, or some kind of infectious disease. All these conditions are very serious, therefore, they require immediate referral to a specialist.
During the summer, the green color of the mucus may indicate the dog eating grass – only such green vomit is safe.
According to the severity, vomiting is divided into:
- Self-passing. This type does not require treatment, it goes away on its own. Of the therapeutic measures, only diet may be required.
- Lightweight. There are no life-threatening symptoms, no serious complications. It is treated with antiemetic drugs, drinking plenty of fluids.
- Heavy. It has a protracted character, foreign inclusions (blood, bile) are present in the vomit, and is characterized by serious complications.Death is possible.
Vomiting in a pregnant dog
In a pregnant dog, vomiting and nausea are a manifestation of toxicosis. This condition is temporary and is associated with changes in the dog’s body during pregnancy. Most often, toxicosis is observed at 3-4 weeks of pregnancy and in the middle of its second half.
Usually the condition goes away on its own. The owners need to surround the expectant mother with care and attention, to protect her from stressful situations.It is not recommended to force-feed a pregnant dog if it refuses to eat.
Veterinarian assistance may be required in the following cases:
- vomiting lasts more than a week;
- the dog is often and profusely vomiting – more often than 3 times a day.
It is forbidden to overfeed dogs with toxicosis – this worsens their condition.
Treatment of vomiting in a dog. What to do
A treatment plan is developed by a veterinarian after an accurate diagnosis has been made.It is not the vomiting itself that is treated, but the reason that caused it.
Why vomiting is dangerous
Prolonged persistent vomiting, accompanied by loss of appetite and diarrhea, leads to dehydration. Vomiting in a puppy is especially dangerous – without the provision of veterinary care, the baby can die in less than a day.
How to help your dog before visiting the veterinarian
Until the diagnosis is established, the owner can help his pet by following these simple rules:
- Don’t panic, try to identify the nature of the nausea.
- Try to calm your dog down and never scold him for vomiting.
- You do not need to try to stop the process yourself.
- Try to determine the cause – this will help the doctor diagnose.
- Record the number of vomiting urges, accompanying symptoms and the type of vomit.
- As soon as the dog vomits, stop feeding him.
- Have your dog lick ice cubes instead of water.
In the presence of concomitant symptoms (fever, diarrhea), a sharp deterioration in the pet’s condition and an alarming composition of vomit (blood, bile), immediately show the dog to a doctor.
The following examinations may be assigned to your dog at the clinic:
- collection of anamnesis;
- external examination of the dog;
- ultrasound of the abdominal cavity;
- blood test;
- endoscopic examinations.
Only after evaluating the results of all tests, treatment is prescribed.
The treatment regimen necessarily includes curative fasting, medication procedures and measures to adjust the diet.
Vomiting is a symptom, not a disease. Drug therapy is prescribed after evaluating the clinical picture and establishing the main diagnosis that provoked the seizures:
- If helminths are found in the dog – Drontal Plus, Milbemax, Polivercan, Prazicid.
- Infectious diseases are treated with antibiotic therapy.
- To relieve pain, antispasmodics are used: Drotaverine or Papaverine.
- The level of acidity in the stomach reduces Omez.
- To eliminate the symptoms of dehydration, droppers with saline, glucose and Ringer-Locke infusion solution are used.
- Intoxication syndrome is removed with absorbent drugs: activated carbon, Polysorb, Enterosgel.
- Immunomodulators are used to enhance immunity: Katozol, Ribotan, Gamavit, Maxidin.
- Specific therapy is prescribed for the treatment of chronic diseases of internal organs.
Drug treatment is accompanied by a “sparing” diet.
Preparations for vomiting in dogs
The following antiemetic drugs are used to stop persistent gagging and prevent nausea in dogs:
Non-prescription antiemetic approved by a veterinarian. The drug is based on the active substance metoclopramide. Available in ampoules and tablets. Recommended dosage: 0.5-07 mg per 10 kg of live weight 2-3 times a day.Treatment course: 5 to 7 days. Maximum daily dose: 1 to 2 mg per 10 kg of body weight.
The drug is prescribed for gastritis, gastrointestinal disorders, heartburn, impaired intestinal motility, pathological hiccups, head injuries, vomiting.
Contraindication – intestinal obstruction.
New generation veterinary drug of American production. Possesses high proven efficiency. The action is due to the citrate, which is part of it, which directly affects the central nervous system (suppresses the gag reflex).The medicine is characterized by low toxicity and safety. Has two forms of release: solution for intramuscular injection and tablets.
Can be used for prophylaxis and as a remedy. Relieves the state of nausea after anesthesia, prevents motion sickness in transport, is used in the treatment of cancer. Recommended dosage: 1-2 mg per 1 kg of dog weight per day. The course of treatment is up to 5 days. For the prevention of motion sickness in transport, give a single dose of 8 mg per 1 kg.
A highly effective drug based on cyclizine hydrochloride used to prevent motion sickness, motion sickness in aircraft and road transport. The optimal effect occurs when taken half an hour before travel. Re-admission is possible after 6 hours. Recommended dosage: 4 mg per 1 kg of body weight.
Contraindication – weight up to 2.5 kg.
How to feed a dog
The first rule is the first 12 hours after vomiting the dog is not given food .Fasting therapy will allow the dog’s stomach to rest and recover, and the body to cleanse itself. At the same time, you need to offer the dog fresh water (preferably filtered) – 2 teaspoons per 1 kg of body weight. In order to restore the salt balance in the body and prevent dehydration, Regidron is prescribed in the dosage indicated on the package.
In the future, a special diet is prescribed for medicinal purposes and for prophylaxis.
For medicinal purposes, dogs are prescribed special dietary feed:
- Hill’s Prescription Diet I / D Canine Gastrointestinal Health dry
- Flatazor Protect Obesite;
- Advance Veterinary Diets Gastroenteric Low Fat Canine Formula;
- Pro Plan Veterinary Diets Canine EN Gastrointestinal dry;
- Happy Dog VET Diet Renal;
- Farmina Vet Life Canine Gastrointestinal;
- Royal Canin Gastro Intestinal Low Fat.
They switch to regular feed gradually adding it to dietary one. On the first feeding, the proportion should be 1: 1. Then, if vomiting has not recurred, you can mix 3/4 of the regular feed and 1/4 of the dietary one. If your dog tolerates food well, you can return to the normal diet after 3 days.
Naturally fed dogs are switched to light food. After the “medical hunger” the dog is offered 2-3 teaspoons of low-fat, easily digestible food.
This could be:
- low-fat cottage cheese;
- curdled milk;
- boiled rice;
- steamed beef meatball;
- boiled potatoes;
- boiled skinless chicken breast.
Feed the dog little by little, but often, offering the dog food every 1-2 hours. For feeding, carbohydrates and proteins are mixed in equal proportions. All food should be free of salt and spices. The transition to a regular diet is allowed only after 3-4 days.
If dietary food does not help, the dog’s vomiting has not stopped – contact your veterinarian immediately.
To prevent such an unpleasant phenomenon as vomiting, you do not need to do something special.
- Do not overfeed dogs.
- The pet should not starve for a long time. Maintain meal intervals.
- Vaccinate and antiparasitic treatment of the animal on time.
- Feed your dogs a balanced diet of high quality.
- Prevent pets from picking food outside.
- Make sure the dog does not have access to the trash can.
- Tubular bones – dogs are not allowed.
- Do not include expired or substandard foods in your dog’s diet.
- Use drugs for motion sickness when traveling in public transport.
- Give medications to dogs only as directed by your veterinarian.
- Keep hazardous and toxic substances out of the reach.
- Do not breed poisonous plants.
- Protect the animal from contact with poisonous insects and snakes.
Be attentive to your pet, love and take care of him – this is the best prevention of any disease.
90,000 What if the child is poisoned?
Signs of intestinal infection – diarrhea (diarrhea), nausea, vomiting and fever.The most unpleasant symptoms – vomiting and upset stools – are aimed at removing the pathogen that caused the poisoning. Trying to prevent and stop them is wrong. In this case, it is worth creating conditions so that these processes do not turn into complications. With diarrhea, babies need to change the diaper in a timely manner, wash it off with water and treat the skin with ointments containing zinc.
Intestinal infection is dangerous not only because it disrupts the work of the stomach and intestines, but also the consequences of repeated vomiting and prolonged diarrhea.During these processes, the child loses a lot of water, as a result of which the water-alkaline balance in the body is disturbed. Many vital microelements – sodium, magnesium, chlorine and potassium – are washed out with water. Therefore, the fight against any poisoning begins with the restoration of the drinking regime: the child must receive the entire volume of water that he lost, and a little more. Depending on the age, the child should drink 1.2–2.5 liters of liquid per day. But you need to drink not only water, an infusion of dried fruits and jelly, but also water-salt solutions – to replenish microelements.Ready-made medicines in the form of powders dissolved in water according to the instructions are best suited for this.
The drinking process itself is a frequent and small amount of liquid (water or water-salt solution). The parent’s task is to give 5-10 milliliters of liquid every 10-15 minutes. Even if the child refuses or sleeps. If this is not done, due to the loss of fluid, the child will develop a state of dehydration, and then it will be possible to restore the water-alkaline balance only in a hospital with the help of droppers.It is irrational to offer more than 100 milliliters of water at a time, as this can cause vomiting or make it worse. Dehydration itself can lead to impaired functioning of the nervous system and kidneys.
The second important point in case of poisoning is diet. Due to inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines during an intestinal infection, the process of assimilation of food is disrupted. Eating fatty, salty, sweets, fresh vegetables and fruits, and even milk and fermented milk products can increase vomiting and diarrhea.Offer your child porridge in water or boiled vegetables, yesterday’s bread (dried without a crust), drying and cookies without poppy seeds, chocolate and other fillers. Gradually, on the third or fourth day, they begin to expand the diet by adding boiled rabbit or turkey meat. The more severe the poisoning was, the slower it is necessary to introduce new products. If your health worsens, it is better to return to your previous diet and try something new every other day.
To speed up the healing process, enterosorbent preparations are used in case of poisoning – in the form of powders for dissolution in water and in the form of pastes.When using them, it is important to follow the instructions and the duration of admission: incorrect admission can provoke constipation. You also need to remember that enterosorbents should not be combined with other drugs, since they interfere with their absorption and, therefore, their effect. The interval between taking enterosorbents and other drugs should be at least an hour.
Taking antibiotics, antiviral and other drugs is possible only after examination by a specialist – pediatrician, infectious disease specialist or family doctor.If in the process of recovery the child becomes worse, this is also a reason to call a specialist. In order for the doctor to be able to more accurately diagnose and prescribe effective treatment, tell him in detail about the nature of the vomiting and stool (how often, what color, how it smelled, what was in it). Save the baby’s diaper or take a photo of the bowel movement. Don’t get lost and don’t panic. Your confidence in a speedy recovery, adequate drinking, proper diet and adherence to the doctor’s recommendations will help you pass the acute period of the disease faster.
Advice of the veterinarian on the correct natural feeding of the cat – Veterinary clinic BioRhythm
L Any pedigree animals and pets that cannot boast of a noble pedigree need a complete diet. At the same time, the correct menu for a cat is significantly different from the list of necessary products for humans. There is no place for cereals and flour products, as well as cereals. These foods can disrupt the normal gut microflora of carnivores.In addition, there is no place in the diet of cats for alcohol and sauces based on wine, cocoa and chocolate, tea and coffee, as well as broccoli, onions and garlic. The body of animals also does not assimilate legumes – beans, soybeans or peas. Their use leads to bloating. It is also not recommended to give the fruits of the plants of the Solanaceae family – tomatoes and potatoes – to felines, which cause severe gastrointestinal colic.
Principles of good nutrition for cats
A healthy pet diet should be monotonous and specific – it does not generally require heat treatment.It consists of medium fat content of fermented milk products, raw meat and offal – kidneys, tripe, heart. From plant foods, cats are advised to give vegetables and some types of unsweetened fruits.
Note. Nutrition significantly shapes the immunity of the animal and an improper diet can significantly affect the health of the cat. The intestines play a key role in the system of protection and life support of the animal’s body. The presence of dysbiosis due to an improper diet can lead to the development of many pathological disorders – allergies, obesity, chronic inflammatory processes, disruption in the work of internal organs.
If you are not sure that you can provide your pet with proper nutrition, it is better to just buy pet food in Pavlovskaya Sloboda. A ready-made set of ingredients, selected by experienced specialists, as a rule, already contains the substances necessary for the normal life of the animal. However, if you give a cat dry food containing 40-55% cereals, sweet potatoes and corn, as well as porridge, you will not be able to maintain the intestinal microflora in a good condition.
The basis of the animal’s daily menu should be meat. In this case, we are talking about low-fat beef of the 2nd grade. Tenderloin and high quality meat are not recommended for cats and cats. It is permissible to include raw horse meat, lamb and rabbit meat in the pet’s diet, given the high calorie content of the last two products. It is undesirable to give pork. It is fatty and may contain various parasites in its raw form.It is permissible to give turkey, skinless chicken and offal. When adding poultry to your cat’s diet, monitor the response of your pet’s digestive system and skin. If this product does not work, cancel the additive.
All types of meat, except pork, are given raw. The products are pre-frozen. Do not scald with boiling water or cook meat before eating.
Note. Do not feed your cat solely with meat. From this, animals suffer from a lack of calcium, pets may develop juvenile osteopathy (hyperparathyroidism).It is expressed in lameness, pathological fractures and displacement of bones, in muscle pain. This condition can lead to neurological disorders, including urinary retention or incontinence. It is not recommended to give minced meat to pets. It may be too bold. To prevent your pet from getting sick, provide him with a complete diet or use mineral supplements if certain ingredients are lacking. Another way to avoid the problem that we discussed above is to use dry cat food classes or wet canned foods.
About parasites in raw meat
Lamb meat is relatively safe for feeding cats. The most dangerous in terms of the presence of various helminths are lard and pork. In practice, parasites can be found in any raw product, the only difference is in their types, concentration and severity of consequences for the animal’s body. The presence of worms is not a reason to give up completely feeding the cat with the meat it needs. In order not to infect the animal, do not shop in questionable places where the carcasses of sick animals may be sold, and freeze food before feeding.
Note . Cases of infection from raw meat are unlikely to be recorded by any doctor. In the stomach of cats there is a greater amount of hydrochloric acid than in humans, which allows the body of carnivores to perform decontamination functions. Boiling meat is not recommended because cooking reduces its nutritional value.
Lungs, kidneys, heart, stomachs of poultry and cattle can also be included in the animal’s diet and even completely replace meat.The offal is given raw to cats. When adding them to the diet, you need to take into account the calorie content of foods – some of them are less nutritious (for example, light – 92 kcal), others are more nutritious (for example, cow’s udder – 173 kcal). If the animal does not tolerate a raw liver or lung, they should not be given often or should be completely excluded from the diet. And also if you notice that the pet has started vomiting or diarrhea from some offal, you need to remove this ingredient from the menu.
This favorite treat of cats and cats, unfortunately, is not always useful.It is not recommended to transfer the animal completely to a fish diet. Serve the fish raw, with preference for ocean and sea fish that are pre-frozen. That being said, avoid bony rocks and buy lean ones. Seafood is added to the diet of cats no more than 2-3 times in 7 days. Small fish are given raw with bones, they are gnawed completely. Do not give the fish boiled. In the latter case, the bones are easily separated from the meat and can damage the throat or internal organs of the pet.
Frequently asked questions related to feeding cats and cats
1. Is it true that eating fish can cause a cat to get urolithiasis?
– No. This assumption was once common among veterinarians and was based on the large amount of phosphorus in fish. It was assumed that this substance may be the cause of struvite formation. However, experiments have shown that increased phosphorus concentration does not lead to disease.
2. Is the fish dangerous for the cat due to the possibility of infection with helminths?
– Yes, if it is a river and lake fish, while it is not frozen. Better to buy a cat of ocean dwellers and freeze them well. It is not recommended to give the animal freshly caught fish from a river or pond. The rest can be added raw to the diet. By the way, not all parasites in oceanic species are infectious to cats.
3. Can fish cause thiamine deficiency due to thiaminase content?
– This is a problem that fur farms face.If the diet is based on only one product, the animal develops vitamin B1 hypovitaminosis. If the menu is full, i.e. consists of different ingredients, there is no such danger.
4. What are the dangers of switching to a natural diet?
– If the pet owner regularly gave him dry food for castrated cats or another type of prepared food, and then decided to change the menu, this will affect the state of the animal’s gastrointestinal tract. Stools will move less frequently, and the stool will become thicker and darker.This is a completely normal process.
However, if stool discharge has begun to occur less frequently than once every two days, we recommend that you seek help from our specialists. There is a veterinary clinic on the street. Lunacharsky, 13 in Pavlovskaya Sloboda. Experienced doctors will advise on how to do the right thing – transfer the pet back to a dry menu or correct natural ingredients.
Note . Constipation is most often observed when an animal is fed meat alone without the addition of fiber and dairy products.If you are unsure of what your pet is having a negative reaction to, try feeding each of the natural foods separately. When you still could not determine the cause, it may be worth paying attention to an animal feed store. If diarrhea or vomiting occurs in an animal on any food, we advise you to visit your veterinarian immediately.
5. Can dry and wet food be fed at the same time?
– Mixing does not provide advantages, on the contrary, it is not useful.The composition of dry food is designed to be fed exclusively to them. By adding other ingredients, you imbalance your pet’s diet. At the same time, it makes no sense to combine the natural type of feeding with ready-made feed.
6. Is there a “purebred” diet?
– No. The diet of a cat does not depend on the breed, but is adjusted only when the pet is sick.
7. What to do if the animal is used to dry food and refuses to use natural products?
– The problem is quite serious.Cats are capricious in their food. Long-term feeding with one type of food leads to changes in the food instinct. Try cutting back on food for 2-4 weeks to keep your pet a little hungry. Over time, the cat will lose weight and may become interested in a natural diet. Introduce new foods gradually, while slowly reducing the dosage of dry food .
Fermented milk products
Half of the cat’s daily diet should be fermented milk products.Moreover, it should not be fat-free or too oily – up to a maximum of 9%. Cats love kefir, some eat cottage cheese, and there are those who use Narine or Evitalia starter cultures. The latter are added to cottage cheese or fed separately. Milk is consumed not by all cats, and even it is not useful for every animal. As they grow older, the body of pets begins to absorb lactose worse, so problems with the gastrointestinal tract may arise. It is not recommended to give cream, sour cream and fermented baked milk to cats, as well as yoghurts with sugar and fruits.It is better to give cottage cheese with a fat content of 5 to 9%, yogurt with a shelf life of up to a week, and kefir 3.5%.
On separate nutrition: meat, vegetables and sour milk
Do not mix meat components, offal and fish with fermented milk ingredients. Raw vegetables are best fed separately. Fermented milk products can be given with a portion of a raw egg or bran.
Note. Do not give eggs often. It is enough to add 2-3 rubles to the menu.per week for 1.4 pcs. You can give both white and yolk without dividing, and both adult and young cats.
Vegetables and fiber
Cats eat carrots, cabbage, pumpkin, beets, marrow. There are animals that love cucumbers or love pumpkins. It is useful to add greens to your pet’s diet – sprouted oats, lettuce, dill or parsley. It should be borne in mind that a cat can be picky about vegetables. If you do not want home greenery, you can offer your pet grass on a clean lawn in the park, when your animal is protected from ticks and rabies, and is not afraid of walking on a harness.
Vegetables and fiber are always given raw, finely chopped or grated. You can add these products to meat, but cannot be mixed with sour milk. The only exception is bran.
Note. It is not recommended to give your cat exotic vegetables.
These products are made from a hard grain shell. In fact, it is a source of fiber, as well as B vitamins, phosphorus, potassium and calcium.There are rye, buckwheat, oat, wheat bran, etc. A significant amount of a product in a cat’s diet can reduce its absorption, and a small amount, on the contrary, stimulates intestinal motility and improves taste. Bran is helpful if your pet is constipated. They are used as a substitute or addition to vegetables. If necessary, the bran can be mixed with meat or dairy products. They buy cereals from health food stores and supermarket shelves that sell healthy food.It is best to pre-soak the bran in fermented milk products. This is how they are most beneficial.
Prebiotics and Probiotics
Among modern zoological preparations there are means that improve the microflora and the activity of the gastrointestinal tract of animals. We are talking about probiotics – living microorganisms that suppress the growth of pathogenic bacteria, and prebiotics – completely indigestible fiber that is a breeding ground for beneficial intestinal microorganisms.
These funds allow you to restore the activity and composition of the natural microflora, which can be disturbed after stress, taking antibiotics, vaccination, a sharp change in the composition of the menu, poor-quality feed, operations, pancreatitis, as well as from pathology of the urinary tract and inflammatory bowel processes. The condition when, instead of beneficial microorganisms, pathogenic microorganisms multiply, is called dysbiosis. It can manifest as constipation or chronic diarrhea. The impetus for its appearance can even be a move, the appearance of a new animal in the house or a stay in a hotel for cats and cats.
In a normal situation, the natural environment of an animal’s intestines is formed by raw vegetables or bran – sources of indigestible fiber. If the cat’s diet is compiled correctly, then with natural nutrition, problems with the intestinal microflora should not arise without stressful situations or certain diseases.
If for some reason dysbiosis occurs, you can give the cat veterinary medications. If they are not at hand, try human ones, but calculate the dosage by the weight of the animal.For prophylaxis, probiotics are taken every 3 or 4 months. Preobitiki in the form of natural bran and vegetables should be given constantly.
Note . If a cat has symptoms of dysbiosis for more than 1 day, you should see a doctor as soon as possible to rule out a serious illness. Probiotics are best given to your pet on the recommendation of your veterinarian. If you doubt the correctness of the pet’s diet or are forced to leave home for a long time and resort to a sharp transition to ready-made canned food, it is better to transfer the pet to dry food for sterilized cats in the Krasnogorsk and Istrinsky regions or castrated cats, as well as other goods that do not deteriorate in the absence owner for a long time.
Representatives of felines in nature feed on birds and small rodents. At home, you can pamper furry pets with small fish or chicken necks, but these foods should be raw and with soft tissues. If you are worried that the cat might swallow the bone, it is best not to give them at all. Boiled bones are especially harmful to animals – they are less digestible and can provoke intestinal obstruction.
Vegetable oils can be added to the cat’s diet – unrefined sunflower, linseed, olive.Avoid exotic foods. It is better to add oils to vegetables and other herbal ingredients in a few drops – up to 5 pcs.
It is undesirable to give the cat food finely chopped, you should not chop them into minced meat. It is better to cut the menu ingredients into pieces, and grate the tough vegetables on a fine grater. The bran is added to wet food. Cats do not know how to chew, they immediately swallow food, so the pieces must correspond to the size of the animal.
Vitamins and supplements
Modern stores offer a lot of tools to strengthen the immunity of animals, improve the coat, and prevent diseases.Among them are the products of brands: Radostin, Fitominy, Fitoelita, Bearhar, Gimpet. An adult, healthy cat that eats a wholesome natural diet with raw bone does not need to buy a variety of supplements. In spring and early summer, you can enrich your diet with dry yeast. Additional minerals and vitamins may be needed by kittens, a pet with weakened immunity after an illness or as a prophylaxis against a disease, as well as cats during lactation or bearing offspring.
There are many reasons for overweight problems. The most common is overfeeding. Not every cat or cat can limit itself in food on its own, so calculating the correct dosage is the owner’s task. Other causes of obesity are metabolic disorders due to illness or castration, as well as sterilization, unbalanced diet, physical inactivity, hereditary predisposition, hormonal imbalance.
Leads to an increase in the usual feed dosage and social rivalry with other animals.Two other causes of obesity are begging habits and high-calorie snacks between meals. Traditionally, the appetite of pets increases with an increase in physical activity and, on the contrary, decreases with a passive lifestyle.
Cat food portion calculation
The ration of one day is calculated in the following proportion:
- up to 9 months – 10% of body weight;
- over 9 months- 5% excluding excess fat (approximately).
For example, an adult cat weighing 3 kg will need 3 (kg) x 0.05 (division ratio of 5% to 100%) = 0.150 (kg) or 150 grams. A small kitten weighing about 2 kg needs to eat per day: 2 x 0.10 = 0.2 kg or 200 g. Of the resulting weight of products, 50% should be raw meat, offal, poultry and fish, and 50% fermented milk products. Plant foods can be 5-10% of a serving of animal protein.
Note. Formula for calculating the diet is desirable but optional. The mode and amount of food can be adjusted depending on the physical condition of the pet, lifestyle (active or sedentary), age (the older the cat, the less food). It is advisable to periodically arrange fasting days without meat and without increasing the portion of dairy ingredients. The dosage of the proportions of products given above is for active cats that play and move a lot. For sedentary pets, it is worth reducing the amount of food by 30%.
Let’s summarize all of the above
- The natural diet of felines does not include dry and prepared wet foods, cereals or bread, fruit or other unsuitable foods.
- Veterinarians do not recommend compiling a cat’s menu based on the pet’s preferences. For him to feel really good, the diet must, first of all, be complete and sufficient.
- The main tragic mistake of the owners is the overfeeding of the animal. Obesity can result in serious health problems for your pet. The alarm signal is the food left in the plate. If this happens, the cat is overfed or sick.
And more. Provide the animal with constant and free access to water. Also, we do not advise, when choosing a diet for a cat or a cat, focusing on popular books or on the recommendations of breeders on feeding and keeping pets.As a rule, such literature rarely contains objective information. A ready-made cat food ration can be selected in our store, where it is possible to compare prices for pet food with the constant costs of the so-called “natural food”. Accordingly, you can conclude which menu is more economically profitable.
treatment and removal of ticks
90,000 39th week of pregnancy – what happens to the baby, nausea at the thirty-ninth week of pregnancy
What is happening
Now the baby’s body is actively preparing for existence outside the mother’s tummy.The heart, kidneys, lungs are already capable of supporting the life of a newborn. The intestine has become completely passable, and its muscles are slowly moving into the lower parts of the meconium.
Improvement processes will not stop even after the baby is born. By the time of 39 weeks of pregnancy, the development of the central nervous system has not been completed, and although the sucking apparatus is functioning, the muscles will strengthen even more, because the child will have to “get” his own food. Due to the lack of training, the salivary glands and the chewing apparatus are not yet developed.Saliva will begin to be produced only a month after birth, and the baby will learn to chew when the time comes.
At the 39th week of pregnancy, the length of the fetus is usually from 51 to 52 cm, and the weight is 3250 – 3300 g. He has a rather large head, and the shoulder girdle and rib cage are now better developed than the girdle of the lower extremities. In the remaining time, the baby grows by lengthening the body and legs.
The child spends 16 – 20 hours a day in a dream, gaining strength before childbirth. And when she is awake, my mother clearly feels his movements.You have already noticed that there are fewer movements, but, like last week, there should be at least 10 movements per day.
By the 38th – 39th week of pregnancy, the placenta ceases to cope with its functions. Aging is a physiological phenomenon associated with tissue thinning, a slowdown in metabolic processes and a deterioration in blood supply. The fetus receives less oxygen and less nutrients.
The body is ready for childbirth, and there are practically no significant changes in your feelings.At 39 weeks pregnant, you may still feel itchy skin on your stomach. Discomfort in the lower back and sacrum sometimes increases, and due to the strong pressure of the uterus on the bladder, the expectant mother is often disturbed by pain in the perineum. In addition, due to the production of colostrum at this time, pain in the chest may appear.
Training contractions at 39 weeks of gestation are more frequent, but their duration remains the same. Now you may find that your weight has decreased. Do not worry: this is normal in the later stages.Due to the fact that the body is freed from excess fluid, a woman can lose up to 2 kg. And there is also a bowel cleansing, which is why diarrhea is possible at this stage.
There are frequent cases of nausea caused by late toxicosis at the 38th – 39th week of pregnancy. This condition is dangerous for the expectant mother and baby, and it is imperative to tell the doctor about this symptom. And to improve your well-being, be outdoors more often, increase the number of meals and reduce the amount of servings.Try not to lie down immediately after eating to avoid possible vomiting.
If your stomach is stiff, this may be a sign of hypertonicity. Consult a gynecologist – usually the doctor prescribes an antispasmodic drug in such cases.
Now it is important to monitor vaginal discharge: normally they are light milky, of a uniform consistency, with a slightly sour smell. At 39 weeks of pregnancy, you should not be afraid of a slight increase in their number, as well as the presence of an admixture of mucus.These are nothing more than particles of the plug that closes the entrance to the cervix. But purulent, flocculent or cheesy discharge of an unusual color is a reason to see a doctor, since these are symptoms of genital infections, and while there is still time, you need to undergo treatment.
Seek medical attention immediately if you notice a yellowish watery discharge at 38 to 39 weeks of gestation. This is the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is not always poured out immediately. If the integrity of the membranes is violated, it can come out in small portions, which is bad for the baby, because he becomes very vulnerable to infections.Call an ambulance immediately if bleeding comes from the genital tract. Premature detachment of the placenta may have begun.
At 38 – 39 weeks of pregnancy, one should beware of colds. Due to the weakened immunity, infections easily cling to the expectant mother, and the diseases are difficult and threaten with serious complications. If you do get sick, do not self-medicate, but see a doctor right away.
At the 39th week of pregnancy, a visit to the gynecologist is scheduled.The specialist will listen to the baby’s heartbeat, check the readiness of the cervix for childbirth and carry out other standard procedures:
- Blood pressure measurement;
- Measurement of the height of the fundus of the uterus.
In addition, urine and blood tests should be done as usual.
As a rule, ultrasound is not done at 39 weeks of pregnancy. However, there may be individual indications for its re-execution. As before, during an ultrasound examination, the doctor examines the fetus, determines its physical parameters and the degree of development.The size and condition of the uterus, the degree of maturity of the cervix, the quantity and quality of amniotic fluid are necessarily assessed. An important criterion is the degree of maturity of the placenta (most often at this time it is the third).
Ultrasound will also give an idea of how the umbilical cord is located. Sometimes a single, double or multiple entanglement of the fetal neck is found. During pregnancy, this is usually not dangerous, because inside the mother’s womb, the baby does not breathe through the lungs, but oxygen is supplied to him through the blood.Difficulties arise with a very tight entanglement, since this disrupts the normal blood supply to the fetus. Such pathologies need close attention from the gynecologist, but in most cases (if the umbilical cord is of normal length and does not tighten the neck) a healthy child is safely born naturally. And only if problems arise in the first stage of labor, an emergency caesarean section is performed.
Be in the fresh air every day to ensure that your baby gets enough oxygen.To get rid of pain, do breathing exercises, and if you feel well, continue to do gymnastics for pregnant women.
In the last stages, do not stop monitoring the nutrition. By the end of the 38th – 39th week of pregnancy, the uterus has dropped, therefore, most likely, your appetite woke up, but try not to overeat so as not to overload the body before giving birth. The daily menu should contain foods with a sufficient amount of protein: fish, cereals, cottage cheese, kefir, yogurt.Now you need carbohydrates as well. To maintain energy, you can indulge in desserts, but give preference to natural products without harmful artificial fillers. Do not forget about fiber: on your table should be vegetables, fruits, products made from wholemeal flour.
At 38 – 39 weeks of pregnancy, many expectant mothers are overcome by the “nesting syndrome”. I would like to start a repair or at least a rearrangement, buy new things and solve a whole bunch of problems. Before doing something big, think it over.Emotionally unbalanced, what you like today may become annoying tomorrow. Model the future look of the interior on a computer, consult with the designer and only then get down to business. Don’t overestimate your physical capabilities: let professionals, friends, or relatives take over the work.
When you go shopping at 39 weeks of gestation, remember that babies grow very quickly, and in the end you may find that you have a huge amount of unused items.Buy only the essentials, and prepare a list for friends and family so they won’t have to puzzle over what to give you.
As for intimate relationships at the 39th week of pregnancy, if you feel great and there are no medical contraindications, you should not deny yourself the pleasure. Sex cannot harm the fetus, as it is protected by a mucous plug. And amniotic fluid protects from tremors. Sexual intimacy has a positive effect on the cervix: under the influence of sperm, it softens, and this is beneficial for childbirth.But we must not forget about caution, because the contractions can begin at any time.
Vomiting in a dog – in which cases it is worth worrying about the life of a pet, and in which a simple diet will help: Review + Video
Vomiting in dogs is often the same normal physiological process as in humans, through which the body simply removes the irritant from itself. There are many reasons for vomiting in dogs – from harmless physiological to serious pathological.
But in any case, the owner should pay attention to the frequency of urges, the behavior of the dog after the first release of vomit, their composition and impurities, because the need to visit a veterinarian depends on the totality of many symptoms.
The causes of vomiting in dogs are divided into two types, physiological and pathological.
The former are considered less dangerous than the latter, although they also require attention from the owner, because not everything is as simple as it sometimes seems at first glance.
Physiological causes of vomiting in dogs:
- The dog ate on the green grass walk;
- The animal got seasick when traveling by car or bus;
- Heatstroke, prolonged stuffiness;
- Overeating, which even in adult dogs causes the gag reflex, although this type of vomiting is more often referred to as regurgitation;
- Side effects of vaccinations;
- Postponed stress, severe fright;
- Toxicosis in pregnant bitches;
- Change of diet, the appearance of a low-quality product in the diet;
- Long break between feedings that provoke hungry vomiting.
Often, all of the above reasons lead to a single vomiting reaction, after which the animal quickly recovers and behaves as usual, and no accompanying symptoms occur. Pathological causes of vomiting in animals manifest themselves quite differently. For the dog, these factors most often lead to further problems, and are also accompanied by alarming symptoms.
Pathological causes of vomiting in dogs include:
- Infectious and chronic diseases: various types of tuberculosis, distemper, enteritis, gastritis, pancreatitis, ulcers, diabetes, hepatitis, renal failure;
- Acute food allergy;
- Tumors and cancers;
- Damage to the gastrointestinal tract, both mechanical and chemical;
- Infection with worms and other parasites;
- Inhalation of poisons and chemicals;
- Poisoning with household chemicals, poisons, ingestion of a poisonous insect;
- Diseases of the central nervous system;
- Acute food poisoning with subsequent intoxication;
- Constipation or intestinal obstruction of various origins;
- Respiratory diseases.
IMPORTANT: whatever the reason for the vomiting in the dog, make sure that there are no accompanying symptoms, and the vomit itself is not a cause for concern. Sometimes the dog’s body is able to cope with the irritant itself, but if vomiting is not just a process of ridding the body of excess or dangerous contents of the gastrointestinal tract, then do not hesitate to see a doctor. As in humans, in a dog, vomiting quickly leads to dehydration, which in some cases is difficult to deal with, I do not know the cause of vomiting.
In cases where vomiting is not a single one and raises questions about its content, then it is important to know what types of vomiting in dogs require special attention and seeking help from a specialist.
Types of vomiting in a dog
Vomiting blood . The reason for such vomiting can be both commonplace damage from foreign objects, and serious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and internal organs. It is believed that this is the most dangerous type of vomit, so as soon as you find signs of blood in the dog’s discharge, take it to the veterinarian.Even if a foreign object came out with vomiting, which damaged the esophagus, then it is worth checking how serious the damage is, because internal bleeding is an almost fatal diagnosis for an animal.
Foam vomiting . Almost all vomiting is accompanied by foam, as this is a natural reaction between the mucus of the esophagus and the air. Such foam can be considered a problem if there is a lot of foam and if vomiting is repeated. This type of vomiting in dogs indicates digestive problems; if it recurs for more than 2-3 days, contact your veterinarian for help in establishing the cause.
Vomiting with bile . The most problematic form of vomiting in dogs in terms of home diagnosis, since anything can be the cause of the appearance of bile in the vomit.
If vomiting is single, the dog recovered quickly, and there was not much bile, then don’t worry, just give the dog a warm drink and follow a lightweight diet. But if there is a lot of bile, vomiting is frequent or does not stop at all, then do not hesitate to visit a specialist, because the regular throwing of bile into the esophagus can lead to the development of new diseases.
Vomiting with diarrhea . Such a complex arises from a digestive disorder. As a rule, the animal becomes, in addition, lethargic, weak, loses interest in activities and food, the body temperature of the animal changes. All this greatly undermines the health of dogs, therefore it requires urgent intervention of specialists, since the sooner you can identify the cause, the faster you will be able to stop the symptoms that lead to general depletion of the body.
The dog ate grass .Many ordinary dog breeders believe that dogs are so smart that they eat grass and then vomit it from the fact that they cleanse their body of toxins and toxins. Yes, dogs try so hard to cleanse their bodies in a natural way for them, but the point is far from their natural desire to be in harmony with the world. If your dog regularly “grazes” on a walk, then this indicates either the presence of parasites in the body, which it tries to expel itself, or so the animal displays products that are not suitable for it.
Fatty food, food from the master’s table, excessive delicacies and pampering with master’s delicacies – all this forces the animal to resort to “folk” dog medicine in order to reduce harm to the body.Therefore, if your dog rarely eats one or two clean blades of grass during a walk, then there is no reason for concern. But if she looks more like a goat on the lawn and then vomits profusely, then check her for internal parasites and reconsider the diet, also find out from the family if anyone is guilty of unauthorized distribution of harmful substances to a pet.
Vomiting in a pregnant bitch . Toxicosis is a normal reaction to pregnancy in any female. So dogs are no exception. Usually vomiting is typical for 3-4 weeks of pregnancy.Do not worry if the vomit is not abundant and occurs no more than 2-3 times a day. Also, the bitch may have a decrease in appetite, but it is not worth feeding her forcibly, as this will only cause additional vomit.
What to do?
When talking about the treatment of vomiting in dogs, it is worth remembering that this is just a symptom, the reason may lie in many factors, so if the pet’s vomit causes you concern about the frequency and content, and first aid did not bring a result, then contact a specialist for making an accurate diagnosis.
In order to help the veterinarian make a diagnosis, you must record the frequency in time, whether there is blood in the vomit, excess foam or bile, what symptoms accompany the urge.
IMPORTANT: do not scold the dog for vomiting, it does this far from being harmful.
It is especially important to interrupt feeding in case of frequent vomiting until the reasons are clarified. Drink should be given in dosage, several tablespoons every hour. You can also substitute an ice cube for the water.
Restricting yourself to home treatment, drinking, diet, and absorption of absorbents is only possible if you are sure that the vomiting is caused by mild food poisoning.If the symptoms have not completely disappeared within a day, then contact a specialist, because a poor-quality product could provoke an attack of a previously unhealthy disease, for example, pancreatitis.
If you coped with vomiting at home, or the veterinarian helped with the solution of the problem and did not make a more serious diagnosis and did not give his recommendations for treatment, then you should adhere to a universal plan for returning the dog to normal mode.
The most important thing is not to feed the animal for the first 12 hours after vomiting.During this time, all toxins will have time to leave the stomach, and the body will have time to return to normal.
Water should be given cool at the rate of 2 teaspoons per 1 kilogram of weight. It is also recommended to give the dog Rehydron, which helps to cope with dehydration. After stopping vomiting after 12 hours, the dog can be given 1/3 of the normal food intake. Remember that if you feed your dog with dry food, then purchase a light medicinal food for the pet’s recovery time.
If you are an adherent of a natural type of feeding, then it is good to give the first 3 days low-fat cottage cheese and yogurt, boiled rice and potatoes, boiled chicken breast or beef meatball. At the same time, give food in small portions, but more often than usual. This way, you will avoid repeated vomiting due to a weakened stomach, which will not accept a large amount of food.
IMPORTANT: If the dog vomits again during recovery from a weakened state, contact a specialist.
Prevention of vomiting in dogs can only consist in the general rules for storing household chemicals in the house, as well as in monitoring so that the dog does not pick up anything from the floor while walking. In cases where vomiting is caused by a disease, then it can be stopped only by starting treatment for the disease that led to this symptom.
Hedgehog: diseases, symptoms and treatment
Hedgehogs (lat.Erinaceidae) are a family of mammals, separated into a separate order Erinaceomorpha.Includes 23 species belonging to 7 genera, combined into 2 subfamilies. These are real hedgehogs and hymns (the so-called rat hedgehogs). Less than a dozen species that look like an ordinary hedgehog are also united here.
Common hedgehog is a small animal. The length of its body is 20-30 cm, the tail is about 3 cm, the body weight is 700-800 g. The ears are relatively small (usually less than 3.5 cm). The muzzle is elongated. The nose of a healthy animal is sharp and constantly wet. Adult hedgehogs have about 5-6 thousand needles, while, like younger individuals, about 3 thousand.The life span of hedgehogs is approximately 6 years.
Diseases of hedgehogs and their treatment.
A clinically healthy hedgehog is active, his eyes are without discharge, when examining the oral cavity, it is established that the gums do not bleed, the teeth of the hedgehog are normal 36. On the upper jaw, hedgehogs have 20 small sharp teeth, and on the lower jaw – 16. Upper incisors set wide apart, leaving space for bite on the lower incisors. The body temperature of a healthy hedgehog is 33.5-34.8 ° C, respiration is 40-50. In summer, the heart rate is 180 beats per minute.During hibernation, the frequency decreases to 20-60 beats per minute, while hedgehogs take only one breath per minute.
At depletion the body of the hedgehog becomes narrow, flattened from the sides. The bottom of the spiny canal appears to be hanging.
Pulmonary diseases such as cough and runny nose in a hedgehog is a sure sign of pulmonary disease. The animal becomes inactive, sad, lethargic, eyes become cloudy. Reasons: Incorrect conditions of detention (too cold, humid, etc.)stress during capture, helminthic lesions of the lungs. Treatment can be the normalization of conditions of detention, giving antibiotics and immunostimulants.
Inflammation of the eyes (conjunctivitis) in hedgehogs quite often occurs as a result of the release of the animal into a room, where bacteria in the dust behind or under furniture cause serous conjunctivitis. It manifests itself as a clear discharge from the eyes. It is also possible that sometimes the inflammatory process goes to the upper respiratory tract and serous rhinitis occurs.Treatment of conjunctivitis begins in a device for hedgehogs with a non-dusty bedding, eye chloramphenicol drops or solutions of antibiotics are used as drugs for conjunctivitis.
Stomatitis is a fairly common disease of hedgehogs when kept in captivity. After several months of being kept in captivity, hedgehogs develop inflammation of the oral cavity, which is manifested by reddening of the gums (rarely by necrosis of their mucous membranes), bleeding of the gums and loss of teeth.There are two main reasons why stomatitis can occur in hedgehogs – a lack of vitamin C and bacterial contamination of the feed. They treat hedgehog stomatitis by treating the oral cavity with yarrow infusions (as disinfectants and wound-healing agents), pine shoots (contain a large amount of ascorbic acid), as binders – decoction of oak bark, as disinfectants – iodine-glycerin. These treatments in hedgehogs are carried out with cotton swabs on tweezers dipped in drugs to remove necrotic and decaying masses, and then rinse the oral cavity with the same solutions from a syringe.The course of treatment is 3-5 days. They also make intramuscular injections of vitamin C. Since stomatitis can often be caused by pathogenic bacteria contained in raw minced meat, one of the fundamentally new dietary methods for preventing stomatitis is used – removing raw minced meat from the diet and replacing it with boiled chicken meat.
Vitamins . The body of different types of hedgehogs is most in need of vitamins. The main one is vitamin A. And also in water-soluble vitamins C, B6, P. Due to improper nutrition, mainly surrogate food, which is often deprived of natural ultraviolet light, the metabolism of hedgehogs is disturbed, as a result of which there is a lack of vitamins A in the body and S.Loss of needles (more than when constantly changing them), dry skin, inflammation of the eyes are signs of a lack of vitamin A. Cracks in the paws can also be a sign of a lack of this fat-soluble vitamin.
Lack or absence of vitamin C in the body is manifested in hedgehogs by a decrease in the body’s resistance to colds and infectious diseases. Treatment of metabolic disorders in hedgehogs is carried out by giving a balanced feed for vitamins and minerals, as well as lubricating the cracked skin on the paws of hedgehogs with sea buckthorn oil.When hedgehogs develop paw cracks, the litter should be replaced with a softer one (turf, high-moor peat) that does not contain dust.
Trace elements are given to hedgehogs in an aqueous solution together with a treat once a day for 30 days, then a month off.
Wounds hedgehogs receive for various reasons. This can be both an attack on them by dogs, foxes, http://zoovet.ru/animals.php?vid=504 “> crows, or if their paws are damaged in an unsuitable cage, etc.Fresh deep wounds are sutured with catgut or polyglycolide absorbable sutures on the muscles, and silk sutures are applied to the skin. Treatment of old wounds consists in their treatment with antiseptic solutions, followed by systematic lubrication of the wound with various wound healing agents. Surgical treatment of an old wound in hedgehogs is possible only as a last resort, because the harm from this can be very great.
Burns . The severity of thermal burn injuries depends on the degree of tissue heating and the duration of exposure to high temperatures.There are several degrees of burn:
The first degree is accompanied by acute inflammation in the affected area of the skin: its uniform swelling, redness, pain, and in case of flame burns – charring of the wool.
Longer exposure to temperature will cause second degree burns. With it, in addition to redness and swelling of the skin, transparent blisters are formed. In case of burns by a flame, there are no bubbles, because not only the wool, but also the skin itself is charred.There is an inflammatory edema of the epidermis and the adjacent layer of fiber. The contents of small bubbles can completely dissolve, and the exfoliated epidermis, together with particles of exudate, turns into a crust. Under it, tissue regeneration is successfully proceeding.
The third degree burns are characterized by dry tissue necrosis, sometimes to a considerable depth. When the dead tissue is rejected, ulcers form. Death extends only to a part of the skin and to its entire thickness.
Fourth degree burns are characterized by necrosis of both superficial and deep tissues.
During treatment, the contaminated areas and the skin around the burn focus are wiped with a swab moistened with ether or 70% alcohol, the hair is cut off, and large bubbles are pierced. Then the affected areas are treated with a 5% solution of potassium permanganate after one to two hours, these areas are again moistened 3 times. It can also be treated with a 5% aqueous solution of tannin, and then lubricated with a 10% solution of silver nitrate.
If ulcers are formed, apply Vishnevsky ointment, tannin, zinc or penicillin ointment.
During illness, you need to reduce the exercise of the animal, the hedgehog should sleep in a large box or in a cubbyhole, where it would be clean, and where the wound would not get dirty.
Infections and extensive wounds can lead to an increase in body temperature, the norm for hedgehogs, when measured in the rectum, is 35.1 degrees Celsius.
Herpes virus infection is caused in hedgehogs by a DNA-containing virus. The disease proceeds without specific clinical signs: the animal is usually lethargic, there is a refusal to feed, there may be vomiting. Autopsy reveals an increase and violation of the structure of the liver. Hedgehogs become infected transplacentally from the mother or when the fetus passes through the birth canal at the time of delivery. The death of hedgehogs infected with herpesvirus infection reaches 100%.
Rabies hedgehogs can get sick when bitten by rabid animals: a fox, a wolf, etc.The rabies virus is the causative agent of this disease. Its reservoir in nature is wolves, foxes, and in megalopolises, possibly feral dogs. When hedgehogs are infected, lethargy or aggression, hydrophobia (pharyngeal paralysis occurs), within 10 days after infection, the hedgehog inevitably dies.
Treatment of viral diseases has not been developed. However, a serological study of blood will identify sick hedgehogs and prevent them from reproducing.
Yersiniosis (pseudotuberculosis) is caused in hedgehogs by bacteria of the species Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. Yersiniosis is quite common for hedgehogs from infected rodents. Infection is possible when hedgehogs eat infected raw minced meat, raw milk, and infected water. The disease is asymptomatic or with signs of enterocolitis (diarrhea, refusal to feed). To make a diagnosis, a bacteriological study of animal droppings is necessary. Sick hedgehogs are treated by injecting electrolytes intravenously, broad-spectrum antibiotics and probiotics are prescribed internally.
Salmonellosis causes the bacteria Salmonella typhimurium in hedgehogs. Bacteria are carried by mice and other rodents. The symptoms of salmonellosis are similar to an upset stomach and intestines. Salmonella causes toxic infection and hemodynamic disorder. Treatment is to prevent dehydration and to prescribe (by mouth or intramuscularly) antibiotics. Milk should be replaced with yogurt or other fermented milk products, the meat is boiled well.
Ticks – The most common cutaneous parasites of hedgehogs. The hedgehog cannot get rid of ixodid ticks sitting on the ground and then falling on the body because of the thorns. Often these ticks are carriers of dangerous diseases such as piroplasmosis, encephalitis. Perhaps it is because of the mites on their skin that hedgehogs treat with their own saliva those parts of the body that they can reach.
Cutaneous insects – fleas, lice also often parasitize on the hedgehog’s body.Treatment consists in treating the entire surface of the hedgehog’s body with antiparasitic drugs. This is best done by bathing the animal. Single ticks on the hedgehog’s body are smeared with undiluted ASD-3, tar, 10% ammonia solution, ether and then pulled out with tweezers.
Capillariosis of the digestive tract is caused in hedgehogs by filamentous parasites Capillaria putorii. Hedgehogs become infected with this disease by eating earthworms, which, in turn, swallow the eggs of the parasite. Helminths are localized in the stomach and in the small intestine.Catarrhal inflammation of the digestive organs, as well as depletion of animals, are noted in case of defeat. To make a diagnosis, feces are examined using the Fülleborn method. Diagnosis is by laboratory analysis of feces. Anthelmintics are used in the treatment.
Crenosomatosis (lungworms) of hedgehogs cause nematodes Crenosoma taiga, C. vulpis, for which hedgehogs are reservoir hosts. This is the most common helminthiasis in hedgehogs from nature. The development cycle of krenosis is impossible without the participation of intermediate hosts – armored and non-armored mollusks of various genera.The larvae by krenosis penetrate into the soft tissues of the mollusk and by the 15th day they turn into invasive third stage larvae. Hedgehogs develop krenosomatosis when they eat infected shellfish. Nematodes are localized in the bronchi and trachea, causing their inflammation and a decrease in the activity of animals. The diagnosis is based on the results of helmintholarvoscopic examination of feces. For the treatment of krenosomatosis, like other diseases of hedgehogs, it is necessary to consult a veterinarian Intranasally, you can use silver preparations and others.
Toxoplasmosis hedgehogs can get sick when eating invaded minced meat. Its causative agent – Toxoplasma gondii – is an obligate intracellular parasite, refers to tissue cyst-forming coccidia. Diagnosis is made only by a positive microscopic blood test. Other clinical signs such as shortness of breath, fever, abnormal delivery cannot reliably indicate toxoplasmosis. They treat toxoplasmosis of hedgehogs by prescribing drugs used for coccidiosis.Prevention consists in feeding hedgehogs free of Toxoplasma cysts meat by long boiling or deep freezing, as well as giving prophylactic doses of anti-coccidosis drugs.
A hedgehog brought home must not be immediately placed in a cage prepared for it, and even more so in an open-air cage, where other animals, for example, squirrels, chipmunks, can be kept with it. It can be the cause of the appearance of various blood-sucking ticks and insects.In nature, the hedgehog is often a breeding ground for these parasites. As for hedgehog fleas, they are not like others: they do not jump in wool, but lead a semi-attached lifestyle. To get rid of these and many other unwanted roommates, you need to take urgent measures even before the hedgehog gets to know his new “apartment”.
In the first days of keeping the hedgehog, it should be treated against ticks and fleas. It is also necessary to reduce communication with him at the time of quarantine. It is imperative to do laboratory tests of the animal’s feces and show the animal to the veterinarian along with the test results.
The hedgehog, cleared of parasites, can be placed in a separate cage, put a feeder with food and drinker. The quarantine period is one month. If he does not get sick during this time, then you can treat him like a healthy animal, if he gets sick, you need to re-take it to the veterinarian and find out the cause of his discomfort.
Prevention of infection by contact with hedgehogs consists in careful observance of the rules of personal hygiene. Hedgehog owners and those who work with them should wash their hands thoroughly regularly after contact with animals.Hedgehogs should also not be in places where food is prepared. Veterinarians should provide buyers with full information about the risk of infection from these animals and advise on care and maintenance. If signs of illness occur in a hedgehog, appropriate treatment should be carried out immediately.
Despite the fact that hedgehogs are not very suitable as pets, communication with these representatives of wildlife brings a lot of positive emotions and joy. The health and longevity of this pet depends on proper maintenance, balanced feeding, on the prevention and timely treatment of diseases.
What specific drugs are needed for the correct treatment of hedgehogs, their dosage and treatment time will be told by your veterinarian. He will also give detailed advice on care and maintenance, feeding, etc.
Vomiting after alcohol
Alcoholic drinks are always fun and pleasant to drink, but the consequences of them are not pleasant. Excessive libations lead, at least, to headaches and poor health.
Vomiting after alcohol what to do?
Alcohol poisoning is initially accompanied by nausea, followed by vomiting.Severe intoxication is always accompanied by vomiting. After all, vomiting, like coughing, is a defense mechanism that helps the body to cleanse itself.
Vomiting after alcohol what to do? First of all, you do not need to restrain new urges. Better, on the contrary, add water to the stomach, so that there is something to throw away. If vomiting continues, you need to call an ambulance. Especially if a person begins to lose consciousness or blood appears in the vomit.
Vomiting blood after alcohol
Blood in vomit may appear due to stomach or duodenal ulcers, liver cirrhosis or erosion of the esophageal mucosa.With each new glass, the veins of the esophagus expand, the pressure rises, due to which the vessels burst. Vomiting can also cause blood vessels to rupture.
Vomiting blood after alcohol is dangerous, as this condition can lead to death or severe blood loss. To prevent this from happening, you need to call a doctor. After all, it is quite difficult to determine the amount of blood in the vomit, and what, at first glance, may seem like an insignificant amount, in fact, may be severe bleeding.Signs of severe internal bleeding: dizziness, sweating, and weakness.
The color of the blood matters. Black, brown, or dark red blood indicates that bleeding began long before vomiting. Light blood indicates that bleeding has begun recently.
If a person, at least once in his life, has vomited blood, regardless of what he drank, alcoholic beverages are strictly prohibited to him. In his body, irreversible processes have already started, which, if the vessels rupture again, can lead to death.
Vomiting of bile after alcohol
Alcohol intoxication leads to impaired coordination, fuzzy speech, blurring of consciousness, and, often, to nausea and vomiting. With the help of vomiting, the body is freed from toxic substances. Vomiting of bile after alcohol is accompanied by headache, weakness and general fatigue. The fact that vomit contains bile can be determined by green and yellow clots, as well as a bitter taste in the mouth. Bile goes with prolonged vomiting, that is, after serious poisoning.Alcohol disrupts the work of the biliary tract, so bile is thrown into the stomach.
How to stop vomiting after alcohol?
Alcohol is contained in many products, so it regularly enters our body. In small doses, alcohol is found in sauerkraut, yogurt, pickled berries, kvass, and so on. These products do not harm, but, on the contrary, strengthen the immune system, improve metabolism and invigorate. But, everything is good in moderation. Overdose leads to headache, indigestion, dizziness, trembling limbs, nausea and vomiting.
How to stop vomiting after alcohol? Narcologists do not recommend removing the hangover syndrome with alcoholic beverages, it is better to drink the drug “Alka-Prim”, which consists of glycine and aspirin. In order to alleviate your condition, you can eat pickled or pickled apples, drink fruit drink, pickle, kvass, lemon juice, kumis, ayran or kefir. After vomiting, it is recommended to pour cold water on your head, drink mineral water and exercise a little physically.
Vomiting after alcohol treatment
Dry mouth, joint pain, weakness, tremors of the limbs, headache and vomiting are the price to pay for a fun feast.
Vomiting after alcohol treatment. The first step is to flush the stomach. This is done with warm boiled water, to which you can add several crystals of potassium permanganate. If vomiting begins, the person needs to sit down or lie on his side, these positions will not allow vomit to enter the respiratory tract. Antiemetic drugs should only be taken after a doctor’s recommendation. There are situations when there is nothing left to throw out of the stomach, but the urge continues, causing pain and worsening the condition.Antiemetic drugs will help here.
After the stomach is completely cleansed, you need to start drinking an anti-inflammatory herbal decoction, calendula, chamomile and rose hips are suitable. It is not recommended to eat and take medications, it is better to just go to sleep. In order to avoid dehydration, after the end of vomiting, you can give “Regidron”.
A person who has been poisoned, after gastric lavage, must remain in bed and eat nothing.