Vomiting diarrhea muscle cramps: Diarrhea, Muscle Cramps Or Spasms (Painful) And Nausea Or Vomiting
Can leg cramps be a sign of something serious? : Peachstate Advanced Cardiac & Endovascular: Board Certified Interventional Cardiologists
Leg cramps or spams are one-time events that generally occur as a result of overworking a certain muscle. Even while the cramps are unpleasant, they are not harmful. Muscle cramps/leg cramps, on the other hand, might indicate a serious condition in some circumstances, therefore it’s critical to know the difference between a harmless cramp and a life-threatening one.
Cramp Fasciculation Syndrome, or CFS. Cramp Fasciculation Syndrome (CFS) is a peripheral neuropathy characterized by hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerve system. Unwanted muscular cramps and fasciculation are symptoms of this illness. You may also feel additional symptoms, such as a burning sensation or numbness, which are both symptomatic of a neuropathy condition.
End-stage renal or kidney disease. Leg cramps, particularly in the calf regions, are common in people with end-stage kidney or renal illness, especially those who are receiving dialysis. Leg cramps can strike at any moment, whether at home or during dialysis. Cramps are linked to depression and sleep difficulties in this scenario, resulting in a decrease in quality of life.
Cirrhosis. Leg cramps in Cirrhosis patients occur in a variety of locations, including the thighs, cervical region, toes, calves, fingers, and abdominal muscles. Crampings, on the other hand, may affect different parts of the body in this scenario.
By running the same distance, you can detect key leg cramps symptoms that indicate severe health problems. If you often go for lengthy runs and get cramp from jogging the same distance each time, it might be a sign of a health problem. It’s known as compartment syndrome, and it affects people whose muscles in a certain location don’t have enough room to support the sort of activity they’re doing. When we exercise, our bodily muscles require more blood, which causes our blood vessels to widen. We don’t have enough area for blood vessels to expand when the muscle compartment is too tight, resulting in leg spasms or cramps.
Discoloration, redness, or swelling of the skin. If you observe discolouration, swelling, or redness on your skin, as well as muscular cramps, these might be indicators of a blood clot. When a blood clot remains in its proper location, it poses no hazard. However, if the clot breaks off, you’re more likely to have a heart attack or a stroke. Cramps and excruciating pain. If your muscular spasms are interfering with your regular activities, you should consider it a serious concern. Leg cramps, in most situations, cause you to feel agony, curl your toes, and persist for roughly 10 minutes. However, if you see anything different than the above, it might be a sign of anything more serious.
Inadequate blood flow to the particular muscle, ovarian bulk, or pinched nerve are all possible reasons of severe muscular cramps.
Nausea, vomiting, and fever If you’re experiencing leg cramps along with other symptoms like vomiting, fever, or nausea, it’s possible that you’re suffering from food poisoning or dehydration. As a result, you should ensure that you eat nutritious and clean meals while also exercising often. Your legs are tingling and burning. Because of your herniated disk condition, you may have tingling and burning sensations in your legs as well as muscular cramps. Muscle relaxants and anti-inflammatory medications, on the other hand, may help you overcome this difficulty.
We are just a call or click away. To learn more, book an appointment online or over the phone with PeachState Advanced Cardiac & Endovascular. We have several locations in Georgia: Newnan, Atlanta, & Griffin.
Current Director of Business Development & Operations at PeachState Advanced Cardiac & Endovascular- PACE. Kelly has a passion for helping others navigate the healthcare industry and ensuring quality outcomes. She lives in Newnan, GA with her husband and children.
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Category: Infections and Parasites
Topic: Viral Infections
Noroviruses are a group of viruses that can cause gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines) with diarrhoea, stomach pain and vomiting. Common names used for gastroenteritis due to Norovirus are ‘gastric flu’ or ‘stomach flu’, ‘winter vomiting’ and ‘viral gastro’.
Noroviruses are found in the faeces or vomit of infected people. People can become infected with the virus in several ways, including:
- eating food or drinking liquids that are contaminated with Norovirus
- touching surfaces or objects contaminated with Norovirus, and then placing their hand in their mouth
- small airborne particles from projectile vomiting
- having direct contact with another person who is infected and showing symptoms (for example, when caring for someone with illness, or sharing foods or eating utensils with someone who is ill).
Anyone can become infected with these viruses. There are many different strains of Norovirus, which makes it difficult for a person’s body to develop long-lasting immunity.
Norovirus illness can recur throughout a person’s lifetime.
People working in day-care centres or nursing homes should pay special attention to children or residents who have Norovirus illness. This virus is very contagious and can spread rapidly throughout such environments.
Signs and Symptoms:
Symptoms of Norovirus illness usually begin about 24 to 48 hours after ingestion of the virus, but they can appear as early as 12 hours after exposure.
The symptoms of norovirus illness usually include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and some stomach cramping. Sometimes people also have a low-grade fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, and a general sense of tiredness. The illness often begins suddenly and the infected person may feel very sick. The illness is usually brief, with symptoms lasting only about 1 or 2 days, but can last longer. In general, children experience more vomiting than adults.
Currently, there is no antiviral medication that works against norovirus and there is no vaccine to prevent infection. Norovirus infection cannot be treated with antibiotics. This is because antibiotics work to fight bacteria and not viruses.
Norovirus illness is usually brief in healthy individuals. When people are ill with vomiting and diarrhoea, they should rest and drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. Dehydration is the most serious health effect that can result from Norovirus infection, and it is a particular concern in young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems.
Noroviruses are very contagious and can spread easily from person to person. Both faeces and vomit are infectious. Particular care should be taken with young children in nappies who may have diarrhoea.
People infected with Norovirus are contagious from the moment they begin feeling ill. If your job involves handling food or beverages or you are a childcare or health care worker you must not return to work until 48 hours after recovery (i.e. until 48 hours after you last vomited or 48 hours after your bowel motions return to normal), as this is generally regarded as the period when people are infectious.
The virus can be present in faeces at low levels for several weeks after recovery, so it is important for people to continue to use good handwashing and other hygienic practices.
People infected with Norovirus should not prepare food while they have symptoms and for 48 hours after they recover from their illness. Food that may have been contaminated by an ill person should be disposed of properly.
You can decrease your chance of coming in contact with noroviruses by following these preventive steps:
- frequently wash your hands, especially after toilet visits, changing nappies and before eating or preparing food
- carefully wash fruits and vegetables, and steam oysters before eating them
- flush or discard any vomit or faeces in the toilet and make sure that the surrounding area is kept clean
- use a detergent and warm water to wipe down the area where vomit was present so that no evidence of vomit is visible
- thoroughly clean and disinfect contaminated surfaces immediately after an episode of illness using detergent and water followed by a bleach-based household cleaner
- immediately remove and wash clothing or linens that may be contaminated with virus (use a hot cycle in the washing machine).
Anyone can become infected with these viruses. There are many different strains of Norovirus, which makes it difficult for a person’s body to develop long-lasting immunity. In addition, because of differences in genetic factors, some people are more likely to become infected and develop more severe illness than others.
Norovirus disease is usually not serious, although people may feel very sick and vomit many times a day. Most people get better within 1 or 2 days, and they have no long-term health effects related to their illness.
Sometimes people are unable to drink enough liquids to replace the liquids they lost because of vomiting and diarrhoea. These people can become dehydrated and may need special medical attention. This problem with dehydration is usually only seen among the very young, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems. There is no evidence to suggest that an infected person can become a long-term carrier of Norovirus.
- Clean Up for Gastroenteritis Outbreak Prevention (PDF 716KB)
Help and assistance:
For further information, please contact your local doctor, community health centre or nearest public health unit, or contact the Queensland Health information line 13HEALTH (13 432584).
If you are in an emergency situation, call 000
Leg cramps | Causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
Almost everyone has had an uncontrollable muscle contraction attack at least once in their life. When the muscle contracts, then the person experiences twitching, unpleasant contraction and pain. Painful muscle spasm continues for several minutes.
Single seizures usually go away without special medical treatment. If such episodes are often repeated, then this is evidence of health problems, which is why the help of a doctor is so important.
The most common cramps are in the calf muscles and thighs, as well as the feet and hands. Spasmodic activity in the facial and respiratory muscles leads to stuttering. When a person sleeps at night in a relaxed state, he can simultaneously reduce one or more muscles. Due to sharp pain, sleep is disturbed, and a person waking up cannot rest during the night.
Approximately 75% of people over 60 experience leg cramps during sleep. Many people think that cramps at night are just unpleasant and harmless phenomena that are associated with age. But convulsions also occur in children and young people. Women often complain of sharp nocturnal and painful cramps during pregnancy.
- What causes leg cramps
- Which doctor to contact
- Conservative therapy
- Surgical treatment
- Why does the legs cramp in older men and women
- Night cramps in pregnant women
Why leg cramps occur
Cramps are sudden muscle contractions that are involuntary in nature and are diagnosed on the basis of a medical survey and during an external examination of a doctor, according to the results of analyzes and hardware research methods. Treatment includes antispasmodics and muscle relaxants, antiepileptic and anticonvulsants, physiotherapy and surgical interventions.
Convulsions occur due to peculiarities and various disorders in the body:
- stagnation of blood in the legs;
- vitamin deficiency;
- endocrine disorders;
- kidney disease;
- sudden change in temperature;
- taking diuretics, anti-inflammatory drugs;
- tight footwear, clothing;
- physical and emotional overload.
Cramping in the calves is a symptom of varicose veins. It is necessary to consult a doctor if there is swelling and heaviness in the legs, which appear due to stagnation of blood. With the help of convulsions, the muscles contract, so the body activates blood circulation in the veins. There are no visible manifestations at this stage of the disease. If you start treatment in time, then protruding, swollen veins and spider veins will not appear, and muscle spasms will stop bothering you at night.
- Micronutrient deficiency
- Endocrine disorders
- Kidney disease
- Extreme temperature change
- Taking diuretics, anti-inflammatory drugs
- Tight shoes, clothing
- Physical and emotional overload
Blood electrolytes are needed to deliver nutrients and oxygen. If few microelements, such as calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium enter the cells, then the water balance is disturbed. There are uncontrolled processes that cause the muscles to contract. It is necessary to donate blood for a biochemical analysis to check its electrolyte composition. Minerals can be poorly absorbed with a lack of vitamins, or in the diet due to a large amount of protein, since when it is broken down, calcium is rapidly excreted from the body.
If your leg muscles cramp at night, you get tired quickly, irritability appears, then it is advisable to check the endocrine system. In case of thyroid disease or when diabetes mellitus occurs, magnesium, sodium, calcium are poorly absorbed and metabolism is disturbed. In diabetes mellitus, due to false impulses from the nervous system, the muscles of the legs contract and they feel sipping or short-term severe pain.
There are many diseases. In diseases of the kidneys, the content of potassium and calcium decreases, and sodium, on the contrary, increases. The water balance is disturbed and muscle cramps occur.
Due to the lack of fluid in the body, most often there is a water-salt disorder. Due to alcohol abuse, excessive consumption of salt and coffee, also against the background of diarrhea or vomiting. Low levels of electrolytes in the blood (calcium, magnesium): low blood levels of calcium or magnesium directly increase the excitability of the nerve endings innervating the muscles.
If the temperature drops sharply in the bedroom at night, the muscles may also cramp. The problem is solved with the help of warm clothes, blankets, electric sheets.
Diuretics accelerate the excretion of minerals from the body, which leads to a violation of the water-salt and electrolyte balance. When the muscles are relaxed, a contraction occurs, which is strongly felt during rest, disturbing sleep.
Treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs can have an undesirable side effect – muscle spasms, which manufacturers warn about in the instructions. When a person stops taking the drug, they stop bothering him.
Tight, tight clothing, dress shoes that compress the foot, high heeled shoes disrupt the blood circulation of the muscles, due to their contraction to increase blood flow.
Leg cramps occur when working while standing or walking frequently and for a long time. Muscle stretching exercises can help relieve tension. Also, muscle contractions can provoke severe unrest and stress.
Cramps in the muscles of the thighs and calves are due to an electrolyte imbalance due to decreased absorption of calcium, and not due to problems in the nervous system. Therefore, sedatives will not help.
Which doctor to contact
If it’s not the first time you’ve been cramping your legs, in order to understand why cramps occur, you need to contact a therapist. The doctor will send you for studies of a general and biochemical blood test, which will identify problems and check the amount of microelements in the body.
Depending on their results, the therapist will prescribe treatment or give a referral to a surgeon or phlebologist if there are problems in the vessels, to an ophthalmologist if the eyelid tremors torment you, to an endocrinologist if there are malfunctions in the endocrine system.
When determining the causes of seizures, the doctor conducts an examination and history taking, instrumental and laboratory tests: general and biochemical blood tests, blood tests for hemoglobin.
According to the testimony of a neurologist, patients can be referred to an orthopedist, phlebologist, gynecologist, and other medical specialists.
- Poll. Finds out the patient’s lifestyle, as well as when the spasms first appeared, how often they recur and what can provoke seizures. Asks about existing illnesses and medications that the patient is taking to determine the causes.
- Physical examination. During the examination, the doctor reveals signs of flat feet in the legs, hypertrophy and decreased muscle tone, dilated veins and edema. Assesses sensitivity, pulsation, explores reflexes.
- Electrophysiological studies. Electroneurography and electromyography help to determine the state of muscle transmission, the speed of passage of nerve impulses, the presence of spontaneous muscle activity, due to which convulsions often occur.
- Laboratory tests. Screening examination includes a complete blood and urine test, a blood test for sugar and protein, the determination of liver enzymes, creatinine, urea. In case of violations of the water-electrolyte balance, the level of electrolytes is assessed, in case of hypovitaminosis, the content of vitamins is examined, in case of endocrine pathologies, an analysis is made for hormones. In case of poisoning of the body, toxicological tests are taken.
- Hardware methods. Dopplerography and duplex scanning of the lower extremities are indicated for vascular disease. With flat feet, X-rays are performed with a load. In endocrine diseases and kidney pathology, an ultrasound examination of the glands of the lesion is performed. In case of neurological diseases, an MRI of the brain is recommended.
- Crampy syndrome. Treatment of the disease is indicated for convulsive symptoms. Calcium channel blockers, antiepileptic drugs, quinine are used to eliminate seizures. To stop the activity, muscle relaxants are prescribed. In case of pain syndrome, NSAIDs are included for the treatment of seizures; in case of sleep disorders, hypnotics are used.
- Flat feet. The leading role is given to non-drug therapy. Patients usually need to bring their weight back to normal, choose comfortable or orthopedic shoes, and avoid static prolonged loads. Walking, special massages and exercises, magnetic therapy, sinusoidal modulated current therapy and other physiotherapy procedures are useful for strengthening the foot.
- Vascular diseases. In the elderly, atherosclerosis obliterans is often diagnosed with painful sensations of burning, numbness of the feet, increased sensitivity to cold and cramps in the calves. After a short time, lameness may join. Young men often suffer from obliterating endarteritis, the symptoms of which are numbness and chilliness, paresthesias and spasms, sometimes accompanied by lameness and resemble atherosclerosis. But with this disease, trophic disorders develop rapidly.
- Bilateral thromboangiitis obliterans. Simultaneously with increased painful sensitivity of the legs, hemorrhages and convulsions in the fingers, thrombophlebitis of the legs and Raynaud’s syndrome with severe trophic disorders are detected. Treatment of varicose veins in order to reduce the load on the legs is carried out with the help of venotonics, physical exercises, compression agents, sclerotherapy methods. As part of the medical treatment of arteries, thrombolytics, antispasmodics, analgesics, anticoagulants are taken. With non-drug therapy, ozone therapy, intravenous laser blood irradiation, oxygenation, as well as balneological and physiotherapy are prescribed.
- Endocrine diseases. Hypoparathyroidism is treated with diet, calcium and vitamin D, sedatives, and anticonvulsants. Useful ultraviolet radiation. Hypothyroidism is corrected with hormone replacement therapy, patients undergo thyreostatic therapy. In diabetes with macroangiopathy, it is necessary to take antiplatelet agents in combination with insulin therapy.
- Fluid disturbances are treated with intravenous electrolyte solutions. Patients with hypovitaminosis recommend vitamin complexes. With intoxication of the body, detoxification therapy is required. Pregnant women with Parhon’s syndrome are advised by doctors to sleep on their left side and moderate physical therapy exercises. Eclampsia during pregnancy is a disease for a complex of resuscitation measures.
- Flat feet: foot deformity correction, tendon grafting, bone removal.
- Varicose disease: phlebectomy, miniphlebectomy, adhesive obliteration, laser and radiofrequency coagulation, cryophlebectomy.
- Obliterating vascular diseases: endarterectomy, stenting, dilatation or prosthesis of arteries, bypass interventions, arterialization of the veins of the foot, profundoplasty, thromboembolectomy.
- Endocrine pathologies: removal of the thyroid gland in hyperthyroidism, endarterectomy and plasty of trophic ulcers in diabetes.
It is necessary to treat leg cramps in a complex: eat right, take vitamins, drink up to 2 liters of water a day, do not drink alcoholic beverages, do not overwork.
Treatment depends on the specific cause of the leg cramps. Taking into account the pathology, methods are applied:
Surgery for pain with convulsions:
Why does the legs cramp in older men and women?
With age, the ability to absorb vitamins and trace elements decreases. In the elderly, muscle cramps due to a lack of calcium, dilated veins, and taking certain medications, such as diuretics, cause muscle spasms. A sedentary image leads to overwork, cramps several times a night can interrupt sleep.
What should I do if my child’s legs are cramping?
Children grow up fast. For a growing body, tight shoes and clothes are more harmful than adults.
The cause of cramps can especially be a lack of vitamin D and minerals due to an unbalanced diet and lack of water in the body. Seizures often occur and greatly disturb a child who plays sports, so it is necessary to reduce the load, take more time to rest and avoid stress.
Night cramps in pregnant women
During pregnancy, the amount of trace elements is consumed more. Calcium and magnesium are necessary for the growth and development of the fetus. If the expectant mother does not have enough of them, then the body signals with muscle spasms. Eat right, limit the amount of salt. With an increase in weight in a pregnant woman, the legs experience a load, the blood circulation process becomes more difficult. When spasms appear, perform special exercises with stretching and stretching exercises. Do not take medicines without medical advice.
If you have cramps in your legs, we recommend that you make an appointment for a consultation at the My Doctor medical center in Volgograd. Qualified doctors of the highest category will establish the cause and draw up a personalized treatment and rehabilitation program. Our medical center has a large number of services in various fields: neurology, gynecology, ultrasound (abdominal organs, vessels of the head, neck, upper / lower joint) and much more. You can also read other useful articles on our blog.
what kind of disease, causes, symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, outbreak and epidemic prevention
Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The disease is anthroponotic and develops only in the human body. It is transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person by the fecal-oral route.
The main manifestations are diarrhoea, frequent vomiting, fluid loss up to severe dehydration. All this occurs against the background of violations of the functions of the small intestine. This infection is especially dangerous.
In the spring of 2022, Rospotrebnadzor published a complete instruction for the prevention of cholera in Russia. It was discussed on social networks that another epidemic of this disease had begun in the country. Everything turned out to be wrong – these measures are dictated by the fact that in the areas that border on Ukraine, in the absence of normal sanitary conditions, there may be an outbreak of a dangerous disease. But, as the doctors themselves say, this will never happen, since all the necessary medicines, as well as the vaccine in hospitals, are in full.
Epidemiology of cholera
What kind of disease is cholera? The source of the disease is only an already infected person. It is especially dangerous for others in the first week, it is at this time that the largest number of vibrios is released.
In total, the world has known 7 cholera pandemics, the first of which happened in 1816, and the last one broke out in 1961. In the modern world, this disease no longer poses a particular danger, as it was two or three centuries ago. However, individual cases of the disease are still being diagnosed from time to time, and cholera epidemics are still detected in poor countries against the backdrop of various natural disasters.
How is cholera transmitted? This happens by the fecal-oral route, and the main agents for transmission are water and food. Also, in some cases, a contact path is possible. However, if a person is in the same room with an infected person, he will not be able to get infected directly. Dangerous for him will be only the discharge of a sick person that has fallen into the mouth of a healthy one.
Unlike other intestinal diseases, cholera can spread much more easily and quickly. At the same time, the vomit and intestinal secretions of an infected person do not change their color and do not acquire an unpleasant odor. After entering the reservoir, the causative agent of cholera remains in the water for a long time, even actively multiplying.
This is especially typical for stagnant reservoirs and swamps, where the water is well warmed up by the sun.
After recovery, a stable lifelong immunity develops. However, it will not save from infection with other types of cholera.
Symptoms of cholera
After the pathogen enters the body, the incubation period begins, which can last from several hours to 5 days. At this time, there are no manifestations of the disease, but the person is already infected.
The disease always begins suddenly for the patient against the background of full health. This is also called an acute onset. It is important to remember that with cholera there is no fever and abdominal pain, which distinguishes this disease from all other intestinal infections.
The very first symptom of cholera is severe diarrhea during the night or morning hours. A little later, vomiting joins the diarrhea. The main complaints of the patient are associated with rapid dehydration. There is a strong unquenchable thirst, constant dryness in the mouth, the voice becomes hoarse. Appetite worsens, the patient almost completely refuses to eat, but drinks a lot. Severe, often uncontrollable vomiting occurs. Lethargy, weakness, lack of strength appear.
However, there is no pain in the abdomen. Sometimes there are complaints about rumbling, unpleasant sensations that appear near the navel. On examination, there is a dry tongue with a strong white coating, the skin becomes dry and pale. The amount of urine is markedly reduced. Over time, muscle cramps begin to appear.
Among other symptoms of cholera in the development of the disease should be noted sunken eyes, sharpening of facial features, the appearance of dark circles under the eyes, blue ears, lips, nose. The skin becomes ashy. When feeling the abdomen, you can hear the sounds of overflowing liquid. Blood pressure drops noticeably, the pulse becomes thready.
If the sick person is not provided with timely medical assistance, then the terminal stage sets in, then the agony and death.
According to the type of clinical picture, this infection is divided into typical, with lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as atypical. In the second case, the disease develops during pregnancy, against the background of prolonged alcoholism, immunodeficiency, antibiotics, dystrophy and other conditions. Also, an atypical form of the disease is diagnosed in people who have been given the cholera vaccine.
In total, it is customary to distinguish several variants of an atypical course:
- fulminant, in which dehydration shock and death are possible in just 3-4 hours from the first manifestations of the disease;
- dry, in which the rapid onset of the disease, toxicosis and coma occur without severe vomiting and diarrhea;
- erased, when it is possible to determine the exact diagnosis due to the absence of clear manifestations only after a laboratory study of the discharge;
- is asymptomatic, when there are no manifestations of the disease at all, and the diagnosis is made only after a laboratory test.
Vibrio carriers are also noted, when the person himself does not get cholera, but can infect other people.
According to severity, there are 4 forms of the disease:
- In mild cases, symptoms are minimal, vomiting and diarrhea occur no more than 5 times a day, the duration of the disease is up to 5 days. There is also no noticeable fluid loss.
- In moderate degree there is moderate intoxication, diarrhea and vomiting occur up to 15 times a day, symptoms of dehydration are noticeable, characteristic of 1-2 degrees. The disease lasts up to a week, but there is a risk of complications in the future.
- In severe cases, severe intoxication appears, diarrhea and vomiting occur up to 20 times a day, dehydration develops to 2-3 degrees, the disease lasts more than a week and after that complications almost always develop.
- In an extremely severe degree, the disease begins suddenly, indomitable vomiting, diarrhea appear, and already in the first 12 hours after the first symptoms, dehydration shock develops.
According to the duration of the course, cholera is divided into three variants of the course. The acute form lasts up to a month, protracted – up to 3 months, chronic – longer than 3 months.
To diagnose cholera, blood, urine, and stool tests are performed. However, to identify the cause of cholera, and this is the presence of vibrios in the body, it is necessary to carry out bacteriological cultures of the patient’s stool and vomit. The growth of the bacteria present in them is observed for 14-48 hours, however, to confirm the diagnosis, this study is carried out three times.
PCR tests and indirect hemagglutination tests are also performed to detect the disease. Rapid tests help laboratory technicians to detect the causative agent of the disease in just a few minutes.
Cholera must be differentiated from many other types of AII. However, with other infections, body temperature almost always rises, there are abdominal pains, bowel movements change the smell, and dehydration develops extremely rarely.
Similar symptoms are also present in case of poisoning, as well as botulism.
Cholera therapy is carried out only in the infectious diseases department or in intensive care, which depends on the patient’s condition. The main objectives of treatment are to restore the volume of bcc and electrolyte composition, as well as the fight against the pathogen with the help of antibiotic therapy.
The treatment of cholera begins with the replacement of lost body fluids. At the same time, it should arrive in a volume that is one and a half times the volume lost. If a person is able to drink, special solutions containing salts and electrolytes are prescribed to him. If the patient is in a weakened or comatose state, the required amount of fluid is infused intravenously.
Antibacterial therapy is mandatory to control a cholera outbreak. These are drugs from the tetracycline series or the fluoroquinolone group. This is done in conjunction with rehydration. Zinc preparations are used to reduce the volume of feces and the duration of diarrhea.
However, there are drugs that are strictly contraindicated in this condition, such as cardiac glycosides. Also, intravenous administration of blood substitutes, colloidal solutions, pure glucose or sodium chloride is not allowed. Colloidal solutions will greatly increase the lack of circulating blood and lead to collapse, and glucose and sodium chloride without additional saline solutions will not help replenish electrolytes. Without this, the infusion of these fluids will not make any sense.
Nutrition during illness should be as gentle as possible for the intestines. Food is only steamed and then ground. All flour, sweet, spicy, smoked, fatty foods are completely excluded from the diet. Meals are taken 6 times a day, in small portions. At the recovery stage, prebiotics and probiotics are necessarily introduced.
Cholera vaccination may be used if an epidemic is likely. Now there are 3 different versions of the cholera vaccine, which differ in their composition. All have been tested and proven to be effective.
After recovery, the patient is placed under dispensary observation with regular visits to the doctor and medical examination.
The likelihood of contracting cholera can be minimized by following simple rules of prevention. So, for example, it is recommended to drink only bottled water, and the lids must be sealed.
Do not drink water from puddles, natural reservoirs, pools, fountains, as well as tap water in regions unfavorable for this disease. Wash your hands with soap every time before eating. Do the same after visiting the restroom or any public place. You can not eat raw foods, you should wash all vegetables and fruits well, be sure to remove the peel.
The author of the article:
Ivanova Natalya Vladimirovna
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